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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003212
Title: Antibacterial activity of Gymnogongrus sp. seaweed extract against some selected pathogenic bacteria
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Fisheries Technology, Pattimura University, Jl. Mr. Chr. Soplanit Poka - Ambon, Indonesia
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Aim: Gymnogongrus sp. is an edible, endemic marine red algae (Rhodophyta) from Maluku, Indonesia, usually consumed as a side dish which has the potential as antibacterial agent. The purpose of this research was to identify the antibacterial activity in Gymnogongrus sp. extract. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial assay was conducted against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus which commonly cause food spoilage and foodborne disease. Gymnogongrus sp. were extracted and obtained these following substances: Hexane 1, hexane 2, ethyl acetate 1, ethyl acetate 2, methanol 1, and methanol 2. The extracts were assayed using a bioassay diffusion method using a bilayer system. The assays were conducted based on completely randomized factorial design triplicate, continued by honestly significant difference test. All Gymnogongrus sp. extracts can inhibit the bacterial growth in all assays. The results showed that the methanol 1 extract produced the largest rendemen percentage. The three extracts with the highest antibacterial activity were hexane 1, hexane 2, and methanol 1, respectively. This showed that the most active compounds from Gymnogongrus sp. were non-polar. Of the three species of bacteria tested, the most sensitive were the Gram-positive bacteria, especially E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and then S. aureus. Conclusion: Gymnogongrus sp. extracts have the potential to be used as natural food preservatives because they can inhibit the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003200
Title: Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammatory status, lipid levels, and severity of peripheral artery disease measured using ankle-brachial index - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceuticals Sciences, VISTAS, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a buildup of plaques causing blockage inside the arteries of the legs which is characterized by either partial or complete obstruction of the arteries of the lower limb, it is one of the common manifestations of atherosclerosis. Various factors such as smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, and increased cholesterol levels contribute in developing PAD. It has been postulated that PAD is strongly associated with increased serum lipid levels  and inflammatory status , which increases a high risk of cardiovascular disease among these patients. A non-invasive procedure for screening PAD or measuring the disease severity is done using ankle-brachial index (ABI). ABI value <0.9 indicates PAD . An increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) intake has been shown to reduce mortality and complications in PAD patients. The cardiac benefits of n-3 PUFAs are attributed to its antiarrhythmic properties; however, it also has some of the additional effect that generally contributes its cardiovascular action . Due to its inflammation resolution phase, it can be used in PAD . Hence, the beneficial effects of n-omega-3 fatty acid for patients with PAD are the focus of this review. If the n-3 PUFA is associated with circulating markers of inflammation, lipid levels, and ABI in patients with PAD, then, a better understanding of this relationship could help guide future treatment of these patients (i.e., nutritional recommendations or supplementation) in an effort to lower disease severity and improve their vascular function.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003201
Title: Steroids a boon or bane in sports
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Vellapanchavadi, Chennai - 600 07
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Steroid is a drug which is one of blessing and banes. Next to dope, it is almost the most misused drug. In sports, it is being used so much to take away the spirit of sports. This article investigates in depth of steroids. Steroids are used for medicinal purposes only, but its use has been misunderstood by the teenagers and athletes leading to use them for illegal purposes. Athletes take these drugs to gain body bulk and muscular strength. Several countries banned steroid use and the sportsmen are checked before athletic games such as Olympic to know whether they take steroids, if so, they are disqualified to play. Teenagers of these days use these drugs to attract opposite sex, thereby decreasing their self-confidence. However, these people are unaware about the side effects that these drugs cause. Most of them lost their life due to drug overdose. Steroids are also used in dentistry to treat infection and pain, but the only thing is that it only reduces the symptoms but does not treat the cause of disease. Steroids using people are more aggressive than normal individuals, and on long run, it leads to infertility. It causes premature puberty in men when has taken in small age and the primary and secondary sexual characters start to develop earlier than the ideal age in such persons. These effects are due to the factor that anabolic steroids are derived from testosterone which, in turn, is a male hormone responsible for the development of sexual hormones in men.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003202
Title: Oncological diseases in St. Petersburg, Russia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Computational Methods in Continuum Mechanics, Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Control Process, Saint Petersburg State University, 7-9, Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034, R
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Aim: The article provides the analysis of statistical data on oncological diseases in St. Petersburg. Methods: The main attention was paid to the statistical analysis of tumor diseases and the methods of their diagnosis and treatment. Results: The main specializations have been identified, and the number of their patients is constantly increasing. The rate of patient number growth, the age structure of morbidity and mortality are estimated, and the most widespread diseases for men and women are revealed. Conclusion: The assessment of bed capacity at various medical institutions of the city is provided. A multilevel system of cancer patient accounting and care is described.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003203
Title: Interactions of some intracellular Hyalomma asiaticum pathogens in organism
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Fеdерal State Budgetary Institution “National Research Center fоr Epidemiology and Microbiology named after the honorary academician N.F. Gamaleya” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Fed
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Aim: The aim of this study was to study the interaction of intracellular pathogens of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and salmonella in Hyalomma asiaticum tick body during the bloodsucking of imago and nymphs on laboratory animals with viremia and bacteremia. With a simultaneous infection from H. asiaticum ticks by two intracellular pathogens (CE and salmonella virus), the virus titer decreases after 30–40 days, and then, the ticks die. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on the ticks of a laboratory line, free from pathogenic flora. Tick encephalitis virus was used to infect ticks with the “Sofin” strain and the bacterial culture Salmonella typhimurium LT-2. Results: During an infection of nymphs, H. asiaticum virus persisted in their body for the entire observed period, both at the infection of nymphs with a mixed infection and at the infection with TBE virus. Salmonella persisted in the body of sexually mature H. asiaticum ticks with a mixed infection up to 12 days. Conclusions: With a mixed infection of ticks by two infection pathogens at the same time (TBE and salmonella virus), the inhibition of both TBE and salmonella virus growth and development takes place.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003204
Title: The relation between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 reverse-transcriptase mutations and CD4 T-cell recovery failure in HIV patients in Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University, Koto Padang, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia
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Introduction: Highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy fails if there are mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse-transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) gene. This study aimed to determine the relationship between HIV-1 RT mutations with the failure of CD4 T-cell recovery in HIV-1 patients receiving ARV therapy for >6 months. Method: A total of 105 HIV-1- positive patients who were required to have undergone first-line ARV therapy for 6 months and have their CD4 T=cell number were monitored. Blood samples were stored at 4°C for HIV-1 proviral DNA extraction. HIV-1 proviral DNA was amplified by a nested polymerase chain reaction using 2 RT-specific primers. The relationship between RT sequence mutations and the recovery of >350 CD4T cells/µL was analyzed after patients had ARV therapy for 6 months. Result: A total of 17 HIV- 1 proviral DNA isolates were sequenced, it only 10 were successfully analyzed. CD4 T-cell recovery occurred in only two of eight samples which aligned and compared with reference sequences. Substitution mutations were found in the eight RT sequences with a frequency of 1.32–5.56%. The mutations at nucleotides 60 and 207, 100%, showed failed CD4 T-cell recovery but not statistically significant. Conclusion: There was a trend toward CD4 T-cell failure (>350 cells/µL) in HIV- 1 patients treated with first-line ARV drugs for >6 months when a nucleotide mutation was present in position 60 and 207, although this was not statistically significant. Other factors suspected to be associated with CD4 T cell recovery failure need to be investigated in subsequent studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003205
Title: Eleutherine americana Merr. extract regulates mitochondrial calcium homeostasis in intra-abdominal adhesion: A computational study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Biomedical Science Doctoral Study Program, Faculty of Medicine Brawijaya University, Jalan Veteran Malang - 65145, East Java, Indonesia
