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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003578
Title: Body mass index and diabetes mellitus among tobacco users
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the association between tobacco usage with body mass index (BMI) (nutritional status) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels (diabetic status). Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. By random sampling, patients in the age group of 20–50 years who attended the outpatient department and who satisfied the inclusion criteria formed the study population (n = 150). The study population was divided into three study groups. Group A (n = 50) current tobacco users, Group B (n = 50) past tobacco users, and Group C (n = 50) never tobacco users. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated using the formula: Weight (kg)/height (m2 ). Diabetes mellitus status of the study sample was confirmed with their HbA1c levels. Results: The results of the study show that there is a statistically significant difference between the three study groups (Group A, Group B, and Group C) in relation to BMI and HbA1c levels (P < 0.05). On comparing the HbA1c levels, the current tobacco users mean values were higher (6.4%) compared to non-users of tobacco (5.3%). The mean BMI levels were found to be higher in Group C (22.0 kg/m2 ) compared to Groups A (19.6 kg/m2 ) and B (20.5 kg/m2 ). Conclusion: This study showed that participants who are current and past tobacco users have higher HbA1c levels (prediabetes) compared never tobacco users. Moreover, tobacco usage could be considered as one of the factors associated with low BMI.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003573
Title: An in vitro biochemical characterization of Momordica charantia – A conventional herbal remedy for diabetes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Nowadays, there has been an dramatic increase in the quest for and use of alternative medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Complementary and alternative medicine involves the use of herbs and other dietary supplements as alternatives to mainstream western medical treatment. Bitter guard (Momordica charantia) is an important market vegetable and is a part of everyday diet in Southern and Eastern Asia. It is also known by numerous other names such as bitter melon, karela, balsam pear, or bitter gourd. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the antidiabetic potentials of M. charantia seed extract through α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity. Materials and Methods: The plant seed powder was loaded into Soxhlet extractor and subjected to extraction with methanol. After extraction, the solvent was distilled off and the extracts were concentrated on water bath to a dry residue and kept in a desiccator. Finally, the extract was used for the assessment ofα-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Results: This study showed that M. charantia and acarbose effectively inhibited the actions of both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme by a dose-dependent manner. The maximum percentage of inhibition was observed at higher the concentration (500 µg/ml). The results produced by M. charantia were comparable to that of acarbose – an antidiabetic drug. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained from the present study, it can be concluded that M. charantia seed ethanolic extract may be used as one of the antidiabetic drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003574
Title: Diallyl disulfide improves the liver antioxidant potential in diabetes-mediated oxidative damage in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research and Development, Saveetha Institute of Medical And Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Thandalam, Chennai, India
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Background: Oxidative stress is a pathological state, wherein oxidative forces surpass the antioxidant systems due to the loss of balance between them, leads to several diseased conditions including diabetes mellitus (DM), atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemic diseases, and malignancies. Experimental and clinical studies evidenced that the chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes is associated with oxidative stress-mediated tissue damage. Among the various tissues, liver tissue is more susceptible to oxidative stress due to relatively less intrinsic antioxidant defense system. Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is an organosulfur compound which possesses diverse biological properties such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of DADS on hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative damage in liver tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methodology: Diabetic rats were treated with DADS (100 mg/kg b. w.) orally for 30 days. Results: The results indicates that DADS feeding significantly improved hepatic glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase enzyme activities where as a fall in lipid peroxide levels, which is further evidenced by histological studies. Conclusion: The therapeutic potential of DADS on the extent of oxidative stress was assessed by determining the levels of lipid peroxide, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase enzyme activities in liver tissues. Liver histological observation also clearly evidenced the protective role of DADS against hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative damage which, in turn, attributed to the antioxidant potential of the DADS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003575
Title: Antipseudomonal activity of total extract of the orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata [L.] Jack.) leaves
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java 45363, Indonesia
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Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antipseudomonal activity of total extract of the orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata [L.] Jack.) leaves. Materials and Methods: Antipseudomonal activity was performed using the agar diffusion method with total extracts of leaves in different concentrations. As comparison, 2% of neomycin sulfate was used as antibiotic standard. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the extract was assayed using the macrodilution method. Meanwhile, the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by subculturing the MIC result onto the surface of agar medium. Results and Discussion: The result indicated that total M. paniculata extract was effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and significantly inhibited its growth in lower MIC and MBC value in the range of 0.1562-0.3125% w/v. Conclusion: Our findings showed that M. paniculata leaf components have significant antipseudomonal activity and having potentials as new sources of effective antibacterial in healing of P. aeruginosa infections.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00003576
Title: Ultrasound irradiated one-pot green synthesis of pharmaceutically potent bis (indolyl) methane in water medium employing biodegradable lactic acid as eco-friendly catalyst
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Physical Science, Faculty of Technology and Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India
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Objective: Lactic acid is explored as an efficient green catalyst for the electrophilic substitution reaction of indole with carbonyl compound to form bis (indolyl) methane which is a compound of immense pharmaceutical importance. Materials and Methods: A series of bis (indolyl) methane were synthesized successfully with good percentage of yield when varieties of aldehydes were made to react with indole under ultrasound irradiation in aqueous medium employing biodegradable lactic acid as an efficient, cost effective, green catalyst. Results: Ultrasound irradiation was found to be a very effective methodology for green synthesis of bis (indolyl) where the electronic nature of aldehyde was playing an crucial role in the rate of reaction. Conclusion: The main advantage of this methodology lies in the fact that this reaction needs a very simple reaction condition, uses biodegradable catalyst in water medium, demands short reaction time, and gives high percentage of yield

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003577
Title: Antistaphylococcal spectrum activity of Cinnamomum burmannii stem bark extract
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java 45363, Indonesia
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Aim: This research study was performed to determine the antistaphylococcal spectrum activity of Cinnamomum burmanii stem bark extracts from Indonesia on Staphylococcus species as follows: Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 13228, Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC 3342, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 11784, Staphylococcus warneri ATCC 3340, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus ATCC 3741. Materials and Methods: The antistaphylococcal spectrum of the extract was assayed on Staphylococcus strains using the agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration value (MIC) was done using macrodilution method and followed by subculturing the overnight MIC result onto the surface of agar media to determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value. In addition, the antistaphylococcal potency of the extract was compared to neomycin sulfate. Results and Discussion: Flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, saponins, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and quinones were detected in C. burmanii stem bark extracts. Those metabolites supported the significant result of antistaphylococcus spectrum of the extract against Staphylococcus strains. The strongest activity of the extract was achieved against S. epidermidis and the weakest was on S. xylosus. The MIC and MBC values were various in ranged: S. epidermidis ATCC 13228 (0.25–0.50% w/v), S. xylosus ATCC 3342 (3.00–3.50% w/v), S. aureus ATCC 11784 (0.75–1.00% w/v), S. warneri ATCC 3340 (0.75–1.00% w/v), and S. haemolyticus ATCC 3741 (0.50–2.00% w/v). The comparative analysis of the extracts indicated that neomycin sulfate demonstrated greater antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis ATCC 13228 than the extract (1:2.047.10−4 ). Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of C. burmanii stem bark exhibited a wide spectrum of antistaphylococcal activities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003579
