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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003705
Title: Anti-inflammatory activity of catechol derivatives on buccal tumor cell line TR146 in vitro
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most prevalent cancer of the oral cavity and the fifth most prevalent of all malignancies in males. Many researchers have attempted to develop new treatments that will improve the prognosis of SCC patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to test the anti-inflammatory potential of catechol derivatives I and II against oral SCC cells. Materials and Methods: The structurally similar two catechol derivatives I and II were analyzed for activity against the buccal tumor cells TR 146 cell line at various concentrations 1, 100, 250, 500 and 750 ng/ml and then incubated for 24 h. Results: Results showed that the levels of NO in the human buccal cancer cell line TR146 was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner upon treatment with catechol derivative I & II at different concentrations (1,100,250,500 and 750ng ) when compare to untreated control TR146 cells. Conclusion: Among the catechol derivatives, catechol derivative I was found to be more effective than the catechol derivative II. This may be due to the reason of positioning the functional group in their structures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003745
Title: Intelligent helmet for bikers using sensors
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bharath Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Nowadays, more bike accidents occur due to not wearing the helmets, alcohol consumption, rash driving, and violation of traffic rules. Many countries make it mandatory to wear the helmet, but still violation occurs which leads to the loss of life and damages to the environment. Objectives: To overcome this issue, initially, sensors in helmet check whether the rider wears the helmet or not and also a breath analyzer test. In case of any negativity, bike does not start. Materials: During the course of accident, the helmet uses the service of global system for mobile communications with the help of global positioning system it sends message with exact location to the ambulance or predefined contact. In helmet side, RF transmitter gets signals from those sensors on the basis of above-mentioned condition then encodes it to the receiver. Results and Conclusion: In bike side, receiver decodes which is continuously scanned by the PIC MC; accordingly, it takes the desired actions. Air pollution sensor is placed as it indicates the amount of pollution in air.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003699
Title: Comparative study on antibacterial effects of ethanolic leaf extracts of guava in variants of red and white pulp (Psidium guajava) against sensitive and chloramphenicol-resistant Staphylococcus aur
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java 45363, Indonesia
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Aim: This study aims to compare the antibacterial potential of red and white pulp guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against sensitive and chloramphenicol-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial effect of each guava leaf extract was evaluated against sensitive and chloramphenicol-resistant S. aureus using an agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the potential extract was determined using the macrodilution method. Results and Discussion: The antibacterial study showed that the red and white guava leaf extracts were potential to inhibit the sensitive S. aureus, but not to the resistant one. According to the data of inhibitory diameters against sensitive S. aureus, the ethanol extracts of the red guava leaves showed stronger inhibitory activity than the white guava. The MIC value of red guava leaf extracts was in the range of 0.195–0.391% w/v. Conclusion: The leaf extract of red pulp guava was found to be a potent antibacterial candidate for a natural anti-staphylococcal agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003706
Title: Awareness regarding caries excavation among undergraduate dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the world that can be both treated and prevented. There are several oral carious lesions, of which certain lesions can be excavated and certain lesions such as arrested caries are not essential to be removed .Hence altering the mode of treatment. The aim of this study is to analyze the knowledge regarding caries excavation among undergraduate dental students because many dental students are not aware about caries distinguishing features which may lead to misdiagnosis and eventually altering the treatment in their clinical practices. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 undergraduate dental students belonging to various dental institutions were given a questionnaire consisting of 10 questions regarding caries excavation. Results: According to the data analysis, even though the students were aware about caries excavation to some extent, a thorough knowledge was lagging in common among all the undergraduate dental students. Conclusion: All the students should be taught precisely regarding caries excavation using innovative ideas to improve better understanding, resulting in better treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003697
Title: A critical review on food protein-derived antihypertensive peptides
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India,
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Protein hydrolysates prepared from food sources are known to contain potent biologically active peptides. Bioactive peptides are highly used to treat a number of health-related diseases. Antihypertensive activity is the most studied till date, with bioactive peptides derived from food protein reported to have an edge over synthetic drugs. Food protein-derived peptides with specific sequences inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I), the major target for controlling elevated blood pressure levels. Mostly, the peptides with competitive inhibitor mode would inhibit the ACE-I effectively than non- competitive and uncompetitive modes. The emerging technologies in drug discovery studies facilitate the drug development process easier, even though the technologies provide a better platform for drug discovery, the more precise clinical and control measures are needed for effective release and functioning at target sites of food-derived bioactive peptides in human gastrointestinal system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003698
Title: Awareness of risk factors of osteoporosis among homemakers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to analyze the risk factors of osteoporosis among homemakers and to assess the knowledge of osteoporosis. Introduction: Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone. Bones that commonly break include the vertebrae in the spine, the bones of the forearms, and the hip. Osteoporosis may be due to lower than normal maximum bone mass and greater than normal bone loss. Osteoporosis may also occur due to a number of diseases or treatments including alcoholism, anorexia, hyperthyroidism, kidney diseases, and surgical removal of the ovaries. Materials and Methods: An online survey with questioner of limited questions among 100 homemakers was conducted. Significantly results were taken statistically analyzed. Conclusion: People suffering from osteoporosis and people feeling tired when walking or standing for long time. Awareness may be created about the symptoms of osteoporosis, intake of proper diet rich in calcium and Vitamin D, lifestyle modifications to maintain a healthy and balanced life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003701
Title: Treatment outcome of oral mucocele with dexamethasone drug: A short communication
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Short Note
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: This article mainly focuses on the use of dexamethasone as interlesional injection for the treatment of oral mucocele among the various other treatment options. Oral mucocele is accumulation of mucus caused by the damage to the minor salivary gland, it appears slightly transparent with bluish tinge. It is a very common lesion encountered in our day-to- day practice. Conclusion: The non- surgical outcome of dexamethasone used as interlesional injection proved to be simple, cost effective and patients acceptance to this non-surgical method was on the higher note.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003702