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Aim: Intra-abdominal adhesion (IAA) is the most significant complication after surgery. This study explores the active compound from Eleutherine americana Merr. as a regulator of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis in IAA. This study aimed to evaluate computationally the potential of E. americana Merr. extract as a mitochondrial calcium activator in IAA cases. Materials and Methods: The sample was 14 active compounds from E. americana Merr. extract that was collected from the PubChem database. Prediction as a calcium channel activator was conducted using Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances SERVER. Human intestinal absorption (HIA) and lethal dose 50 (LD50) were evaluated using SERVER. Protein target and pathway were evaluated using STITCH, and computational analysis was done using Cytoscape. Results: The results showed that 10 bioactives from E. americana Merr. extract have potential as calcium activators (Pa >0.3). The active compound of E. americana Merr. can be easily absorbed in the intestine based on its HIA+ score (HIA >0.9). Conclusion: The application of this extract was possible due to LD50 evaluation that showed that it was less toxic (LD50 <3 mol/kg-BW). E. americana Merr. extract regulates mitochondrial calcium homeostasis, by modulation of two types of the mitochondrial calcium channels, VDAC1 and MARCK (mRyR).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003206
Title: Should we identify HLA-B*15:02 polymorphism before prescribing carbamazepine to Indonesian patients? A study among febrile seizure patients with a high risk of epilepsy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia
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Aim: Mutations in the neuronal sodium channel α-1-subunit gene (SCN1A) and the neuronal sodium channel β-1-subunit gene (SCN1B) predispose a person to febrile seizure (FS), including partial seizure, generalized epilepsy with FS plus, and severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. Thus, FS patients have been associated with a higher risk of developing epilepsy later in life. Materials and Methods: In patients with partial seizure, carbamazepine (CBZ) is the most common anti-epileptic drug. However, a major problem with this kind of treatment is that CBZ can induce Steven-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) in patients with the HLA-B*15:02 polymorphism. The HLA-B*15:02 polymorphism has not been linked to FS patients with SCN1A and SCN1B mutations, but patients who carry this allele could develop SJS/TEN during CBZ administration. Therefore, this study was performed to identify the presence of the HLA-B*15:02 polymorphism using multiplex sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction in 31 FS patients known to have the SCN1A and/or SCN1B mutation. Results: The results showed that the HLA-B*15:02 polymorphism was detected in 14 of 31 (45.2%) individuals, with eight cases of SCN1A mutation and six cases of both SCN1A and SCN1B mutation. It was confirmed that the HLA-B*15:02 allele was frequent in FS patients with SCN1A and SCN1B mutations. Conclusion: Thus, screening for the HLA-B*15:02 allele should be done if partial epilepsy develops and patients are prescribed CBZ to prevent CBZ-induced SJS/TEN.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003207
Title: Identification of lactic acid bacteria as a probiotic candidate isolated from the fresh milk of Toraja Belang buffalo, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, East Java/Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, STKIP-PI Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
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Aim: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be found in a variety of habitats, and several groups of these bacteria have been developed as probiotics. The objective of the present study was to isolate and identify LAB from the fresh milk of Toraja Belang Buffalo from South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and evaluate its potency as a probiotic candidate. Materials and Methods: Pathogenic bacteria used in the present study, EPEC ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus 134-P, and Salmonella typhi ATCC 58105535, were obtained from the Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia. Results: LAB were isolated by the pour plate technique using methicillin-resistant S. aureus-selective media containing 1% CaCO3 . LAB as a probiotic candidate were screened based on the hemolysis test on blood agar, the growth ability test at pH 3, 4, and 5, the bile resistance test at 0.3%, 0.5%, and 1%, and the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds against EPEC ATCC 25922 bacteria, S. aureus 134-P, and S. typhi ATCC 58105535. 14 isolates of LAB were obtained; of which, the K2B1 isolate was able to grow on pH three medium and 1% bile salt and to produce antimicrobial compounds against EPEC ATCC25922, S. aureus 134-P, and S. typhi. Conclusion: Based on the 16S rDNA sequence, the K2B1 isolate was Enterococcus faecalis, with 100% similarity to ATCC 19433. The K2B1 isolate can be developed as a probiotic candidate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003208
Title: Role of toll-like receptor 4 +3725 G/C polymorphism in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Clinical Pathology, Tanta University, Tanta, Gharbia Governorate, Egypt
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Objective: Activation of intrinsic immune response and consequent chronic low-grade inflammation is believed to be engaged with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) assumes a critical part in innate immunity. In this study, we expected to research the potential relationship of +3725 G/C genotypes into toll-like receptor 4 gene and adiponectin with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods: A prospective case–controlled study directed on 75 patients with type 2 diabetes likened with 25 control subjects at the medical school of Tanta University, participants were subjected to routine laboratory investigations; fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile. Serum level of adiponectin was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and genotyping of the TLR4 gene was performed. Results: TLR4 +3725 GC and CC genotypes were significantly decreased in T2DM cases than in controls (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively), while the GG genotype was significantly higher (80%) in T2DM cases than controls. The frequency of TLR4 +3725 C allele was significantly lower in the T2DM group than controls (P = 0.001). Adiponectin level was significantly higher in CC genotype when compared to GG GC genotype of TLR4 +3725 G/C polymorphism in the patient group (P = 0.001). Biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and serum adiponectin level) established statistically significant correlations between the studied groups (P < 0.05). Body mass index was significantly higher in diabetics Group II. Conclusion: Based on our results, we founded that TLR4 +3725 GC and CC polymorphisms may be a novel protective factor against T2DM. Adiponectin can function as a modulator of multiple obesity-linked diseases by attenuating excessive inflammatory responses in a variety of tissues; it may act as a protective factor against insulin resistance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003209
Title: The effect of red betel leaves (Piper crocatum Ruiz and Pav.) on blood sugar and insulin expression levels in rat (Rattus norvegicus domesticus) models of diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Hang Tuah, Surabaya, Indonesia
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Aim: This study aimed to analyze the effect of red betel leaf extract administration on blood sugar levels and insulin expression levels of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus domesticus) as diabetic mellitus models. Materials and Methods: The successful diabetes mellitus (DM) male rat (grouped into K2 and K3) was treated with red betel leaf extract (50 and 100 mg/kgBW/day, respectively) for 21 days and compared to DM control (K1) and normal control (K0). Observation was fasting blood sugar level (FBS) and insulin expression with immunohistochemical analysis. Results: All data were analyzed for variance homogeneity using Brown–Forsythe test and continued to Games-Howell test with significance value of 5%. Based on the results of the variance homogeneity test, the FBS value and insulin expression in pancreatic β-cells were not homogeneous. The result of Games-Howell tests showed that FBS of treatment groups (K1, K2, and K3) was higher than control (K0) (P < 0.005). The expression of insulin in pancreatic β-cells also showed difference significantly in all groups. Expression of insulin in DM rats treated with low red betel concentration was significantly higher than high concentration (50 and 100 mg/kgBW per day, respectively). Conclusion: Therefore, ethanol extract from red betel leaf can reduce FBS levels and increase insulin expression in diabetic rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003210
Title: Mechanism of anti-toxoplasmosis ethanol extract of mangosteen peel (Garcinia mangostana Linn) on the expression of IFNγ, interleukin 12, matrix metallopeptidase 9, and histopathological of mice ki
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Wijaya Kusuma University, Jalan Dukuh Kupang Indonesia
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Aim: Toxoplasmosis is a dangerous infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii in the blood or tissue. This disease is zoonotic which is source of transmission from animals to humans. Therapy herbal medicine for toxoplasmosis can be determined by looking at IFNγ, interleukin 12 (IL-12), and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression, and seeing the level of organ damage. This study is to prove the mechanism of anti-toxoplasmosis of mangosteen peel extract against T. gondii. Materials and Methods: The study was divided into two stages: Stage I: Determination of the effective dose 50% of mangosteen peel extract against T. gondii and Stage II: Mechanism of anti-toxoplasmosis of mangosteen peel extract against T. gondii. This study used 50 mice divided into five groups: Healthy control group (P0) given 0.5% CMC-Na, P1 group without treatment, P2 group given Cotrimoxazole 60 mg/kgB, and P3 and P4 groups given mangosteen peel extract 200 and 400 mg/kgBW (orally twice a day). Results: After injection of T. gondii 102 intraperitoneally and given treatment for 5 days then blood samples taken for measurement of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine; kidney organ samples to determine organ damage, IFNγ, IL-12, and MMP-9 expression. The effective dose 50% (ED 50%) of Mangosteen peel extract was at a dose of 60 mg/kgBW. Mangosteen peel extract 200 mg/kgBW (P3) and 400 mg/kgBB (P4) with significance (P > 0.05) can reduce the number of parasites, levels of BUN and creatinine, reduce kidney damage, increases IFNγ and IL-12, and decreases MMP-9 expression. Mangosteen peel extract 200 mg/kgBW (P3) was proven as anti-toxoplasmosis in mice. Conclusion: This research is: ED 50% at a dose of 60 mg/kgBW. Mangosteen peel extract 200 mg/kgBW (P3) and 400 mg/kgBB (P4) with significance (P > 0.05) can reduce the number of parasites, levels of BUN and creatinine, reduce kidney damage, increases IFNγ and IL-12, and decreases MMP-9 expression.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003213
Title: DyrkIA gene polymorphism SNP rs2154545 association with mental retardation in Down syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Division of Children Health Sciences, Dr. M. Djamil Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University, Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan No 94.Padang 25127, West Sumatra, Sumatera, Indonesia