Title: Malocclusion and zodiac signs: A correlative study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Malocclusion is the most common condition that occurs in children which could have an effect on their physical and psychological demands. Predicting these malocclusions through non-expensive and non-invasive means can help the practitioner to intercept them at an earlier stage. Aim: This study aims to evaluate a correlation with malocclusion and different zodiac signs of the individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 children between 14 and 16 years of age were recruited and divided into three groups based on Angle’s classification of malocclusion: (1) Class I malocclusion, (2) Class II malocclusion, and (3) Class III malocclusion. Results: Cancer (16.3%) was the most commonly and Libra (3.7%) was the least common zodiac signs encountered in the current study. The highest number of participants having Class I was under Virgo (18%), Class II was under Leo (19%), and Class III was under Cancer (24%). Statistical test with analysis of variance showed high significance with P < 0.001. Conclusion: Zodiac signs can be used as an adjunct to predict malocclusions, but further studies with larger sample size and varied ethnic origins can provide a better judgment in prediction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003580
Title: Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical investigation of the leaf extracts of Ricinus communis Linn. against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Research Laboratory for Oral and Systemic Health, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The emergence and widespread dissemination of multidrug-resistant strains have become a serious public health concern. In this scenario, the development of novel antibacterial agents with minimal side effects has become the need of the hour. At present, there is a greater demand for phytopharmaceutical products of medicinal plant origin. The present study was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis Linn. (leaf) against drug-resistant bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: Methanol, ethanol, acetone, and chloroform extracts of R. communis (leaf) were prepared by cold percolation method. Antibacterial activities of extracts were evaluated using agar well diffusion method against clinical isolates of Gram-positive cocci (Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacilli (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The standard strains of ATCC 25922 E. coli, ATCC 25923 S. aureus, ATCC 27853 P. aeruginosa, and ATCC 29212 E. faecalis were used as controls. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by microbroth dilution method. Results: Methanol extract of R. communis exhibited better antibacterial activity compared to the other solvent extracts against both the standard strains (ATCC) and the drug-resistant clinical isolates. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of bioactive compounds that are known to exhibit antibacterial activity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the methanolic extracts of R. communis L. (leaf) could be a promising herbal alternative in the therapeutic management of drug-resistant Gram-positive (methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus) and Gram-negative (extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli and P. aeruginosa) bacterial infections

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003581
Title: Awareness on the importance of paleo diet among college students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Paleo diet is based on eating wholesome contemporary foods from the food groups of our hunter-gatherer ancestors during the Paleolithic era. These are the foods which are presumed to be available in nature. Modern lifestyle ended up in eating modern diet comprising refined foods, transfers, fast foods, etc., which is the root of degenerative diseases. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 100 college students to analyze their eating habits, food preferences, their awareness, etc. Results: From this study it was evident that the followers of paleo diet stay away from most unhealthy foods and consume fruits and vegetables that cut the risk of heart diseases

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003582
Title: Prevalence and determination of obesity and overweight among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of obesity and overweight among South Indians. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among South Indian population. Materials and Methods: It is a questionnaire-based survey. A set of 20 questions was framed and was given to 100 participants of different age groups in an online forum, SurveyPlanet. The results were analyzed and were computerized. Results and Discussion: This survey has been mostly taken by younger generation where they feel that obesity and overweight are a big threat and lead to heart diseases, arthritis, etc. Many of them are aware of weight loss surgeries and have tried to reduce obesity by non-surgical methods. A majority of population feels that expenses for reducing overweight should also be included in health policies as majority of the participants consider obesity as a serious threat. Conclusion: Due to technological development, workload has been reduced. This has witnessed a change in the overall biological cycle of human body. One of the unappreciated health problems in human population is obesity and overweight, which are the key for other ailments. Thus, this survey created a general awareness among South Indian population about obesity and overweight and made them consider steps to prevent its occurrence.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003583
Title: Comparative study based on the impacts of junk foods on obese and hypertensive patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Obesity and hypertension are being common to the human population. The cause for obesity and hypertension is cardiovascular diseases, strokes and attacks which lead to death. Materials and Methods: A group of 100 participants was considered among the normal population where the age ranges >20 years. Questionnaire-based study was done among them. Where the questions are of mainly based on their awareness of the junk foods, their major prefference mode of food, and their range of their blood pressure. Then, the data were collected and analyzed statistically. Results: There is a significant increase in peak flow rate (P < 0.005) in which people has awareness of their weight and hypertension though they prefer fried foods. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the overeating of junk foods leads to cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and also causes obesity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003584
Title: Comparative study of knowledge-attitude of family planning among South Indian women’s
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the knowledge, attitude, and practices of family planning among South Indian women’s. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted among South Indian women of rural and urban area. 70 women were included with the age group of 25–45. Questionnaire was circulated through SurveyPlanet. It contains about 10 questions and mainly deals about age group, locality, literacy level, awareness about family planning, knowledge of women practicing family planning, and reasons for why it is not updated. Results were collected and analyzed by statistics. Results: It was observed clearly that most of the women who belong to the age group of 25–34 years (70%) are more aware of family planning. In which 70% were urban area and only 23% were from rural areas and 65% of people had used family planning methods to delay or avoid pregnancy. Moreover, 51% of people know the place where to do family planning. Among 77% of urban women’s, only 71% were educated and had an awareness of family planning. Mostly women’s from both urban and rural area are aware about the number of birth. A total of 79 women were aware of family planning; however, 40% of women had accepted the family planning methods. The awareness among women’s is less due to physical and mental stress. Conclusion: It was noted that the knowledge of family planning was wide among the South Indian women, but still actual practice of this method was very low. More programs are needed to improve the awareness of family planning method and to spread positive effects among women regarding family planning.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003585
Title: Positive effects of music on humans
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Music is a pleasant sound. It has healing power and provides relaxation. It has the ability to cure a physical or mental fatigue of a tired person. Music is said to have an exhilarating power. It provides absolute tranquility and harmony in which a person listens to music. It connects our soul very deeply that one could experience. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted with the questionnaire containing around 15 questions. This survey was answered by 100 people where most of them were keen listeners to music. These questions were then represented through bar graph which differentiates each and every choice of the question. Results: Based on the survey which was conducted, about 99% of the people completely benefited out from listening to music. They had felt the positive effects of music and yet continue to listen. Very few had an opinion that music does not always provide positive effects. Conclusion: Therefore, music has a lot of positive effects on humans. It is recommended for people to listen to music.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003586