Title: Prophylactic lornoxicam drug on relieving post-operative pain after oral surgery: A review literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The aim of the article was to provide the necessary information for the clinicians on painless removal of tooth and how to minimize the post‑operative pain effectively by the usage of anti‑analgesic drugs. This article throws insight into the usage of selective cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) inhibitors like lornoxicam prophylactically as a measure to control the post‑operative pain. Conclusion: On reviewing the article from Aoki et al. and Yamaguchi et al., it is evident that the usage of selective COX‑2 inhibitor like lornoxicam provided much relief from post‑operative pain when administered prophylactically before tooth extraction. Moreover, this drug was found to be effective for the patients with cardiac anomalies, who report to the clinician with tooth pain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00003703
Title: Awareness on risk factors of air pollution among college students – A survey
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Air pollution is of serious concern across the globe. It is increased by rapid growth in population and increased industrialization. The aim of this study is to create awareness about the risk factors of air pollution among college students. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire based study was administered to the participants through an online survey planet link. Results and Conclusion: The majority of participants are aware of risk factors and adverse effects of air pollustion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003708
Title: Antihemolytic activity of Solanum virginianum
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to find the antihemolytic activity of Solanum virginianum. Background: Medicinal plant S. virginianum L is belong to the family Solanaceae, commonly known as yellow berried nightshade. Recent scientific studies have emphasized the possible use of S. virginianum in modern medicine. Hemolysis is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g., blood plasma). The antihemolytic activity of the plant extract is determined using the antihemolysis formula and spectrophotometric method. Materials and Methods: The study deals with the antihemolysis potential of S. virginianum ethanol is extract. An erythrocytes suspension is created from a “A” positive patient and a hemolytic activity is performed by an in vitro procedure. Antihemolytic potential of the extract was inspected by spectrophotometric procedure checked by addition of the plant and compared with the standard. The level of percentage hemolysis by the extracts was calculated according to the following formula: % of hemolysis = At-An/Ac-Anx100. Results: The results of this study conclude that the ethanol extracts from the plant of S. virginianum are non/less toxic to the human erythrocytes. Conclusion: The test tube with the strongest concentration of the plant extract had a hemolytic action whereas the test tube with the weakest plant extract had an antihemolytic action. Through the experiment, the hemolytic activity of the S. virginianum plant extract significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003709
Title: Post-operative complications after extraction – A review of literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The most common dental procedure done in dental clinics is the extraction of teeth. Post-extraction complications occur occasionally. In such instances, the dentist should be aware of the treatment procedures and management of post-extraction complications. Herein, we discuss the complications after extraction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003710
Title: Awareness of plastic hazards among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to create and assess the awareness of plastic hazards among dental students. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey study was carried out at Saveetha Dental College on the awareness of plastic hazards. A well-structured questionnaire was prepared, distributed, and collected when it was filled by the undergraduate student. The questionnaire mainly evaluated the undergraduates basic awareness of the subject of plastic hazards, its effects and management of the hazard. The result was then statistically analyzed and processed. Results: Most of the participants in the settings had the awareness of hazards of plastic bag usage. Plastics are commonly used by the people due to their easy availability and ease of handling goods. Females were found to use plastics more often than males in shopping, carrying goods, etc. The results were graphically represented and then analyzed. Conclusion: Plastic pollution can lead to various health problems such as lung diseases, skin diseases, reproductive problems, and growth and maturation problems. Therefore, reducing the use of plastic and increasing the use of biodegradable and jute bags can reduce plastic pollution. However, there is a need for spreading the awareness of using alternative strategies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003711
Title: Oral hygiene status among visually handicapped
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral hygiene has a great impact on the overall health and well-being of an individual. Maintenance of oral hygiene is particularly challenging in people with -special needs. Special needs are a term used in clinical diagnostics and functional development to describe individuals who require assistance for disabilities that may be medical or psychological. Visually handicapped refers to those individuals that are unable to carry out normal activities due to the defects of vision. Materials and Methods: This study was carried among 45 visually handicapped individuals. A survey was conducted about the awareness and knowledge of oral hygiene and the oral hygiene status was also analyzed for every individual (National Institution for the Blind, Poonamallee). The data were collected and analyzed accordingly. Results: About 46% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status and 35% had good hygiene followed by 19% having poor oral hygiene. The majority used toothbrush and toothpaste; among the individuals examined, 90% used manual toothbrush and toothpaste to clean their teeth, whereas 8% used toothbrush and powder. 2% used finger and salt as medium for cleaning their teeth. While a predominant number of sample population 72% brushed only once daily, only 27% of the students brushed twice daily. Conclusion: As per the present study, while it is evident that visually impaired individuals have fair oral hygiene status, they lack knowledge about proper brushing techniques which were one of the reasons for high rate of dental caries. Early identification of caries and proper guideline for maintenances of oral hygiene should be well informed to parents, guardians, and school teachers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003712
Title: A questionnaire survey about oral hygiene among school children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and create awareness among schoolchildren about oral hygiene. Materials and Methods: SA cross-sectional pilot study was conducted among 100 schoolchildren in the age group of 12–14 years; both male and female students (male = 53 and female = 47) were included in the study. A self-made questionnaire which had 20 questions to evaluate the knowledge about oral hygiene maintenance was formulated. The questionnaire was distributed to the children and the responses were collected and tabulated. Results: About 75% of the students brush twice daily. About 55% of the students use fluoridated toothpaste. Only 35% of the students used mouthwash and only 10% used floss. Around 60% of the students used tongue cleaner. Only 5% of the students brush after every meal and 93% gargle their mouth after a meal. About 78% of the children consider sweets to be a cause for dental caries and around 76% consider soft drinks harmful for the teeth. Around 81 students have noticed bleeding gums. 86% of the children considered that dental and general health go hand in hand. 95% of the children considered that dental visit is necessary, but only 73% had regular visits. About 98% of the students knew that bacterium is the cause of dental decay. Around 69% of the students did not visit the dentist because of fear and 31% did not visit the dentist because of the cost of treatment. Around 66% of the students changed their toothbrush once in 3 months and around 85% used a horizontal method of brushing. 66% of children had knowledge about special cements available for prevention of decay. Conclusion: The overall knowledge about oral hygiene among the children was moderate. More knowledge must be imparted about flossing, brushing techniques, and the preventive aids available for dental caries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003713