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Aim: Down Syndrome (DS) or trysomy 21 is a genetic abnormality caused when 21st chromosome fails to separate during meiotic division. People with this syndrome are known to have mild-to-severe mental retardation. This syndrome is known for mild-to-severe mental retardation. One of the pivotal genes is DyrkIA, which some of its polymorphism, SNP rs2154545, may cause phenotypical changes in patient. This study is to prove that SNP rs2154545 polymorphism is occurred in DyrkIA gene and to analyze its relationship with mental retardation in DS. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study from 39 subjects’ blood samples. All subjects come from special school, Kodya, Padang, clinically proven to have DS and confirmed that they have trisomy in 21st chromosome by karyotyping analysis. Results: Their DNA samples were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), sequenced, and its contigs were qualitatively analyzed. Multiple alignment and BLAST-NCBI were used to confirm the restriction result. DyrkIA gene rs2154545 polymorphism was observed in the form of homozygote mutant allele (AA) in 5.1% of all samples and 51,3% were mutant heterozygote allele (GA). The rest were wild type (43.6%). Statistical analysis was performed, but there was no significant relationship (P > 0.05) between gene polymorphism and mental retardation. Conclusion: DyrkIA gene rs2154545 polymorphism was proven to exist in some DS patients, but there was no significant relationship between polymorphism with every level of mental retardation (mild, borderline, moderate, and severe).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003214
Title: Antimicrobial effect of three Indian medicinal plant extracts on denture plaque candida
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Sree Balaji Dental College, BIHER, Bharath University, Velachery Main Rd, VGP Rajesh Nagar, Pallikaranai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600100 and Reader , Tagore Dental college, Chennai, India
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Introduction: Candida albicans is a fungus commonly isolated from denture plaque and has been known to cause denture stomatitis. This study aims to estimate and compare the antimicrobial effect of three medicinal plant extracts on candida. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial effect of three medicinal plant extracts, namely Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach, and Spilanthes acmella was tested using disk diffusion method on denture plaque C. albicans. Results: All three plant extracts had antimicrobial effect against C. albicans. Conclusion: Plant extracts may be a suitable alternative to harmful drugs and chemicals for use against denture plaque candida.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003215
Title: Pain related to posterior superior alveolar nerve blocks and its relationship with anxiety and previous experience with dental anesthetics
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tami Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the relation between pain and anxiety of a patient when a posterior superior alveolar (PSA) nerve block is given. Objective: Anxiety is one of the most common feelings for a patient when visiting the dentist. Fear of injections can lead to anxiety and thus can induce pain. This study is done to conclude whether a patient anxiety level correlates to their level of pain that they feel while a PSA nerve block is given before a treatment. Patients who had to undergo maxillary molar extraction were selected and were given questionnaires both before and after the administration of local anesthetic. The questions assess the level of pain and anxiety a patient feels on a scale of 1–10, based on the article by van Wijk et al., 2012. The questions included preinjection anxiety, expected pain, experienced injection pain, and experienced anxiety.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003216
Title: Antimicrobial effect of three Indian medicinal plant extracts on common denture plaque bacteria
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Sree Balaji Dental College, BIHER, Bharath University, Velachery Main Rd, VGP Rajesh Nagar, Pallikaranai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600100 and Reader , Tagore Dental college, Chennai, India.
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Introduction: This study aims to estimate and compare the antimicrobial effect of medicinal plant extract of three species on common denture plaque bacteria. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial effect of medicinal plant extract of three species, namely Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach, and Spilanthes acmella, was tested using disk diffusion method on Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. Results: All three plant extracts had antimicrobial effect against both bacteria. Conclusions: Plant extracts may be a suitable alternative to harmful drugs and chemicals for use against denture plaque microbes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003217
Title: Cervical vertebral morphology in different skeletal patterns - A cephalometric study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to describe and evaluate any deviation in the cervical vertebral morphology in patients with different skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 lateral cephalograms were taken, with 35 in each skeletal pattern. Subjects from both genders with an age range of 22 ± 6 years were included in the study. Subjects with a prior history of orthodontic treatment and subjects with any craniofacial syndromes were excluded. The cervical vertebrae on all the 105 cephalograms were analyzed using a cephalometric software (Facad). Mean, median, and standard deviation for three groups were done to analyze the data, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done to evaluate any deviation in the cervical vertebral column morphology in different skeletal patterns. Results: No statistically significant differences were detected between the three groups in terms of sex, age, and morphology. There was no statistically significant difference in the morphology of the cervical vertebral columns in different skeletal patterns in Chennai population. Conclusion: According to our study results, no significant correlation exists between cervical vertebrae anomalies and skeletal malocclusions in Chennai population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003218
Title: Analysis of intrarenal arterial pattern of middle segmental artery in kidney donors using 64-slice computed tomography angiography
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Medical College Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Classically, each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery. In its course renal artery divides into anterior and posterior division, these division further divide into segmental arteries that are apical, upper, middle, lower, and posterior. Computed tomography (CT) angiography is less invasive, better tolerated by donors, and provides significantly more information than intravenous urography and angiography together, especially regarding abdominal anatomy and vascular pathways. Aim: The aim of the current study is to analyze the intrarenal arterial pattern of middle segmental artery in kidney donors. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 99 CT angiogram images were analyzed in workstation. The study reports were drawn from kidney donors who approached the scan center had no diseases related to kidney. Results: We classified middle segmental branch (anterior inferior segmental artery) into six types based on their origin. Conclusion: The precise knowledge of intrarenal arterial branches of the segmental blood supply to the kidney is essential for proper performance of partial nephrectomy. A serious and troublesome complication of endoscopic intrarenal operation is bleeding from an injured vessel. To diminish the risk of such injury, the surgeon must know and recall the spatial position of the intrarenal vascular structures and their anatomical relations with the collecting system of the kidney.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003219
Title: Isolation and identification of Withaferin A (Steroidal Lactone) from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha)
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: This paper emphasizes a method for separation, identification, and quantification of selected withanolides in Withania somnifera plant extracts by HPLC estimation. Method: Withaferin-A which was isolated from Withania somnifera by repeated column chromatography of the Ashwagandha extract and their identity was established by 1H- and 13C-NMR was used as external standard. The compound was chromatographed on an isocratic system with a mobile phase made up of ACN: water 1:1 (v/v); flow of 0.6 mL/min; injection volume of 20 mL; λ = 225 nm; a LiChroCART 250×4 mm (5µm) column. The method was applied successfully to the detection and quantification of the said withanolide in the Ashwagandha extract. Result: On repeated chromatography over silica gel (100-200 Mesh Size), fraction no. 18-24 led to the isolation of compound one expected to be Withaferin A. Withaferin A was eluted out at 13.08 minute in HPLC run and further characterisation also confirms the compound. Conclusion: The method to separate, identifiy and characterize Withaferin-A from Withania somnifera was very much appropriate and reliable.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003220
Title: A systematic review on bracket failure rate of orthodontic brackets bonded with self-etch adhesives
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Saveetha Dental College, SIMATS, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Self-etch adhesives have become increasingly popular in orthodontics as the process of etching and priming is combined in one step, thus eliminating the steps of washing and drying that are necessary after conventional etching. With an increased use, the need to study the bracket failure rates with such systems in comparison with the conventional system is necessary. The primary aim of this review is to compare the bracket failure rates of self-etch adhesives with conventional two- step adhesives: The secondary objectives being the comparison of bracket failure rates among the upper and lower arches and also the bracket failure rates between fixed mechanotherapy in cases of extraction and non extraction. Methodology: Data sources: The search strategy for this literature review was carried out according to the standard Cochrane systematic review methodology for all randomized and controlled clinical trials. All volumes of the European Journal of Orthodontics, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, Seminars in Orthodontics, and other orthodontic journals were searched. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied when considering the studies to be included in this review. Data selection: Primary outcome measure was the rate of bracket failures when self-etch primers and conventional adhesive systems were used while the secondary outcome measures included the failure rates observed between the maxilla and the mandible. Results: Ten randomized controlled trials were selected as eligible studies, and only qualitative analyses were performed because of the diversity of the interventions and outcome measures. Eight studies showed no significant alterations in bracket failure rates when bonded with self-etch and conventional adhesives. One study showed a decreased rate of bracket failure when self-etch adhesives were used, while one study showed a significant increase in the rate of bracket failure when self-etch adhesives were used. Conclusion: There was no difference in the failure rates or survival time of brackets bonded with conventional adhesive systems and self-etch adhesive systems.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00003221