Title: Knowledge and attitude of the students about the local anesthetics used during surgery among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Local anesthetics are a drug which cause the absence of pain in a specific area. It acts by blocking the nerve pathway. Students should have adequate knowledge about these drugs. There is not much improvement in clinical practicing bringing out the importance of local anesthetics in surgery. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the students about the local anesthetics used during surgery among South Indian population. Objective: This study is to evaluate whether the students have adequate knowledge about local anesthetics. Materials and Methods: A self-prepared questionnaire was given to medical/dental undergraduate student’s comprising 15 questions with multiple choice answers covering all aspects of local anesthetics, their ability of action, type, duration of onset, dosage, and complication. The survey was winded up after 2 weeks. At the end of the survey, all the data were collected and compiled for statistical study. Results: The results show that most of the students do not have sufficient knowledge about local anesthetics. Conclusion: In conclusion the knowledge of local anesthetics among the students seems to be inadequate. It is recommended that they should develop more knowledge about local anesthetics in bringing out a better clinical practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003587
Title: Comparative study on hemoglobin levels on amla with honey and dates
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The main of this study is to estimate the hemoglobin (Hb) levels with respect to consumption of amla with honey and dates alone. Both amla and dates have a huge impact on the Hb levels of the body. These not only help in rising Hb levels but also on the overall metabolism of all age groups. Materials and Methods: People of different age groups were considered, with sample size of 50 divided into two groups. One group took amla with honey and the other only dates and the rise in Hb levels was assessed after a period of 20–25 days. Results and Discussion: Hb levels when amla with honey and dates alone where both has considerable nutritive components contributing the overall health were consumed for a period of time in which the nutritional status and the overall rise in the Hb levels before and after consumption were discussed. Conclusion: To rise the Hb levels in a short period of time, people can prefer amla with honey than dates.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003589
Title: Assessment of calcium level in infertility
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Calcium is known for muscle function, women’s preconception health, muscle contraction, female reproductive system, the follicular production, creating alkaline environment in vagina, oocyte activation, and maturation. Women should ensure whether they are getting the recommended 1000 g of calcium per day. The main aim of this study was to assess the calcium ion level in the infertile female patients. Materials and Methods: Group I – Normal healthy fertile women and Group II – Individuals with the history of infertility 3 ml of venous blood were collected from both groups. Then, serum was separated and analyzed to estimate the serum calcium level by standard kit method using CORALAB 3000 Semi automated analyzer. Results: The data were analyzed using the SPSS package. Paired sample t-test analysis was done to find out significant differences between the two groups. All the tests were considered significant at P < 0.05 level. Conclusion: This study shows a negative effect (i.e., infertility) on the calcium deficient patients. Those patients have to be supplemented with calcium ions before conception.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003590
Title: Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users – A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) among tobacco users attending the outpatient department in a dental hospital in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 subjects with the habit of tobacco attending the outpatient department of the dental college in Chennai city. A questionnaire was used to obtain the information on tobacco habits followed by oral clinical examination. Results: The prevalence of OMLs in patients with tobacco-related habits was found to be 43.7%. The study showed smoker’s melanosis (10%) to be the most frequently associated OMLs with tobacco use followed by leukoplakia (8.6%), oral submucous fibrosis (5.4%), lichenoid (2.3%), and malignancy (1.3%). Conclusions: This study gives information on the association of OMLs in smokers, chewers, and those with mixed habits. The study underpins the association between OMLs and adverse tobacco habits, which accentuates the need for creating awareness among the masses regarding the health hazards caused by this detrimental habit. Efforts should be taken to provide proper counseling, alternate measures, and pharmacological management as a step toward curbing this habit.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003591
Title: An overview of complications associated with impacted third molar surgery
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Impacted lower third molar surgical removal is one of the most commonly performed procedures, but it is associated with complications which are said to affect the quality of life of patients. It is, therefore, essential for the oral maxillofacial surgeon to have an adequate knowledge on the complications and the different scientific modalities available to alleviate them to reduce the morbidity associated with the procedure. This review is aimed at discussing the various complications causing morbidity and sometimes rarely, mortality following the surgical removal of mandibular impacted teeth and the various strategies and measures available to minimize these complications at various levels.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003592
Title: Qualitative phytochemical analysis and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Cordia africana L.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Aksum University, Axum, Ethiopia
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Introduction: Cordia africana L. is a family belongs to Boraginaceae; in Ethiopia, it is commonly called as Wanza, is a medium-sized tree widely distributed throughout Africa used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory-related conditions and infectious diseases, while in East Africa, it is used for general healing of open wound, treatment of schistosomiasis, skin troubles and jaundice, and as stimulating tonic for fatigue, pain, headache, and exhaustion. Objective: The present study was aimed to qualitative phytochemical screening and in vitro 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ethanolic leaf extracts and to develop the novel antioxidants in pharmaceutical formulation to cure oxidative stress- related diseases. Methods: Leaves of C. africana L. were subjected to successive solvent extraction using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, to obtain the respective extracts, these extracts were used for phytochemical screening using standard qualitative phytochemical methods; then, the ethanolic extracts were tested for the DPPH scavenging activity. Results: The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic leave extract of C. africana shown the presence of pharmacological important secondary metabolites such as phenolics, flavonoids, and terpenoids with the highest percentage yield. The results of DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extracts of C. africana leaves and the standard ascorbic acid shown at 100 μg/ml were 68% and 79%, while the IC50 values were 66 μg/ml and 47 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that ethanolic leaf extract of A. schimperi possess significant bioactive secondary metabolites with significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity; therefore, the leaves of C. africana used as a potential source for development of natural antioxidants for pharmaceutical preparations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003593
Title: Assessing awareness about sexually transmitted diseases among students population – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to assess awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among students. Introduction: STDs are the diseases which are mainly transmitted through sexual intercourse. In the current situation, younger individuals in the age group of around 20 years are considered to be at more risk for carrying STDs. If it is not treated properly, it can lead to various complications. Most of the people may be aware of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to enormous awareness program conducted by NGOs, media, and government programs; however, knowledge about STDs other than HIV/AIDS is low in the developing countries. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted in Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, using a questionnaire. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: According to the survey, most of the students were aware of STDs, its causes and implications, modes of transmission, and diagnostic tests. Conclusion: The present study, thus, concluded that through this questionnaire, the younger individuals would be benefited by getting knowledge about STD. Besides creating awareness about STD through media, questionnaire-based awareness might reach easily and effectively. This kind of questionnaire-based survey must be educated, encourage, and circulate among schools, colleges, and general populations for better understanding about the STDs periodically for creating a healthy nation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003594
Title: Sex determination using mastoid, asterion, and porion triangle in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the sex of South Indian population using mastoid, asterion, and porion triangle. Materials and Methods: The study involved 50 human adult skulls (25 males and 25 females). The following parameters are measured using Vernier caliper: (1) Length between zygoma root and asterion, (2) length between asterion and porion, and (3) length between asterion and mastoid – The distance between the two projecting points on the skull. Results: Males have significantly higher values than females using the three parameters. Statistical Analysis: Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003595
Title: Survey on usage of Personal listening devices and its effect on hearing health among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The conditions of the hearing health and usage, popularity, practice and attitude toward the personal listening devices (PLDs) among students are very important parameters to consider the social and physical of usage of personal listening devices. Materials and Methods: It is a survey-based study conducted using an online survey portal with a sample size of around 110. Results and Discussion: Students are highly aware of the effects of prolonged usage of the PLDs but continue to use those for a long time, in which, they should limit the usage and take care of their hearing health. Conclusion: The study conducted has presented a clear view of the types of being used, attitude, practice, and awareness of the prolonged usage, and the effects caused by the PLDs among the college students which helps them to limit their usage and betterment of their hearing health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003596
