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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003478
Title: Anti-inflammatory activity of Punica granatum peel extract – An in vitro analysis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Punica granatum peel extract by in vitro analysis. Objective: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of P. granatum peel extract by in vitro analysis. Materials and Methods: P. granatum was collected from local market, shade dried, and peeled. The ethanol extraction of P. granatum peel powder was done as per the standard method. Different concentrations of the extract were used for anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of albumin denaturation and proteinase inhibitory action methods. All samples were analyzed in triplicate. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: The results indicate that the methanol extracts of P. granatum possess anti-inflammatory properties. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present study that methanol extracts of P. granatum possess anti-inflammatory properties due to the strong occurrence of polyphenolic compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and phenols in the plant extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003477
Title: In vitro antioxidant potential of stem of Amaranthus viridis - A medicine used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India
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Aim: The study was aimed to assess the antioxidant potentials of Amaranthus viridis stem extract by 2, 2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide (NO) radical, and superoxide anion scavenging activity. Materials and Methods: A. viridis plant was collected from local market and stem was separated and shade dried. Aqueous extract of the stem of the plant was done as per the standard methods. Then, the antioxidant properties of A. viridis such as DPPH radical, NO anion, superoxide anion, and free radical-mediated DNA damage assays were analyzed spectrophotometrically by previously published methods. The data were analyzed using computer-based software by one- way Analysis Of Variance. In this, the significance is considered at the level of P < 0.05. Results: DPPH radical, NO radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity was found to be increased in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The present findings indicate that A. viridis can be used as a potential antioxidant for the treatment of various diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003468
Title: 16S rRNA ribotyping Streptococcus mutans from dental caries patients
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Streptococcus mutans is one of the most common microbes responsible for the development of an infective, multifactorial disease affecting the hard tissue dental caries. It results due to an imbalance in the biofilm community creating an acidic environment. To analyze the genetic polymorphism of S. mutans, 16S rRNA-based ribotyping method is adopted and is completely reliable for the bacterial community analysis. The objective of this study is to evaluate and observe the different ribotyping patterns seen in S. mutans from dental caries patients. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples were collected from 20 children from 6 to 10 years of age. Following processing and bacterial culture of S. mutans, the isolates were obtained. This was followed by amplification of the samples in a thermocycler under suitable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions. Amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA were performed to confirm bacterial identification, and then, the data analysis was performed using the Statistical Software SPSS. Results: Streptococcus sequences in Gene Bank revealed the putative amplification of a 517 bp DNA fragment of the glucosyltransferase gene exclusively in five S. mutans strains. 12 of 20 strains were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis with 100% similarity by targeting Eubac 27F primer. Conclusion: 16S rRNA and gene sequences are remarkable tools in the identification of different types of species, and PCR ribotyping analysis is reliable for the characterization of S. mutans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003461
Title: Studies on antifungal properties of Talisadi Churna on human pathogens
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Herbal medicines are safe with no side effects and have significant action against fungai and other microorganisms. Objectives: As per your suggestion we have reviewed the sentence as follows (This study was carried out to investigate the antifungal potentials of Talisadi Churna is an Ayurvedic medicine against Candida albicans, one of the medically important fungal strains and to determine the zone of inhibition). Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined in the extracts using agar disk diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (50, 75, and 100 μg/ml) of Talisadi Churna were tested against C. albicans, zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of a different standard, ciprofloxacin for antifungal activity. Results: The results showed that the remarkable inhibition of the fungal growth was shown against the tested organism. The microbial activity of the Talisadi Churna might be due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003467
Title: Antimicrobial activity of turmeric, cumin, and ginger oil on oral pathogens
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Tamil Nadu, Chennai, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study was to find the antimicrobial activity of turmeric, cumin, and ginger oil on oral pathogens. Background: Turmeric is useful in relieving pain and bleeding in gingivitis and periodontitis. People consume cumin for digestion problems such as diarrhea, colic and spasm. Ginger gives relief from rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and menstrual pain. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of turmeric oil, cumin oil and ginger oil were used for screening the antimicrobial activity. Agar well diffusion method was used to evaluate the effect of different essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans (Gram +), Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas. Results: Among the tested oils, cumin oil showed the highest activity against S. aureus, S. mutans, and Enterococcus. Conclusion: This study conclude that cumin oil may be a better choice to control in bacterial infection caused by S. aureus, S. mutans, and Enterococcus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003452
Title: Occurrence of caroticoclinoid foramen and inter clinoid bar in dry human skulls and their clinical significance
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to observe the occurrence, anatomy and clinical significance of caroticoclinoid foramen and inter clinoid bar in the dry human skulls available in the Department of Anatomy in Saveetha Dental College. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 dry adult human base skulls that are available in the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College are used for the study. Digital Vernier caliper was used in taking the measurements. Results: The incidence of caroticoclinoid foramen and inter clinoid bar is 58% and 0%, respectively. There is no incidence of complete and contact type caroticoclinoid foramen. However, the results tend to vary in different regions and population of the world. As only a limited number of skulls were considered for the study, the result might vary with consideration of more number of skulls. Conclusion:The clinical significance is that the presence of caroticoclinoid foramen and inter clinoid bar may serve as obstacles while approaching anterior clinoid process in the regional neurosurgery, especially when there is an aneurysm of internal carotid artery. Therefore, detailed anatomical knowledge is required while operating in this region.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003453
Title: 8-Hydroxy deoxyguanosine - A potential biomarker in periodontitis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent oral diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the teeth, gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. Periodontal diseases are inflammatory disorders; oxidative stress (OxS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, which can cause damage to genetic biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, and DNA. Increased OxS leads to oxidative damage of DNA with the formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) which is excreted in body fluids including gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva. 8-OHdG is used as a standard biomarker of oxidative DNA damage mainly due to its reliable detectability

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003454
Title: Morphometric study on occurrence of accessory foramina in middle cranial fossa
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study the occurrence of accessory foramina in middle cranial fossa. Introduction: Greater wing of sphenoid has many foramina which connects infratemporal fossa, temporal fossa with middle cranial fossa. Foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, and foramen rotundum are constituent foramina in sphenoid bone. These foramina act as a gateway for neurovascular structures. The accessory foramina in middle cranial fossa are foramen Vesalius and foramen innominatum. Materials and Methods: 30 dry adult human skulls from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College were used for this study. The accessory foramina in the middle cranial fossa are seen. Foramen Vesalius found anteromedial to foramen ovale and lateral to foramen rotundum. Foramen innominatum found between the foramen ovale and foramen rotundum. Results: Foramen Vesalius is more in female skull and foramen innominatum is more in male skull. Foramen Vesalius found anteromedial to foramen ovale and lateral to foramen rotundum. Foramen innominatum found between foramen ovale and foramen rotundum. Conclusion: We can conclude that this foramen Vesalius is more in female skull than male skull and foramen innominatum is more in male skull than female skull.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003455