Title: Preparation, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of telmisartan as a fast dissolving oral film
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
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Objective: The present study aims to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of telmisartan which is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist that can be used in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Telmisartan belongs to BCS Class II moiety that has a low solubility in the biological fluids and, therefore, has a poor bioavailability after oral administration (about 42%) with a late onset of action. Materials and Methods: An effort was made to formulate a fast dissolving oral film containing telmisartan to improve its onset of action, therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance, and convenience of use. Various film-forming agents and polyhydric alcohols were used to prepare and evaluate the optimum composition of fast dissolving films. The films were prepared by solvent casting method using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and polyvinyl alcohol as film-forming polymers, polyethylene glycol 400 as a plasticizer, tween80 as a surfactant, citric acid as a saliva-stimulating agent, and sorbitol as a sweetening agent. Solid state characterization was evaluated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results: DSC and FTIR spectroscopy analysis showed a complete transformation of telmisartan in the film from a crystalline state to an amorphous state. Different formulations of telmisartan films were prepared and evaluated for their physical characteristics that gave satisfactory results. The formulations were subjected to disintegration test and in vitro drug release studies, where formulation F1 was found to be the best formula among others which contain HPMC5 as a film-forming polymer that showed excellent characteristics such as disintegration time within 20 s and percentage drug release of about 100% within 7 min. Conclusions: Preparation of telmisartan as an oral film using a solvent casting method was considered as an excellent method to enhance the dissolution rate and the solubility of telmisartan.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003222
Title: Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome expression and activation in multiple sclerosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq
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Aim: Inflammasome pathway has been linked in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease and its expression may be linked to the response to treatment. This study aims to evaluate inflammasome protein and mRNA expression and activating cytokines (interleukin [IL] 1B and IL18) in MS patients undergoing the first line and second line of treatment. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 MS patients whom attended the MS clinic in the medical city of Baghdad. 30 from them on the first-line drug which includes interferon-beta and 30 on the second-line drugs which include fingolimod and natalizumab and 30 apparently healthy controls included in this study. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) mRNA expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and NLRP3, IL-18, and IL-1β plasma level were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: This study found that the mRNA expression of NLRP3 was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (P < 0.001), as well as the plasma concentration of NLRP3, IL-18, and IL-1β was significantly higher in patients than controls (P < 0.001). In another hand, this study found that there is no significant difference in the expression of NLRP3 and the plasma level of NLRP3, IL-18, and IL-1β between patients who are on the first line and those on the second-line drugs (P = 0.382, 0.449, 0.197, and 0.327, respectively). Conclusion: The NLRP3 expression and activation might govern the inflammatory process in MS disease, and it might be affected equally by treatment with the first line and second line of treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003223
Title: Hygienic and psychological aspects of dentist work
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Therapeutic Dentistry, “Volgograd State Medical University” of the Ministry of Health of Russia, Volgograd, Russia
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Aim: The purpose of the study is a hygienic and ergonomic assessment of working conditions and occupational hazards, the analysis of stress level, and psychoemotional stress among the dentists of various specialization profiles during the process of work activity. Materials and Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of five municipal polyclinics of the city of Volgograd. The information base of the study was compiled by the following data: 66 cards of workplace certification, the questioning of 82 dentists, and taking into account the age and the period of respondent service. Results: The results of hygienic and ergonomic characteristic study concerning the working conditions of dentists are presented. An additional analysis and the assessment of the stress level among 46 dentists of different specialization profiles were carried out: 47.8% of them are general practitioners, 32.6% are orthopedists, and 19.6% are dentist-surgeons. Conclusions: The study revealed that most of the surveyed in the course of practical work are exposed to a wide range of negative production factors and stress, which requires further study and development of preventive measures to reduce the psychological stress and preserve the health of dental professionals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003224
Title: Knowledge on Rebamipide a novel agent used for the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcer - A Review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this review paper is to assess the efficacy of rebamipide in the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU). Objective: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the use, mechanism of action, dosage, and adverse effects of rebamipide. Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) or RAU, frequently referred to as “canker” sores, is among the most common oral condition. The classic presentation of RAS is recurrent, self-limiting ulcers that mainly affect non-keratinized oral mucosa. The etiology appears to be multifactorial with numerous causative and precipitating factors. The primary goals of therapy of RAS are relief of pain, reduction of ulcer duration, and the restoration of normal oral function. Rebamipide 2-(4-chlorobenzoylamine)-3-[2-(1H)-quinolinon-4-yl] is a new mucoprotective agent which enhances preservation of existing epithelial cells and replacement of lost tissue through stimulation of PGs release and inhibition of free radicals and might also be useful in preventing and treating frequently recurrent oral aphthous ulcers. Clinical and experimental data indicate that rebamipide accelerates ulcer healing, improves scar quality and prevents ulcer recurrence. Several electronic databases were searched and potentially relevant articles were taken for literature review about rebamipide. Conclusion: RAS is one of the common clinical oral diseases that produce painful ulcerations in the oral cavity. The available treatments still remain unsatisfactory with the ability to reduce the severity, healing time, and the frequency of recurrence of ulceration with no permanent and definitive treatment. This review is done to provide a review on the recent treatment modality which may give the clinician broad and detailed picture to deal with RAS in an appropriate way.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003225
Title: Toll-like receptors in periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Pallikaaranai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection, stimulates the host inflammatory response through a sophisticated system based on toll-like receptors (TLRs) through a sophisticated system based on TLRs. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition in which TLRs play a major role in its pathogenesis. Recent research has indicated an essential role of these receptors in maintaining the periodontium in a healthy state, as well as in the causation of periodontitis. This review is focused on the latest findings of the TLRs family, its role TLRs and their signaling pathways, role in periodontitis, and therapeutics periodontitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003226
Title: Current treatment of irritable bowel syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort with changing bowel habits. This disease can affect populations in the world. This study was done to a new treatment of IBS. The method of this review is search by PUBMED, EMBASE and google.com with keywords irritable bowel, inflammatory bowel, and current treatment. We found >70 articles. We analyzed 36 articles because they were related to the discussion of this disease. The conclusion of this review is that there are many class therapies for IBS among others: Antibiotic, antidepresan, serotonin receptor antagonist, agonis reseptor 5-HT4, guanylate cyclase C agonis, mast cell stabilizer, Luminal Adsorben, and opioid agonists and antagonists.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003227
Title: Application of graceful labeling in dental arch
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Graph theory finds its application in various fields such as coding theory, radar, astronomy, security designs, missile guidance, communication networks, X-ray crystallography, and database management. Nowadays, it is widely used in the medical field also. Here, we would like to enhance graph labeling applications in the field of dentistry. This paper gives an overview of the labeling of graphs in the dental field to some extent. We have tried to implement graceful labeling techniques on the structural aspects of the dental arch and its teeth. Future enhancement for graph labeling should be used in other fields also.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003228
Title: Variations in the shape of the coronoid process in the adult human mandible
