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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003862
Title: Anatomical study of sigmoid sulcus and its related structures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study is to establish the significant relations between sigmoid sulcus of both sides of the skull. Introduction: Anatomically, sigmoid sulcus lodges sigmoid sinus, which is one among the dural venous sinus and continues as an internal jugular vein. Spread of infection occurs from the scalp to the sigmoid sinuses through mastoid emissary vein transmitted by mastoid foramen; thereby, it causes thrombosis of the sinuses. Materials and Methods: The present study was measured and analyzed sigmoid sulcus and its related structures by using 40 South Indian dry skulls and Vernier caliper. Results: The present study have observed that the incidence and position of mastoid foramen; width and length of sigmoid sulcus. There were a slight difference in the dimension of width and length of sigmoid sulcus (Osch et al., 2019). Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that morphometrical knowledge of sigmoid sulcus and its associated structure is of utmost importance for surgeons for easy approach.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003818
Title: Comparing the effect of natural and synthetic sugar substitutes on salivary pH – a double-blinded randomized controlled study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste but usually has less food energy. Besides the benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer, and many other health hazards. Some kinds of health-related side effects including dizziness, headaches, diarrhea, inflammation, and carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. Due to the above-mentioned side effects, natural sweeteners can be used as an alternative to artificial sweeteners. Hence, this study was conducted, with the aim to compare the effects of natural and synthetic sugar substitutes on salivary pH. Materials and Methods: The present study is a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with concurrent parallel design. 20 participants aged 20–25 years were randomly allocated into two groups. Each group had ten students. Salivary pH was assessed at baseline and after mouth rinsing with the two different sugar solutions containing aspartame and stevia at 1, 20, and 60 min, respectively. Mann– Whitney U-test was used to analyze the data. Results: In the present study, at baseline, the salivary pH was alkaline. There was no significant change in the salivary pH after consumption of aspartame and stevia. After 5 min, the pH increased to 7.10 and 7 for aspartame and stevia, respectively, but still stayed alkaline. At 20 min and 60 min, the pH went back to the normal values being 6.81 and 6.8, respectively. This shows that there is no difference between the artificial (sugar free gold) and natural sugar substitutes (stevia) as they both keep the saliva at an alkaline pH and can hence be used as an alternative to artificial sweeteners and in patients with diabetes. Conclusion: The pattern of salivary pH changes after mouth rinsing with stevia was similar to other artificial sweetener solutions like aspartame, indicating that Stevia rebaudiana can act as an excellent natural sugar substitute replacing the current artificial sweeteners and refined sugars and thereby help in tackling their side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003819
Title: Effect of subgingival irrigation with chlorhexidine as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy around banded first molars in orthodontic patients: A randomized clinical trial
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Banding molars for anchorage may cause periodontal inflammation due to various reasons. To maintain a reasonably good periodontal status during orthodontic treatment, adequate oral hygiene maintenance measures should be followed and monitored. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the first molars banded for fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial including 35 patients scheduled for fixed orthodontic treatment was recruited, from which, 32 patients with banded first molars were divided into Group A and Group B with 16 patients each. Both the groups underwent routine full-mouth supragingival and subgingival scaling around all banded first molars. Group B also underwent subgingival irrigation with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution around the banded first molars. Treatment for both the groups was performed at the 3rd , 6th , and 9th month. Full-mouth plaque index (PI) and gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) of each banded first molar were recorded at baseline, 6th month, and 12th month. Alveolar crestal bone level around each banded first molar was assessed radiographically at baseline and 12th month. Results: Intragroup comparison showed significant reduction in PI and Group B showed a significant increase in PPD and CAL from 0 day to 12th month. However, intergroup comparison did not show a significant difference in clinical parameters and radiographic crestal bone level. Conclusion: The use of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution showed no significant benefit on the banded molars as compared to scaling alone.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003821
Title: Injury of inferior alveolar nerve
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Inferior alveolar nerve injury is one of the most serious complications in implant dentistry. This nerve injury can occur during local anesthesia, implant osteotomy, or implant placement. Proper understanding of anatomy, surgical procedures, and implant systems and proper treatment planning are the key to reducing such an unpleasant complication. This review discusses the clinical anatomy of inferior alveolar nerve block and its diagnosis, prevention, and management. Pain is common in inferior alveolar nerve injuries, resulting in significant functional problems. The significant disability associated with these nerve injuries may also result in increasing numbers of medicolegal claims. Many of these iatrogenic nerve injuries can be avoided with careful patient assessment and planning. Moreover, if the injury occurs, there are emerging strategies that recovery may be facilitated. The emphasis of this review is on how we may prevent these injuries and facilitate resolution in the early post- surgical phase.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003822