Title: A survey on the knowledge of medical emergencies among dental practitioners in Chennai and their choice of emergency drugs and equipment
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to survey the knowledge of medical emergencies among dental practitioners in Chennai and their choice of emergency drugs and equipment. Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted through Google Forms. The link for the survey was circulated among dental practitioners, including interns, in Chennai. Results: A total of 71 responses were obtained. Only 31% of the responders felt they are confident to handle medical emergencies. 70.4% of the responders have faced at least one medical emergency situation with the highest being syncope (98%). Only 83.1% of the responders believed that it is necessary for a dentist to procure all medical emergency drugs and equipment. When asked about the chair position for syncope and hyperventilation, only 74.6% and 53.5% of the responders answered correctly. Conclusion: The results clearly show the lack of knowledge and interest in the importance of handling medical emergency situations in dental practice. This shows the increased need for refreshment courses for dentists in medical emergency training.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003457
Title: Moral distress in nursing: A concept analysis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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Although moral distress have been studied in different fields of nursing, because the ambiguity of this concept, sometimes it has been replaced with other similar concepts. Hence, considering the context-related nature of this concept, the aim of the study was to conceptualize moral distress with a focus on its distinguishing features from other similar concepts. To analyze this concept, all of the published articles in Iranian databases and Google Scholar, CINAHL, ProQuest, Scopus, Ovid, and PubMed databases were searched. In this study, Wilson’s approach was used. It was determined that moral judgment and moral competence are two important features of moral distress which have an important role in distinguishing this concept from other similar concepts such as moral conflict and moral dilemma. By clarifying the concept of moral distress, nursing authorities could lay better plans for decreasing the negative effects of moral distress on nurses and patients increase the quality of care for patients and also increase job satisfaction among nurses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003458
Title: Characteristics of smokers attending smoking cessation clinics: A research from Iran
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
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Background: Smoking is one of the most important health problems, and quitting it is important in lowering the rates of mortality, morbidity, and disability worldwide. Identification of the factors associated both with the onset of smoking and quitting it may be helpful to design intervention strategies. The current study aimed to investigate the characteristics of smokers attending smoking cessation centers. Materials and Methods: The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 266 smokers attending smoking cessation centers in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Data collection tools included a researcher-made questionnaire including sociodemographic information. The data were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test with SPSS version 16. Results: The mean age of the participants was 38.9 years. The results showed that 46.6% of the participants smoked >20 cigarettes/day and 89.8% had a history of smoking for >5 years. There was a significant relationship between duration of smoking and age. There was no relationship between marital status and duration of smoking. In the current study, no significant association was observed between the educational level and quitting. Conclusions: The current study results can provide an insight into the factors associated with smoking and help to plan cognitive-behavioral interventions and cessation therapies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003459
Title: In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of chalcones isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: To assess the anti inflammatory activity of chalcones isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Background: Anti-inflammation is the property of a substance to reduce the inflammation which directly acts on the central nervous system to stop the pain signals sent to the brain. Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavor is extracted. This plant is a herbaceous perennial legume. Chalcones are usually prepared by an aldol condensation between benzaldehyde and acetophenone in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Materials and Method: Anti inflammatory property of chalcones was studied using Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) Membrane Stabilization Method. Conclusion:Anti inflammatory activity of chalcones isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. was analysed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003460
Title: Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic overview on statins in the management of hyperlipidemic complications in clinical practice
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India
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Statins which are hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors are commonly prescribed medications for cardiovascular complications to lower cholesterol levels in the blood and thereby to prevent heart attacks and stroke. This article reviews the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic role of statins. The large amounts of low- density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol deposits in the arterial walls cause narrowing of paths which lead to serious cardiovascular complications. Statins reduce the production of endogenous cholesterol by mevalonate pathway. The higher concentrations of LDL levels in the arteries lead to increased risk of atherosclerosis. Statins show highly active metabolites and their pharmacological activity depends on the kinetic profile of both parent compound and the active metabolites. The chemical structures of statins govern water solubility, which, in turn, influences their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. All statins have a common mechanism of action, but they differ in terms of their chemical structures and hence differ in the degree of metabolism and the number of active and inactive metabolites. The statin classifications include atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, and rosuvastatin. Atorvastatin is the commonly prescribing drug of choice for the management of diabetic coronary artery disease complications due to its superior efficacy and safety profile than other statins. Once daily dose administration of statins from 20 mg to 40 mg doses proves to be effective lowering LDL. The regular prescribing pattern of the statins could reduce the cardiovascular complications to the community.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003462
Title: Determination of the correlation of width of maxillary anterior teeth using extraoral factor (bizygomatic width) in Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: In dentistry, it is important to establish a relationship between the size of the teeth and the rest of the face with special preference to prosthodontics when restoring an edentulous dentition, which needs an initiating point for the selection of teeth. Moreover, as no universally accepted parameter currently exists for the selection of anterior teeth; therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the potential relationship between the combined mesiodistal width of the six upper anterior teeth and bizygomatic width (BW) in different facial and tooth forms among Indian population. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine and correlate the width of maxillary anterior teeth using extraoral factor BW in different facial and tooth forms among Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1200 (n = 1200) dentulous individuals participated in this study. All intraoral measurements (combined width of maxillary anterior teeth [CMA], maxillary central incisor width right side [MCIWR], maxillary central incisor width left side [MCIWL], and tooth form) were carried out on the artificial stone casts of maxillary arches using dental floss, flexible ruler, and digital Vernier caliper. Extraoral facial measurements Bizygomatic width (BW) were recorded using digital Vernier caliper. Independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation, simple and multiple regression analysis, and one-way ANOVA have been used in this study to determine statistical significance. Results: The mean BW was 141.85 ± 7.35 mm. In this study, it was found that there was high positive correlation between the measured and calculated values of CIW (Pearson’s r = 0.891, right, r = 0.908 left). BW was strongly positively correlated with CMA (r = 0.944), MCIWR (r = 0.996), and MCIWL (r = 0.989). The difference in the mean BW values was statistically significant between various facial and tooth forms, oval and square, square and tapering, and oval and tapering (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: The present study showed that when the width of the maxillary central incisor right and left and CMA were compared with BW, strong positive correlation was found in Indian population. There was a significant difference between males and females and various facial forms, the mean BW and widths of maxillary central incisor were greater in males. Therefore, the findings of this study support that single extraoral (BW) anatomical variable was strongly correlated for the selection of anterior teeth in denture construction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003463
