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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003347
Title: Overview of makers for apoptosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Research Department, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The various markers for the apoptosis pathway reviewed in this article are DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, bid cleavage, and cytochrome c release. Apoptosis is a pathway of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms. Biochemical events leads to characteristics cell changes and death. The apoptosis assays, based on methodology, are of six groups cytomorphological alterations, DNA fragmentation, detection of caspases, cleaved substrate, regulators and inhibitors, membrane alterations, detection of apoptosis in whole mounts, mitochondrial assays.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003344
Title: DNA probe
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Due to the essentials of modern science in various fields, especially in medicine, DNA technology, there is an increased scope for the identification of various tools. DNA probes are stretches of single-stranded DNA used to detect the presence of complementary nucleic acid sequences (target sequences) by hybridization. DNA probes are usually labeled, for example, with radioisotopes, epitopes, biotin, or fluorophores to enable their detection. DNA probe is prepared for commercial purposes and is believed to be the most sophisticated and sensitive means to identify genes or specific DNA sequences. It serves various purposes in different fields of which its use is incredibly essential. The need for various tools is indeed in medical science. It helps to identify specific DNA sequences and genes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003342
Title: Management of polycystic ovarian syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is also known as polycystic ovarian disease. PCOS has increased recently with the realization that this syndrome involves far more than the reproductive system. PCOS is often a term that is used to describe a complex of symptoms that is characterized by irregular menstrual periods, mild androgen excess (or too much of the male- like hormones), and the presence of a number of small cysts (or follicles) within the ovary. It is the most common female endocrine disorder with its prevalence increasing each and every year. It also has an uncertain etiology, and it is a serious threat that woman having PCOS will have irregular menstrual cycle and they have difficulties in even getting pregnant. Some studies have also shown women with PCOS to be at higher risk for suicide due to lower self-esteem as well as prone to endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer. PCOS affects the quality of life and can worsen anxiety and depression either due to the features of PCOS or due to the diagnosis of a chronic illness. Moreover, its prevention is impossible; however, we can reduce the risk of this disease by having an active lifestyle and by consuming proper and nutritious diet.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003336
Title: Potential benefits and applications of platelet-rich growth factors in wound healing
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Healing in tissues is a complex process which demands cellular organization mediated by a variety of signaling proteins and extracellular matrix for tissue repair. The understanding of this healing process at the microcellular level is incomplete. It is a well-proven fact that platelets have a significant role to play in wound healing. This review is a sincere effort to highlight the role of platelet-derived growth factors, the platelet concentrates and its various applications in wound healing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003334
Title: Prevalence of odontogenic tumors: An institutional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to describe the prevalence and clinicopathological features of odontogenic tumors in Saveetha Dental College. Background: Odontogenic tumors are those lesions which originate from the odontogenic epithelium. Odontogenic tumors comprise a range of disorders of the growth from malignant and benign neoplasm, to malformations of dental tissues of self-limited growth. It has been largely the domain of oral and maxillofacial surgeons and pathologists, the former relying on the latter for guidance on treatment. Research on odontogenic tumors is limited to what can be performed on a relatively small number of fixed and excision specimen. Thus, this case series aims at recording the clinicpathological features of odontogenic tumors for better treatment. Materials and Methods: The histopathology records of the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology of Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, were retrieved retrospectively from January 2012 to December 2017. These were analyzed for age, gender, site of the tumor, and histopathologic typing. Criteria used were the World Health Organization classification 2005. Results: A total of 97 cases of odontogenic tumors were reported in this period. The most frequent histological type was ameloblastoma (48.45%) followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (35.05%) and odontoma (4.06%). In our study, the odontogenic tumors showed a predilection for the mandible mainly the angle and body of the mandible. Ameloblastoma occurred with a marked predilection for the mandible, while odontoma showed a predilection for the maxillary anterior regions of the jaws and young females. Conclusions: Odontogenic tumors show a wide geographical variation in distribution particularly in ameloblastoma and odontoma.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003331
Title: An anatomical variation in the labial branches of facial artery – A cadaveric study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Facial artery is the major artery to supply the major part of the face. Being a branch of external carotid artery, it arises at the carotid triangle of the neck above the greater cornua of the hyoid bone. Vascular variation is commonly observed during routine dissection in various parts of the body, especially in the face. The variations in the vascular pattern are mostly the variations in the branching pattern either arteries or veins. Hence, the present work is aimed to study in detail about facial artery anatomy in cadavers. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out with dissection of 42 facial arteries in 21 faces of cadavers in the Department of Anatomy, Madras Medical College, Chennai. Results: The observation made in the present study among 42 facial artery dissection 30.95% showed double sublabial artery, 69.05% showed single branch of sublabial artery, and 5 sublabial arteries anastomosed with mental branch of the inferior alveolar artery. The incidence of sublabial artery is 30.9% and the average length of the sublabial artery is 2.95 cm. The superior labial artery arose in about 16.66% at the level of mouth, 71.43% were above and 11.91% were below the level of angle of mouth was observed. In addition, 95.24% of the septal branches were given by superior labial artery. Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that the vascular variation is common in the face due to varied branching and terminating pattern of facial artery. Prior knowledge of such variation in the vascular pattern of facial artery is utmost important in operative surgeries in congenital, traumatic, and oncological defects to avoid unintentional and serious complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003332
Title: Osteoporosis and its dental impact
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Osteoporosis is an infection that influences fundamentally women, however, can likewise happen in men. It is described by lost bone mineral density (BMD) and frequently comes full circle in a crack of the hip, wrist, or potentially vertebrae. The analysis of osteoporosis is regularly made by utilizing bone thickness estimations. They are regularly communicated in relative terms (T-scores and Z-scores); the Z-score is the quantity of standard deviations from the age-coordinated normal estimation of solid ladies. A low Z-score shows that the bone thickness is lower than it ought to be for a patient’s age and sex. Osteoporosis is characterized as a BMD loss of 2.5 standard deviations or more beneath the built-up mean. Osteoporosis can be dealt with by an assortment of strategies; the most widely recognized being the utilization of estrogen, with or without progestin or progesterone. The utilization of estrogen alone is alluded to as Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), and the mix Hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Different medications utilized as a part of the treatment of osteoporosis are the particular Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERMs) and the bisphosphonates. The SERMs seem to offer a large number of the positive advantages of estrogen with less unfriendly consequences for the bosom or uterus. As of late, a randomized, 2-fold visually impaired investigation of about 3000 ladies found no general advantage in diminishing coronary illness for those taking estrogen. Indeed, in the main year of estrogen utilize, coronary illness was higher in this gathering than in those taking fake treatment. The connection between systemic BMD and periodontal status has been explored. In a few patients, there is a connection between a diminishing of mandibular bone mass and tooth misfortune. In others, there is no such connection. Those postmenopausal ladies taking HRT had more prominent tooth maintenance and a decreased probability of edentulism. A current report has discovered no connection between clinical connection levels and the BMD of the lumbar spine. Numerous conceivable elements add to the improvement of osteoporosis and periodontal maladies. It is hard to set up an immediate connection between tooth misfortune, bone misfortune, and loss of connection coming about due to periodontitis and diminished BMD related with osteoporosis; however, considers are progressing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003333