Title: Assessment of the knowledge, attitude, and awareness among dental students about prevention of dental caries in pediatric patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedoodntics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and awareness in prevention of early childhood caries (ECC) among dental students treating pediatric patients. Introduction: ECC is a particularly virulent form of dental caries affecting the primary teeth of infants and toddlers. Early assessment of the oral health status of children has the potential to reduce or even eliminate oral diseases. Hence, sufficient knowledge and awareness among practitioners treating pediatric patients about the causes, prevention, and treatment strategies are required to provide the child an opportunity for a lifetime free from preventable oral disease. Materials and Methods: A closed-ended questionnaire comprising 10 questions based on causes, prevention, and treatment of caries in children was given to 100 dental practitioners. Data were analyzed by computing the percentage response for each question. Results: Majority of the dental practitioners recommend the child’s first dental visit should be between 6 and 12 months. According to 54% of the practitioners, maxillary anteriors are the first teeth affected by ECC. About 63% suggested that the child should not be put to bed with fruit juice or milk. Most of them agreed that fluoride dentifrice and dental sealants will help prevent dental caries. Conclusion: A majority of practitioners were aware of the various aspects of oral health in children and, hence, play a more active role in promoting the oral health of children in their practices.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003823
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on minimally invasive dentistry among dental professionals in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and skills of dental professionals of Chennai on minimally invasive dentistry concepts. Introduction: Minimal intervention is a new concept that was introduced by Mount and Hume in 1997. They suggested that it was time for changes in the principles of operative dentistry. Minimal intervention in relation to dental caries involves a vast area of diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and control. The main goal of minimal intervention is to increase the life of the teeth, which was restored with less intervention. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey that involved a list of dentists practicing in Chennai was registered in the Dental Council of India. Following simple random sampling, 119 dental professionals were selected from three dental colleges. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the selected number of dental professional practicing in Chennai, and descriptive data in terms of frequency and percentage were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Their knowledge about minimally invasive dentistry was found to be high. However, the use of preventive measures such as fluoride application, casein phosphopeptide– amorphous calcium phosphate, and other preventive strategies was found to be comparatively minimal among the study participants. Conclusion: The study reveals that the knowledge, awareness, and practice on minimally invasive dentistry are adequate. However, the implementation in clinical practice is less. Clinical practice should move toward a medical model of caries management with respect to early detection, prevention, and preventive dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003824
Title: Treatment modalities for systemic lupus erythematosus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of this review is to provide an updated knowledge about the various treatment modalities in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The review will examine the various treatment options available for the systemic manifestation of SLE. SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting multiple organ system with immune complexes and large array of autoantibodies, particularly antinuclear antibodies. Relapses, flares, and remission are the characterization of this disease. Common manifestation in addition to the malar rash includes cutaneous photosensitivity, nephropathy, serositis, and polyarthritis. Reason of this review helps providing an update knowledge and awareness in systemic manifestation about various treatment modalities for SLE.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003826
Title: Detection of cutaneous leishmaniasis species using nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) technique and phylogenetic tree in Al-Najaf province/Iraq
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Al-Kufa, Al-Najaf, Iraq
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Introduction: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in many regions of Iraq and there has been an increase in the number of cases during the last years .The study aimed to detection of genetic characteristics of L. tropica and L. major and identify sequences of Iraqi isolates in Al-Najaf province. Material and Methods: A total 60 specimens collected from patients with cutaneous ulcers suggestive of Leishmaniasis attending to Al-Hakeem and Al-Manathira hospitals in Al-Najaf province in Iraq for diagnosis were included in the study. Nested-PCR was depend as molecular technique to differentiate parasite species depend on molecular weight the fragment with 560 bp indicated Leishmania major and 750 bp indicated Leishmania tropica. Results: Nested-PCR detect Cutaneous Leishmaniasis species in 33(55%) samples ;in Iraq CL are caused by two species of Leishmania, there are 23(38.3%) cases detected as L. major and 10(16.7%) cases detected as L. tropica in different area of Al-Najaf province . Phylogenetic analysis grouped the Leishmania isolates into two main species representing L. major and L. tropica.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003829
Title: Prevalence of polycystic ovarian disorder among young women with different food habits