Title: Zygomaticofacial and zygomaticoorbital foramen - Morphological study of dry skulls of South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The zygomaticofacial foramen is a small opening and it pierces the malar surface of the convex zygomatic bone near its center. The zygomaticoorbital foramen is two channels in the skull that let nerves pass through. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 dry human skulls were used and they were probed. Results and Discussion: After probing the zygomaticofacial foramen, it is found that the probe exits from two other foramens – the zygomaticoorbital foramen and the zygomaticotemporal foramen. Conclusion: Majority of the South Indian population have the zygomaticoorbital foramen as the exit of the zygomaticofacial foramen while only a minority had the zygomaticotemporal foramen as the exit.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003597
Title: Antimicrobial effects of coriander seed extract against Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The human oral cavity has continuously evolving microbial species. Gingivitis is the inflammation of gingiva, in which the connective tissue attachment remains in its original level. Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis play a very important role in gingivitis. Coriandrum sativum is an herb grown extensively all over the world. Coriander plant has been reported to have antibacterial, anxiolytic, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare different concentrations of C. sativum seed extract against S. mitis and S. sanguinis. Methodology: In vitro comparison of antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract of C. sativum seed against S. mitis and S. sanguinis was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Results: Results of this study showed that seeds of C. sativum did not possess antibacterial property against S. mitis and S. sanguinis. Conclusion: This lack of antibacterial action against S. mitis and S. sanguinis can be considered as a limitation of C. sativum against oral pathogens.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003598
Title: Comparison of macro lens with normal lens in digital single lens reflex cameras for orthodontic intraoral photographs
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: With the ever-increasing number in adults seeking dental treatment, improvement in esthetics has remained one of the main goals in the treatment objectives. The emphasis has long been on taking study models and radiographs as records, while photographs were often considered as luxury and time consuming. With time, this idea has certainly changed, and photographs were considered important diagnostic records. The aim of the study is to compare the image quality of intraoral photographs taken using the macro lens and normal lens of a particular digital single lens reflex camera. Materials and Methods: This study includes a questionnaire with 20 image based on multiple choice questions and was distributed among dental undergraduates and postgraduates in the city. The digitized photographs in the questionnaire were assessed based on the quality of photograph, depth of field, reproducibility, brightness, and contrast. The data obtained were then subjected for statistical evaluation. Results: Nearly 64.11% of the total response suggested that both the pictures were taken in a macro lens and a normal lens are similar whereas 24.15% and 11.74% opted for macro lens and normal lens, respectively. Conclusion: Macro lens performs better than normal lens. However, a majority of the study population found no difference between the two photographs taken using normal and macro lens. Macro lens was found to produce more pleasing images in frontal occlusal photographs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003599
Title: Awareness on environmental hazards among school students – A questionnaire survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Humans are exposed to lots of hazards in their day-to-day life. Our world is facing natural disasters frequently since people use the environment according to their needs. The environmental hazards around school environment affect most of the school children who are not aware of it, mostly in rural areas in India. Thus, this study is to assess the awareness of environmental hazards among school children. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the knowledge and awareness of school students about the environmental hazards. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was designed. The subjects involved were school children (n = 105). The questionnaire had 15 questions about the knowledge and awareness on environmental hazards. The questionnaire was distributed among school children. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: 61.9% of the school students are aware about the types of environmental hazards. 35% of school children are aware about the water contamination in school water system and 42.8% of students are aware about the soil pollutants in their school playground which could cause various diseases in our body. Conclusion: School education on environmental hazards plays an important role in preparing students for creating awareness about the deleterious effects on environmental pollution. The results of this study may throw light on the awareness on the management and prevention of environmental hazards.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003600
Title: Awareness of chronic fatigue syndrome among the college students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction : Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS ) affects the body to a major extent. This study is done to create awareness on chronic fatigue syndrome. Materials & Methods: An online survey conducted among college students showed that adolescents suffered from CFS due to viral infections and psychological stress. The survey is administered through online survey planet link. Results and Discussion: This survey may create an awareness on the risk factors, protection and prevention of CFS among the student community.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003601
Title: Knowledge and attitude of general dentists and dentists of other specialties toward endodontic treatment of primary teeth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Pediatric dentists play an important role in treating primary teeth and oral health care needs for children. Pulp therapy is widely used in the treatment of primary teeth. The choice of endodontic treatment modality changes among general dentist and PD. Factors such as instrumentation technique, obturating materials, irrigants, root canal morphology, root resorption, and follow-up period also play an important role in deciding whether the endodontic treatment is successful or not. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of general dentists and dentists of other specialties toward endodontic treatment of primary teeth. Materials and Methods: A sample of 50 dental practitioners were selected for this study. The survey questions focused on knowledge, attitude about endodontic treatment in primary teeth. The obtained data were tabulated. Results were statistically analyzed and calculated. Results: Nearly 78% of the practitioners prefer to do endodontic treatment in children. 66% tell that children do not cooperate for the treatment. 74% of the practitioners answered that behavior management is the common reason for rejecting endodontic treatment in primary teeth. 78% of dental practitioners prefer to give infiltration local anesthesia (L.A) technique before pulpectomy indicated for mandibular molars. Around 40% of dental practitioners told that they check working length using pre-operative working length radiograph. In 62% of dental practitioners used hand files as armamentarium for endodontic treatment for primary teeth. Zinc oxide eugenol cement is used by 66% of practitioners as obturating material for endodontic treatment of primary teeth. Composite is the most preferred coronal restoration done by 36% of practitioners. Conclusion: Practitioners differ in their treatment options such as giving L.A technique, obturating technique, filling material, and coronal restoration. Thus, this study emphasizes the need for frequent update about endodontic procedures in pediatric patients among dental practitioners for successful dental practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003602
Title: Hard tissue laser applications in dentistry - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of this review is to study about hard tissue laser application in dentistry. The word LASER is an acronym for “Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation.” The laser has various hard and soft tissue applications in dentistry. In the past two decades, there are various research studies about laser application. Various lasers have been introduced for the treatment of oral diseases and their applications in dental clinics. Technological advances and improvements have increased the choices of the available laser systems for oral use. In hard tissue application, the laser is used for caries prevention, bleaching, restorative removal and curing, cavity preparation, dentinal hypersensitivity, growth modulation, and for diagnostic purposes, whereas soft tissue application includes wound healing, removal of hyperplastic tissue to uncovering of impacted or partially erupted tooth, photodynamic therapy for malignancies, and photostimulation of herpetic lesion. Use of the laser proved to be an effective tool to increase efficiency, specificity, ease, and cost and comfort of the dental treatment. Scientific review has touched various aspects such as the historical landmarks, luminaries behind several landmarks in the invention of lasers in a chronological order, and hard tissue lasers along with dental operating microscope and magnification has made practice of restorative and microsurgery facile and due to its versatility have found numerous applications extending to almost all aspects of restorative dentistry and minor oral surgery.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003603