Title: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices on platelet-rich plasma among dental students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a part of the plasma fraction of autologous blood having concentration of platelet above baseline. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of dental undergraduate students regarding PRP. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was given to 100 dental students comprising of questions to evaluate the knowledge about PRP. The questionnaire was administered through online survey planet link. Results and conclusion: The data was statistically analyzed and interpreted. Awareness may be created to dental students through seminars and workshops about the significance of platelet – rich plasma.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003714
Title: Identification and target prediction of small miRNA
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to identify, target, and predict small miRNA. Materials and Methods: Small RNA with <50 nucleotides long non-coding RNA has various functions such as gene regulation, we took one such RNA from non-coding RNA database from NCBI and analyzed its structure and function. Quality of small RNA sequencing data of Drosophila melanogaster downloaded from NCBI was checked using next-generation sequencing, FastQC and adapters were removed using cutadapt tool. The quality check was performed before and after trimming. Results: From the data, we have obtained the miRNA which had the highest score seemed to have many regulatory functions and it is surprising to know how one miRNA could be responsible for 10 important functions. Conclusion: Earlier it was considered that the exon part was more clinically significant, but the current trend is that the miRNA which is obtained from the intron part is of equal importance and has a lot of clinical significance which could be discovered in future large scale researches.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003715
Title: Identification of sequence patterns across life forms of BARX1 gene involved in determining the shape and position of teeth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: There is a direct genetic control on the process of odontogenesis, which is responsible in determining the position, number, size and shape of the teeth so formed. Bioinformatics tools are used to identify and report any variations in BARX1 gene from different population and their related implications in dental treatment. Materials and Methods: Mining of NCBI database, multiple sequence alignment MEGA7 tool, distance matrix table generated, phylogeny tree assembled and then a consensus sequencer is used to formulate the final results of the variation in gene sequences. Results and Conclusion: The identified pattern is found to be similar as to that present in rat, mouse, human, which all have teeth. However each of these animals have a variation in the number of amino acids and the sequence position in which the pattern is observed, as the pattern is taken from that particular sequence where the pattern is significant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003717
Title: Awareness on effective use of meat tenderizers among chefs in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The objective of the study was to create awareness about meat tenderizers among chefs. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey study was carried out among 30 chefs working in different hotels in Chennai on the awareness of meat tenderizers and its effect on taste and cooking time. A well-structured questionnaire was prepared, distributed and collected after it was filled by the chefs. The questionnaire evaluated the knowledge and awareness among chefs about the usage of meat tenderizers, factors affecting the tenderization and its effect on the taste, quality, and cooking time. Results and Conclusion: The results was statistically analyzed. Chefs were aware of the use and presence of meat tenderizers in the market, and only some of them were well-versed with its effects. Regarding the mechanism of action of meat tenderizers, there may be a need for raising awareness and about the tenderizing techniques.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003718
Title: Health-related quality of life with clear aligner therapy – A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopeadics, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Faculty of Dentistry, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Maduravoyal, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, Ind
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Aim: The objective of this systemic review is to systematically investigate and appraise the quality of life (QOL) most up- to-date evidence regarding the current status of knowledge regarding the QOL with clear aligner therapy. The secondary objective is to assess whether clear aligner therapy downregulated orthodontic pain level and speech impairment. Materials and Methods: This review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines systematically searching the six databases including PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, LILACS, Directory of Open Access Journals, and OpenGrey. Results: This systematic review comprises of most up-to-date evidence from nine articles answering the review questions. Conclusion: The QOL including a reduction in speech difficulties and pain with clear aligner treatment has shown definite improvement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003719
Title: Association of MMP8 (-799C/T) (rs11225395) gene polymorphism and chronic periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between MMP8 (-799C/T) gene polymorphism and chronic periodontitis (CP). Materials and Methods: A total of 100 participants were recruited for this study, which included 50 CP and 50 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood collected from the participants. DNA was amplified using specific primers flanking the SfcI region of MMP8 (-799C/T) gene. The amplicon was further subjected to genotyping using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using SfcI enzyme. The genotype obtained based on RFLP pattern was recorded and used for statistical analysis. The distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies in the CP and control groups was compared using the Chi-square test. Results: The gene frequency and allele frequency were found to be similar in both groups. Conclusion: The present study denotes that the MMP8 (-799C/T) polymorphism is not associated with CP in the study group analyzed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003720
Title: Oral health problems in patients receiving orthodontic treatment - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Patients receiving orthodontic treatment often report on varying oral complications throughout orthodontic treatment. Complications may be of varying degree of pain, whereby patients often complain. Along with the benefits of orthodontic procedure, it has also many complications which are faced by the patients undergoing the treatment. The complications include pain, food accumulation under brackets, and discomfort associated with the treatment. Studies have shown that most common problems associated with malocclusions are ulcers. Aim: This study aims to assess the oral health problems in patients receiving orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A survey of nine questionnaires was designed to evaluate patient’s complications throughout orthodontic treatment. Questionnaire was given to the patients wearing orthodontic appliance. Sheet is filled by the patients. Uneducated patients were guided chairside with each question explained along with answers for support. Completed questionnaires were received from 50 patients. Results: Based on the questionnaire given, 15% of the patients undergone orthodontic treatment during the age of 13–15 while 25% of them at the age of 15–18 and the remaining 60% are >18 years of age. 62% of the patients undergone orthodontic treatment due to malalignment of teeth, 17% due to improper chewing, 13% due to difficulty in speech, and the remaining 8% due to facial appearance. Conclusion: This survey is done to assess the problems faced by patients during orthodontic treatment and bring awareness on the same.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003721
Title: Virtual articulators in prosthodontics - Review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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In this modern world of advanced in information technology, it has greatly improved our standard of living, gaining experience, communicate, and entertain. Many innovative and technological advancements have been introduced in the field of dentistry. The change in trends from numerous mechanical articulator designs to recently developed virtual articulators is an advance in the development of articulator design. Virtual technologies in dentistry are used to provide better education and training by simulating complex recording of mandibular movements and enhancing procedures that are traditionally limited, such as work with the mechanical articulator. The virtual articulator is intended to use as a tool for the analysis of the complex static and dynamic occlusal relations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003722