Title: Development of a validated questionnaire to assess knowledge and awareness among uncontrolled diabetic patients toward diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Health literacy is an integral part of diabetes management. Patients with good knowledge of diabetes and its complications seek proper treatment and care and take charge of their health. Objective: This study was designed to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the knowledge and awareness of uncontrolled diabetic patients toward diabetes mellitus (DM). Methodology: We developed a 15 item, two domain questionnaires to assess the knowledge and awareness among uncontrolled diabetic patients and examined for internal consistency, reproducibility, convergent, and discriminant validity using Cronbach’s alpha, intraclass correlation, and corrected-item to total correlation scores, respectively. Results: The final version of the questionnaire was found to be statistically internally consistent, reproducible, and reliable and could be used to assess the awareness and attitude of patients toward self-management of DM. Conclusion: This questionnaire has been developed to quantify the awareness and attitude of uncontrolled diabetic patients toward diabetes mellitus and thereby arrive at outcomes to develop systematic strategies for promotion of knowledge, awareness, and self-care practices.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003335
Title: Awareness of food allergies among adolescents
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Food allergies are said to be a hostile reaction to food and are facilitated by an immunologic mechanism. Food allergy has been shown to lower general health perception, limits family activities and has a significant emotional as well as economic impact on the parent. Thus, with the increasing prevalence of food allergy and the absence of a cure, community awareness about the signs and treatments of allergic reactions is vital.The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about food allergies among adolescents

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003337
Title: Ocimum sanctum and its effect on oral health – A comprehensive review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Drug resistance to currently used chemotherapeutics is the major factor that necessitates the search for alternative safe, efficacious and cost effective treatment options. Medicinal plants can be of good natural source which can act as anti-microbial agents. Plant extracts are used for treating various ailments as they possess anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and antiviral effects. Phytomedicine which is nothing but use of medicinal herbs for treatment has been used for oral diseases like dental caries, periodontal diseases has ancient history. Medicinal records from India, Egypt, Greece and China has mentioned the usage of herbs like Tulsi, Neem, Curcumin, Triphala etc for treatment of oral diseases. This article highlights the use of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) for the treatment of Oral diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003338
Title: Correlation between oral habits causing malocclusion in children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the correlation between oral habits and malocclusion in children. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 6–14-year-old students reporting to Saveetha Dental College and Hospital for dental treatment. Each sample was given a paper containing a simple questionnaire to answer with his or her parents assistance regarding the prevalence and duration of oral habits which also obtains details regarding the age and sex of the child. Then, the sample was then examined for the presence of malocclusion. The data obtained are tabulated and subjected to statistical evaluation. Reason: Oral habits are one of the causes of malocclusion in a growing child. Deleterious oral habits represent a serious public health issue. Deleterious oral habits are one of the most frequent factors identified by orthodontists that affect the normal growth and development of muscles and jaw bones during childhood and adolescence. These harmful oral habits represent the primary cause for malocclusion. Early detection and elimination of the habit will go along a way in reducing and eliminating the incidence of malocclusion. Results: A statistically significant correlation was obtained between the oral baits and malocclusion in children. The most common oral habit present in children is found to be thumb-sucking and mouth breathing. Conclusion: From the results obtained, it can be concluded that of the various oral habits, thumb-sucking and mouth breathing have a greater tendency to cause malocclusion of teeth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003339
Title: Assessment of degenerative changes of temporomandibular joint in orthopantomographs
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Degenerative changes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are evident on radiographic examination. The present study aims at assessing the radiographic degenerative changes of the condylar head in the panoramic radiograph. Literature reveals that osteoarthritis occurs in the second and fifth decades of life, whereas rheumatoid arthritis (RA) occurs in the fourth and fifth decades of life. In osteoarthritis, temporomandibular disorder is the first to be affected, whereas in RA, TMJ will be the last to be affected. The various degenerative changes that usually seen are flattening, thinning, erosion, osteophyte, reduced joint space, and altered shape of the condyles. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study of 45 panoramic radiographs of patients of the age between 20 and 45 years of age was selected. Result: The following degenerative changes of TMJ such as flattening, thinning, erosion, and osteophyte were evident. Conclusion: If early detection of radiographic degenerative changes of TMJ is done, early treatment planning can be done and thereby preventing the involvement of other joints.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003340
Title: Cell adhesion molecules
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Departemnt of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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One of the areas of biomedical science that has recently advanced tremendously is understanding of signaling the cell surface. It is becoming increasingly clear that the body’s tissues rely on its integrity, function, spatial organization, and interactions at its cell surface. Multicellular organisms require efficient mechanisms by which information can be transmitted between cells. To exchange information, cells interact with each other. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) belong to these class of molecules. They form the platform for cell-to-cell interactions and adhesion between cells. There are totally about 25 different types of CAMs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003341
Title: Attitude toward orthodontic treatment in treatment undergoing patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai–600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: This study aims to analyze the attitude of orthodontic patients toward treatment. Materials and Methods: This study consists of 60 subjects of varied ages between 18 and 30 undergoing orthodontic treatment in the Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College. It consists of 34 female subjects and 26 male subjects. A questionnaire was given to all the subjects to evaluate their attitude toward orthodontic treatment. Results: About 76.6% of the individuals are not happy with their looks with braces. 78.3% of the subjects are not aware of the need of retainers after the completion of orthodontic treatment. 60% of the subjects restrict their food habits due to orthodontic treatment. 65% of subjects realize that leaving orthodontic treatment in the middle will worsen the existing problem. Conclusion: About 80% of the subjects were aware of the purpose of the braces. 70% of the subjects feel that orthodontic treatment is expensive. 78.3% of subjects are not aware of the need of retainers after orthodontic treatment. It is essential to educate the subjects about the need of retainers after orthodontic treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003343
Title: A study on antioxidant activity, phenol, and flavonoid content of seedpod of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Tagore Medical College and Hospitals (Research Scholar, PhD in Bharath University), Affiliated to TN Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of phenol, flavonoid, tannin, antioxidant activity, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of quercetin (active component of Nelumbo nucifera [NN]) in ethanolic extract of the seedpod of Nelumbo nucifera (NNE). Materials and Methods: Preliminary screening of NNE was done for the presence of phenol, flavonoid, tannin, qualitatively, and quantitatively. Antioxidant activities of the NNE were estimated using extracts of aqueous, acetone, ethanol, and chloroform by in vitro antioxidant assays such as 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Results: Total phenolic content in NNE was 93.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, the total flavonoid content was 295.312 mg/g quercetin equivalents in NNE, and tannin content is 508.7 mg/g tannin equivalents in NNE. The NNE was evaluated for antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP assays. Among the different solvent, the ethanolic extract recorded the most effective DPPH radical scavenging activity (69.2%) and FRAP value was 21.52 µm. The results of HPLC analysis revealed the presence of active principle, namely quercetin. Conclusion: It can be concluded that NNE can be used as a potent natural antioxidant to overcome oxidative stress-induced diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003345
Title: Role of biofilms in endodontics
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated type of infection, and primary aim for the management of the endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganism. Therefore, it is essential to establish the fact that successful treatment of dental diseases depends on the biofilm removal as well as the effective killing of biofilm bacteria. The aim of this article was to review the mechanisms of biofilms’ formation, their roles in pulpal and periapical pathosis, the different types of biofilms available, the factors influencing the formation, the mechanisms of their antimicrobial resistance, techniques to identify biofilms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003346