Title: Insulin-like growth factor-1 as a biochemical indicator for skeletal maturity: A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Purpose: To assess the reliability of IGF-1 as a diagnostic biomarker for skeletal maturity using a collective data. Data identification: An English language literature search using PUBMED(2000-2018),HAND-PICKED JOURNALS, and bibliographic review of textbooks and articles. Study selection: After independent review by three observers, 17 of 700 originally identified articles were selected that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Results of data synthesis: The accumulated Randomized control trials suggested that IGF-1 as a skeletal maturity indicator has several advantages over other methods that has evolved from the chronological age, height, weight, dental eruption and calcification cycle, sexual maturation, sinus maturation, hand-wrist radiographs, cervical maturation and sutural maturation. Conclusion: The reliability of IGF-1 as a skeletal maturity indicator is well established.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003604
Title: Management of socket after extraction – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and preventive dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Tooth extraction is a surgical treatment to eliminate teeth that are affected by caries or gingival infection. The further mutual purpose for tooth extraction, achieved by oral surgeons, is to eradicate third molar teeth that are poorly associated/developed or those triggering soreness or swelling. The possibility of contamination after extracting third teeth from healthy young individuals is around 10%; conversely, it may be up to 25% in patients who are previously sick or have low immunity. Infectious problems include swelling, pain, pus drainage, fever, and also dry socket. Management of these infections is mostly simple and includes patients receiving antibiotics and drainage of infection from the wound. The further most common symptoms for tooth extractions are dental caries and periodontal infections, and general dental practitioners commonly do these extractions. Antibiotics may be suggested to patients undertaking extractions to avoid difficulties due to infection. The aim of the study was to review the management of socket after extraction using medication.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003605
Title: Oral submucous fibrosis: Etiology and management - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and preventive dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Areca nut has been deeply rooted in Indian culture and been used as a mouth freshening agent that has had various symbolic roles throughout Indian history. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003606
Title: Osteoradionecrosis of mandible – A Review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and preventive dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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A significant complication of radiotherapy to the head and neck for cancer treatment is osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws. The management of ORN can be complex and often requires a multimodality approach. Nonsurgical treatments with or without adjunct measures and surgical interventions have all been employed on the basis of the staging of the disease process. New theories on the pathophysiology of ORN have led to the identification of novel treatment modalities. ORN is a major complication of surgery or trauma in previously irradiated bone in the absence of tumor persistence. Radiation-induced vascular insufficiency rather than infection causes bone death. It occurs most commonly in the mandible after head and neck irradiation. Risk factors include the total radiation dose, modality of treatment, fraction size and dose rate, oral hygiene, timing of tooth extractions as well as the continued use of tobacco and alcohol. This condition is often painful, debilitating, and may result in significant bone loss. In the past, tissue hypoxia and its consequences were accepted as the primary cause, and this led to the use of hyperbaric oxygen for both treatment and prevention of complications of radiotherapy in the head and neck.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003607
Title: Knowledge and awareness of needlestick injury among undergraduate students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to access the knowledge and awareness of needlestick injury (NSI) among dental students. Background: NSI constitutes as one of the most common occupational hazards among dental profession. Dental professional is at a higher risk due to their limited and restricted working area. A questionnaire-based study was carried out to determine the knowledge and awareness regarding NSI in dental students. Materials and Methods: Self-administered questionnaire with 15 questions was prepared and distributed among the 3rd and final year students. The questionnaire includes sex and year of study. The questionnaire includes the basic questions on the knowledge and assessment of NSI and precautions and prevention on NSI. The data extracted were tabulated, data management and statistical analysis were performed, frequencies and percentages were calculated, and results obtained using SPSS. Conclusion: This study reveals that the knowledge and awareness of NSI among dental students is inadequate. A standard protocol as well as adapting prevention measures should be formulated in all dental colleges. As per the WHO recommendation elimination of needle recapping, the use of safety disposable method and use of needleless device should be implemented to reduce the risk of NSIs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003608
Title: Salivary proteins and its effects on dental caries – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,
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The aim of this review is to determine the relationship between salivary proteins and dental caries. Caries is a common disease process that afflicts a large proportion of the child population worldwide. Extensive research in the past indicates that it is the result of bacterial infection, also influenced by host and dietary factors. The current caries research seeks to identify risk factors as well as natural oral defenses that may protect against or prevent caries development. Saliva, in spite of being the strongest defense system, still has a wide array of properties and proteins whose role is yet not clearly known. Saliva is essential for a lifelong conservation of the dentition. Various functions of saliva are implicated in the maintenance of oral health and the protection of our teeth: (1) The tooth surface is continuously protected against wear by a film of salivary mucins and proline-rich glycoprotein. (2) The early pellicle proteins, proline-rich proteins, and statherin promote remineralization of the enamel by attracting calcium ions. (3) Demineralization is retarded by the pellicle proteins, in concert with calcium and phosphate ions in saliva and in the plaque fluid. (4) Several salivary (glyco) proteins prevent the adherence of oral microorganisms to the enamel pellicle and inhibit their growth. (5) The salivary bicarbonate/carbonate buffer system is responsible for rapid neutralization of acids. This review summarizes the relationship between the dental caries and tooth- protective salivary proteins with their potential as functional biomarkers for caries risk assessment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003609
Title: Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of essential oils with 2% chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Essential oils are distillates of the volatile compounds of a plant’s secondary metabolism and may act as phytoprotective agents. Their curative effect has been known since antiquity. It is based on various pharmacological properties which are specific for each plant species. The aim of the present study was to compare the antibacterial efficacy of six essential oils clove, Peppermint, sandalwood, lavender, rosemary, and cinnamon oil with 2% chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans, the most potent initiator and cause of dental caries. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial efficacy of the three essential oils, clove, Peppermint, sandalwood, lavender, rosemary, and cinnamon oil was screened against S. mutans with 2% chlorhexidine, using disc diffusion technique. Results: The results of this study showed that the extracts at different concentrations exhibited antibacterial activity against the bacterial species tested. Conclusion: This study confirms that many essential oils and plant extracts possess in vitro antimicrobial activity. Peppermint oil exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against S. mutans followed by Cinnamon oil.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003610
Title: Knowledge and awareness about the association between periodontal disease and systemic diseases among medical practitioners: A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and awareness among medical practitioners about the association between periodontal disease and systemic diseases. Methods: A web-based questionnaire comprising 10 questions was formulated and circulated among 100 medical practitioners. The responses were then subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Conclusion: In the present study, the knowledge and awareness regarding the association between systemic diseases and periodontal disease was limited. Hence, medical specialists must recognize the direct and/or indirect impact of oral health on the overall general health and incorporate it in the clinical practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003611
Title: Zanthoxylum armatum extract prevents the lipopolysaccharide-induced osteoclastogenesis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Tejovati (Zanthoxylum armatum) popularly known as toothache tree is widely distributed in the subtropical Himalayan region. Osteolysis induced by chronic Gram-negative bacterial infection underlies many bone diseases such as osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and periodontitis. Drugs that inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteolysis are critically needed for the prevention of bone destruction in infective bone diseases. Materials and Methods: In this study, we will assess the effect of Z. armatum extract on LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss by Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining assay. Results: The treatment of oregano oil significantly reduced LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis. Conclusion: There may be a preventative measure for LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis based on the preventive action of Z. armatum extract.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003612