Title: Determination of the correlation of width of maxillary anterior teeth using extraoral factor (intercanthal width) in Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Various studies on human face prove the existence of significant variations in parameters among different races, nations, populations, and individuals as well. However, the main drawback of these measurements is that the soft tissue measurements are subjective to change. This study was carried out as an attempt to better understand and analyze intercanthal width in our study population. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine and correlate the width of maxillary anterior teeth using extraoral factor (intercanthal width) in different facial and tooth forms among Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1200 (n = 1200) dentulous individuals participated in this study. All intraoral measurements (combined width of maxillary anterior teeth [CMA], maxillary central incisor width right side [MCIWR], maxillary central incisor width left side [MCIWL], and tooth form) were carried out on the artificial stone casts of maxillary arches using dental floss, flexible ruler, and digital Vernier caliper. Extraoral facial measurements, intercanthal distance (ICD), were recorded using digital Vernier caliper. Independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation, simple and multiple regression analysis, and one-way ANOVA have been used in this study to determine statistical significance. Results: The mean ICD was 29.56 ± 1.73 mm. In this study, it was found that there was high positive correlation between the measured and calculated values of central incisor width (Pearson’s r = 0.891, right, r = 0.908 left). Intercanthal width was positively correlated with CMA (r = 0.850), MCIWR (r = 0.891), and MCIWL (r = 0.901). The difference in the mean ICD values was statistically significant between various facial and tooth forms, oval and square, square and tapering, and oval and tapering (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: The combined width of the maxillary central incisors was found to be in golden proportion to the ICD. Hence, the findings of this study suggest that the single extraoral (ICD) anatomical variable was strongly correlated to justify its selection in choosing appropriately sized maxillary anterior teeth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003464
Title: Determination of the correlation of width of maxillary anterior teeth using extraoral factor (intercommissural width) in Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: One of the most confusing and difficult aspects of complete denture prosthodontics is the selection of appropriately sized artificial maxillary anterior teeth. This is a problem when fabricating new dentures and for old dentures with poor esthetics. Errors at the selection stage can often result in patient rejection of otherwise well-constructed comfortable and efficient dentures. This study was carried out as an attempt to better understand and analyze intercommissural width in Indian population. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine and correlate the width of maxillary anterior teeth using extraoral factor (Intercommissural width) in different facial and tooth forms among Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1200 dentulos individuals participated in this study. All intraoral measurements (combined width of maxillary anterior teeth [CMA], maxillary central incisor width right side [MCIWR], maxillary central incisor width left side [MCIWL], and tooth form) were carried out on the artificial stone casts of maxillary arches using dental floss, flexible ruler, and digital Vernier caliper. Extraoral facial measurements (intercommissural distance [ICSD]) were recorded using digital Vernier caliper. Independent t-test, Pearson’s Correlation, Simple and Multiple Regression Analysis, and one-way ANOVA have been used in this study to determine statistical significance. Results: The mean ICSD was 48.74 ± 1.65 mm. ICSD was positively correlated with CMA (r = 0.776), MCIWR (r = 0.779), and MCIWL (r = 0.781). The difference in the mean ICSD values was statistically significant between various facial and tooth forms oval and square, square and tapering, and oval and tapering (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: The mean MCIWR, MCIWL, CMA, and ICSD were significantly higher for males than females, and a significant difference was found among various facial and tooth forms. There was a positive correlation between ICSD and MCIWR, MCIWL, and CMA among Indian population. As correlations were not that strong when compared to other facial parameters, ICSD cannot be used as a single extraoral anatomical variable for tooth selection.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003465
Title: Awareness among oral pathologists about setting up oral pathology laboratory in India – A KAP Survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral and maxillofacial pathology is a branch of dentistry that deals with the clinical, radiographic, and microscopic diagnosis of the diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. Setting up an oral pathology laboratory is a difficult task. Right from gathering Funds, Sample collection to staffing and accreditation, all the necessary steps must be undertaken to set up an oral pathology laboratory. Hence, in comparison to general pathology laboratories, the number of oral pathology laboratories in India is minimal. In this study, we aim to assess the knowledge, attitude, and perception among oral pathologists about setting up an oral pathology laboratory in India. Materials and Methods: A validated questionnaire containing ten questions was created using Google Forms. The link to this questionnaire survey was circulated to oral and maxillofacial pathologists all over the country by E-mail. 106 responses were received, which were tabulated. The frequencies and percentages were calculated. Based on these calculations, the results were represented using two-dimensional bar chart and pie chart. Results: Nearly 99% of the participants agreed that there are very few oral pathology laboratories in India. 50.94% of participants attributed it to the lack of dentist’s knowledge about the importance of histopathological evaluation of tissues. Conclusion: The decreased number of oral pathology laboratories is attributed to lack of dentist’s awareness. Educating the dentist along with proper promotional measures and recruitment of adequate and qualified staff can help in setting up the oral pathology laboratory in India.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003466
Title: In vitro evaluation of antibacterial property of rosemary oleoresin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial property of rosemary oleoresin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Background: Emergence of drug resistance to microbes is a serious problem. Plant extracts are considered to be a better treatment of choice compared to synthetic drugs in this regard. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causative organisms in nosocomial infections. Short- or long-term S. aureus colonization becomes an issue when the individual’s immune system is compromised. MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen. This organism tends to cause serious infection in patients with burns leading to mortality even. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the antibacterial activity, different concentrations of rosemary oleoresin were tested against MRSA by agar well diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was measured. Results: In the present study, rosemary oleoresin showed dose-dependent zone of inhibition against the tested microorganism. 25 μL showed a zone of inhibition of 18 mm, whereas 50 μL and 100 μL showed 20 mm and 28 mm, respectively. Chlorhexidine was the control and showed a zone of inhibition of 27 mm. Conclusion: It can be concluded that rosemary oleoresin has higher potential to inhibit MRSA and can be used to manage conditions caused by MRSA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003469
Title: In silico and in vivo approach to identify the antidiabetic activity of lupeol
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Many recent reports showed that there are 425 million people in the world suffering from diabetes and also, it has the chance to increase 629 million or more in 2045. Synthetic drugs used in the management of diabetes had many deleterious side effects. In this context, herbal drugs are attaining the attractiveness for the treatment of DM by reason of their efficacy, low occurrence of side effects, low cost, and easy availability. Lupeol (triterpenes) is one of the natural herbal drugs abundant in edible vegetables, fruits, and also in medicinal plants. It effectively reduced the hyperinsulinemia, blood glucose level in high cholesterol/high-fat diet, and sucrose-induced mice. However, the molecular mechanism by which it exhibits antidiabetic property is not known. Materials and Methods: Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain 150–180 days old with 180–120 g of body weight were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each. Group 1: Normal rats, Group 2: Type 2 diabetic rats, Group 3: Type 2 diabetic rats treated with lupeol 25 mg/kg for orally for 30 days, and Group 4: Type 2 diabetic rats treated with metformin 50 mg/kg orally for 30 days. Results: The effect of lupeol on insulin resistance protein expression in gracilis muscle of Type 2 diabetic rats showed a significant increase in P value (P < 0.05). The effects of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4) protein in gracilis muscle of Type 2 diabetic rats showed P < 0.05. Conclusion: Lupeol has antidiabetic activity through the regulation of insulin receptor and GLUT 4 protein expression in gracilis muscle, and hence, lupeol may be one of the potential therapeutic options for the management of Type 2 diabetics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003470