Title: Association of obesity and type 2 diabetes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Globally, the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases is increasing at an alarming rate, propelling the upsurge in cases of diabetes is the growing prevalence of obesity. Most patients who are type 2 diabetic are obese, and the global epidemic of obesity largely explains the dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes over the past 20 years. Improved understanding will help advance identification and development of effective treatment options and how future research in these areas might be directed to benefit prevention, interventions, and overall patient care. Recent studies have identified “links” between obesity and type 2 diabetes involving pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6, insulin resistance, deranged fatty acid metabolism, and cellular processes such as mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Improved understanding of obesity’s heterogeneity, including inter-individual differences in pathogenesis, propensity to regain lost weight, development of obesity-related complications including diabetes, and response to therapy, is critical to advance the development of effective and cost-effective interventions. In this review, the association between obesity with diabetes is highlighted.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003348
Title: Development of a validated questionnaire to assess awareness and attitude of community pharmacists toward pharmacovigilance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objectives: Spontaneous reporting of adverse events aids in adverse drug reactions (ADR) risk prevention. Community pharmacists (CPs) play a crucial role in the systematic ADR reporting process (Pharmacovigilance) due to their ready accessibility to patients and professional training in pharmacology. Hence, awareness and attitude of CPs need to be assessed to develop strategies to promote their active involvement in pharmacovigilance. Methodology: We developed and validated a 20 item, three domains containing a questionnaire to assess the knowledge and attitude of CPs toward pharmacovigilance. The questionnaire was examined for reliability (reproducibility and internal consistency) and convergent and discriminant validity. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient was >0.7 while Cronbach’s alpha score was >0.8 and hence the questionnaire was considered to have sufficient reproducibility and internal consistency. Hence, no significant modification was made in the questionnaire. Conclusion: This questionnaire could aid in assessing the awareness and attitude of CPs toward pharmacovigilance and thereby develop strategies to promote ADR reporting by CPs

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00003349
Title: Development of a microencapsulated sugarcane juice
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Food Processing Technology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Sugarcane juice is a popular thirst-quenching drink in many countries due to its typical cane flavor and sweetness. The main problem associated with fresh cane juice is its short shelf life. Raw sugarcane juice is susceptible to the growth of yeast, of spoilage bacteria, and of pathogenic bacteria. Most of the attempts to preserve the sugarcane juice have been focusing on refrigeration, heat treatment, and use of preservatives. Aim: The present study is an attempt to prepare sugarcane juice powder by spray drying. Materials and Methods: In this method, an aerosol of sugarcane juice is exposed to hot air and the dried juice is collected in the form of a powder. Results: Sugarcane juice powder was prepared from a local species using maltodextrin as bulking agents. Addition of bulking agents such as maltodextrin DE 20 significantly improved the juice powder yield, in addition to improved physical, chemical, and rheological properties of the juice powder. Conclusion: Scanning electron microscope images clearly show the variation in particle size and surface characteristics. Maltodextrin formed clear round particles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003350
Title: Effect of video-based cartoon distractions in the management of anxiety in children undergoing restorative therapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effect of video-based cartoons in the management of anxiety in children undergoing restorative therapy. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 pediatric dental patients aged from 6 to 12 years were selected who reported to Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals for restorative dental treatment. 20 patients were provided treatment without video-based distraction and 20 were provided treatment with video-based cartoon distractions. Their response was assessed using facial image scale for dental anxiety. The data are obtained and tabulated for statistical analysis. Results: The obtained data were assumed to have a non-parametric distribution, and hence, a Mann–Whitney U-test was performed to assess the statistical significance at 5%. The test revealed Z score of 3.74185 and P = 0.00018 indicating a statistical significance between both the groups. Conclusion: Video-based intervention shows a significant reduction in the anxiety levels of children undergoing restorative therapy. Hence, it is implied that using video-based distractions can bring in a positive and desired behavior during dental treatment in children of 6–12 years of age.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003351
Title: Awareness on the choice of profession among school students - A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the awareness on the choice of profession among school students. Introduction: It is better if one decides at the school stage what profession or occupation one is going to adopt. They are immature and so need guidance and help and counsel of parents, teachers, and consideration while choosing a career for them. If they are provided proper vocational guidance at this stage, they can wisely choose a profession in accordance with their aptitude, capability, and financial resources. Materials and Methods: A set of questionnaire was framed, and the survey was conducted among 110 school students. Results and Discussion: The overall results from this research reveal that familial influences and societal influences, has significant and considerable impact on students’ career choices. Conclusion: A correct choice may lead to happy, prosperous, and satisfying career and life. The problem should be faced and resolved as early as possible. It is important to decide the career in school stage only. The school-going students are quite young, inexperienced, and raw to take a right decision. What is needed are proper guidance, counseling, advice, vocational training, encouragement, and orientation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003352
Title: Evaluation of parental attitude toward the first child’s and subsequent child’s oral health care – A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the attitude of parents toward the first child’s and subsequent children’s oral health care. Materials and Methods: Two hundred questionnaires were distributed among parents who had at least two children. The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics software 23.0 Version. To find the significant difference between the bivariate samples in the independent groups, the unpaired sample t-test was used. For the multivariate analysis, the one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test was used. Results: About 33% of the parents had school level of education. 37% of the parents had finished their under graduation. The remaining 30% had completed postgraduation level of education. The DMFT status of the first child was found to be more than the second child whose parents had finished school and under graduation level of education (82% and 64.3%, respectively). The DMFT status of the first child and subsequent child was almost similar whose parents had finished postgraduation level of education. The overall DMFT status of the first child was higher than the second child. Conclusion: Parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about oral health care play a key role in the dental health of their children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003353
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice: Oral hygiene status of sanitary workers in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) on oral hygiene status among sanitary workers in Chennai. Background: A KAP survey is a quantitative method that provides access to quantitative and qualitative information. Oral hygiene can be defined as a state of being free from chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and throat cancer, oral sores, tooth decay, tooth loss, and other diseases and disorders that affect the oral cavity. The disparity in the lifestyle of sanitary workers from the normal population and their limited education may show variations in their level of knowledge, attitude, and oral hygiene practices. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire that assessed the KAP of sanitary workers on oral hygiene was made and distributed among 72 sanitary workers from Saveetha Dental College and Sri Ramachandra Medical College, Chennai. Their responses were recorded and analyzed, and their KAP level was evaluated. Results: Only 13% of the sanitary workers surveyed have had formal education. 55% of the uneducated sanitary workers believe that using neem sticks is the ideal method to clean teeth. 50% of the sanitary workers are slaves to tobacco addiction. 50% of them who do not visit the dentist blame their jobs to be the reason for it. The overall KAP level of the sanitary workers surveyed was found to be 52.83%. Conclusion: The KAP level of oral hygiene of these sanitary workers is a reflection of their educational status and inability to afford dental consultations due to their job scenarios. Free dental camps and distribution of oral hygiene products can, therefore, considerably better the oral hygiene status of sanitary workers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003354