Title: Antibacterial activity of tea tree oil against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitous in nature and it is found as a commensal in the skin and gastrointestinal tract of humans. It causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients, not commonly seen in immunocompetent patients. Background: Tea tree oil, the volatile essential oil, derived mainly from the Australian native plant Melaleuca alternifolia. It is employed widely for its antimicrobial properties. Materials and methods: Tea tree oil is used as the active ingredient in many topical formulations used to treat cutaneous infections. A sum of 20 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were subjected to antibacterial effect against tea tree oil using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The MIC of ginger oil was appeared to be 0.25% for P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: The tea tree oil is found to have antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. However, the studies on toxic and irritant properties of essential oil are imperative, especially when considering any new products for human administration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003613
Title: Awareness about the effects of water pollution on marine life among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Water is the origin of life. 3/4th of the Earth’s surface is covered by water and all living things must have water to survive. Life without water cannot be considered. Humans pollute the environment including the vital natural resource namely water. Raising awareness of the people on this issue is of great importance. At this point, environmental education plays a key role. Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge and awareness about the effects of water pollution on marine life among college students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 102 college students in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The questionnaire was prepared to assess the awareness of water pollution and its effects on marine life. It was distributed through an online survey link (surveyplanet.com). Data analysis was done using the SPSS software. Results and Discussion: From the results, it is evident that there is little awareness about the harmful effects of water pollution and the steps taken to control the same. An important purpose of environmental education is to teach understanding about pollution to best protect the environment. A meaningful environmental education needs to include education about, in/ through, and for the environment. The focus is to help the learners develop knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes toward the environment. Conclusion: Education activities that get people informed and empowered to help protect water should be encouraged and invested in. Environmental education enhances critical thinking, problem-solving, and effective decision- making skills. Awareness-raising activities are of great importance for people before they contaminate water sources. These activities can be accomplished through environmental education.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003614
Title: Awareness of clinical practice among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Effective and efficient infection control in the dental office is essential for the safety of patients. Care must be taken by the dental health-care professional to ensure that all instruments are cleaned before sterilization and that this is carried out in a safe manner to avoid injury and puncture wounds. The aim of the current study is to create awareness and motivate them about the dental hygiene in economically weaker society. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study with 10 questions was circulated among dental students practicing in clinics. Results: 70% of the dental students are aware of the clinical practice. Conclusion: It is more important to create awareness among dental students by training about biomedical waste management and impart practices of appropriate waste disposal and sterility of instruments.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003615
Title: In vitro tissue repairing properties of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from Ficus benghalensis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In recent years, nanotechnology has been emerging as a rapidly growing field. Ficus benghalensis Linn. is a reputed plant in Ayurvedic medicine and commonly known as “Banyan tree.” Several natural resources are present in our country. Most of these drugs are derived from plants. Some of these plants such as F. benghalensis should be screened scientifically for the evaluation of their tissue repairing activity in different pharmacological models. Materials and Methods: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from F. benghalensis extract. Maintenance of cell lines: L929 cells were procured from National Center for Cell Science, Pune. Assay of transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha: TGF-alpha assay was carried out by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays method. Results: From the study, it is evident that AgNPs with F. benghalensis induced the production of TGF-alpha in L929 cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, as compared to the standard drug. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that the AgNPs synthesized from F. benghalensis have properties that render them capable of promoting accelerated tissue repairing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003616
Title: Mast cell disorders in periodontal disease
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of the review is to give an insight into the role of mast cells (MCs) and its disorders in periodontal health and disease. MCs are mobile, bone marrow-derived, granule-containing immune cells that are found in all connective tissue and mucosal environments and the peripheral and central nervous systems. MCs are able to phagocytose, process and present antigens as effectively as macrophages. MC disorders are conditions in which MCs are either increased in number, hyper-reactive, or both. These conditions range in severity from relatively benign disorders that do not impact life span to malignant clonal diseases that progress rapidly. Recently, MCs were found in high numbers in chronically inflamed gingival tissue taken from patients with chronic marginal periodontitis. This topic will review the classification of MC disorders, provide a brief clinical description of each disorder and highlights the role of MCs in periodontal health and disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003617
Title: Relationship between dental caries and their impact on school children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess dental caries experience and their impact on oral health among private school children in 8–12 years of age. Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate relationship between dental caries status, nutritional status, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumption among children of age 8–12 years. Background: The incidence of dental caries is about 73% among the schoolchildren in India, and this can be attributed to sociobehavior factors such as dietary habits, improper brushing techniques, socioeconomic status, and oral hygiene practices. Refined carbohydrate consumption is an important factor in the development of dental caries. Sugars are most important cause of dental caries. Frequent consumption of carbohydrate-containing snacks between meals is known to increase the amount of dental caries. Fluoridation of water probably plays a major role.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003618
Title: Knowledge towards organ donation among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Organ donation is giving an organ to help someone who needs a transplant. The kidneys, heart, liver, lungs, pancreas, and small bowel can all be transplanted. Transplants are one of the biggest achievements of modern medicine and can save or greatly enhance the lives of other people. However, they depend completely on donors and their families consenting to organ or tissue donation. One donor can save the life of several people, restore the sight of two others, and improve the quality of life of many more. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the knowledge toward organ donation among college students. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was prepared and circulated among the students of Saveetha Dental College. The data were collected and statistically analyzed. The survey was conducted among 100 students. Results: Most of the students are aware of organ donation and are also willing to donate. More cultural enrichment regarding organ donation will definitely change the attitude of people regarding organ donation. Conclusion: There are many students who are willing to donate organs, but they are not aware regarding the steps involved in it. Hence, more campaigns regarding organ donation must be done to create more awareness among people as this is one of the most active potential treatments in today’s world.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00003619
Title: Mucoadhesive oral in situ gel of itraconazole using pH-sensitive polymers: Preparation, and in vitro characterization, release and rheology study
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
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Objective: The study was to design a mucoadhesive pH-triggered in situ gel of itraconazole, to prolong the residence time on oral mucosa, and to reduce the frequency of application and amount of drug administrated. Materials and Methods: Six formulations containing itraconazole 1% were prepared using different concentrations (0.5 and 0.7% w/w) of carbopol 934 (CB) and in combination with different viscosity-enhancing agents such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M (1 and 1.5%), xyloglucan (0.5%), and hyaluronic acid (1%), to formulate a pH-triggered system that undergoes sol-to-gel transition on change in pH to the physiological pH. The formulations were evaluated for physical appearance, PH, gelation capacity, rheological properties, spreadability, mucoadhesive force, and in vitro release of drug. Results: Formula F4 (0.7% CB, 1.5% HPMC K4M) showed acceptable pH and appearance, acceptable gelling capacity, and shear thinning rheological property, good mucoadhesive force, and provided 80% release over a 6-h period. Conclusion: The developed itraconazole mucoadhesive oral in situ gel was non-irritant, retarded the release for 6 h, and it is good alternative to conventional oral gel.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003620