Title: Evaluation of the relation between anemia and periodontitis by estimation of blood parameters: A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the relation between anemia and periodontitis by estimation of blood parameters. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether periodontitis like other inflammatory conditions can be a causative factor for anemia. Background: Anemia of chronic disease is defined as anemia occurring in chronic infections, inflammatory conditions, or neoplastic disorders which are not due to marrow deficiencies or other diseases, and occurring despite the presence of adequate iron stores and vitamins. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the tooth caused by specific microorganisms in a susceptible host. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 healthy controls, 10 generalized chronic gingivitis, and 10 generalized chronic periodontitis patients, were selected. Hemoglobin (Hb) levels, erythrocyte count red blood cell, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and MCH concentration, gingival index, plaque index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance method. Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient method is used for correlation between different parameters for three groups. Results: This research is done to find the relationship between the periodontitis and anemia with the help of blood parameters. Based on the study results, no significant differences were found in the parameters among the subjects in the healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis groups. However, further studies with a large sample size are required.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003471
Title: Evaluation of anticancer potential of kaempferol on oral cancer cell line
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the anticancer potential of kaempferol on oral cancer. This study is done to find whether kaempferol has the ability to reduce the risk of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Oral human epidermal cells were produced and maintained in the Division of News and Electronic Media medium. Kaempferol extract was prepared and its anticancer potential was evaluated by MTT assay. Results: As observed from the study, we can conclude that kaempferol has anticancer property. Conclusion: Kaempferol exhibits anticancer property, by inhibiting cell growth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003472
Title: Comparative effect of rosemary and peppermint oil on muscle spasm
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Spasms of skeletal muscles are the most common and often due to overuse and muscle fatigue, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities. The spasm occurs abruptly and is short lived. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which rosemary oil shows effects on muscle spasm than the familiar peppermint oil. Materials and Methods: A study was conducting among 30 people having a muscle spasm. Out of which there were two groups made, i.e., Group 1 and Group 2. Two different oils that include peppermint oil and rosemary oil were applied on the area affected by muscle spasm. Group 1 people were applied rosemary oil and Group 2 people were applied peppermint oil. The result which is obtained will be discussed. Results: When compared to peppermint oil, rosemary oil has very good effective role on muscle spasm. Out of 15 participants, nine of them felt effective after using rosemary oil. Only five of them felt effective after using peppermint oil. Conclusion: Hence, we can conclude that both the oils show invariably great effect in curing muscle spasm. Hence, time duration becomes a factor in distinguishing between the best oil. Rosemary oil cures pain within 15 min where peppermint oil takes a longer time, i.e., 30 min to cure the pain. Hence, we can regard rosemary oil as the best oil in curing muscle spam.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003473
Title: Awareness of smoking and oral cancer among economically backward society – A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim is to study the awareness of smoking and oral cancer among economically backward society. Introduction: Tobacco inhalation is inhalation of smoke from the burned leaves of tobacoo plant, most often in the forms of cigarette. Smokeless tobacco refers to chewing of tobacco. People may smoke casually for pleasure. There is overwhelming evidence that tobacco usage produces harmful effects in the mouth. Smokers are 6 times more likely than non-smokers to develop oral cancer. Materials and Methods: In this survey, there were 100 participants, in which all of them were truck drivers. It is a questionnaire-based survey, in which 15 questions were asked related to smoking habits and oral cancer. Results: According to this survey, 60% of the smokers use more than 4 cigarettes per day and 50.9% of them use hookah other than cigarette. Seeing the duration, about 72.8% of them are having this habit for more than a year. About 76.8% of them are using tobacco products by seeing their parents. In this survey, 64% of the smokers prefer to smoke in public. About 34.3% of them are not aware that smoking leads to oral cancer and 79% of them are not having any knowledge about the risk factors of oral cancer. Conclusion: In this survey, about 41.6% of the participants wanted to quit smoking, but they could not quit due to various consequences. Hence, it is our responsibility to create awareness about smoking and its adverse effects. Approximately 90% of the mouth cancer patients are smokers. Smoking kills most of the lives of people. “Choice is yours but don’t be late.”

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003474
Title: Role of Curcumin in Periodontal disease - A Review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Plants are the only source of medicine and because of its properties, many places uses herbal products than synthetic drugs. Synthetic drugs are sometimes harmful and can cause side-effects in certain individuals. The objective of this article is to review the efficacy of using curcumin in the treatment of periodontal diseases and to highlight its pharmacological actions in dentistry. Turmeric is an ancient dye and is a flavouring and medicinal herb which is widely used in Asian countries. It is mostly known by its name because the herb is widely used in Indian medicine, cookery and in cosmetics. Curcumin is the main component of turmeric.Curcuma Longa has a number of medicinal properties and has been attributed as a traditional medicine .It has proven to have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant properties and has a major role in periodontal diseases and oral cancers unlike other plant medicines. The misuse and frequent use of differently available therapeutic agents leads to the evolution of of increased prevalence of side effects and develops resistant strains. They are commercially available and is affordable and is easily used. These plant products are used in dentistry to promote oral hygiene and to improve dental health. Our daily intake of consists of foods containing sugar diet ,bakery and carbonated drinks that increases the prevalence of dental caries .Lack of maintaining proper oral hygiene can accumulate plaque and calculus which is the main aetiology for developing gingivitis and periodontitis. Since the oral cavity is said to be the mirror of illness in other areas of the body and systemic diseases are being manifested in in the soft tissue of the oral mucosa of the mouth. Hence overall health can be affected when oral health is compromised.Therefore, traditional plants can treat bacterial infections and are considered as a very good alternative to synthetic chemicals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003475
Title: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin – A novel biomarker for mercury-induced nephrotoxicity
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The metal which has a relatively high density and toxic at low quantity is referred as heavy metals. The common heavy metals are arsenic, lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and thallium. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the mercuric chloride toxicity in the kidneys of Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats with an average weight of 180 ± 20 g and age of 120–140 days were assimilated for a week. Mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg b.w) and normal physiological saline (2 ml/kg/b.w) were administrated through intraperitoneal and oral route, respectively, for 5 days. Collection of blood and tissue was done to investigate serum biomarkers and histopathology for nephrotoxicity. Results: A significant change was observed in the levels of serum urea, creatinine, and neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin (NGAL) and atypical changes such as tubular necrosis and atrophy of renal tissues. NGAL is a reliable novel biomarker for identifying the mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003476
Title: Pharmacological evaluation of octapeptide related to human histatin-8 in Alzheimer’s disease
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Asian Institute of Medicine, Science and Technology University, 08100 Bedong, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.
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Objective: The objective of the study was to carry out the acute toxicity studies and brain estimation of short peptide related to human histatin-8 in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Materials and Methods: The behavioral, neurological, and autonomic profiles were determined by a rotation rod test and activity cage test. The histopathology of the brain structure of the rats was observed to determine the acute toxicity of the drug. The pharmacological evaluation was carried out by feeding aluminum chloride to the rat. The behavioral analysis was determined using the digital rotarod and activity cage to test the locomotor of the rats. The biochemical analysis was determined and identified by carried out the brain dissection and blood collection method. Results: There was no toxic effect shown in 2000 mg/kg of the peptide through the intraperitoneal route. The behavioral analysis data showed that some improvement in locomotor testing after injecting with the donepezil and human histatin-8. Biochemical analysis data showed that the donepezil could lead to renal and liver function impaired while human histatin-8 would not lead to renal failure due to the normal level of creatinine. For the pharmacological evaluation, the rat with the feeding of aluminum chloride showed poor locomotor movement in digital rotarod and cage activity. Conclusion: The dose of the drug should be maintained the same for the subsequent experiment as all the rats are still alive. Human histatin-8 are proven to be as the anti-AD which is significance in curing the AD. The preparation showed optimal pharmacokinetic characteristics in a rat model. During the injection of the human histatin-8, the rat model does not show the aggressive, depressant, and any serious adverse effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003479