Title: Awareness on the risk factors of diabetes among homemakers – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes is without any doubt is one of the most common diseases that have been affecting hundreds and thousands of people around the world. It is a disease that occurs due to high levels of blood sugar over a prolonged period. Although there are people who are aware of their diabetic conditions, there are also some who do not their health conditions and especially unaware that they are diabetic. Moreover, if untreated it could lead a lot of complications and sometimes possibly lead to death. Materials and Methods: In this survey, there were 100 participants in which all of them were female between the age between the 23 and above. It is a questionnaire based online survey. 14 questions were asked related to diabetes using survey planet. The results were recorded. Results and Discussion: In this survey, it was found that 33% of the homemakers were diabetic. This shows that they are aware of their health conditions and possibly taking precautions by following a healthy and altered lifestyle. Conclusion: Every moment is important as more and more people are affected and dying due to this uncompromised disease. Therefore, it is important to create awareness among every household to reduce and possibly prevent the occurrence of diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00003355
Title: Pharmakon evaluation in Momordica cymbalaria
Category: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Momordica cymbalaria is an Indian vegetable which belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. It is considered as underutilized vegetable crop as it is not commercially cultivated. Its versatile utility as a nutritious vegetable, folk medicine, and functional food ingredient provoked us to compile a comprehensive study of this multipurpose fruit on the distribution, nutritional attributes, and phytochemicals composition and its medicinal properties. The major constraints in the propagation of M. cymbalaria are non-availability of standardized propagation methods and low yield, and due to anthropogenic activity, it is under threat of existence. Materials and Methods: Here, we selected seeds and flesh of M. cymbalaria which includes variations of nutritional values such as protein, carbohydrate, fat, and crude fiber which were analyzed. Results and Discission: The study deals with in vitro antidiabetic, anti-ulcer, and antihyperlipidemic properties of seeds and flesh which were analyzed. The maximum nutrients were found to be higher in dry seeds when compared with flesh form which is used for siddha formulations. Phytochemical screening of seed was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and structural relationship in phytochemicals confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Conclusions: This study deals with nutritional and pharmacological property of seeds used for future analysis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003356
Title: An insight into tobacco – A narrative review
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The epidemic of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health. Tobacco use in smoked and smokeless forms has a potentially significant and negative impact on oral health. Effect of local and systemic outcome of tobacco use on oral health depends on method, frequency, and duration of use and is dose dependent. Tobacco-induced oral diseases contribute significantly to the global oral disease burden. Health professionals should be aware of oral problems associated with tobacco use and should also play an active role in prevention and control of tobacco-induced lesions due to their direct contact with patients who are at increased risk. Counseling on smoking cessation and smoking prevention programs should be an integral component of medical and dental teaching and practice. The present article provides a compilation about tobacco and its history, composition, metabolism, effects on general and oral health, and tobacco cessation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003357
Title: Prevalence of irregular menstruation among homemakers and working women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Menstrual problems are the major gynaecological problems which occur frequently in majority of women. Menstrual problems affect the physiology, psychology and well-being of a woman. By knowing what type of symptoms and when to expect symptoms, help women to schedule her activities. The problems may be due to heredity or hormonal imbalance. Many symptoms and illnesses are common in the general population, but only a minority result in consultations in primary care and even fewer in referral on to secondary care.This raises difficulties for management guidelines based on secondary care, since, if applied to all symptoms in the community, the workload implications may be large and the yield of serious disease low. Materials and Methodology: A survey was carried out to study various menstrual problems experienced by the girls and women with the age group between 12–35 years. A questionnaire was designed and 50 women were interviewed personally and their details were collected. Results: Out of the sample size of 50, irregular menstruation among the working women were noticed comparatively high than the home-makers. Under descriptive analysis, various questions were analysed comparatively between the working-women and home-makers. When chi-square test was done, the chi-square statistic is 3.3937. The p-value is .065447. The result is not significant at P <05. Conclusion: The development of symptoms of menstrual loss among women in the community is common, in contrast to the rarity of gynaecological malignancy. This raises concern about the usefulness of current guidelines, based on symptoms, advising women when to consult, and for the early detection of gynaecological malignancy in the community and primary care.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003358
Title: A review on primary stability of implants
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Vinayaka Missions Sankarachariyar Dental College and Hospitals, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
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The dental implant therapy has a phenomenal rise in today’s dentistry. The researchers are in a constant effort toward improvement, excellence, and simplification of implant therapy. For a successful implant placement, implant stability is important. Implant instability could result in fibrous encapsulation leading to implant failure. Measuring implant stability helps to make decisions about the loading of implants. Primary stability depends on the quality and quantity of the bone, implant type, and placement technique. Secondary stability is attributed to bone formation and remodeling at the implant interface and around the bone. Primary stability is the initial engagement between the bone and the implant. If the primary stability is good, the implant can be done immediately.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003360
Title: Signs and symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Medicine, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is also known as polycystic ovarian disease. It is the most common female endocrine disorder prevalent. The prime factor of this disease is that the hormone levels are unbalanced. Women with PCOS typically have high levels of androgens, also known as male hormones. They also have higher levels of insulin production that can result in excess weight gain. It also has an uncertain etiology, and it is a serious threat that woman having PCOS will have an irregular menstrual cycle and they have difficulties in even getting pregnant. Some studies have also shown women with PCOS to be at higher risk for suicide due to lower self-esteem as well as prone to endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer. PCOS affects the quality of life and can worsen anxiety and depression either due to the features of PCOS or due to the diagnosis of a chronic illness. Moreover, its prevention is impossible; however, we can reduce the risk of this disease by having an active lifestyle and by consuming a proper and nutritious diet.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003361
Title: Benefits of exercise in cardiac fitness
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: epartment of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Exercise training increases cardiovascular functional capacity and decreases myocardial oxygen demand at any level of physical activity in apparently healthy persons as well as in most patients with cardiovascular disease. Cardiorespiratory fitness primarily refers to the capacity of the heart and lungs to deliver oxygen to skeletal muscles, and maximal aerobic power is an indicator of the maximal capacity of oxygen delivery. Individuals with a high maximal aerobic power can undertake the demanding physical task without suffering fatigue. Regular physical activity is required to maintain these training effects. Regular physical activity increases exercise capacity and plays a role in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Consultations with a medical professional and diagnostic exercise test for coronary heart disease can be useful when it is clinically indicated. Regular exercise is associated with several cardioprotective effects, including improving the endothelial function and reducing systemic inflammation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003362
Title: Azadirachta indica – The Indian lilac
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Neem (Azadirachta indica) has become important in the global context today because it offers solution to the major concerns faced by humankind. A. indica is a fast-growing widely distributed evergreen tree that is most commonly found commonly in India, Africa, and America. A. indica is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. It has its own properties which make it unique such as pesticidal, antiallergenic, antidermatic, antifeedant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antipyorrheic, antiscabic, cardiac, diuretic, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal, spermicidal, and other biological activities. Hence, it is also referred to as “one solution to thousand problems.”