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Polycystic ovary disorder (PCOD) problem is a hormonal disorder in women defined by a group of signs and symptom. PCOD problem is one of the most common reasons for infertility in women. This health condition can cause problems with a woman’s menstrual cycle, cardiac function as well as appearance. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen participants took part in this survey. The data were collected through Google Forms and then analyzed. Results: From to this survey, it was observed that majority of the women know that high cholesterol might influence PCOD (Nicole Galan, 2018). In current observation, 21.8% of the women show hirsutism due to hormonal imbalance correlated with altered food habit. Conclusion: From the survey by the response of the participants, it is clear that the participants are now aware of PCOD.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003830
Title: Evaluation of mandibular condyle among the South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aimed to determine the evaluation of mandibular condyle among the South Indian population. Introduction: Bones have great importance in identification of a person and they also help in establishing the process of evolution, race, and demographic profile. Mandible is the most durable and sexually dimorphic bone of the skull and also resists postmortem change. The mandible bears a curve-shaped body with two rami. Each ramus consists of two processes: coronoid and condylar. In the early stage of development of mandible, coronoid and condylar process are indistinguishable. Materials and Methods: In this morphometric study, 50 dry human mandibular condyles were collected from the Department of Anatomy in Saveetha Dental College. Measurements of Mandibular Condyle: The mesiodistal diameter and anteroposterior diameter of both left and right sides of mandibular condyle are calculated using the Vernier caliper. Discussion: The present study has observed the measurement of mandibular condyle mesiodistal diameter and anteroposterior diameter on the right and left sides. The values have been represented as graph. Conclusion: The knowledge of morphometric study is useful to determine the mandibular condyle relationship with regard to sex, age, and race.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003832
Title: Antioxidant potential of β-sitosterol on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 – In vitro
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant effects of β-sitosterol against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 as well as its effect on lipid peroxidation. Materials and Methods: The in vitro lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity were measured in lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 at the time interval of 24 h. Results: The level of lipid peroxidation in the human lung cancer cell line A549 was significantly increased upon treatment with β sitosterol at different concentrations (5,75 and 150µM/ml) when compare to untreated control A549 cells. The pronounced effect was found at 150µM/ml. Conversely, the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) were significantly decreased upon treatment with β sitosterol in a concentration dependent manner when compare to untreated control A549 cells. Conclusion: The observed results confirm that β-sitosterol was found to possess anti-lipidperoxidation and antioxidant effect on lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003833
Title: Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Thymus vulgaris
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Thymus vulgaris. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical analysis and estimation of the phenolic content of T. vulgaris extract were done for evaluating the presence of phytochemicals in it. Various tests were performed to analyze the phytochemicals and estimate the total phenols. 2, 2 Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging test and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity are also done. Results: Phytochemicals, such as phlobatannins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids, were present in T. vulgaris. The extract shows high antioxidant activity. Conclusion: It can be used as a cheaper and safer alternative to conventional antioxidants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003834
Title: Significance of probiotics in periodontal therapy: A short review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Periodontitis is one of the most common diseases seen among the population today. The primary etiology of this disease includes the presence of a number of pathogenic bacteria. Hence, the treatment modality for periodontitis is aimed mainly at eliminating the pathogenic microflora. At present, treatment options propose altering ecology of niches, to modify pathological plaque to a biofilm of commensalisms. Moreover, probiotic usage is one such strategy. This article highlights on the significance of probiotics in periodontal therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003835
Title: The effect of Vitamin D supplementation on women during pregnancy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Health and Medical Sciences, Khawarizmi International College, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
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Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. Methodology: To determine frequencies at which trial outcome data were missing, unreported, or inconsistently reported. Objective: The objective of the study was to project the potential contributions of registered ongoing or planned trials.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003836
Title: Prevalence of maxillary impacted and transmigrated canine in Chennai population – An orthopantographic study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this present study is to determine the prevalence of impacted and transmigrated maxillary canine in Chennai population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was based on 3800 orthopantographs (OPG), which were collected from the oral medicine department from various colleges in Chennai over a period of 12 months from the year September 2015 to September 2016. The OPG was screened for the presence of impacted canine. Results: A total of 84 impacted maxillary canines were found, of which 28 (33.4%) were in males and 56 (66.7%) were in females. The prevalence of impacted canines in males was 1.5%, and in females, it was 2.8%. The bilateral impaction occurred in 15% of patients, being less common than the unilateral impaction, which accounted for 84% of the total cases. Conclusion: The prevalence of unilateral maxillary canine impaction was higher than bilateral maxillary canine impaction. Our data have shown that the prevalence of maxillary canine impaction is a common dental anomaly.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003837