Title: Awareness of factors related to acute appendicitis - A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the awareness and reliable factors such as pain, symptoms, and genetic factors related to acute appendicitis. Materials and Methods: In this study, a questionnaire was prepared and circulated among the subjects to determine the reliable factors related to appendicitis and familial inheritance of acute appendicitis. The study sample consists of 50 subjects. Results: According to this survey, 88% of individuals were aware of acute appendicitis. 56% of them stated that the pain first occurs in the lower right abdomen and the pain is not continuous. The most common cause of appendicitis believed by subjects in this survey was consuming more outside food. The most commonly affected one were children and adolescents. Almost 92% of individuals prefer surgery for appendicitis in an emergency situation and are not aware of any medical management. Conclusion: In the current scenario, understanding the symptoms and establishing a diagnosis of appendicitis is of outmost importance. The current survey also highlights the other factors such as pain, symptoms, and familial inheritance of acute appendicitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003480
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and perception of parents toward their children’s education and extra curriculum
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Humans are the most complex organisms on Earth. Every one of us is unique. We may have different views and opinions on different aspects of life. It may range from complete positivity to complete negativity. The aim of this study focuses on the preferences of the parents, impacts of taking extracurricular classes on the children and to provide a statistical report on the mindset of the parents. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire is used to record the responses of the participants. Survey planet is used for the questionnaire preparation. The sample for the study comprised 50 parents residing in the locality of Chennai. Results: In the present study, most of the parents, i.e., 90% of the parents preferred both education and extracurriculum. 10% of the parents preferred only education whereas no parents preferred only extracurriculum. This shows that mst of the parents of this generation are giving equal importance to education and extracurriculum. Conclusions: A good positive attitude of oarents toward their children is very important in making them the good citizens of the future world. From our study, it is evident that parents show a positive attitude toward their children’s education as well as the children’s extracurriculum. They give equal importance to both education and extracurriculum.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003481
Title: Determination of correlation of width of maxillary anterior teeth using extraoral factor (interalar width) in Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Knowledge of the ideal size of the maxillary central incisors is important in creating an attractive smile. It is a fact that in everyday practices, various methods and indicators are used for the determination of size and shape of artificial anterior teeth for edentulous patients. Making the right choice is extremely important for both functional and psychological rehabilitation of these patients. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine and correlate the width of maxillary anterior teeth using extraoral factor (interalar width) in different facial and tooth forms among Indian population. Materials and Methods: One thousand and two hundred (n = 1200) dentulous individuals participated in this study. All intraoral measurements (combined width of maxillary anterior teeth [CMA], maxillary central incisor width right side [MCIWR], and maxillary central incisor width left side [MCIWL], tooth form) were carried out on the artificial stone casts of maxillary arches using dental floss, flexible ruler, and digital Vernier caliper. Extraoral facial measurements (interalar distance [IAD]) were recorded using digital Vernier caliper. Independent t test, Pearson’s correlation, simple and multiple regression analysis, and one-way ANOVA have been used in this study to determine statistical significance. Results: The mean IAD was 34.37 ± 1.79 mm. Interalar width was strongly positively correlated with CMA (r = 0.940), MCIWR (r = 0.891), and MCIWL (r = 0.885). The difference in the mean IAD values was statistically significant between various facial and tooth forms oval and square, square and tapering, and oval and tapering (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: The measurements of interalar width showed a strong relationship with combined mesiodistal width of six anterior teeth for males and females and for different facial and tooth forms. This study showed that interalar width can be used accurately for the selection of artificial teeth in edentulous patients in the Indian population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003482
Title: The attitude of parents toward behavior management techniques in pediatric dentistry
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paedodontics ,Saveetha Dental college, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to understand the attitude of parents toward behavior management techniques in pediatric dentistry. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between November 2017 and January 2018 at Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, and India. This standby includes 100 parents who accompanied their children to the Department of Paediatric Dentistry in Saveetha Dental College. Criteria for participation were: Parenthood, literacy, willingness to participate, ability to view videotape, and age of 18 years. The parents were explained about the eight behavior management technique, and they were made to watch two videotape with explained about the eight behavior management techniques and treatment done under general anesthesia. Later, the parents were given a questionnaire which asked their suggestions about the techniques. The results were statistically analyzed. Background: Children are expected to be relaxed and relatively cooperative in dental treatment, to deliver the best treatment. Few children demonstrate behaviors that disrupt the practitioner and make the safe delivery of treatment very difficult. To handle such scenarios behavior management techniques are utilized by the dentist. Ideally, behavior management techniques can be used which enable treatment to be completed and guide the child to develop more appropriate behavior. An important aspect of behavior management is to gain an understanding of parental perceptions regarding the technique to be use and determine factors that may affect their attitudes toward the technique. A clear and effective communication with parents is crucial and presents an opportunity to carefully work together and select the best treatment methods to make the child’s visit as safe, effective, and comfortable as possible. Results: Out of 100 parents, 49 preferred tell show do, 21 preferred desensitisation, 5 preferred positive reinforcement, protective stabilisation was preferred by 2, hand-over-mouth-exercise was preferred by only 1 parent, voice control was preferred by 5, distraction was preferred by 7, modelling was preferred by 6, sedation was preferred by 2. Conclusion: Behavior management is broadly agreed to be a key factor supplying dental care for children. Certainly, if a child’s behavior in the dental surgery/office cannot be managed, then it is not easy if not unworkable to hold out any dental care that is needed. It is essential that any approach to behavioral management for the dental child patient has to be rooted in compassion and a worry for the well-being of each child. A wide diversity of behavioral management techniques are existing to pediatric dentists who must be used as suitable for the profit of each child patient, and which, significantly, must take into account all cultural, legal and philosophical requirements in the country of dental practice of each dentist concern with dental care of children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003483
Title: Oral health-related quality of life assessment in patients wearing conventional and self-ligating brackets
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to compare oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients treated with conventional and self-ligating brackets in different therapeutic phases. Background: Pain and discomfort are recognized side effects of orthodontic treatment. Pain starts about 4 h after insertion of the appliance, peaks between 12 h and 3 days after insertion and then decreases for up to 7 days. Almost all patients (95%) report and suffer pain or discomfort 24 h after insertion of fixed appliances, and fixed appliances may produce higher pain responses than removable appliances. Pain scores tend to be higher in anterior than in posterior teeth. Studies have indicated that self-ligating brackets resulted in lower pain intensity. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire, previously found to be valid and reliable, was used for evaluation at the following time points: T1 - Immediately after bonding, T2 - 24 h after bonding, and T3 - Immediately after the first review. The sample size is 15 patients per group. OHRQoL was measured with a self-administered modified 16-item Malaysian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile for impact assessments of the bonding and activation phases. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal–Wallis and Chi-square tests. Objectives: The objective of the study was to conduct a study to compare QoL between self-ligating and conventional brackets using a questionnaire. Results: No significant differences in the prevalence and severity of immediate and late impacts on the OHRQoL of the patients were noted in any therapeutic phase. The commonly affected domains were “physical disability,” “functional limitation,” “physical pain,” and “psychological discomfort.”