Title: Impact of socio-behavioral factors on oral health among schoolchildren in a private school in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the socio-behavioral factors and their impact on oral health among private school children. Objective: This study is intended to assess the socio-behavioral factors and its effect on oral health among school children. Background: The incidence of dental caries is about 73% among the schoolchildren in India and this can be attributed to socio-behavior factors such as dietary habits, improper brushing techniques, socioeconomic status, and oral hygiene practices. Refined carbohydrate consumption is an important factor in the development of dental caries, and the adverse effect is related to both the frequency and the amount of intake of free sugars. This impact on oral health may affect the regular school visit and their attitude toward studies. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 100 students between 8 and 12 years’ age group. This study was conducted among private schoolchildren, and a questionnaire-based survey was taken. It was a self-formulated questionnaire containing 12 questions and distributed among private schoolchildren. Conclusion: Parents and schoolteachers are important informants in oral health, and their involvement should be considered in oral health education program for children. The school may serve as an effective platform for promotion of oral health in relation to children as well as families.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003723
Title: Pseudoelasticity of NiTi wires
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Deaprtment of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Nickel–titanium (NiTi) wires show exceptional features in terms of elasticity and shape memory effects. However, clinical applications request a deeper knowledge of these properties to allow the professional to use them in a rational manner. In addition, the necessary information regarding each alloy often does not correspond to the information given by the manufacturer. The main objective of the study is to determine the pseudoelastic properties of the NiTi alloys. Laboratory tests are the only means to observe the real behavior of these materials including temperature transition range (TTR) and applied tensions. However, it is also possible to determine in which TTR these alloys change the crystalline structure.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003724
Title: Biodentine as a pulpotomy agent
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Biodentine is a calcium silicate primarily based material that has drawn attention in recent years and has been advocated to be employed in varied clinical applications such as root perforations, apexification, resorptions, retrograde fillings, pulp capping procedures, and dentin replacement. There has been sizeable analysis performed on this material since it is launching; but, there is scarce range of review articles that collate info and knowledge obtained from these studies. The aim of this text was to review the clinical applications and blessings of biodentine within the medical specialty practice. Electronic search of English scientific papers from 1992 to 2015 was accomplished exploitation saloon master’s degree program. The subsequent search terms used were clinical applications, biodentine, medical specialty dental medicine, children, advantages, dentin substitute, pulp medical care, root filling, and tooth repair. Due to its major blessings and distinctive options additionally as its ability to beat the disadvantages of alternative materials, biodentine has nice potential to revolutionize the various aspects of managing each primary and permanent in odontology additionally as operative dental medicine. The purpose of this text was to review the clinical applications of biodentine as a pulpotomy agent within the medical specialty practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003725
Title: Osteoradionecrosis of the jaw
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a problem with bone healing, particularly in the jawbone. It can occur after high doses of radiation have decreased blood supply to the affected bone, causing the bone to die from lack of oxygen. Bones that have died are unable to heal properly after procedures or surgery involving them. The treatment of head and neck cancer remains a challenge. Despite advances in surgical reconstructive techniques, most patients will require adjuvant therapy in the form of radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy to improve locoregional control. The short- and long-term side effects of radiotherapy can be difficult to treat. In this review, the causative effects and pathogenesis of ORN of the mandible will be highlighted. In addition, preventive measures and clinical features of radiotherapy-induced damage will be presented. Finally, medical and surgical management of ORN, as well as, reconstructive surgery of the mandible will be discussed. At the end of this paper, the reader should have up to date knowledge concerning the etiology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with ORN of the mandible.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00003726
Title: Parameters of quality control of ganda (Allium odorum L.) leaf extract
Category: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
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Aim: The aim of this research was to determine quality control parameters daun ganda (Allium odorum L.) leaves extract. Material and Methods: Ganda (A. odorum) leaves were collected from Monaco plantations, Lembang, West Java and determined at the Taxonomy Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods included These parameters include extract specific gravity, drying losses, moisture content, volatile oil content, total ash content, acid insoluble ash content, water-soluble compounds, ethanol soluble compounds, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: The results of the analysis were as follows: Extract specific gravity 1.19–2.16, drying losses 7.06–7.75%, moisture content 11.9–14%, essential oil content 0.06%, total ash content 4–6.4%, acid insoluble ash content 0.7–1.2%, levels of water-soluble compounds 9.12–12.9%, and levels of ethanol soluble compounds 13.6–13.75%. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the extract contained alkaloid compounds, flavonoids, steroids, polyphenols, quinones, and monoterpenoid/sesquiterpenoid. The results of GC-MS show that the extract contains compounds that have molecular weights 167, 207, 467, 495, and 496 and other undetectable compounds. Conclusion: The results of this determination could be used as a preliminary description of the quality of ganda leaf extract quality.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003727
Title: Cytotoxic potential of fenugreek extract on oral cancer cell lines – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The main objective of this study is to analyze the cytotoxic effect of fenugreek extract on the oral cancer cell lines (KB cell lines). Materials and Methods: KB cell line – KB cell line was procured from NCCs, Pune, and maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium. Test drug – fenugreek extract was used. Cytotoxic assay – cytotoxicity of the extract was analyzed by 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and compared with standard drug cisplatin. Results and Discussion: Results were expressed as mean SD. Statistical significance was determined by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. From the study, it is evident that fenugreek extract possessed cytotoxic potential against KB cell line in dose-dependent manner as compared to the standard drug cisplatin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003728
Title: Management of perforation repair
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Despite the development of endodontic therapy, adverse complications can arise during treatment, resulting in a questionable prognosis; root perforation is one such complication. Root perforations located along different thirds of the root canal are associated with practitioner error during the operative stages of endodontic treatment, particularly with failure to observe the anatomic singularities of different tooth types. Various materials have been suggested and used to repair root canal perforations, including calcium hydroxide, silver amalgam, mineral trioxide aggregate, hydroxyapatite, and glass ionomer cement. Root perforation causes communication of tooth to the surrounding tissues which may act as the source of infection if left untreated. Treatment of perforation at the right time reduces the risk of teeth from being severely infected. One should know how to manage perforation to minimize the infective factor damaging the tooth. Successful treatment of root perforation with proper diagnosis and treatment reduces the risk of infection.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003729