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the variations in the shape of coronoid process in the adult human mandible. Methods: The shape of the coronoid processes of both sides of 103 dry adult human mandibles, 67 males and 36 females of Indian origin, was studied to classify the variations. Three types were evident: (1) Hook shaped, (2) triangular, and (3) rounded. Results: Hook-shaped coronoid processes were found in 56 (27.4%) sides, triangular in 101 (49%), and rounded in 49 (23.6%) sides. Hook-shaped coronoid processes were found bilaterally in 23, triangular in 42, and rounded in 17 mandibles. Of the remaining 21 mandibles, the appearances were different on both the sides. Conclusion: The incidence of the rounded type was almost equal in male and female mandibles; in the triangular type, it was slightly more in the female mandibles while the hook-shaped type was slightly more in the male mandibles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00003229
Title: Synthesis, characterization, sustain delivery studies and anti-bacterial evaluation of β and γ -cyclodextrin core ciprofloxacin
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Structurally hybrid ciprofloxacin based sustain drug delivery systems were synthesized with biologically active β and γ-cyclodextrin. Cyclodextrin core ciprofloxacin based drug delivery systems have been synthesized with in two stages by reaction between ciprofloxacin, cyclodextrin and using chloroacetyl chloride as linking agent. Materials and methods: The sustain drug delivery were evaluated by various pH condition and the quantitative analysis of the ciprofloxacin drug formulations on different mode of drug release is monitored using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Result and Discussion: The structures of the synthesised β-cyclodextrin giant molecules were characterized by means of MALDI-TOF, infrared, H1 and C13 NMR spectral studies. The results obtained undoubtedly evidenced that the drug ciprofloxacin release is pH dependant. Antibacterial performance of the spherical shaped macromolecule were investigated with Escherichia coli and staphylococcus bacteria and the cell viability reduced value of the designed β and γ-cyclodextrin core drug delivery system. The very long time active of drug is compared with standard ciprofloxacin. The in-vitro studies and ciprofloxacin discharge from the spherical shaped macromolecules were also investigated. Conclusion: Designed β and γ-cyclodextrin core drug delivery system is showing nearly five times higher bactericidal activity than the standard ciprofloxacin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003230
Title: Analgesic efficacy and safety of transdermal and oral diclofenac in postoperative pain management following periodontal flap surgery
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The scope of transdermal analgesics has been limited to pain control following local trauma, muscle spasms, and sports-related injuries. Its the scope of application can be extended in the field of dentistry and minor oral surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of transdermal and oral routes of diclofenac for post-operative management in patients undergoing periodontal flap surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 systemically healthy patients between the age of 30 and 60 years who were diagnosed with generalized chronic periodontitis based on AAP 1999 classification for whom flap surgery required in at least two quadrants were taken for the study. Group A: For the flap surgery on the first quadrant 50 mg of oral diclofenac was prescribed twice daily for 3 days, Group B: For the contralateral side flap surgery, the patients were prescribed with transdermal patch of diclofenac diethylamine 100 mg and patients were asked to replace it every 24 h for 3 days, and the pain intensity was assessed using a numeric rating scale and data collected on the 3rd day of review were tabulated, and the significance in the pain intensity was statistically analyzed using Mann–Whitney U-test in SPSS software 23.0 version. Results: There was significantly lower pain intensity at 2, 4, 8, and 12 h when the patient used oral diclofenac sodium compared to the transdermal patch of diclofenac diethylamine. There was no significant difference in the pain intensity at 24, 48, and 72 h when the patient used either oral diclofenac or the transdermal patch of diclofenac. Conclusion: Pain intensity was significantly lower in oral diclofenac group when compared to transdermal diclofenac after periodontal flap surgery. It is better to advise oral diclofenac for the 1st day postoperatively followed by transdermal patches can be administered for the next 2 days so that it can avoid the gastric irritation caused by oral administration of diclofenac; further studies are required to confirm the results and safety for its use in various other dental situations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003231
Title: Household-based survey on awareness of dengue fever
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to spread awareness about dengue fever among families. Introduction: Dengue is one of the common infections existing in worldwide for decades. It is the insect-borne disease caused by Aedes mosquito. The factors associated with dengue having poor preventive measures are significant. The transmission of dengue varies from person to person. It is the rapidly spreading disease since it has the potential which leads to mortality if left untreated. Materials and Methods: It is the questionnaire-based online survey performed using the link created in SurveyPlanet. This survey was taken by 100 participants. All the participants were females who were between the age group of 25 and 50 years. Results: In this survey, about 77% of them are aware that dengue is caused by mosquito. The symptoms are already seem to be prevalent among half of the people. However, the immediate action to reach a doctor must be ensured, especially in rural areas and in places with poor hygiene. Awareness must be created to improve the hospital management to reduce nosocomial infections that lead to dengue. Conclusion: About 48.5% of them are using mosquito coils to protect themselves from mosquito bite and 28.3% are using mosquito bats. The clinician must be aware of all the clinical manifestation related to this condition, ensure the prior safety measures, and guide the homemakers to keep their home clean and tidy away from mosquito. The advancement in antibiotics and antigenic regimen for fast cure must be established.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003232
Title: Association of dental caries and cognitive functioning in children with cerebral palsy - A review of literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, cognition, communication, perception, and/or behavior, and/or by a seizure disorder. Worldwide, approximately 2.5 in 1000 live-born children suffer from cerebral palsy. Several studies have reported a greater prevalence of dental caries in children with cerebral palsy. Dental caries is highly prevalent in both children and adolescents with cerebral palsy and presents a negative impact on their quality of oral health. A large proportion of children with cerebral palsy suffer from mental retardation. As a result of these factors, there is an inability to maintain proper oral hygiene practices in children with cerebral palsy. Musculoskeletal impairments limit the capacity to perform tasks such as tooth brushing independently. In such children, tooth brushing depends on the knowledge and attitude, and actions of a caregiver are not received training. Awareness on the importance of oral health among these children and their families is vital for good oral health and hygiene.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003233
Title: Teens and technology addiction - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai,Tamil Nadu, India
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Teenage is the period between the age of 13 and 19 years old.We can also call this period as adolescence period. Adolescence period is the duration where all changes take place for the transition from puberty to adulthood. The addiction toward the technology at this stage is slightly dangerous which may lead to various problems mentally and physically. The present study focuses on the addiction toward the technology among the teenage population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003234
Title: A review on the management of root perforations
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Root perforations are the most common and frequent error occurs during endodontic therapy, especially, in calcified canals and curved canals that affect the prognosis of the affected tooth. The prognosis of the perforated tooth is based on the time, location, and size of exposure. Root perforation repair procedures aid in preventing tooth loss due to perforations. The success of endodontic treatment after perforations depends mainly on proper diagnosis and immediate sealing of the site of perforation to eliminate the risk of infection which worsens the prognosis of the tooth. The reason of this review is to spread knowledge about the different surgical and non-surgical management of root perforations occurs during endodontic therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003235
Title: Fatigue in rotary endodontic instruments - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Initially, stainless steel was the material of choice and manual instrumentation was the only means of cleaning the root canals. However, there is a tremendous change in the modern endodontics, due to the introduction of nickel–titanium (Ni–Ti) files and rotary instrumentation. Ni–Ti was developed 40 years ago in the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in Silver Springs, Maryland. Therefore, the acronym nitinol is used worldwide for this unusual type of alloy with better flexibility and fracture resistance. Rotary systems that evolved over the years into different generations differ in the series of instruments included. The unexpected failure of Ni–Ti rotary instruments inside the root canal during root canal treatment is a matter of serious concern, as these instruments may fracture within their elastic limit without any visible sign of previous permanent deformation. Hence, to avoid procedural errors, the present article highlighted the information regarding available rotary systems for the ease of understanding.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003237
Title: Management of zygomatic fractures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Fractures in the zygomatic bone region are common due to the prominence of the zygomatic bone otherwise known as the check bone with the common causes being violence and road traffic accidents. Since it forms the esthetic aspect of the face, treatment planning has to take into consideration not only the form and function but also the esthetic part of it. The treatment options depend on the mobility of the fragment. Based on the mobility, the treatment possibilities available are observation, closed reduction without fixation, or open reduction with fixation at the buttresses. This review is done to give an insight about the structure of zygoma, cause of zygomatic fracture, and its types along with the various management options available.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003238