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003484
Title: Cybersickness - A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Cybersickness has been studied vastly for many years and it has roots in simulators and motion sickness studies. The activity of central and autonomic nervous system has been changed due to cybersickness.Cybersickness can cause serious side effects on prolonged usage of gadgets. Materials and Methods: It is a survey based study, where a preformed questionnaire was ingested to the participant by an online link. Results: Survey results show that cybersickness is very common among the teenagers as they are addicted more to gadgets, especially, in games and social media.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003485
Title: Comparison between the effect of plain water, herbal mouthwash, and chlorhexidine mouthwash on salivary pH
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of this study is to establish the difference in the salivary pH after rinsing with plain water, chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash, and herbal mouthwash and to compare the same. Materials and Methods: The sample size of the study is 30. Each participant will be subjected to either plain water or CHX mouthwash or herbal mouthwash rinsing. The salivary pH was measured using uncontaminated pH strips placed in the floor of the mouth for 30 s. The salivary pH was measured before rinsing and after rinsing. The results were compared and analyzed to determine the difference in the salivary pH between the use of plain water, CHX mouthwash, and herbal mouthwash. Results: P value for the analysis of variance test is as follows: After 5 min, 0.048 <0.05 and after 1 h is 0.042 <0.05. The paired t-test was done between every two of the three groups: Between CHX and plain water –0.04 <0.05; between herbal mouthwash and plain water –0.048 <0.05; between CHX and herbal mouthwash –0.045 <0.05. Conclusion: CHX mouthwash proves to have a positive effect on the salivary pH, which is also prolonged in nature. This once again proves the substantivity of CHX mouthwash.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003486
Title: Effect of coconut waste on bird excreta in organic manure formulation
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Biofertilizer can be obtained from agricultural waste, animal excreta, and plant decomposed sector. The poultry waste (bird excreta) had high C:N ratio when compared with other animal excreta. The composting of poultry waste in soil showed good manuring property. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of manure mixed with soil yield better growth of plants. Results: Bird excreta manure helped for translocation of nutrients from manures to the root of plant . Discussion: Composting with poultry excreta also enhance the N, P, and K levels in the poultry coconut husk manure as compared to that in non-composted material. Conclusion: Composting with poultry excreta also enhanced the N, P and K levels in the poultry coconut husk manure as compared to that in non composted material.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00003487
Title: Morphological analysis of Arachis hypogea and evaluation of organic growth promoters
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Vermicompost is the type of compositing that was studied on the growth parameters of groundnut plant (Arachis hypogaea L.). Vermicompost chemical composition contains, especially, nitrates, exchangeable phosphorous, soluble potassium, calcium, and magnesium than that of growth media. Results: The study was mainly aimed on the plant growth on the seedlings that were grown in different composition of the vermicompost such as 10%–100%. The effect of vermicompost of root and shoot length, germination percentage and vigor index, and the leaf area index were studied. Conclusion: The study indicated very positive results of vermicompost on the parameters studied.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003488
Title: The beneficial role of vermicompost on groundnut germination
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Vermicompost chemical composition contains especially nitrates, exchangeable phosphorous, soluble potassium, calcium, and magnesium than that of growth media. The study was mainly aimed on the plant growth and biochemical composition on the seedlings that were grown in different composition of the vermicompost such as 10%–100%. Results: It was observed that there was a positive effect of the increase in the concentration of vermicompost on the parameters studied. Conclusion: It is concluded that vermicompost is an effective organic fertilizer and should be brought into regular practice by farmers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003489
Title: Degradable waste – A source for microbial consortium
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Due to increasing population, dumping of domestic waste is becoming a huge issue for the environment as well as to human health. Due to the past and the present scenario of environmental and the health issues, the isolation, and study of the presence of the microorganisms in the Chennai Corporation Dump (Perungudi), Chennai was done. Materials and Methods: As far as the sources, the dumping of this waste has been leading to various diseases (such as waterborne and airborne) and hazards to the people’s health residing in the nearby areas of Perungudi dumping zone, thereby testing these microbes (bacteria) against different parameters to justify the role of dumps with the health and environment was an important task. Results: Therefore, soil and semisolid waste samples were collected from the Chennai Corporation Dump (Perungudi) and tested for the presence of microorganisms. Conclusion: The microorganisms isolated were considered to be pathogenic for human health and environment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003490
Title: Antibacterial activity of rosemary oleoresin against Enterococcus faecalis – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Essential oils have been long recognized for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties. They are widely used in medicine and in the food industry for these purposes. Oleoresins are combination of resin with essential oil. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the infectious organism leading to morbidity and mortality. Recently, Enterococcus has become the third most common nosocomial pathogens. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of rosemary oleoresin against E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of rosemary oleoresin were evaluated for its antibacterial activity against. E. faecalis using agar well diffusion method. Results: Rosemary oleoresin was effective against E. faecalis with good zone of inhibition in all tested concentrations. In fact, it showed a dose-dependent zone of inhibition with a maximum of 26 mm at the maximum concentration tested (100 µL). Conclusion: The study reveals that rosemary oleoresin has very good antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. Hence, it may be utilized for the management of infections with E. faecalis, especially in root canal failures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003491
Title: Microbial flora obtained from quarry sand
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: This work has been undertaken for the screening of antagonist bacteria from quarry sand collected from dust yards of quarry industries of various regions of Nallambakkam, Chennai. Materials and Methods: The sample is used to screen for antagonist bacteria using MacConkey agar. Results: Predators, parasitoids, and pathogens are the natural enemies of insect pests. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified from quarry sand, which helps to kill and control the pesticides. Conclusion:  Control of Pesticides can be projected with the help of these microbes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003492
Title: Ecological effects on aquatic ecosystem
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Living systems encounter a variety of stresses during their continuous interaction with environment. Fish are particularly threatened by water pollution. In the present study the effect of nuclear pollution on fishes was investigated. Materials and Methods: Two ponds namely, one in Madras Christian College, Tambaram, and the other one in Kalpakkam were selected. Results and Discussion: The water samples collected from various points in the Kalpakkam pond were analyzed for twelve parameters like pH, hardness, iron content, chlorine content etc.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003493
Title: Extraction of plant pigments
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Pigments obtained from herbal sources have used as an essential alternative to chemical pigments. Here, badam fruit peel and two several species of chrysanthemum were used and pigments were isolated. Materials and Methods: The qualitative study of pigments was carried out using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) technique. The TLC chromatograms were evaluated by retention factor (Rf ). Results: The retention factor value for individual metabolites is the ratio of length it traveled and the length solvent it traveled. Conclusion: The different retention factor values indicate different secondary metabolites.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003494
Title: Phytochemical analysis of Wedelia sp.
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of IBT, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Wedelia trilobata was assessed for its antimicrobial, anticancerous, and toxicity effect. A phenolic compound is any compound containing a benzene ring with one or more hydroxyl group. Materials and Methods: Phytoconstituents are analyzed qualitatively using biochemical reactions. Results: It showed the presence of several secondary metabolites in Wedelia. Conclusion: Plants have used as a valuable source of natural products for natural therapies. Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. W. trilobata was used as a traditional medicinal plant for the management of a variety of illness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00003495
Title: Study of alkaloid (nicotine), in various smoking articles by thin layer chromatography
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The present study deals with the finding of the nicotine content in various smoking articles available in the market by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method. Methods: Various solvent systems were used to find the spots of alkaloid, nicotine, by TLC by standard procedures. Results: It was observed that in all the samples studied, the nicotine content was almost same as visualized by the resolution front values of each spot. Conclusion: It was concluded that although there are a number of smoking article available in the market, the nicotine content seems to be the same.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00003496
Title: Production and purification of β-galactosidase from Aspergillus foetidus MTCC 6322 using solid-state fermentation