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003363
Title: Awareness on the application of bioinformatics tools among college – A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Bioinformatics is recognized as part of the essential knowledge base of numerous career paths in biomedical research and health care. The field of data and resource integration within bioinformatics has received significant attention over the past decade. Bioinformatics is used in a large number of fields such as medicine, microbial genome applications, biotechnology, waste cleanup, gene therapy, and agriculture. As an interdisciplinary field of science, bioinformatics combines biology, computer science, information engineering, mathematics, and statistics to analyze and interpret biological data. This is a survey-based study. The survey was conducted among 100 college students. The aim of the study was to create awareness on the application of bioinformatics tools among college students and make them understand the importance of the application of bioinformatics tools.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00003364
Title: Determination of amylase activity in four selected grains (Ragi, Green Gram, Chickpea, and Fenugreek) at various germination stages
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Grains and cereals worldwide are extremely important for both human and animal nutrition. More than plain grains, sprouted grains have more nutrition and energy while eating. Sprouts are rich in digestible energy, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, proteins, and phytochemicals, as these are necessary for a germinating plant to grow. Hence, from the current study, it was found that the sprouted grains show an increased enzyme activity which can be used for the maximum yield of enzymes in industries. Materials and Methods: The different grains used (Ragi, Green Gram, Fenugreek, and Chickpea) were collected from the local supermarket. All apparatus used was sterilized adequately with hot water at about 100°C to avoid infection and alteration of results. Results and Discussion: Amylase activity of chickpea and green gram showed increased enzyme activity on day 1. 4th day, fenugreek showed a greater increase in enzyme activity. On the final day, green gram showed a decrease in its graph while the other grains remained the same. From the research, it was found that the fermented grains show an increased enzyme activity on a particular day. Conclusion: This study exhibits that extraction done on a particular time of seed germination that can give a maximum enzyme yield.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003365
Title: In vitro antioxidant potential of acyclic isoprenoid isolated from Semecarpus anacardium
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (Deemed University), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The present study was aimed to examine the in vitro antioxidant potential of acyclic isoprenoid isolated from Semecarpus anacardium seeds by different in vitro methods. The antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard antioxidant drug. The acyclic isoprenoid was used at 30, 60, 125.250, 500, and 1000 mg/ml concentrations and radical scavenging activity was determined in terms of inhibition percentage. Results revealed that acyclic isoprenoid inhibited the DPPH, lipid peroxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner but pronounced radicals inhibitory effect was found at the concentration of 1000 µg/ml, and these inhibitory effects were less than that of ascorbic acid – used as a reference drug. This study revealed that the acyclic isoprenoid has significant antioxidant activity which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003366
Title: Prevention of amoxicillin-induced post-extraction bleeding with tranexamic acid rinses in anticoagulated patients: A review literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, BIHER, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Patients on oral anticoagulant therapy for a chronic period of time have greater tendency of postoperative bleeding and these patients cannot discontinue their oral anticoagulant abruptly to undergo dentoalveolar surgery therefore special care is to be taken to treat these patients. Cardiologist opinion is a must for these patients for us to carry out the surgery, PT-INR, bleeding time and clotting time values are to be reassured. Conclusion: Meticulous attention should be paid to while prescribing antibiotic medications in anticoagulated patients that may affect metabolism of warfarin. Since tranexamic acid has antifibrinolytic property, it remains as the most preferred drug over decades to prevent as well as treat hyperfibrinolysis and therefore it reduces mortality.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003367
Title: Awareness of fruit variety to make young age
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Sufficient intake of fruits has been related to a reduced risk of chronic diseases and weight management; however, the precise mechanism is unknown. The Globe Health Organization and Food and Agriculture of the United Nations reports suggest adults to consume a minimum of five servings of fruits per day. This study focuses on the importance of fruits moreover due to edges and progress of nutrition education in up intake. Materials and Methods: For this study, >100 relevant scientific articles were considered from various databases using the keyword fruits, nutrition education, body weight, obesity, benefits, and challenges. Results: Existing data suggest that their intake of fruits is still inadequate in many areas. Consequently, enhancing strategies to promote fruit intake are essential for health promotion among population. Conclusion: The result concludes that the population was aware of the fruits, but they are not aware of its medicinal uses. This may help them in their day-to-day life and make them healthy and beautiful.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003368
Title: Combination of rosemary, peppermint, and coconut oil to relieve pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Technical and Medical Science, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai-600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Pain is known to be a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli. Pain that lasts for a longer period of time is called as chronic pain and the pain that lasts for a shorter period of time is called acute pain. The combination of rosemary, peppermint, and coconut oil can give instant relieve from pain. The combination of three oils not only gives instant relief from pain but also gives relief from muscle spasms. The aim of the present research is to investigate the extent to which rosemary, peppermint, and coconut oil affects on the pain and gives instant relief. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted among 30 people having pain. Rosemary oil, peppermint oil, and coconut oil were mixed in proper proportion and will make a single oil. This oil was distributed to all the 30 participants. The duration of this study was 30 days. Pain was measured with the help of pain scale. Data were collected. Results were discussed. Results: Before applying the oil, a majority of participants had very severe and worst pain. However, then after applying the oil, that is, after 15 days and then after another 30 days, we can see a lot of improvement. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 53% of participants got relieve from pain after applying the oil, whereas 40% and 16% of the participants still have mild and moderate pain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003369
Title: Association between anemia of inflammation and hematological parameters of aggressive periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Anemia of inflammation formerly also called anemia of chronic disease, a cytokine-mediated anemia is a frequent complication of many inflammatory conditions or neoplastic disorders which are not due to decreased action of bone marrow or other diseases. It occurs despite the presence of adequate iron stored and vitamins. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the periodontal tissues (the supporting tissues of the tooth) caused by specific microorganisms. Periodontal infections most often involve anaerobes such as Treponema denticola and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Studies show that reduced hemoglobin levels, erythrocyte counts, and increased white blood cells count are observed in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis, suggesting that this condition may be associated with anemia of chronic disease. This study was an attempt to determine the association between anemia of inflammation and the blood parameters of patients with aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Patients were selected from those attending the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and divided into two groups. Informed consent was obtained from the patient before sample collection. 3 ml of venous blood was collected and distributed in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid collection tubes and centrifuged in 3000 rpm for serum. Then, serum was separated and analyzed by Mindray Hematology Analyzer for erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, leukocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and packed cell volume (PCV). Conclusion: The present study showed that periodontal inflammation results in a decrease in a number of erythrocytes and levels of hemoglobin. This implies that aggressive periodontitis like other chronic conditions may lead to anemia. This anemia is mild to moderate, and inflammatory cytokines may also play a role in its pathogenesis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003370