Title: Anti-inflammatory activity of Abutilon indicum
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Naturally occurring plants played an important role in discovery in many therapeutic agents. It has been shown to have beneficial role such as therapeutic uses including beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, antibiotic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of Abutilon indicum ethanolic extract by in vitro analysis. Materials and Methods: The plant leaf powder was loaded into Soxhlet extractor and subjected to extraction with ethanol. After extraction, the solvent was distilled off and the extracts were concentrated on water bath to a dry residue and kept in a desiccator. Results: Protein denaturation is a process in which proteins lose their tertiary structure and secondary structure by application of external stress or compound, such as strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent or heat. Denaturation of proteins is a well-documented cause of inflammation. As part of the investigation on the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity, ability of plant extract to inhibit protein denaturation was studied. It was effective in inhibiting heat-induced albumin denaturation. Maximum inhibition of 88% was observed at 500 μg/ml. Aspirin a standard anti-inflammatory drug showed the maximum inhibition 99% at the concentration of 100 μg/ml compared with control. Conclusion: Results indicate that the methanol extracts of A. indicum possess anti-inflammatory properties. These activities may be due to the strong occurrence of polyphenolic compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and phenols. The extract fractions serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger or acting possibly as primary oxidants and inhibited the heat-induced albumin denaturation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003730
Title: Salivary hemoglobin: A biomarker in periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the current study is to estimate the levels of salivary hemoglobin and examine whether the cutoff values from these tests could be used as a periodontal disease screening tool. Methods: The salivary hemoglobin was estimated for 45 patients using cynmethemoglobin method. 100 μL of saliva was added to 5000 μL of Drabkin’s solution and incubated for 20 min, and the optical density was measured using colorimeter under 540 nm wavelength. The optical density of standard, test, and blank was obtained, and the results were calculated and tabulated. Results: In the current study, the mean hemoglobin value in the periodontitis group which was 3.1 μg/dl and the gingivitis group which was 0.71 μg/dl was significantly very high when compared to control group which was 0.1 μg/dl. Conclusion: Salivary hemoglobin levels can be used as a noninvasive, economic tool for periodontal screening in mass population and a viable alternative for predicting prognosis and treatment options.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003731
Title: Awareness of diabetes among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In India, nearly 35 million people are affected by diabetes. This could cause large number of devastating problem. The common risk factors are obesity, family history, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Health education is considered as an important method to improve knowledge and bring about change. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Saveetha Dental College in Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. An 18-item questionnaire was self-prepared and circulated among 100 participants. The data were tabulated and the results were obtained using the SPSS software. Results: Patient’s age range from 30 to 50 was highly affected by diabetes. About 64% of the participants are affected with diabetes and 36% are not affected. About 40% of them are not aware of the preventive measures. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus poses a major health challenge both epidemiologically and economically. However, awareness of this condition among population is medium.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003732
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and attitude on hepatitis B infection among medical students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Hepatitis is a seditious disease of the liver. It may lead to perpetual liver injury including hepatocellular carcinoma or liver cirrhosis and may eventually lead to mortality. Health-care workers owing to their frequent interaction with patients are at a greater danger of procuring this disease. Medical students have a very significant role in stopping the disease by enlightening the knowledge about the disease among themselves and the patients they treat. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared consisting of 20 questions which was sent as an online survey to 120 medical students from various colleges across the world (multicenter study). The online survey will be created by the use of survey planet software, and at the end, all the data were collected, compiled, and analyzed for statistical difference. Results and Conclusion: The students require more knowledge and awareness not on the actual disease itself but on how to protect themselves against it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003733
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental practitioners about cone-beam computed tomography and its applications in dentistry – A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a radiographic imaging method that allows accurate, three‑dimensional imaging of hard tissue structures. CBCT is the most significant among the diagnostic imaging modalities that have emerged recently. The imaging produced in CBCT is capable of providing higher diagnostic quality, with shorter scanning times. Aim and Objective: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice on dental practitioners about CBCT and its applications. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice on CBCT and its applications in dentistry. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 dental practitioners who included both general dentists and specialty dentists. The results were collected and statistics was tabulated using Chi‑square test. Results: About 56% of dental practitioners felt that CBCT was necessary in their workplace and 69% rely on radiologist for interpreting the images. 87% prefer CBCT over CT to study maxillofacial region. They prefer CBCT for implant placement (44%), maxillofacial trauma (39%), and locating accessory canals (20%). Conclusion: From this study, we come to know that the dental practitioners have adequate knowledge about CBCT and its applications in dentistry and more practice is recommended.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00003734
Title: Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles from Phyllanthus emblica extract
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Nanoparticles are now being viewed as fundamental or the basic building blocks of nanotechnology. The most significant property of nanoparticles is that they exhibit large surface area to volume ratio. The most efficient and effective nanoparticles today studied are the ones made of noble metals like that of silver (Ag), gold (Au), or platinum (Pt). The presence of biomolecules of the plant capped in AgNPs is found by Fourier transform-infrared analysis, shape and size, examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). From XRD, the average size of AgNPs is found to be around 15 nm. Atomic force microscope proves to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. Materials and Methods: Plant sample was collected from phytolabs and is extracted using aqueous method. 1 g of sample with water is boiled for 10 min at 55°C. The extract was filtered. To the filtrate, 1 molar silver nitrate solution was prepared. Overnight incubation was done in shake incubator. Results and Discussion: Ultraviolet spectroscopy was taken. The sample was taken at 200–800 nm. Out of which the peak was seen at 420 nm. Fourier transform infrared results confirm the presence of functional groups. SEM shows the image of synthesized silver nanoparticles from Phyllanthus emblica. The image clearly indicates the particle size range in 138 nm. Conclusion: Silver nanoparticles have been used as an antimicrobial agent in many industries. Products made from these are also approved by developed countries such as US, UK, and China. These antimicrobial activities are found useful for water treatment. Because of its ability to kill microorganisms, it offers an alternative to conventional methods and can be used in applications such as bandages, food and water storage, and pharmaceutical waste management. Furthermore, nanopaints are made using this.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003735