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: β-galactosidase (E. C.3.1.2.23) otherwise known as lactase plays a vital role in food processing and pharmaceutical industries. The present study deals with the production of one enzyme β-galactosidase which could be useful for industrial implementation. This enzyme was produced from Aspergillus foetidus MTCC 6322 using solid-state fermentation. Materials and Methods: One strain of A. foetidus was isolated from tannery sludge and maintained at 4°C in Czapek-Dox agar slants. 100 µL of the spore suspension containing 6.0 × 107 CFU/ml was used as the seed inoculums. Fermentation was carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks. 10 g of substrate in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks was moistened with 15.0 mL of distilled water and sterilized. After cooling, 1000 µL of A. foetidus spore suspension was added to the substrate and mixed thoroughly. They were incubated at 30°C for 96 h. Production of β-galactosidase was standardized by one-factor-at-a-time method. Results: The maximum amount of enzyme activity of 83.40/mg was observed when gingelly oil cake (7.5 g) and groundnut oil cake (2.5 g) containing 60% moisture and 1.5 ml of inoculums suspension were used at temperature 30°C and pH 4.0, respectively, after 96 h of incubation. Conclusions: Thus, it is clear that this process of obtaining the enzyme is feasible and it is suggested that this process can be implemented by the industry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00003497
Title: β-Galactosidase optimization using response surface methodology
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: β-galactosidase (β-D-galactoside galactohydrolase; E. C. 3.2.1.23), or lactase, catalyzes the breakdown of lactose into glucose and galactose. They are naturally available and are produced by many microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and yeast. The present study is to explore the possibility of production of this enzyme by Lactobacilli fermentum. Materials and Methods: A loop of inoculum was used for inoculating the culture medium and was incubated at pH 4 and temperature 30°C at 125 rpm. The enzyme activity was checked for at 540 nm in DNS assay, and then, the optimized enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The concentrated enzyme was dialyzed and purified and the molecular weight of the enzyme was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Response surface methodology showed good significance in the optimization of culture medium parameters. Results: In the present study, it was found that the extracellular β-galactosidase production by the L. fermentum in a submerged skim milk broth was maximum 7.99 U/mL/min enzyme units under optimized the culture medium of its carbon and nitrogen source. Conclusion: This method could be exploited for commercial production of beta-galactosidase enzyme.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00003498
Title: Isolation and identification of enzyme from seaweed
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Protease is one of the important industrial enzymes which was produced from various sources. Materials and Methods: In this study, protease was isolated from marine algae such as Gracilaria corticata, Cladophora vagabunda, Chaetomorpha antennina, and Ulva spp. Protein concentration and special activities were measured and compared for these species. Results: Among these, G. corticata, C. Vagabunda, and C. antennina showed maximum specific activity (7.53, 6.77, and 6.75 units/mg of protein) of protease, respectively. Conclusion: This work reveals that the seaweeds are the vital source for enzyme.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00003499
Title: In silico analysis and immunodiagnosis of different amino acids using homology modeling
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Bioinformatics, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Amino acids are very small biomolecules with various properties. Predicting the physiochemical properties of protein and interpreting its function are of great importance in the field of medicine and life science. Materials and Methods: Python is a high-level language. Python is product-oriented programming language. ASAP calculates various physiochemical properties that are needed for in vitro experiments. ASAP uses normalization values that increase the sensitivity of the tool. Results and Discussion: Protein is the building blocks of the body. As pI was one of the major factor affecting the protein interactions, a clear view for a particular protein should be known. Aliphatic index is calculated by ASAP. Conclusion: It is an efficient tool for genomics and proteomics and has its applications in system biology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003500
Title: Antibacterial and antifungal effects of plant extracts against the strains of pathogenic organisms
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Current project was targeted the extraction and assay of antimicrobial drug resistance from the peels of lemon (Citrus limonum) and orange (Citrus reticulata). Strips were dried and against microbial metabolites were extricated. Materials and Methods: Extraction was finished by solvents such as ethanol, phenol, and (CH3)2CO. Test life forms were developed on reasonable culture media by “Spread plate strategy.” Concentrates were exposed to microbial defenselessness measure by “Agar well dispersion technique.” The MIC is identified and also by sequential weakening strategy. Results and Discussion: Every one of the concentrates of lemon and orange was observed to be viable against the utilized bacterial and contagious pathogens. Phenol, lemon, and orange extracts shown maximum zone of inhibition of nearly 15 mm in Salmonella sp. Conclusion: Isopropyl alcohol extract of lemon shown less inhibition zone in fungus Penicillium gladioli.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003501
Title: Structure prediction and retrieval of lung cancer-producing pathogenic microbes and its docking score analysis
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Bioinformatics, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In the present study, it was identified that the chemokine receptors toward lung cancer have been synthesized with multiple steps. In vivo methods can be used and it is a multistep process which is used to identify biological molecules. Pharmacokinetic properties have been developed where the metabolism, production, and pathogenicity were identified. Materials and Methods: PubMed database is used for finding out the similar compounds for docking. Results and Discussion: The present study compares low binding main pathogenic diseases such as lung cancer. It performs an experimental study to identify the similarities between normal lung cancer and contagious lung cancer. Conclusion: It has been proved by clinical studies to identify a difference between them and the inflammatory prostate cancer has been identified.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003502
Title: Analysis on the mutagenicity of insecticide quinalphos and dimethoate
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Mutagenesis is proved to analysis the organism changes and its effect on characteristics and products. The Ames test can identify mutagens that work specifically to modify DNA. In people, in any case, numerous synthetic concoctions are promutagens, specialists that must be actuated to end up evident mutagens. Initiation, including a synthetic alteration, frequently happens in the liver as a result of ordinary liver movement on bizarre substances. Materials and Methods: In this research, Ames test is for determining chemical nature having properties to cause mutation. The organism is highly sensitive to histidine and many chemicals which can explore different pesticides. Results and Discussion: It is a simple, reasonable, and helpful starting screen for mutagens. The main chemicals used in the pesticides are quinalphos and dimethoate, respectively. Conclusion: From research work, I concluded that these two are strong mutagens. They have high carcinogenic activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003503
Title: Antimicrobial efficacy of fresh and dried banana peel extracts: An in vitro study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Dr. N.G.P Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Banana is one of the valuable sources for maintaining human health. The use of fresh banana peel extracts for antimicrobial properties can be of great significance in therapeutic treatments. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of both fresh and dried various banana peel extracts. Materials and Methods: Alcoholic extract of banana peel extracts was subjected to antibacterial efficacy against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by the well agar diffusion method. Results: The alcoholic extract of fresh and dried banana peel showed a various inhibitory effect against various microbial isolates. Highest inhibitory effects were observed on Nendran and Poovan against Staphylococcus aureus (13.55 ± 0.04), Bacillus subtilis (13.26 ± 0.02), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.5 ± 0.00). Conclusion: Alcoholic peel extracts of fresh and dried banana could be considered as a good antibacterial agent against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003504
Title: Effects of total body workout in women with mild-to-moderate clinical depression
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. MGR Educational and Research Institute (Deemed to Be University), Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 77, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the protective effects of exercise, against feelings of depression and to determine whether the severity of depression changes on the short-term exercise plan. Background: “Depression is not a sign of weakness; it is a sign of having tried to remain strong by doing exercise.” There are many individuals who suffer a general malaise of low mental well-being characterized by emotional distress, low self-esteem, poor body image, hopelessness, stress, and anxiety. They are also thought to be a major cause of obesity, diabetes, and cancers. “No health is without a mental health.” Depression will be the second cause of Global Disease Burden by the year 2020, the WHO states that the burden of depression is 50% higher for females than males. Indians are reported to be among the worlds most depressed. Methodology: A group of 30 adult women with the age group of 25–35 years and with the score of 11–20 points in the Beck’s inventory questionnaire for depression were included in the study and were grouped into Group A: Working women and Group B: Non-working women, whereas women with recent trauma, undergone recent surgery, systemic diseases, and peripheral neurological problems were excluded. Along with the questionnaire, whole body measurement was done. After the evaluation, they were given whole body workouts for 3 weeks, daily in the evening for about 45 min. Results: The result will be revealed at the end of the study. Conclusion: Beck’s inventory questionnaire scale shows a significant increase, which was taken in pre-test treatment and post-test treatment. The whole body workout in women with mild-to-moderate clinical depression shows improved mental status and decreased body measurement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003505