Title: Bone grafts, substitutes and various ridge augmentation procedures: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Bone resorption is a natural phenomenon and can occur due to old age, loss of teeth, prolonged denture wear, or as a result of systemic conditions. For the replacement of teeth by fabrication of prosthesis or the use of implants, a minimum amount of bone density is required. Bone grafting is a method by which bone-deficient areas are built up, with the use of different materials, such as autografts, allografts, alloplasts, and xenografts. Over recent times, the use of frozen bone matrix formulations and synthetic ceramics has been used in greater frequency. This article discusses the use of human bone material (allografts), synthetic materials (alloplasts), and blood components as successful grafting materials. Their use has shown an effective amount of bone formation and proliferation in the defective sites and proves to be a beneficial choice in bringing back lost bone.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003239
Title: Bite mark analysis - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Bite mark analysis has a significant role in forensic dentistry. There are different methods of bite mark analysis. Irrespective of the method used, bite mark analysis include registration of both the bite mark and the suspect dentition, comparison of the dentition and the bite mark, and inspection of similarities and dissimilarities. In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the number of suspected bite mark cases examined by the forensic odontologists. In some criminal trials, bite mark evidence has been the only evidence on which a conviction or acquittal has been achieved. It is, thus, important that forensic experts should consider the possibility of human bites while examining surface trauma in certain cases, particularly, alleged rape and child abuse cases. The articles aim to give brief knowledge on bite mark analysis, its clinical significance and drawbacks.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003240
Title: Efficacy of two mandibular advancement appliances in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome: A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a potentially life threatening and highly prevalent breathing disorder. In practice, the prevalence of OSA seems to be underreported, as roughly 85% of patients with OSA are usually undiagnosed. The treatment of OSA depends on the severity of symptoms, magnitude of clinical complications, and the etiology of upper airway obstruction. It is recommended that the first line of treatment should be conservative due to the questionable prognosis of surgical interventions. Concerning nonsurgical methods, oral appliances offer several advantages over other therapeutic choices, although the cost of oral appliances varies, compared to the health-care costs of untreated sleep apnea and high compliance rates associated with their use, the overall cost is very low, they are non-invasive, easy to fabricate, and reversible and are acceptable for most patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the efficacy of two mandibular advancement appliances (MDAs) in the treatment of mild-moderate OSA. Selection Criteria: Clinical trials in which nocturnal wear of two types of MDA were evaluated for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxyhemoglobin saturation level, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Data Collection and Analysis: An electronic search was conducted for scholarly articles about comparing two types of oral appliance used to treat OSA written listed with PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases. The search methodology applied was a combination of Medical Subject Headings terms and suitable keywords. Results: Of the 20 articles obtained from electronic search, 12 were excluded on examination of title and abstract and three were excluded on the basis of core data. One article was handpicked and a total of six articles were reviewed. Conclusion: According to the articles reviewed, it can be concluded that both MDAs significantly improve sleep and its associated disorders such as snoring frequency, breathing pause, oxygen saturation, ESS, and AHI. The MAD enlarges and stabilizes the airway space by advancing the mandible and stretching the attached soft tissue, particularly tongue. The MDAs have been well tolerated by the patients. It can be used to treat patients with mild-to-moderate OSA and in severe OSA patients also.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003241
Title: Demonstration of spirochaetes in patients with orthodontic appliances
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the spirochaetes population in patients with intraoral orthodontic appliances for different time period. Objective: Orthodontic appliances are placed in mouth for a long period. This study is conducted to analyze the role that spirochaetes population plays in the oral health of patients wearing intraoral orthodontic appliances. This will help us to manage or maintain the oral health of the patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 samples were collected from patients undergoing orthodontic treatment and were subdivided into three groups of 10 patients each based on their duration of treatment into Group A (3 months), Group B (6 months), and Group C (>6 months). Plaque sample was taken using a sterile toothpick and the smear was stained with dilute carbolfuchsin and examined under oil immersion objective and in each smear >100 fields were examined. Results: The mean percent age value of spirochaetes of the group with patients having the intraoral appliances for <3 months (Group A) is 35.38, next Group B with appliance duration for 6 months is 43.33, and for >6 months is 46.66. There is an increase proportionate to the duration of intraoral appliance. Conclusion: In this study, it is proved that increase in the duration of treatment increases the population of spirochaetes compared to other bacteria.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003242
Title: Awareness of amalgam versus composite as a posterior restorative material - A knowledge, attitude, and practice survey analysis among patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental amalgam, a time tested posterior restorative, is gradually being replaced by the more esthetic composite restorations. The main advantages of amalgam are its strength, longevity, and cost. The composite resins are more esthetic and conservative on tooth material and chairside time. The decline of amalgam restoration today is due to its unesthetic metallic, appearance, and the public perception of mercury toxicity. The demerits of resin-based composite resins are polymerization shrinkage, cost, post-operative sensitivity, secondary caries, and more recently estrogenicity which the general public is not aware of. With the practice of patients’ requesting an esthetic restoration for their posterior teeth becoming more prevalent in today society, practitioners still feel that they should be discrete in decision-making considering the clinical situation of the tooth to be restored in the best interest of the patient and dentistry. Materials and Methods: The present study was, therefore, undertaken to evaluate (1) the knowledge and preference among patients about the use of amalgam and composites as restorative materials for posterior teeth, (2) the attitude of the patients in favoring a particular restoration for themselves following a briefing about the two materials given by their dentist, and (3) to analyze the perception of the importance of decision-making about the materials used for restorations, in the chosen population. A descriptive study was conducted in a sample of 100 patients, who reported to Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, using a self-administered questionnaire where 68% preferred tooth-colored restorations. Descriptive statistics were performed to analyze the data. Their knowledge of the restoration was noted. Results: 48% knew only about silver amalgam, 22% had no idea about the materials used as restorations, and 30% were aware of both composite and amalgam as restorative materials. After a detailed audiovisual appraisal about composites and amalgam, their attitude and perception were analyzed. The attitude was analyzed with reference to their priority. Their attitude was very positive, wherein 30% chose composite, 22% amalgam, and 48 % chose to leave the decision with the dentist. The perception was based on, whether they would still make a choice of the material or leave the decision to the dentist. 38% continued to decide the material to be used, whereas 62% felt that the dentist should decide in the best interest of their patients. Conclusion: The study revealed that the participants did perceive that clinicians today are conscious of esthetics for their patients and would recommend esthetic restorations, wherever possible, and that clinically compromised situations should be weighed more, in the selection of the suitable restoration for posteriors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003243
Title: Assessment of labial alveolar bone thickness in maxillary central incisor and canine in Indian population using cone-beam computed tomography
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics and Implant Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Adequate height and thickness of labial alveolar bone are crucial for the longer stability of mucosal margins around implants. The diagnostic value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in determining labial cortical bone thickness needs to be explored. Aim: The aim of this study was to measure alveolar bone thickness of the labial of maxillary central incisor teeth in Indian population using CBCT. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective observational study where radiographs of 200 patients from the archived CBCT images in the Department of Oral Implantology in Saveetha Dental College were assessed. In each CBCT, labial cortical bone thickness of maxillary central incisors was measured. Each tooth was divided into three parts - cervical, middle, and apical using cross-sectional view: Cervical - at the level of crest of the alveolar bone, middle of the root - by extending a line from cement-enamel junction to the apex of the tooth in dividing the distance by two to determine the middle of the root, and apical third - by dividing the length of the root by three to determine the apical third; the thickness of the labial cortex was measured in relation to this point. Results: The mean thickness of labial cortical bone for central incisor was 0.58 ± 0.19, 0.68 ± 0.29, and 0.82 ± 0.19 mm in the cervical, middle, and apical regions, respectively, and a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the labial cortical bone thicknesses in the various surfaces. Conclusion: The thickness of the labial plate of alveolar bone was greater at the apex and least at the cervical for central incisors. This gives awareness about the thickness of labial cortex which prevents the incidence of perforation, fenestration, and dehiscence during implant placement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003244