Title: Cytotoxic potential of Ocimum basilicum seed extract on human epidermoid carcinoma (KB cell lines) – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Cancer, till today, remains on the unsolved mystery in the phase of prognosis. The death rate of this disease has been increasing in both developing and developed countries. Various researchers are working on the cure for this disease without any side effects. Hence, this study is aimed at to analyze the cytotoxic potential of Ocimum basilicum (OB) seed extract on oral carcinoma KB cell lines. Materials and Methods: KB Cell line: KB cell line was procured from NNSCCS, Pune and maintained in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM). Preparation of test drug: OB seed was uniformly grinded and serially extracted in methanol, using Soxhlet apparatus. Cytotoxic assay: Cytotoxicity of OB seed was analyzed by 3-(4, 5dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and compared with standard drug cisplatin. Results: The aqueous extract of OB has exhibited significant cytotoxic potential against oral cancer cell line. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of OB was effective as an antiproliferative agent which causes apoptosis in the oral cancer cell line.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003371
Title: Prevalence of mesiodens in Chennai population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: A mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth located in the palatal midline between the two maxillary central incisors. The present study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of mesiodens in the pediatric population using cone-beam computed tomography. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal prospective study was carried out in 5700 children to determine the prevalence of mesiodens. The following data were recorded: Age, sex, shape, orientation, eruption status, and caused by mesiodens. Results: The prevalence of mesiodens in the present study was 3.5%. The sex ratio was 1:1. The majority of mesiodens (61%) were conical in shape followed by supplemental (35.5%) and tuberculate (3.5%) types. A majority of the mesiodens (51.5%) were vertically aligned. Inverted and horizontal positions were observed in 41% and 7.5% of the cases. Most of the mesiodens were unerupted (53%) and 47% were erupted. Conclusion: The prevalence of mesiodens was 3.5%. Conical shape and vertical orientation were the common characteristics observed in the study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003372
Title: Radial forearm flap in oral commissure reconstruction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: The radial forearm free flap has been a workhorse flap for oral commissure reconstruction due to its pliability, color match, and ability to incorporate the palmaris longus tendon for support. We report our experience with the use of the radial forearm free flap in six patients post-tumor resection. Materials and Methods: Between 2016 and 2018, six patients had undergone resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral region and simultaneous reconstruction with the radial forearm free flap. The average patient age was 55 years and the average defect size was 5 × 4 cm2 . In one patient, anterograde radial forearm free flap was used with a fascia lata free tendon graft for support and in five patients, a retrograde radial forearm flap was used without the use of tendon as support. Results: All six patients were satisfied with the initial management of tumor clearance. All six surgical margins were clear. Out of six, two patients complained that the flap was unsightly and was dissatisfied with the appearance and bulk of the flap. Conclusion: Although the radial forearm flap is recognized as a gold standard for oral commissure reconstruction, there always appears to be a need for secondary revision procedures to further improve both the functional and esthetic appearance of the oral commissure reconstruction procedure. As a primary reconstructive procedure, the flap does not satisfy patient expectations. A comprehensive questionnaire as well as objective assessment follow-up study is warranted.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003373
Title: Skin involvement as a predictor of contralateral nodal metastasis in buccal mucosa cancers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Context: In view of the low incidence of contralateral nodal metastasis and increase in the morbidity, the opposite neck is not routinely addressed. However, contralateral nodal metastasis is seen frequently in a certain group of patients. Identifying those factors associated with higher chances of contralateral nodal metastasis may help in optimizing the treatment. Aims: The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors associated with contralateral nodal metastasis in cases of buccal mucosa cancers. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa cases in which lesions were reaching or crossing midline were included in this study. All underwent surgery as a primary modality of treatment and had bilateral neck dissection. Results: Among six patients, ipsilateral nodal metastasis was seen in 5 patients and 1 had bilateral neck node metastasis, and none of the patients had isolated contralateral nodal metastasis. Skin involvement was seen in four patients. Conclusion: contralateral nodal metastasis in the absence of ipsilateral nodal metastasis is very rare. Skin involvement and frozen section of ipsilateral neck dissection specimen can be an important pointer for addressing contralateral neck.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003374
Title: Reliability of photogrammetry to assess frontal facial proportions in comparison with anthropometry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
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Background: One of the most important factors in the planning of orthodontic treatment and the assessment of treatment changes is to evaluate the soft tissue. For this purpose, quantitative assessments of soft tissue have been performed using lateral cephalometric radiographs classically, and several cephalometric analyses have been developed and proposed. It is not possible to evaluate the soft tissues from the frontal view using cephalometric radiographs. In addition to cephalometric radiographs, soft tissue evaluation has been carried out by means of different methods such as anthropometry, two- or three-dimensional photogrammetry, and three-dimensional imaging techniques. Among these methods, two-dimensional photogrammetry has the advantage of being a basic, non-invasive, cost-effective, and quick method that requires minimal time and equipment in the assessment of soft tissue. Aim: This study aims to assess the reliability of photogrammetry in assessing the frontal facial proportions in comparison to anthropology. Materials and Methods: Frontal photographs of 18 male and 18 female healthy young adults were taken in natural head position and frontal facial proportions were assessed in software on the photograph, and real-life measurements were taken on the subject using Vernier calipers. Two indices were assessed upper face-to-face height index and lower face-to-face height index. An independent sample t-test was used to assess the difference among the two methods used. Results: No statistically significant difference between manual and photogrammetric measurements was seen. Conclusions: Photogrammetry can be effectively used as an alternative to anthropometry when similar technique is used for acquiring the photograph of the subjects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003375
Title: Analyses of hemoglobin count in patients with bleeding gums
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to analyze the hemoglobin count in patients with bleeding gums. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 100 subjects with bleeding gums visiting Saveetha Dental College and Hospital seeking for dental treatment. Hemoglobin count was estimated for those 100 subjects and the data are tabulated for statistical analyses. A written consent was obtained from each subject for the study. Patients with the chief complaint of bleeding gums and age >20 years are included in the study. Patients with any kind of blood-related disorders and dengue are excluded from the study. Results: This study reveals a deviation of lower hemoglobin count till 1.2 mg/dl in females and in males, a deviation of 2.3 mg/dl is seen. Conclusion: Patients must also be educated about the ill effects of poor oral hygiene and proper oral hygiene instructions must be given to them. Periodical review of such patients is essential to prevent further periodontal complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003376
Title: Prevalence of anemia in periodontal patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Tamil Nadu, Chennai, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anemia in patients with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 50 subjects with periodontitis reporting to Saveetha Dental College and Hospital seeking for dental treatment. It includes 30 females and 20 males. Hemoglobin count was estimated for those 50 subjects, and the data are tabulated for statistical analyses. A written consent was obtained from each subject for participation in the study. Patients with the chief complaint of periodontitis and age >25 years were included in the study. Patients with any kind of blood-related disorders and dengue were excluded from the study. Results: Of 30 females, 16 have lower hemoglobin count, and among 20 males, 9 had lower hemoglobin count that accounts for 53.3% of females and 45% of males. Consequently, among the 50 subjects, 50% were estimated to have lower hemoglobin count than normal. Conclusion: Patients presenting with periodontitis showed a systematic decrease in hemoglobin level. From the present study, it may be concluded that severe chronic periodontitis is strongly associated with anemia. This should be taken into consideration during periodontal surgery. Before that, it is important to get physician’s consent and proper precautions to be taken to avoid any medical emergencies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003377
Title: Health and technology - A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Technology today has adverse effects on health due to prolonged hours of exposure to blue light and radiation. Working or watching screens for long hours can affect the eyes, brain, nervous system, and spinal cord. Materials and Methods: A online survey was done on a random population of 98 people. Questionnaires were circulated regarding health issues due to the usage of gadgets and opinions on the effect of gadgets. Results: It was shown that 78.6% think that technology is affecting thinking capacity and reasoning skills. 44.7% have issues with vision due to prolonged usage of gadgets. 41.8% have faced headaches and other physiological problems due to long hours in front of screens. Conclusion: Reading, referring books, libraries, interactions among social groups, using gadgets if only necessary, engaging in outdoor games and physical activities, and involving in hobbies can control or limit the usage of gadgets.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003378