Title: Carvacrol: A well-known phytochemical for modern dentistry
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Carvacrol (CV) (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) is a monoterpene that is found in many plant species such as thyme and oregano. CV is a significant component of essential oils and recently has attracted much attention as a result of its biological properties, such as a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. As CV has both hydrophobic properties associated with the substituted aromatic ring and hydrophilic properties associated with the phenolic hydroxyl group, numerous studies report its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antinociceptive, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. CV can inhibit the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. CV can be applied as an alternative antimicrobial agent against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. CV has been extensively studied for its potential medical use in relation to dental practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003621
Title: Prevalence of crowding in orthodontic patients reporting for treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of crowding in orthodontic patients visiting the hospital for treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 100 patients selected randomly. The degree of crowding was evaluated on dental cast of pre-treatment records of orthodontic patients using Little’s irregularity index. The chief complaint of the patient was recorded along with their history on a pro forma sheet. The patients were further divided into three groups based on the Angle’s classification of malocclusion. The distribution of patients based on the severity of crowding was expressed in percentage. Results: Angle’s Class I malocclusion was present in 56 patients. Of these, 14 patients had mild crowding and 42 patients had moderate crowding. Angle’s Class II malocclusion was present in 26 patients; of these, 10 patients had mild crowding. Angle’s Class III malocclusion was present in five patients, of these one patient had mild crowding and four patients had moderate crowding. Conclusion: Angle’s Class I was the most common malocclusion trait compared to other sagittal dental discrepancies. The prevalence of moderate anterior crowding was greater as opposed to severe and mild crowding.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003622
Title: Awareness of gastrointestinal disorders among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,
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Introduction: The environment we now live in and many aspects of our lifestyle contribute to the development of disease. A major target of the influence of dietary components, alcohol, microbial organisms, and other ingested materials is to the luminal digestive tract. External factors such as obesity, lack of physical exercise, and tobacco consumption also impact diseases of the luminal gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a survey that was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of the causes and treatment options for GI disorders among college students of age 16–22 years undergraduate and postgraduate students. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted to assess the level of awareness of GI disorders among college students. Hundred college students were contacted through social media such as WhatsApp and email and were asked to participate in the study by filling up an online survey on GI disorder awareness. The questionnaire consisted of 13 questions based on GI disorders and its knowledge. The final sample included 100 college students. Results: There is a marked inflation in the frequency of consumption of outside food. Only about 18% are aware that Crohn’s disease, gastric ulcers, and appendicitis are all a part of GI disorders. 80% concluded that our lifestyle and food habits have a greater effect on GI disorders. Among the student population, 60% are not aware of the term colonoscopy. On the basis of the survey, 59% of the students know the preventive measures to avoid GI disorders. Conclusion: This survey shows that the college students are partially aware of the outcomes of our lifestyles and the basic symptoms of GI disorders. However, they are unaware of its diagnosis and treatment. Hence, an increased awareness of GI disorders has to be incorporated among the college students due to our current lifestyles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003623
Title: Antifungal activity of Sesbania grandiflora ethanolic leaf extract against dermatophytes - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The objective of the study is to evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of Acacia catechu against three human pathogenic fungi, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Background: Acacia catechu is an evergreen tree which possesses lots of medical value. It exhibits diverse pharmacological actions such as hepatoprotective, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity. The herbal extract was tested against various concentrations adopting agar well-diffusion method. The antidermatophytic activity indicated that the extract was ineffective and did not show any activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003624
Title: Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and lipase inhibitory activities of Sargassum wightii
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College,Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes are steadily increasing worldwide. Sargassum wightii (brown algae), algal polysaccharides, attracted extensive interest to study their numerous biological activities. Therefore, in the current study, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of methanolic extract will be investigated using in vitro assays. Aim: This research is to study the α-glucosidase inhibitory and lipase inhibitory activities of S. wightii. Materials and Methods: The alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of S. wightii was assayed using Acarbose and Orlistat as positive control. Results: S. wightii has both alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and lipase inhibitory activity. Conclusion: S. wightii can be used as an alternative with further research as it is a plant extract.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003625
Title: Household survey on awareness of balanced diet - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Balanced diet is the one that contains all the nutritional value that a body requires. It is the mixed type of dietary form that contains vitamins, minerals, etc. You can prevent the illness by taking balanced diet itself. The main aim of this study is to create awareness among the housemakers about balanced diet. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was prepared. The survey was conducted among the housemakers about balanced diet and the data were collected. The survey was conducted using a link created by SurveyPlanet and circulated among housemaker. Moreover, the data were statistically analyzed and interpreted. Conclusion: Graphical representation shows that majority of them consuming balanced diet regularly, but most of them do not exercise regularly due to their busy schedules. Thus, majority of the housemakers have awareness on balanced diet and their role in health. I think for the remaining minority group of people awareness should be spread through awareness creating programs for their wellness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003626
Title: Awareness on genetic factors in caries risk assessment among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Dental caries is a complex, chronic, multifactorial disease and one of the most prevalent diseases in industrialized and developing countries. Both genetic and environmental factors play a pivotal role in the formation of caries. Heredity has been linked with dental caries incidence in scientific literature for many years. Therefore, it is important to know the influence of genetic factors in the development of caries. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study is to create awareness among dental students about the contribution of genetic factors in caries risk assessment. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 105 college students in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. It was distributed through an online survey link, and results were collected and analyzed using SPSS software. Conclusion: The awareness and knowledge on genetic factors in caries risk assessment among dental students are not sufficient. Therefore, seminars and continuing dental education programs should be conducted to improve their knowledge.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003627
Title: Knowledge, awareness and perception about salivary markers in dental caries – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental caries is characterized by the destruction of tooth tissues by synergistic complex effects among acids generated from the fermentation of dietary carbohydrates by bacteria and susceptible host factors, such as teeth and saliva. Cavities are most commonly seen in patients with a lower salivary flow due to a decrease in the antibacterial, buffering and cleansing functions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, awareness and perception among dental students on salivary biomarkers in dental caries. Materials and Methods: The study participants answered a structured questionnaire to determine their knowledge and awareness regarding the biomarkers used in caries detection. Result: From this survey, 94% of the participants opted that saliva can be used in early diagnosis of dental caries. 62% of the students are aware that the predominantly prevalent caries associated species in humans to be Streptococcus mutans. Conclusion: From the survey conducted, it can be concluded that awareness among dental students about salivary markers in caries detection is fair and there is the need for continuous education and for formal inclusion of the methods used in detection of caries, in the students’ curriculum.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003628