Title: General awareness about seborrheic dermatitis/dandruff among dental students – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder abundantly found in areas rich in sebaceous glands that are scalp, face, ears, and presternal region. The affected individuals are 1–3% of the immunocompetent adult population with higher prevalence in men than in women. Dandruff is a common problem faced by recent generation adults; this study is to determine the awareness of this disorder among dental students. Aim and Objective: This study aims to determine the awareness and factors such as fungus, hormone, and immune system causing dandruff problem among dental student. Materials and Methods: In this study, a questionnaire was prepared and circulated among the subjects to determine the reliable factors and general view of dandruff among dental college student. The study sample consists of totally100 subjects. Results: According to our survey, 60% of students are aware of dandruff, 10–20% of students are partially aware of this dermatitis problem, 30–10% of students have no ideas about it. Many students have reported that fungus is the common cause of dandruff which leads to hair fall problem. Conclusion: The study concludes that most of the subjects have associated that fungus is the predominant cause of dandruff and also highlights that fungus Malassezia is the most common species. The survey also concludes that stress and hormonal changes do cause an increase in the incidence of dandruff and 75% of the students are suffering from the same. Hence, further studies have to be conducted to introduce a comprehensive mode of treatment planning to control of dandruff among the population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003506
Title: Knowledge and awareness toward bruxism during sleep
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Bruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching. It is an oral parafunctional activity, i.e., it is unrelated to normal function such as eating or talking. Bruxism is such a common behavior, reports of prevalence range from 8% to 31% in the general population. Several symptoms are commonly associated with bruxism, including hypersensitive teeth, aching of jaw muscles, headaches, tightness, and damage to dental restorations (e.g., crowns and fillings) to teeth. However, symptoms may be minimal, without patient awareness of the conditions. The main aim of this study is to estimate the knowledge and awareness toward bruxism during sleep. Materials and Methods: A set of questionnaires was prepared and the survey was conducted among 80 dental patients. Data were collected and analyzed with statistics. Results: About 29% of them responded that they have a problem of grinding teeth during their sleep. Few of them had symptoms like soreness of the mouth. To reduce stress or anxiety patients undergo certain psychiatric medications which may also result in bruxism and about 45% of them were not exposed to stressful life. It was observed that about 80% of the patients are unaware of the side effects of bruxism. Conclusion: Bruxism is oromotor habit with a high prevalence in the general population. The signs and symptoms of bruxism are detectable, but unfortunately, the hypothesized etiologies and mechanisms of their actions have not been sustained satisfactorily.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003507
Title: A comparative analysis of problems occurring in patients with crowns and implants
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A crown is a cover or “cap” that your dentist can put over a tooth. The crown restores the tooth to its normal shape, size, and function. A crown can make the tooth stronger or improve the way it looks. An implant looks and acts like a natural tooth. It fits securely even when you chew and speak. A single tooth implant does not involve treatment to your other teeth. Moreover, it may also help you keep a good level of bone around your teeth. The aim is to estimate the comparative analysis of problems occurring in patients with crowns and implants. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was prepared using SurveyPlanet and was circulated among the patients having restored crowns and implants. Results: Around 50% of the patients were wearing the implants and crowns for about 6–9 months. Most of the patients with dental crowns had periodontal complications such as discomfort in the jaw. Moreover, the patients with implants had sensitivity issues. Conclusion: Most of the complications occurred on patients were due to the poor oral hygiene, both in cases of dental crowns and implants. Oral hygiene is the main reason causing complications in patients with restored crowns and dental implants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003508
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of eating habits among the teenagers to be young
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Good dieting adds to a general feeling of prosperity and is a foundation in the counteractive action of various conditions, including coronary illness, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, malignant growth, dental caries, and asthma. For youngsters and youngsters, good dieting is especially vital for solid development and subjective improvement. Hence, the main of this study is to create awareness among teenagers about the eating habits and to maintain their aging process. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 150 teenagers in the month of November–December who are volunteers under obese, normal weight, and overweight. The research tool was consisted of an original survey questionnaire. This survey questionnaire contained eating habits and dietary importance. The participants gave their informed consent for the original survey questionnaires. Data were collected and analyzed with statistics. Results: The teenagers eat 3 times a day about 66.90% of persons. Their food is usually freshly home prepared of 55.60% chosen. About 39.70% of the teenagers weekend meal is street foods. 81.60% of teenagers agree that they suffer from cholesterol problems. Only 24.50% have the usual consumption of healthy food. The teenagers are not satisfied with their food consumption of about 46.50% of them. Conclusion: This survey evidence that the teens are aware of their eating habits but half of them is not satisfied with their eating habits and they fail to practice it due to their modern lifestyle. Hence, this survey may ensure them with balanced eating habits.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003509
Title: Estimation of bicarbonate level in diabetics and non-diabetics population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A few instruments may prompt insulin obstruction and along these lines add to the improvement of sort 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Recent contemplates demonstrate that larger amount of bicarbonate diminishes the official of insulin to its receptor. The principal point of the investigation is to compute the dimension of bicarbonate in diabetics and non-diabetics populace from outpatient of Saveetha Dental College. Materials and Methods: Patients were selected from those attending the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and divided into two groups as follows: Group I – Normal healthy individuals Group II – Individuals with known Type 2 DM. Results: All the data were analyzed using the SPSS package. Paired sample t-test analysis was done to find out significant differences between the two groups. All the tests were considered significant at P < 0.05 level. Sugar level of diabetes and non-diabetes was 96.55 ± 12.32 and 286.4 ± 53.71, respectively. Bicarbonate level of diabetes and non-diabetes was 25.02 ± 1.71 and 17.99 ± 2.47, respectively. The bicarbonate level was significantly reduced. Conclusion: The plasma bicarbonate level is noteworthy in the two diabetics and non-diabetics populace.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003510
Title: Survey on study of aromatherapy and antidepressant pills on anxiety and depressed people
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Depression is a life-threatening mood disorder manifested as a combination of cognitive and physical symptoms that lead to decreased interest in daily life activities which imposes significant negative impact on people’s quality of life and work performance due to disability, suffering, and high risk of perpetrating self-harm. The aim of this study is to compare the study of aromatherapy and antidepressant pills on anxiety and depressed people. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 50 people. The age was not a barrier considered. Inclusion criteria were made with people with anxiety using drugs. A questionnaire was prepared mainly about the effect of aromatherapy and antidepressants. Results: The result proved that people suffering from anxiety and depression were high in number. Furthermore, the age category undergoing maximum depression was found to be between 13 and 19, apparently the students. Conclusions: Statistical analysis was drawn and concluded that aromatherapy works better when compared to antidepressant pills.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003511
Title: Prevalence of ulcers related to adolescents population residing in Chennai
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: An open sore on an external or internal surface of the body, caused by a break in the skin or mucous membrane which fails to heal is known as an ulcer, ulcers are mainly caused due to the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. There are many types of ulcers which include gastric ulcers, esophageal ulcers, duodenal ulcers, intestinal ulcers, and oral ulcers. They are also caused due to long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example, aspirin and they are also caused due to improper nutrition. Other reasons which cause ulcer are, tobacco use, stress, anemia, depression, overweight and obesity, alcohol consumption, and improper sleep. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried among 150 participants. A questionnaire was distributed through survey planet and mainly consists of reasons, cause, and mode of recovery of ulcers. Data were collected from different sex, social status, work, and background. Results were tabulated with statistics. Results and Discussion: The survey revealed a strong positive association between the lifestyle of adolescents and the cause of ulcers. This survey also demonstrated that subjects with low education level have a higher risk of having ulcers. Conclusion: Ulcers are less common among adolescents when compared to adults. In general, with respect to age and location, the prevalence of ulcer differs.