Title: Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Asparagus racemosus extract – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Priyadarshini Dental College, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In Ayurveda, Asparagus racemosus is an amazing herb known as the “Queen of Herbs” because it promotes love and devotion. Shatavari is the main Ayurvedic rejuvenative tonic for the female, as is Withania for the male. This herb is highly effective in problems related with female reproductive system. A. racemosus is a well-known Ayurvedic rasayana which prevent aging, increase longevity, impart immunity, improve mental function, vigor, and add vitality to the body and it is also used in nervous disorders, dyspepsia, tumors, inflammation, neuropathy, and hepatopathy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Allium cepa against bacteria causing enteric infection. Materials and Methods: The screening of antibacterial activity of extracts was carried out using the disc diffusion method. The culture plates were allowed to stand on the working bench for 30 min for pre-diffusion and were then incubated in upright position at 37°C for 24 h. Standard antibiotic discs gentamycin (30 mcg/disc) were used as positive control. Results: The extracts at different concentrations exhibited antibacterial activity against the bacterial strains tested. The extract was more effective against Lactobacillus acidophilus with a zone of inhibition of 16 mm diameter (at conc. of 400 mg/ml) and with Streptococcus mutans, the zone of inhibition was found to be 15.8 mm (at conc. of 400 mg/ml). Conclusion: We conclude that the extracts of A. racemosus can be used as antimicrobial agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003379
Title: Comparison on evaluation of antimicrobial activity of cumin, neem, and clove oil on oral pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: To compare and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of neem, cumin, and clove oil on various pathogens. Introduction: An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. Antibacterials are used to treat bacterial infections. The drug toxicity to humans and other animals from antibacterials is generally considered low. As a consequence of widespread and injudicious use of antibacterials, there has been an accelerated emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, resulting in a serious threat to global public health. Materials and Methods: The oil samples were obtained commercially and the anti- microbial effect is determined by using well diffusion method under various concentrations of the samples. The positive and negative control were added. The results were obtained and statistically analysed. Results: Clove oil is an important source of compounds having antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumour, anti-fungal, anti- inflammatory and antiviral properties. The result indicated that using various parts of the clove have beneficial effect in controlling the oral pathogens than neem and cumin oil

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003380
Title: Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of essential oils with 2% chlorhexidine in reducing Enterococcus faecalis count
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The spread of drug-resistant pathogens is one of the most serious threats to successful treatment of microbial diseases. Down the ages, essential oils and other extracts of plants have evoked interest as sources of natural products. They have been screened for their potential uses as alternative remedies for the treatment of many infectious diseases. Methodology: Test microorganisms: Bacterial strain used was Enterococcus faecalis. The organism was isolated and maintained in nutrient agar slope at 4°C in the Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College. The essential oils, lavender oil, sandalwood oil, peppermint oil, rosemary oil, clove oil, and cinnamon oil were used in the following concentrations – 25 μl, 50 μl, and 100 μl, respectively. Results: The antibacterial activity of the essential oils at different concentrations was screened by disk diffusion technique, and the zone of inhibition was measured in mm diameter. The results are given in the table. Peppermint oil was more effective against E. faecalis with a zone of inhibition of diameter 45 mm (at conc. of 100 μl), followed by rosemary oil and cinnamon oil with a zone of inhibition of diameter 35 mm (at conc. of 100 μl). Conclusion: Our observations confirm that peppermint oil might be considered as an effective antibacterial irrigation solution as it has a zone of inhibition of diameter 45 mm at conc. of 100 μl which is similar to the control chlorhexidine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003381
Title: Causes and prevention of oral candidiasis in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral candidiasis is one of the most oral fungal infections. It is caused by the members of the Candida species. It is marked by the appearance of numerous white patches in the oral cavity, especially on the tongue and the buccal mucosa. This infection is caused mainly by Candida albicans, which is a part of the normal microflora of the oral cavity. Its growth increases due to poor oral hygiene especially in people with dentures (either removable or fixed). Hence, this study focuses on the causes and the prevention parameters of oral candidiasis rather than its treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 people aging from 50 to 90 years old denture wearers who have or had oral candidiasis in their past were studied. Their denture cleaning habits, their diet, their smoking habits, and their drug intake (if any) were recorded. A tabular column was created and their responses were recorded. Results: It was found that candida growth was more in 60–70 years patients, with a rich carbohydrate diet, asthmatics, who did not religiously clean their dentures. No concrete proof was found to relate smoking and growth of candida. Conclusion: Oral candidiasis is a fungal infection which affects older denture patients who had a rich carbohydrate diet, who were asthmatics, and who did not maintain proper oral hygiene. A relationship between smoking and candida growth could not be established.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003382
Title: Knowledge and awareness of food and nutrition in school children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Nutritional needs changes throughout an individual’s life, depending on the genetics rate of the growth, daily activity, and other factors. Nutrition is very important for sustaining human life but is especially important for children because it is directly linked to all aspects of the growth and development, factors which will ultimately have direct effects on their level of health as adults. The main aim of this study is to create knowledge and awareness of food and nutrition in school children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among school children in Namakkal district. The questionnaire mainly consists of nutritional requirements, proteins rich food, and vegetables consumption. This was distributed about 100 school students. Data were collected and analyzed with statistics. Results: From this, it is concluded that children were not aware of their health and some solutions were been given. Conclusion: Many of the children were aware of the nutritional value of food but they were not ready to take in their foods

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003383
Title: Effect of cucumber mint water on weight loss
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Obesity is a prevailing concern in today’s world and it needs to be addressed. Obesity causes many issues in our health which may turn to be fatal later on in life. It can affect our heart and cause severe heart conditions which mainly affect women. To solve this problem, we are trying out the method of drinking cucumber mint water. Materials and Methods: The materials used in this study are cucumber, mint, water, bottles, glasses, and spoon. This study was conducted by noting down the heights and weights of 20 people. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated using a BMI calculator. Cucumber and mint were provided to 20 people who are marked under the tag of being “obese,” as per the BMI scale. These 20 people had to infuse the cucumber and mint in the water by leaving cut pieces of 1 cucumber and a handful of mint leaves in 2 L of water. After being left overnight, this water was consumed throughout the next day, instead of drinking tap water. This is done everyday for 30 days. After 30 days, the BMI was calculated for the 20 people who underwent this study. The results and changes were noted. Results: From this study, we can conclude that, of 20 people, 16 people had a positive effect of drinking cucumber mint water regularly. And so, this is an effective method for reducing weight. Conclusion: Cucumber mint water has a positive effect on weight loss.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003384
Title: Study on vegetarian or Non-vegetarian more prone to hypertension
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Hypertension exerts a staggering worldwide burden on human quality of life and also their health and risk of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. The vegetarian diets are rich in carbohydrate, whereas non-vegetarian diets are protein rich. This study is to analyze and discuss which among the two vegetarian and non-vegetarian people are prone to hypertension. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among vegetarian and non-vegetarian populations. A questionnaire was prepared through SurveyPlanet. The collected data were calculated with statistics. Results: About 72% of non-vegetarian and 28% vegetarian took part in this survey. Mostly 32% consume fruits, vegetables, and low dairy products in the diet, which is rich in nutrients such as potassium, magnesium, calcium, and protein. Furthermore, 30% of the people include cheese, butter, and fatty products in their diet which causes different effects on blood pressure (BP). 33% of non-vegetarian eats meat which contains fat. Cholesterol and saturated fats have been identified as factors of high BP and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: It is concluded that vegetarian eaters have low BP as their diet contains potassium, calcium, and magnesium and it contains less amount of sodium. Non-vegetarian eaters have little high BP as their diet contains meat with saturated fat which can be risk factor of hypertension.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003385