Title: General anesthesia in dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dentistry, in its surgical and restorative aspect, is in majority based on office practice. Limited dentists work routinely in operation theaters. Majority of the dental procedures can be performed under local anesthesia which is inherently safe. Most dentists are skilled in techniques of local anesthetics and nerve blocks. General anesthesia should not be used as a method of anxiety control but for pain control. All general anesthetics are associated with some risk, and modern dentistry is based on the principle that all potentially painful treatment should be performed under local anesthesia, if at all possible. General anesthesia is strictly limited to those patients and clinical situations in which local anesthesia (with or without sedation) is not an option such as children or individuals with learning difficulties. This review elucidates the facts and importance of general anesthesia in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003245
Title: Imaging techniques in implant dentistry - A comprehensive review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental implants are becoming extremely popular and are accepted worldwide as they not only replace lost teeth but also they do not interfere with oral function or speech and enhance the self-esteem of patients. Implants improve the quality of life for patients as they resemble natural teeth and are esthetically appeasing. The key to successful implant placement is the effective pre-operative assessment. Proper presurgical imaging and treatment planning make the placement of implant relatively ease and predictable. This rticle aims at providing a comprehensive review of the various imaging techniques in implant dentistry

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003246
Title: Influence of adrenaline containing local anesthesia on the glycemic level of patients undergoing tooth extraction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, SIMATS, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Catecholamines or stress hormones induce hemodynamic changes such as peripheral vasoconstriction, to redirect blood, and to vital organs during stress. The heart responds by increasing heart rate (HR) that makes available more blood to the vital organs marked by an increase in blood pressure (BP). The liver responds by increasing glucagon release to increase glucose levels and additionally inhibiting insulin-dependent glucose uptake by peripheral tissues, thereby inducing hyperglycemia making available more sugar for the efficient functioning of organs. Adrenaline is present in the local anesthetic solution used in dental procedures for vasoconstriction, due to its other physiological effect, it is expected to produce hyperglycemia when injected. This is in addition to the endogenous catecholamines released in response to psychological stress undergone by a normal patient in the event of an extraction. Literature on the blood glycemic level in a diabetic patient undergoing extraction has been contradictory. The present study, therefore, aims to assess the glycemic levels at different stages of extraction in healthy adult and to compare the same with diabetic patients undergoing tooth extraction under local anesthesia with adrenaline 1:80,000. Materials and Method: A total of 21 healthy and 18 controlled Type 2 diabetic patients, aged of 25–55 years, undergoing tooth extraction under local anesthesia were included in the study. 2 ml of lignocaine hydrochloride with adrenaline 1:80,000 was used as local anesthetic agent blood glucose level (BGL) which was assessed before local anesthesia, 10 min after local anesthesia and 10 min post-extraction for all patients. Results: No statistically significant difference in the mean blood glucose concentration was noticed at three different time intervals among the two groups. Conclusions: Local anesthetic solutions containing adrenaline may safely be used for dental procedures in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003248
Title: Knowledge awareness practice survey on awareness of concentrated growth factor among dentists
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics and Implant Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Different platelet concentrates such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), and concentrated growth factor (CGF) are used for reconstruction of bone defects. CGFs are created by centrifuging blood tests at rotating and controlled rates utilizing an uncommon rotator. CGF has demonstrated a high regeneration due to osteoinductive platelet factors and osteoconductive fibrin network. Aim: The ai of the study was to evaluate the awareness of CGF among dentists. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done dentists among general dentist. A sample size of 100 has been obtained, self-administered questionnaire containing 16 open questions was distributed. Results: Our study showed that most of the dental practitioner are not aware of CGF and the advantage of using it. 20.3% are aware of using CGF among dental practitioners. 92.2% are willing to attend courses and education programs on CGF and update their knowledge. Conclusion: Awareness of CGF should be created by conducting workshops and CDE programs as it has many advantages.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003249
Title: Management of malignant melanoma - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Melanoma is a proliferation of transformed melanocytes or pigment-producing cells. These tumors occur primarily on the skin but may also arise in other tissues where pigment cells are found. In men, melanomas occur most frequently on the trunk, whereas in women, melanomas occur most frequently on the lower extremities. Melanoma is almost exclusively a disease of adults. In children, melanoma predominantly occurs in the setting of giant congenital nevi or atypical/dysplastic nevus syndrome or in the setting of xeroderma pigmentosum.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003250
Title: Mental attitude of completely edentulous patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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In completely edentulous patients, oral health status is generally poor due to several causatives and controversial risk factors and is usually characterized by increasing tooth loss, periodontal disease, and bad oral hygiene. Various factors such as emotional issues, weak financial conditions, lack of family cooperation, and awareness and multiple medications can worsen oral health. Thus, understanding the mental attitude of the patient is very helpful for the clinician to anticipate the patient’s response during the clinical procedures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003251
Title: The impact of edentulism on quality of life among South Indian geriatric patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The study of the elderly population has led to new understandings regarding the concept of quality of life (QOL), including physical, psychological, social well-being, and self-esteem, which can be negatively affected when health is compromised. Compromised oral health (OH) can affect nutritional status, physical and mental well-being, pleasure in participating in an active social life, and, consequently, QOL. Aim: This study aimed was to test the association between QOL and edentulism among elderly individuals in the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out with 300 individuals aged 60 years or older, functionally independent and institutionalized. Data were collected with a questionnaire and oral examination. The edentulism was the independent variable and QOL was the dependent variable which were assessed using the World Health Organization QOL-Old (WHOQOL-Old) scores. The study participants were categorized into three groups: Group1 - completely dentulous with no missing teeth, Group 2 - partial edentulous with one or few missing teeth, and Group 3 - completely edentulous with a total loss of teeth. Results: Thirty-two patients constituted Group 1 (10.66%), 192 constituted Group 2 (64%), and 76 patients constituted Group 3 (25.33%). The QOL scores for Group 1 were 87.2 ± 3.41, Group 2 were 53.9 ± 2.17, and Group 3 were 58.4 ± 2.84, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the three groups with respect to QOL (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The overall WHOQOL-Old score demonstrated loss in QOL in this group, indicating the need for more in-depth studies on this issue. The present study concluded loss of teeth in both forms, partial and complete edentulism, significantly affects the QOL in the elderly population. Hence, adequate prosthodontic care should be initiated to improve OH and QOL.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003252
Title: Factors that influence the colour stability of composite resins
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Patients seek better esthetic restorations; hence, proper color matching is important not only in the first period of service but also over a long period of time. Thus, awareness of the various factors that influence the color stability of composite restorations is beneficial. We live in a world of esthetic dentistry where esthetic tooth-colored restorations are the trend today. Composite restoration which satisfies this need of esthetic tooth-colored restorations has evolved tremendously. Although the material holds good promise in the field of esthetic dentistry, it also possesses certain disadvantages such as discoloration in the long run. This article reviews the various factors that affect the color stability of composite restorations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003253
Title: The study of the role of maternal and fetal risk factors in the development of placental insufficiency
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Biological Disciplines, Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russia
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Objectives: The objectives were to study the role of maternal and fetal risk factors in the development of placental insufficiency (PI) and fetal growth retardation syndrome (FGRS). Materials and Methods: The case–control study sample included 497 females in the third trimester of pregnancy recruited during 2009–2013. All the patients were divided into two groups, with the development of fetal growth retardation (n = 250) and without it (n = 247), respectively. Results: The prevalence of spontaneous abortions is higher (18.40%) in the group of pregnant women with FGRS compared with the control group (10.12%, χ2 = 6.29, P = 0.01), due to abortions in the first trimester (14.40% and 8.10%, respectively, χ2 = 4.33, P = 0.04). The parents of women with FGRS (21.60%) had an anamnesis aggravated by venous thrombosis or stroke/heart attack, which is higher compared to 10.12% of cases among pregnant women without FGRS (10.12%, χ2 = 11.40, P = 0.002). Spontaneous venous thrombosis occurred in 15.2% of all cases among parents of patients with FGRS compared to 8.10% among parents of patients without FGRS (χ2 = 5.41, P = 0.02). 8.40% of mothers of patients with FGRS had a burdened obstetric history, which is higher than in control patients (3.24%, χ2 = 5.12, P = 0.02). Conclusions: Thus, as a result of the study, risk factors for the development of PI in FGRS are established. These include a burdened thrombotic history in relatives, a burdened obstetric history in the patient’s mother, and a history of spontaneous abortions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003254