Title: Awareness of gestational diabetes and its risk factors among pregnant women in Thiruvallur district
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: India has the largest diabetes population in the world and has been named the diabetes capital of the world. One of the subtypes of diabetes is the Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the prevalence of which is constantly increasing. GDM is a result of glucose tolerance in the body that is first detected during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in the Thiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu. The questionnaire was designed to collect information on demographic details such as the age, education, occupation, followed by questions which was mainly focused on the general awareness of DM and GDM, the risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and consequences of GDM. The source of knowledge of pregnant women was thus obtained. Result: The study shows that majority of the pregnant women, who took up the survey belonged to the age group of 20-30 years, majority of them belonging to a middle class economic families. It was found that among the 50 pregnant women that were surveyed, only 41.7% of the pregnant women were aware of GDM and also that GDM can occur for the first time during pregnancy. Overall, from this study, it was found that majority of the pregnant women in the Thiruvallur district were completely unaware of GDM and its risk factors. Conclusion: In the present day scenario, mass media plays a major role in enlightening people. It’s unfortunate that , the education of the pregnant women by the health workers is far less. It’s important for the doctors to educate and enlighten the women about GDM and its risk factors which could pose a potential threat to the fetus if left undiagnosed and untreated. Therefore, it’s necessary to spread awareness among the pregnant women in the rural as well as the urban areas to prevent complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003629
Title: Pain perception and patient discomfort between various dimensional initial nickel-titanium wires – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The key to a successful orthodontic therapy depends not only on manual skills and knowledge about treatment steps but also on knowledge and choice of materials used. One of the major components of fixed orthodontic therapy is the choice of wires. Orthodontic wires are defined as devices consisting of a wire conforming to the alveolar or dental arch, used as an anchorage in correcting irregularities in the position of the teeth. The history of these materials is as old as that of fixed orthodontic treatments and they present different features. With proper general knowledge, doctors can differentiate between wires and use the sufficient wire sequence suitable for each patient. This can increase the quality of treatment. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to assess the pain perception and patient discomfort between various dimensional nickel-titanium wires as well as the sequence of leveling wire selection according to the treatment plan.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003630
Title: Preference of antibiotics in pediatric dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to estimate the preference of antibiotics in pediatric dentistry. Introduction: Antibiotics are prescribed for oral conditions related to endodontic, oral surgical, and periodontal manifestations. Unwarranted use of antibiotics is reported in children, mostly for ear and dental infections. However, in children, increasing microbial resistance to antibiotics is a well-documented and is a serious global health concern. Antibiotic resistance is due to inappropriate use of antibiotics by clinicians. Materials and Methods: A set of questionnaire was framed and the survey was conducted among 85 dentists. This was done using Survey Planet. The answers given by dentists were studied and the use of antibiotics in pediatric dental practice was determined and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: There are many circumstances during dental treatment where antibiotics are prescribed by dentists to prevent further infection. When dentists were asked about whether they prescribe antibiotics to their pediatric patients, about 69.4% of them prescribed antibiotics and about 31.6% of them were not prescribing any kind of antibiotics for their pediatric patients. Amoxicillin is one of the most prescribed antibiotics in the field of dentistry. About 17.5% of dentists preferred amoxicillin as antibiotic to their pediatric patients. The most commonly used antibiotic in dental practice, penicillins, in general, were found to be the most commonly prescribed antibiotics by dentists, the most popular one being amoxicillin (24,25). About 13.1% of dentists prescribed penicillin as antibiotics. About 52.9% of dentists were unaware of the new generation of antibiotics and about 67.1% of dentists did not do any kind of antibiotic sensitivity test before prescribing antibiotics. Conclusion: Appropriate and correct use of antibiotics is essential to ensure that effective and safe treatment is available. Practices that may enhance microbial resistance should be avoided. To improve standards of care, dentists need to be up-to-date in their knowledge of pharmacology in dental education.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003631
Title: Antiallergic activity of alpha-lipoic acid
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The goal of the present study is to determine the alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) prevents the release of beta-hexosaminidase enzyme and proves its antiallergic activity. Materials and Methods: RBL-2H3 cells were cultured in minimum essential medium supplemented. The cells were seeded in 24-wells plate (5 × 105 cells/mL) and incubated to adhere at 37°C in 5% CO2 for 1.5 h. RBL-2H3 cells were sensitized with anti-DNP immunoglobulin E and incubated at 37°C in 5% CO2 for 24 h. The ALA with different concentrations (20, 40, 80m and 100 µg/ml) was dissolved in media and used for the further test. The cells were washed with 400 μL of Siraganian buffer (buffer A). The test sample (20 μL) solution was added to each well and incubated for 10 min, followed by addition of 20 μL of antigen at 37°C for 20 min. The supernatants were transferred into 96-well plate in 50 μL/wells and incubated with 50 μL of substrate p-nitrophenyl- N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminide (PNAG) at 37°C for 3 h. The reaction was stopped by adding 200 μL of stop solution (0.1 M Na2 CO3 /NaHCO3 , pH 10.0). The absorbance was measured with a microplate reader at 405 nm. Results: Zone of inhibition for different concentrations of ALA increases with concentration with the highest zone of inhibition was seen with the positive control (Chlorpheniramine). Therefore, inhibition of beta-hexosaminidase enzyme is seen with ALA. Conclusion: Hence, ALA inhibits beta-hexosaminidase enzyme which is responsible for allergic and anaphylactic reactions. Although the inhibition is not up to the mark as in chlorpheniramine, further researches with higher concentrations of ALA can be done to evaluate the efficiency of antiallergic activity as equal as chlorpheniramine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003632
Title: Awareness of non-communicable diseases among the school students-A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a disease that is not transmissible directly from one person to another. NCD includes mostly non-infectious, although there are some non-communicable infectious diseases such as parasitic diseases in which the parasite’s life cycle does not include direct host-to-host transmission. NCDs are the leading cause of death globally. The primary aim of this study was to assess the aware of NCD and its risk factors among school students. Materials and Methods: A standard questionnaire consists of 15 questions which were prepared based on the awareness of NCDs. It was distributed about 100 school students and the responses were studied and evaluated. Results and Discussion: Of 100, 44% were male and 56 were female students. From the results, it was clear that 49% of the participants were aware of NCDs while 18% are not and 33% of the participants were not sure of it. Among 100, 21% of the students reported that the diseases are common in male, 22% reported to be in female while 57% in both. About 42% of the participants reported that these diseases are hereditary, 23% reported as not while 35% of the students were not sure of it. Of 100, 90% of the students are aware of the prevention to NCDs. Conclusion: In this study, the students above the age group of 15 showed better response than the lower aged students. Since the lifestyle habits at this age have the greater influence of these diseases, awareness and knowledge about these diseases are important. Workshops, camps, and rallies should be conducted in school to increase the awareness of these diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003633
Title: The effect of cranberry fruit extract on alpha -synuclein protein expression using immunostaining techniques
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to identify the neuroprotective effect of cranberry fruit extract by reducing the release of this biomarker by immunostaining techniques. Objective: The present study is to find out the alpha-lipoic acid cranberry fruit extract on alpha-synuclein protein expression using immunostaining techniques. Materials and Methods: The neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were cultured and treated with various concentrations of cranberry fruit extract and were incubated with primary antibody alpha-synuclein and the antigen-antibody activity was visualized under a light microscope, and the results were quantified using image analysis software. Results: The study infers that when cranberry extract is added to the neurotoxic cell lines, the antigen-antibody reaction is interfered and as the concentration of cranberry fruit extract increases the corresponding decrease in the expression of the alpha-synuclein protein can be seen. Conclusion: Cranberry fruit extract proves to effectively reduce the expression of alpha-synuclein protein in neurotoxic cell lines so further research must be conducted in this field to discover the useful effects of cranberry so that it can be used as a neuroprotective agent in medicines to treat neurodegenerative disorders.