Title: Dental age assessment in 8–16-year-old girls in a tertiary care hospital in Cochin – A comparative study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi, Kerala, India
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Introduction: Age determination plays a great role in forensic medicine, pediatric endocrinology, and pedodontic treatment planning. It helps in the management of different types of malocclusion in relation to maxillofacial growth. The aim of the study was to determine the dental developmental stages in female population and to test the applicability of Demirjian’s and Nolla’s criteria for maturity scoring in dental age assessment. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomographs of 200 females of 8–16 years were taken and the dental age was calculated using the Demirjian’s and Nolla’s dental age estimation method. Chronological age was also recorded and correlated to the dental ages obtained. Results: A strong correlation was found between chronological and dental ages (P < 0.005). The intraclass correlation coefficient between the two methods showed excellent agreement between the two (P < 0.005). Conclusion: A positive high degree correlation noticed between chronological age, dental age, and both age estimation methods may thus be applicable to the female population in Cochin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003386
Title: Prevalence of caries in children due to the consumption of dairy products
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dairy products such as cheese, butter, milk, and other milk processed products are proven an excellent source for strong teeth due to its calcium content. Children have a natural fondness for sweets and dairy products. The remnants of these products get entrapped between the teeth and release bacteria which when not removed by brushing or other mechanical methods cause caries in the long run. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was circulated among 102 parents with questions regarding their child’s food habits. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: It was found that 46.2% replace their toothbrush once a month. 41.2% take their child to the dentist only when the situation demands. 44.1% do not monitor their child while brushing. Conclusion: Children are prone to caries due to improper hygiene practices and lack of parental guidance. Dietary habits are not as healthy as dairy products are consumes without proper hygiene practices.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003387
Title: Study of calcium levels in pre- and post-menopausal women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Millions of people are affected around the world by osteoporosis. This is mainly due to deterioration of bone tissue. Recent times, mortality rate and morbidity have increased to a greater extent in association with osteoporosis which is a significant health problem. Appropriate calcium and Vitamin-D intake is now widely accepted by people as one of the important clinical strategies in addition with all other medications simultaneously. The current study aimed to determine the calcium level in pre- and post-menopause women. Materials and Methods: Patients were selected from those attending the Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and divided into two groups. Group I consists of normal healthy menstruating women and Group II consists of postmenopausal women. Results: All the data were analyzed using the SPSS package. Paired sample t-test analysis was done to find out significant differences between the two groups. All the tests were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. The mean calcium level of premenopause women is 9.87 ± 0.60 and postmenopause was 7 ± 0.78. They showed a significant decrease level in postmenopause women. Conclusion: The overall effect of calcium level is more in premenopause women than postmenopause women. Dietary supplementation may be helpful for the postmenopausal women to avoid the risk of osteoporosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003388
Title: Comparison of bone plating methods for parasymphysis/body fractures of the mandible
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha University, Ponamalle High Road, Chennai - 600 127, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Miniplate osteosynthesis has brought about a revolutionary change in the management of mandibular fractures. There are no much studies in the literature comparing the outcomes of using two miniplates and one miniplate (larger/ thicker) with an arch bar for the management of mandibular parasymphysis/body fractures. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the outcomes of two different plating methods used in the management of parasymphysis/body fractures of the mandible. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 patients of parasymphysis/body fractures of the mandible, treated over a period of 1 year by 2 miniplates or 1 stronger plate, were included in the study. Demographic data and outcome variables were collected and statistically analyzed using Student’s t-test. Results: Although there was difference in the osseous healing, wound dehiscence, plate exposure, and postoperative paresthesia between the groups, they were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, iatrogenic dental injury (P = 0.021) and the mean operating time (72 ± 4 in Group I and 84 ± 5.345 in Group II) showed statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Although both the systems produced sufficient stability for osseous healing, the use of one stronger plate is associated with lesser post-operative complication than the use of two miniplates.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003389
Title: Sodium hypochlorite as subgingival irrigant compared with chlorhexidine and saline – A randomized controlled trial
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Periodontitis remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for dental professionals. The treatment for periodontitis includes various modalities as eliminating the etiologic factors (which are the microorganisms), removal of the necrotic tissues and enhances repair, and regeneration of the lost supporting structures. Mechanical debridement alone may not be sufficient in treating periodontal diseases. Adjunctive agents with antimicrobial properties may be required for complete elimination of etiologic factors and enhancement of repair and regeneration of lost tissues. Sodium hypochlorite has shown to be effective against various pathogens in the oral microbiota. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of sodium hypochlorite as a subgingival irrigant and compare with saline and chlorhexidine (CHX). Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of sodium hypochlorite as a subgingival irrigant and compare with saline and CHX. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 individuals participated in the study which consisted of three groups. Group 1 consisted of 10 chronic periodontitis patients who underwent scaling and root planing (SRP) with saline irrigation and Group 2 consisted of 10 patients with chronic periodontitis who underwent scaling and root planing (SRP) with subgingival sodium hypochlorite irrigation. Group 3 consisted of 10 patients with chronic periodontitis who underwent SRP with subgingival irrigation with CHX. Periodontal parameters as probing depth and attachment loss were recorded at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v20 Results: The baseline parameters of all the three groups do not show a statistically significant difference. On comparing the probing depth reduction of the three groups, a statistically significant difference was seen when compared with baseline and 1 month and baseline and 3 months, but no statistically significant difference was seen when comparing 1 month and 3 months interval except for the probing depth of Group 1 and clinical attachment levels of Group 2. Intergroup comparison showed a statistically significant difference between Group 2 and Group 3 indicating that CHX has the best effect when used as an irrigant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003390
Title: Determination of sex using various parameters of hard palate
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the sex using various parameters of the hard palate. Introduction: The palate is the roof of the oral and the floor of the nasal cavity. It is made up of palatine process of maxilla and palatine bones. It separates the oral and nasal cavities and the nasopharynx. As sex identification is very important many modalities are used to arrive at a conclusion. The hard palate is the palatine processes of the maxillae and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 dry adult skulls of either sex were taken for this study. Skulls that are deformed and juvenile were excluded from the study. The skulls were examined for sex determination using various other traits. Palatine length, palatine width, width of right half, and width of left half are the parameters which are measured using the digital Vernier caliper. Results: The common problem faced by anatomist, forensic scientists, and anthropologist is the sex determination. They also use dry bones for the identification of sex. They use dry bones for the identification of sex; individual bones have been used for identifying sex of the individual as bones of the body are the second last to decay after death. It will be tough to determine the sex in some dry skull, this palatine dimorphism as an indicator. Conclusion: The knowledge of the morphological variations in the hard palate is very helpful in maxillofacial surgeries and also in repair of cleft palate. These data are helpful in the determination of sex when fragmentary remains are available for forensic identification. By calculating the palatine index, we can compare the skull of various regions and different races.