Title: Temporal and mandibular joint computed tomography application efficiency during the record of jaw central correlation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Therapeutic Dentistry, Volgograd State Medical University, Volgograd, Russia
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Aim: The purpose of the study is to justify the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) application for the temporomandibular joint during the record of the central ratio of jaws. Materials and Methods: The record of the central jaw ratio is the main starting point for orthopedic patient rehabilitation. The correctness of this stage performance determines the functionality of stomatognathic system. At present, there are no generally accepted standards for the visual control of condyle position relative to the articular cavity after the registration of the jaw central ratio. The CT of the temporomandibular joint is an effective method that allows a comprehensive assessment of articular element interposition after the determination of jaw central ratio. Results: The obtained results suggest the need for a more careful attitude to the stage of jaw central ratio determination with the obligatory control of the ratio obtained by the use of temporomandibular joint CT as the most reliable method to assess the position of the mandible articular processes relative to the surrounding bone structures. Conclusion: The performance of CT for the temporomandibular joint to control the position of the mandible is an objective and an illustrative method that allows for a three-dimensional detailed analysis of the obtained position, its comparison with the initial state and the reflection of the results in the outpatient card of a dental patient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003255
Title: Amino oxidase activities of antitumor enzyme producer from Trichoderma
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Medical Institute, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russian Federation
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Aim: The biosynthesis of L-lysine-α-oxidase enzyme by Trichoderma fungus has been studied at various cultivation methods and on the media with various carbon sources. In the work presented, various variants of media and the possibility of wheat bran and hemicellulose substrate replacement by other carbon sources in connection with an enzyme development were studied, as well as the substrate specificity of Trichoderma during the use of this substrate depending on the culture and acidity medium age. Materials and Methods: The vegetative mycelium of mushrooms, which was grown in 8-10 days at t - 28°C on the Chapek medium, served as a seed material. The study was carried out in a deep-seated manner using the laboratory shaker No. 357 (“Poland”) and a surface method of cultivation. Results: The enzyme was synthesized actively only on the medium with wheat bran. Trichoderma strains, when they were grown on the medium with a hemicellulose substrate, exhibited a different spectrum of L-amino acid oxidase activities. With the age of the Trichoderma culture, the spectrum of aminoxidase activities expanded, but it remained individual for each strain and could serve as a marker for its characteristics. Conclusion: As can be seen from the presented results, a specific spectrum of amino acid degradation manifests itself for each strain of various representatives of Trichoderma - the producers of L-lysine-a-oxidase, which can serve as a biochemical characteristic of the strain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003256
Title: Awareness on gluten in diet among college students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Gluten is a protein naturally found in some grains such as wheat, Barley, Rye, and Spelt. It acts like a binder that holds food together and gives a stretchy consistency. Gluten proteins are divided into two: The soluble gliadins and the insoluble glutenins. Gluten is formed when both these molecules form cross-links through disulfide bonds to form a mesh kind of network which gives viscosity . The aim of the study was to establish the level of knowledge that college students have on gluten and its effects on their diet. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with a batch of 100 college students. A survey assessing the awareness and knowledge they had on gluten was taken. The questionnaire focused on questions such as nature of diet, occurrence of allergies, symptoms experienced after consumption, and precautions taken against them. The collected data were analyzed and presented in statistics and the results obtained were discussed. Results: We found that almost 60% of them believed that gluten was bad for their health; however, only 58% were aware that wheat was the major source of gluten and not rice. 33% of the students claimed to have food allergies, out of which 21% were found to have been caused by wheat products. It was also found that 26% of them tried taking medicines to suppress their allergies, but only 17% reported that the medicines actually helped reduce the intensity of the reactions. Finally, about 80% of them said that gluten sensitivity was not common in their region. Conclusion: Only 60% of the college students had proper knowledge on gluten in diet, its effects, and gluten sensitivity. Hence, we can conclude that more awareness has to be created among the population about the kind of diet they take and how it affects them, especially gluten which seems to be the most prominent component of everyone’s diet today.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003257
Title: Neural crest cells – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The neural crest cells (NCCs) are transient migratory multipotent cells that emerge at the interface between the prospective epidermis of a developing embryo and neuroepithelium due to its multipotency, long-range migration through embryo and its capacity to generate a prodigious number of differentiated cell types. For these reasons, though it derived from the ectoderm, the NC has been called the fourth germ layer. For induction and formation of NCCs, non-neural ectoderm, the neural plate, and the underlying mesoderm play an important role. There are a number of signaling molecules essential for the formation, epithelial- mesenchymal transition, delamination, migration, and localization of NCC. Once NCCs formed, it starts migrating from the neuroepithelium and quickly splitting into distinct streams. NCCs are differentiated into multiple cell types, ranging from neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system to pigment cells, fibroblasts to smooth muscle cells, and odontoblasts to adipocytes. NCCs migrate in larger numbers which are regulated by different mechanisms, including chemotaxis, contact inhibition of locomotion, and cell sorting. Hence, this reviews to discuss about NC formation, differentiation, and migration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003258
Title: Awareness of needlestick injury among undergraduate students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, RVS Dental College and Hospital, Kannampalayam, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Needlestick injury (NSI) constitutes as one of the most common occupational hazards among dental profession. Dental professional is at more higher risk due to their limited and restricted working area. A questionnaire-based study was carried out to determine the knowledge and awareness regarding NSI in dental students. Aim: This study aims to access the knowledge and awareness of NSI among dental students. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire with 15 questions was prepared and distributed among the 3rd and final year students. The questionnaire includes the basic questions on the knowledge and assessment of NSI and precautions and prevention on NSI. The data extracted were tabulated; data management and statistical analysis were performed; frequencies and percentages were calculated, and results obtained using SPSS. Results: A total of 100 undergraduate students participated in the study which involved 48 male and 52 female students. On an average, 60%of the students had reported that needle stick injury occurs during recapping. 63% of the respondents were no aware of the proper method of needle disposal. Most of the students were to have llesser awareness of needle stick injury and methods of its prevention. Conclusion: This study reveals that the knowledge and awareness of NSI among dental students is inadequate. A standard protocol as well as adapting prevention measures should be formulated in all dental colleges. As per the WHO recommendation elimination of needle recapping, the use of safety disposable method and use of needleless device should be implemented to reduce the risk of NSIs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003259
Title: Lemongrass in dental health
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, RVS Dental College and Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Lemongrass is also known as Cymbopogon citratus which is an herb which belongs to the grass family of Poaceae. Lemongrass offers a wide array of medicinal benefit. It is well known for it is antibacterial, antifungal, and antimicrobial properties. Since lemongrass oil possesses various pharmacological actions, it is quite useful in both the medical and dental field. The health benefits of lemongrass in the medical field include relief from stomach disorders, insomnia, respiratory disorders, fever, aches, infections, and rheumatism. The defensive antioxidant activity of the lemongrass herb protects against antibiotic- resistant Staphylococcus aureus and helps in maintaining optimum cholesterol levels, cellular health, nervous system, healthy skin, and immune system. Besides that, in the dental field, the lemongrass helps by removing bacteria from the oral cavity and prevents teeth and gum diseases. It also had antioxidant properties which help to treat and prevent periodontitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003260
Title: Awareness about monosodium glutamate among Indian women – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is also called as sodium glutamate which is a sodium salt of glutamic acid and the commonly occurring non-essential amino acids.MSG is actually a flavor enhancer and commonly used as food additive in various packed foods. It was first believed that the use of MSG was limited only to Asian countries, but now it has been the most used food additive across the world.The present study focuses on the awareness about MSG among Indian women.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003261
Title: Evaluation of antioxidant activity of banyan bark powder
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Antioxidants act as a major defense against radicalmediated toxicity by protecting the damages caused by free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been a center of attraction of the researchers in the recent scientific developments throughout the world,due to their potent antioxidant activities, no side effects, and economic viability. [8] The present study has been designed to investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Ficus bengalensis Linn. roots.