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding management of pregnant patients on a dental chair among undergraduate dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A pregnant woman goes through an array of changes in her body which could be anatomical, physiological, and psychological. These changes are mediated by hormones which could result in dental ailment or any pre-existing dental problem may worsen during pregnancy, requiring a dentist’s attention. A pregnant woman seeking dental treatment in a dental institution is not very uncommon. Although under the supervision of expertise, these pregnant women are attended by dental students and residents, the in-depth knowledge of treating a pregnant patient is questionable. Thus, this study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the dental undergraduate students about the management of pregnant women on a dental chair. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was designed to evaluate the awareness about the management of pregnant women on a dental chair among undergraduate dental students. The study population included the dental students to whom the questionnaires were submitted. All students in the study voluntarily completed a questionnaire consisting of 10 close-ended questions. Results: The results showed that most of the participants were aware about the management of pregnant women in a dental clinic. Conclusion: A dental undergraduate student must be trained efficiently to treat a pregnant woman. In this way, the taboo of objecting dental treatment to a gravid woman can be prevented.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003736
Title: Awareness on symptoms of anemia among women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Anemia is a condition that develops when there is an insufficient red blood cell or hemoglobin in the blood. It adversely affects cognitive and motor development and causes fatigue and low productivity. Common symptoms include tiredness, weakness, and shortness of breath. The normal hemoglobin level for men is 13-17 g/dL and for women is 12–15 g/dL. The aim of this study is to determine the awareness of symptoms of anemia in women. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on randomly selected women. The questions assessed their basic knowledge and awareness regarding anemia. Data were statistically analyzed and the results were obtained. Results: About 65% of women were aware about all aspects of anemia, but there were a high number of individuals who were unaware. Discussion: The possible results could be due to insufficient intake of iron-rich food and may also be due to various reasons such as heavy menstrual bleeding, cancer, decreased red blood cell (RBC) production or destruction of RBC cells, and chronic diseases. Conclusion: Prevention is better than cure, and thus, women should consider consulting a doctor or dietician to prevent it. It is important to raise awareness among women by all possible means and also the students so that they could pass on the information to their family regarding it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003737
Title: A survey on the student engagement in physiology education among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Retrieval practice and flipped classrooms are kinds of deep learning techniques. Flipped classroom alters the conventional learning environment and brings out innovation and creativity in the teaching and learning process. The flipped classroom will enhance the way the students receive information from their teachers. This improves a better understanding of the context, improves the cognitive skills, and enhances the conceptual learning of the students. Materials and Methods: A survey was taken among 100 dental students, and a questionnaire was distributed to find out how and in what ways students were engaged in deep learning and exploring techniques and how they performed active learning strategies. Results: According to the results and the statics made, it is found that more than 45% of the student population has found flipped classroom far better than a regular classroom. A flipped classroom is more of a blend of online and activity based one rather than a normal teacher based one. It improves team skills, learning methodologies, and various other techniques. The concept of delivering content varies from person to person according to their own view of perspective. Conclusion: Although traditional way of learning is practiced all over the world at times, only the flipped classroom comes hand in hand where students recall a concept of interest from memory.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003738
Title: Anti-inflammatory activity of heartwood of Acacia catechu Willd.: Preliminary analysis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was done to assess the anti-inflammatory property of heartwood of Acacia catechu Willd. through protein denaturation test. Materials and Methods: The test solution, standard solution, product control, and test control solutions were incubated at 37°C for 20 min and heated for 3 min and all the solutions were analyzed by spectrophotometer to obtain their optical density and the inhibition percentage was called using a standard formula for varying concentration of the A. catechu Willd. and the results were tabulated and compared with the inhibition percentage of diclofenac sodium which is a standard anti-inflammatory drug. Results: Heartwood of A. catechu Willd. has shown mild anti-inflammatory activity when compared to the diclofenac sodium which is a standard anti-inflammatory activity. There is also an increase in the anti- inflammatory activity with increase in concentration of the test substrate. Conclusion: It is a promising alternative for the management of candidates with autoimmune inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. The use of these extracts will be greatly beneficial in inhibition of protein denaturation which causes the inflammation and, hence, can be used for the treatment of arthritis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003739
Title: In silico modeling and ligand binding site analysis in homocysteine hydrolase
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Center for Excellence in Paper Based Microfluidics, School of Bio Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Several homocysteine hydrolases have been previously been reported for the hydration process of amino acid homocysteine. AdoHcyase is an widely present in all types of cells act as catalyst which needs cofactor substrate as NAD+. Materials and Methods: Search for fragments that fit in the binding site, interaction sites deduced from protein, use de novo design, use of fragment library. Results and Discussion: AdoHcyase is a highly homologous enzyme with the polypeptide chain between 430 and 470 amino acids. It is reported to contain glycine-rich domains in the backbone sequence of AdoHcyase, in which the binding site is believed to be engaged with NAD coenzyme. Conclusions: In the present examination, pharmacophore mapping and Ludi collaboration were determined for fortifying the official of ligand (an inhibitor) with the same enzyme property as mentioned above as homocysteine hydrolase.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003740
Title: Recent advances in cognitive gene diabetic database
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, Center for Excellence in Paper-based Microfluidics, School of Bioengineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil
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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle disorder with genetic predisposition, which is clinically manageable in a few cases. We have created a database for those people who work exclusively on diabetes. This database is going to enhance the way they work by simplifying the whole process of accessing several databases at several instances. As a boon to the researchers, this database is going to be a freeware. Materials and Methods: The operating system is Microsoft Windows, the front end and the back end being hypertext preprocessor and MySQL, respectively. I have used WAMP as my web server. Results and Discussion: As a fundamental requirement, all the genes that are involved in causing this atopy are included in the database and can be retrieved at any moment if needed. Moreover, the corresponding conserved domain sequence, protein parameters, as well as the protein motif, its positions, and descriptions can be retrieved. Conclusion: The information that are found in future that contributes to this disorder will also be added to the database as and when they are discovered. Apart from this, some of the salient and significant information pertaining to diabetes can also be found.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00003741