Title: Antiproliferative effect of β-sitosterol on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 – In vitro
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This work aimed at studying the effects of β sitosterol on the viability and proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells- A549. Materials and Methods: In vitro anti-proliferative effect of β sitosterol on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 at the time interval of 24 h. Results: β sitosterolon significantly reduced viability of cancer cells at all assayed concentrations, the higher doses also reducing cell proliferationl when compared to untreated control cells but in the case of Vero cells –non cancerous cells produced 5% reduction of cell viability even at at higher concentration, whereas the β- sitosterol at the lower concentrations did not affect the viability and the β- sitosterol was safe for vero normal cells. Conclusion: These results revealed that β-sitosterol has anntiproliferative effect in human lung adenocarcinoma cells- A549.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003838
Title: Survey on medical students’ knowledge toward physical medicine and rehabilitation – A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R), also known as physiatrist, is one of the specializations in medicine that focuses to enhance and restore the functional ability and quality of life of those with physical impairments or disabilities. A physician having completed training in this field may be referred to as a physiatrist. The main aim of this study is to assess the attitude and knowledge of medical students on PM&R through a questionnaire-based survey. Materials and Methods: Through an online-based survey, a questionnaire comprising related questions was circulated amidst medical students and the responses were collected. Results: About a majority of the students who took up the survey were not aware of the existence of such a field but are not familiar about its course and career options as well as accessible information regarding the same. Conclusion: PM&R although being an age-old specialization still is not within the access and reach of students for them to have good attitude and knowledge toward it. Awareness and orientations regarding the same are required among the medical fraternity to become more familiar with this specialization.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003839
Title: Estimation of stature using hand dimension
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: An attempt is made to find the height of the body using hand dimension. Nowadays, stature or height of the body is the most important and useful anthropometric parameter for the determination of physical identity of an individual. This is also useful in forensic study. Identification of the height of the dead body which is in pieces due to massive blast or disaster can be done by measuring the hand length. Materials and Methods: The study includes 100 students from Saveetha Dental College. The hand length, direct linear distance between the distal wrist crease and the distal end of the most anterior projecting point of the middle finger, was measured using a Vernier caliper. The resulting data will indicate that the hand length provides means of estimating stature of individual by doing calculation. Both the left hand (LH) and right hand (RH) dimension were taken. The age group was from 17 to 22 years and measurements were taken from the 1st to 2nd year BDS students. Results and Discussion: Height of 20 males and 21 females was divided by their hand dimension (LH and right). Average and standard deviation were calculated. It shows that there is no much difference in the LH and RH of male and female. The height of male and female is 9 times bigger than their hand dimension. Conclusion: It is concluded that the height of the individual is roughly 9 times of their hand length. Stature is almost same either using the LH or RH in both male and female; furthermore, there is no much difference between the LH and RH of males or females. This study can be useful in identification aspect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003840
Title: A study on the impressions of middle meningeal vessels in temporal and parietal bone
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study the impressions of middle meningeal vessels in temporal and parietal bone. Introduction: The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is the first part and the third part of the maxillary artery which supplies to the meninges. It has a very complex branching which gives rise to many anatomical structures and is useful for studies. It has a very great clinical significance in dealing with fractures, epidural hematomas, and bypass procedures. Hence, we decided to investigate its anatomical organization. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 human skulls without any gross breakage were taken and examined using a Vernier caliper. The length and pattern of anterior and the posterior branches of MMA were measured and recorded. Results: These impressions were found to vary from skull to skull. Compared to the right and left temporal and parietal bone, it is found that the left side of both the bones has a larger diameter than the right side due to the increased functioning of the left part of the brain. Conclusion: These results will be useful to increase the detailed knowledge of the important atrial segment of the skull which has a very important clinical significance in the medical field.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003841
Title: Morphological analysis of the maxillary arch in edentulous and non-edentulous maxilla of South Indian dry skulls
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The morphological analysis of the maxillary arch in edentulous and non-edentulous maxilla emphasizes on the significant edentulous changes that occur in maxilla in different populations and races. This provides essential data relevant in prosthodontics and orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the role of aging in both edentulous and non-edentulous width of maxillary arch. Objective: The objective of the research includes providing customized more appropriate treatment of elderly edentulous patients. Materials and Methods: The width of the maxillary arch of 40 human dry skulls was measured using Vernier calipers. The skulls were divided into edentulous and non-edentulous, which were further divided into females and males. Conclusion: The maxillary arches of males have prominent widths, whereas females do not have pronounced width. Moreover, it is reduced for females. The right and the left side of the maxilla do not have much of difference observed. Hence, these prominent maxillary arches help in proper masticatory forces and maintain normal occlusion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003842