Title: Design of drug molecule-based structure for SMAD3 protein and its in silico investigations of leukemia utilizing bioinformatics software
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Bio-Engineering, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The current study mainly focus on the drug designing of proteins responsible in producing leukemia and the specific inhibitors were identified. Materials and Methods: PTHrP emerged to be the best inhibitor for the protein SMAD3. The precise reason for it was its docking energy which was the lowest (docked energy = −29.73), among all other inhibitors used. Hence, the conclusion is that SMAD3 is the best inhibitor, for SMAD3. Results and Discussion: Hence, the task was completed successfully. There are many reasons and factors responsible for induction of cancer. Conclusion: Leukemia is a type of cancer in blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an irregular proliferation of white blood cells.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-FPE-00003742
Title: Production of animal feed protein from Vigna unguiculata and Cicer arietinum
Category: Food Processing and Engineering
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of IBT, BIHER, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Single cell proteins are rich essential in nutritive aminoacids, the building blocks of protein are highly essential for the maintenance of the living system. SCP is used as animal feed and dietary rich food for humans. Many raw materials are used for the production of SCP. Results and Discussion: The present work was carried out to extract a single cell protein from yeast using Vignaunguriculata and Cicer arietinums substrate. The maximum yield of crude protein was observed in 15days of fermentation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003743
Title: Hearing loss analysis using audiometry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The etiology of hearing misfortune is multifactorial, which makes the analysis a difficult exercise and frequently an unsolved puzzle. While unadulterated tone audiometry is an obligatory examination, others, for example, research facility and radiology depend on clinical assessment. Materials: This current report’s on the examination of the connection between self-detailed commotion presentation amid relaxation activities and audiological indicators, including measured hearing threshold levels and tinnitus. Result: The research was conducted by cross-sectional survey of 1432 individuals from 11 to 35 years old. The methodology included a full audiometric assessment including otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, otoacoustic emission, and tympanometry, hearing loss investigation, diagnosis, evoked response audiometry radiology, and deafness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003744
Title: Hidden Markov model-based cough sound analysis for classification of asthma and pneumonia in pediatric
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Isolating pediatric asthma from pediatric pneumonia is one of the serious issues in remote territories. These sicknesses have covering side effects, however, require radically extraordinary medicines. Existing rules for pneumonia order in asset poor areas from the World Health Organization require the utilization of bronchodilator test to isolate asthma from pneumonia. In any case, bronchodilator is a costly test to direct and not effectively accessible in remote regions. The outcome of this work has the potential to transform the way the pneumonia/asthma is managed in remote resource-limited settings of the world. In crafted by this paper, we dissected hack sound information from 20 subjects (10 pneumonia and 10 asthma patients). Utilizing scientific highlights of hack sounds, a Hidden Markov model classifier was prepared to distinguish pneumonic hack and asthmatic hack. At that point by registering pneumonic cough index, every patient was delegated either into pneumonia or asthma. Proposed strategy accomplished a precision of 90% (affectability=100% and explicitness=80%) in arranging pneumonia and asthma patients. Our outcomes demonstrate that hack sound conveys basic data which can be utilized to isolate asthma patients from pneumonia. Proposed strategy in this paper indicates potential to turn into an option for bronchodilator test in the asset poor zones of the world.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003746
Title: Cytotoxic and gene expression study of KRAS gene in lung cancer cell line of a549 treated with Tinospora cordifolia extract
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Bio-Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: There has been global resurgence of interest in herbal drugs in the recent past. Though herbal medicines are effective in the treatment of various ailments very often these drugs are unscientifically exploited or improperly used. Materials and Methods: Therefore, these herbal drugs deserve detailed studies in the light of modern medicine. In spite of synthetic drugs, herbal drugs have their place in therapy. Results and Discussion: Their effectiveness, low-cost and comparative freedom from serious toxic effects makes these medicines not only popular but also an acceptable mode of treating diseases even in modern times. Medicinal plants are those plants that are used in treating and preventing specific human diseases. Conclusion: It can be treated by using medications and should not be used in most harmful cases. Chemical drugs cannot be used to treat such type of harmful diseases.Still, the use of plants as a source of medicine is very much important for human beings. Identify medicinal and how to use them is so important.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003747
Title: Prediction and calculation of physiochemical properties using structural bioinformatics and ASAP tools
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Bio-Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: Amino acids are little bio-particles with different properties. The capacity to ascertain the physiochemical properties of proteins is pivotal in many research regions, for example, tranquilize plan, protein displaying and basic bioinformatics. The physiochemical properties of the protein decides its collaboration with different atoms and subsequently its capacity. Foreseeing the physiochemical properties of protein and translating its capacity is of extraordinary significance in the field of medication and life science. Materials and Methods: The point of this work is to create python based programming with graphical UI for anticipating the physiochemical and antigenic properties of protein. Thus the instrument was named as ASAP-Analysis of protein succession and antigenicity expectation. Results and Discussion: ASAP predicts the antigenicity of the protein succession from its amino corrosive arrangement, in light of Chou Fasman turns and antigenic file. ASAP computes different physiochemical properties that is required for invitro tests. Conclusion: Thus ASAP utilizes standardization esteems that expansion the affectability of the apparatus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003748
Title: Docking and homology modeling of human T-helper cells for various SCFV fragments domains to block the access of GP120
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus which directly attacks human immune system as well as certain body organs such as brain kidneys and heart. The resistant framework is comprised of unique cells, which are associated with shielding the body from contaminations and a few tumors. The essential cells assaulted by HIV are the CD4+ lymphocytes, which help direct invulnerable capacity in the body. Materials and Methods: Since CD4+ cells are required for appropriate resistant framework work, when enough CD4+ lymphocytes have been devastated by HIV, the safe framework scarcely works. Results: A considerable lot of the issues experienced by individuals contaminated with HIV result from a disappointment of the resistant framework to shield them from certain artful diseases (OIs) and tumors. Conclusion: Thus situation is utilized in a reasonable universe of bioinformatics in order to shape conceivable structure of the HIV gp120 which is reason for T cell contamination and a structure of the cd4+, to think about the coupling example of the gp120 and cd4+ through the docking procedure.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003749
Title: Monitoring and analysis of coma patients using variable motion sensor system
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: It is vital to consistently screen the oblivious/extreme lethargies patients to comprehend their wellbeing condition. The primary objectives of the proposed are to achieve two things. (1) Monitoring and cautioning the restorative individual is the basic part when the incapacitated additions cognizance utilizing movement recognition framework. (2) Continuous observing and assessment of basic signs of the patient, for example, pulse rate and warmth and alarm the specialist at whatever point consideration is required. Wearable motion sensor framework can be utilized to screen different body developments such and hand development as visual perception flicker development to find the cognizant condition of an individual. Methodology: This framework will all around likely be exceptionally useful in helping the specialist about the well-being state of the other than cognizant patient and cautioning the doctor at whatever point care is required. Result: The proposed framework will help your specialist by providing an alert about the well-being state of the patient when the spot of basic signs reported.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003750
Title: Focal fibrous hyperplasia in a young patient – A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai - 600 100, Tamil Nadu, India
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Fibrous overgrowth of soft tissue in oral cavity is mostly benign or non-neoplastic. Fibromas like lesion relatively are in high frequency in the oral cavity. These lesions are common in adults but also can occur in any decade of age. Surgical excision is performed and histological examination of the excised specimen and definitive diagnosis was obtained.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003751
Title: Development in nimbus mattress
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The Nimbus proficient framework is a definitive weight redistribution sleeping cushion in the Nimbus run, offering propelled dynamic treatment, and all outpatient administration although could not care less situations. Aims and Objectives: Exchanging weight surfaces have been appeared to diminish the episodes of weight bruises contrasted and standard emergency clinic bedding and weight decreasing surfaces. Materials and Methods: The Aura 3 Professional sleeping cushion has indistinguishable number of cells from the Nimbus 3 bedding (20 cells). Results and Conclusion:This has been created by new therapeutic gadget directions and is demonstrated for the treatment of patients with all evaluations of weight bruises and for counteractive action in patients who are at extremely high danger of creating weight injuries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003752
Title: Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in the intensive care units – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common cause of morbidity in critically ill patients. The preventive practices with the most grounded unfaltering confirmation were semi-prostrate arranging, sucralfate as opposed to H2 rivals for pressure ulcer prophylaxis, and explicit stomach-related tract sanitizing. Aim and Objectives: Interventions beneficial to the prevention of VAP would, therefore, have a significant impact on the care of these patients. Materials and Methods: Studies were required to be prospective and controlled in design and to evaluate clinically important or surrogate outcomes. Results and Conclusion: Surrogate outcomes were required to have a direct link to clinically important outcomes supported by the secretions and literature. Subglottic secretion drainage appears effective in preventing early-onset VAP among the patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003753
Title: A novel approach in the treatment of type II diabetes using combinational herbal compounds
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: Diabetes is the common disorder found in case of metabolic disfunction leads to high blood glucose level in our body. Type two polygenic diseases are that the most typical type of polygenic disease. If we have type 2 diabetes our body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, our pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. But, over time it’s not able to carry on and cannot create enough internal secretion to stay your blood sugar at traditional levels. In order to cure Type II diabetes we have identified the gene responsible for the insulin resistance gene from the genomic information resource database. Materials and Required: The gene is further analysed and docked with the four herbal components and checked its minimum energy value for further studies. Results and Discussion: This will be the combination drug and using Nano medicine which will be the target drug delivery towards the target gene which stimulates the activity of the insulin resistant gene. Since its targets towards the gene it will be considered as the gene therapy and new combinatorial medicine, here Bioinformatics, combinatorial chemistry, pharmacology, Nano medicine play a vital role in treatment of diabetes. Conclusion: Type II diabetes is the high risk of day to day life, so considering these facts the gene responsible for diabetes is identified and diagnosis of DNA is done used molecular techniques and mutated gene is identified for further treatment. In this project suitable drug targets is identified and targeted towards the type II diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-FPE-00003754
Title: Production of industrial organic acid from cassava using fungi
Category: Food Processing and Engineering
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of IBT, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Citric acid an industrial organic acid produced by Aspergillus niger from Manihot esculenta peels with different carbon and nitrogen sources. Glucose-enriched medium showed maximum yield of citric acid. Ammonium chloride and ammonium persulfate reduced the formation of citric acid. The high amount of citric acid was observed in ammonium dihydrogen phosphate-enriched source. Results and Discussion:The optimum yield of organic acid from cassava pulp in the presence of fungi was found in 20 days of fermentation with pH3 and room temperature.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00003755
Title: Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity of some new pyrimidine derivatives from chalcone derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kufa, Iraq
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Objectives: This research involves synthesis of some chalcones derivatives from Acetophenone as starting material. Methods: The derivatives of chalcone compounds [Ch1 -Ch4 ] has been prepared by reaction benzaldehyde derivatives like [4-chlorobenzaldehyde, 4-bromobenzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy1-naphthaldehyde. 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde] with acetophenone. the compound [Ch1 ,Ch2 and Ch4 ] enter reaction with urea ,thiouria and guanidine to product pyrimidine derivatives. These compounds [Ch1 -Ch4 ] has been characterized by melting points, [FT.IR] spectroscopy, H1 NMR spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography technique (TLC) has been used for reactions steps and sequence by using solvent [benzene: methanol, 4:1]. Antibacterial activity test of three derivative compounds (Ch1 a, Ch2 b and Ch4 c) were done against two multi-drug resistance pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients infected with burn infection. Results: The results proved that Ch4 c compound with concentration 200 mg/ml provided best antibacterial activity with inhibition zone diameter 22.62 ± 0.1551 mm and 24 mm against staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003756
Title: Characterization of Sesamum indicum proteins and its immunogenic activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Centre for Genomics and Proteomics, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
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Background: Allergic reactions induced by ingestion of foods containing sesame seeds are a well-recognized cause of severe food-induced anaphylaxis. Aim: The objective of the present study was to isolate, purify, and identify allergenic proteins of sesame seeds. Materials and Methods: Extract was obtained by the use of isoelectric precipitation, with 96.7% protein content of the product. Purified allergens were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), high-performance liquid chromatography, immunoblotting, and proteomics approach for amino acid sequence determination. Results: Seed proteins revealed that molecular sizes of all the reduced fractions were about 15–50 KDa by SDS-PAGE. Purified allergen was able to inhibit the immunoglobulin E binding to seeds extract in up to 90% of the responses. The identified tryptic peptide, AIFALPQAKIA of Black sesame and VQLAIHTLKSG of white sesame respectively, was commonly found in garden pea legumin. Conclusion: Majority of sesame proteins are minor allergens in regard to the prevalence and allergenic potency.