Title: Morphometric analysis of infraorbital foramen and incidence of accessory foramen and its clinical implications in dry adult human skulls
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to find out the incidence of variations in locations, shapes and dimensions, and distance of the infraorbital foramen from various bony landmarks on both sides of the skull and the incidence of accessory foramen. Objective: The objective of this study was to measure the metrics and to determine the clinical implications of the infraorbital foramen (IOF) and the incidence of accessory foramen in adult dry skulls. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 20 dry skulls. The distance from IOF to infraorbital margin (IOM) of the pyriform aperture, anterior nasal spine, zygomatic maxillary suture, and supraorbital foramen on both sides of the prevalence of accessory IOF was observed and analyzed in the skulls. In each side of the skull, the IOF was measured with the help of Vernier caliper. Results and Discussion: By seeing to the result, it is very well clear that the mean distance from the IOF to IOM was more on the left side in males, but in case of females, it was more less on both the sides of the skull. The distance between the IOF and lateral border of piriform aperture was more on the left side in both males and females.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003843
Title: Mutations of NPM1 and FLT3 and deletion of chromosome 5 del(5q) as predictors of myelodysplastic syndrome becoming acute myelocytic leukemia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Clinical Pathology, Airlangga University School of Medicine, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia
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Aim: This study aimed to determine the predictors of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-related acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). Materials and method: A total of 36 patients, 31 were diagnosed as AML and five others as clinical MDS. Diagnoses were done using peripheral blood smears and bone marrow aspiration. Several tests were done to characterize the patient sample. Results: Immunophenotyping showed that 92% of the overall patient group had a myeloid lineage. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test found bands characteristic of mutations in FLT3 and NPM1, and the chromogenic in situ hybridization test found a deletion in chromosome 5 del(5q). A logistic regression found the mutations of FLT3 and NPM1 with deletion of 5 del(5q) to be a predictor of MDS-related AML, at P = 0.036. The low and high predictor are <0.782 and >0.782, respectively. Receiving operating curve is a predictor of 76.5% area under curve. The sensitivity, specificity, and cutoff for each were 70.8%, 72.4%, and 0.782. The highest cutoff was in mutations of FLT3 and NPM1 with deletion of 5 del(5q), which stands in 0.969. Conclusion: Thus, mutations in NPM1 and FLT3 and deletion of 5 del(5q) were a predictor toward the changes of MDS into AML in the patients studied.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003844
Title: Anticancer activity of the ethanolic extracts of Vitex negundo against U-937 cancer cell line – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study the efficacy of the crude ethanolic extracts of Vitex negundo against U-937 cell line. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extracts of V. negundo were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The anticancer activity of V. negundo leaf extract on proliferation of U-937 cancer cell line was determined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide microculture tetrazolium viability assay. The cancer cells were exposed to different concentrations of 7.8, 15.6, 31.2, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml. Results: As the dose of the test drug increased, death rate of the cell also increased (i.e., at 125, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, the cell viability decreased 62.93, 54.06, 45.87, and 36.94, respectively). The 50% inhibition value of the ethanolic extract of V. negundo was found to be 60.7 µg/mL. Conclusion: In the present study, the active compounds in V. negundo have anticancer activity and shown potential action against U-937 immunological malignant cells.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003845
Title: Total antioxidant capacity and iron chelating activities of methanolic leaf extract of Boerhavia diffusa (Linn.)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: An oxidative stress results from the imbalance between the free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS reactive nitrogen species produced in the body, and the antioxidant system mechanisms have been responsible for oxidative diseases. Boerhavia diffusa (Linn.) is an important medicinal plant used in Indian Traditional Medicinal System for curing diseases. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the total antioxidant and metal chelating activity of the methanolic leaf extract of B. diffusa. Materials and Methods: The total antioxidant activity and iron chelating activity of the methanolic leaf extract of B. diffusa were performed using standard procedures. Results: The results have indicated that the total antioxidant activity of the methanolic leaf extract of B. diffusa was 89.03/500 µg/ml and showed maximum Fe2+ chelating of 72.76% with an IC50 value of 180 µg/ml. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the methanolic leaf extract of B. diffusa can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003846
Title: Morphometric analysis of posterior fossa and foramen magnum in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine and analyze the morphology of posterior fossa and foramen magnum in South Indian population. Objective: Configuration and size of posterior fossa and foramen magnum play an important role in pathophysiology of various disorders of posterior fossa and foramen magnum. The cranial fossa houses the brain stem and cerebellum which is formed in the endocranium. Foramen magnum can be classified depending on its shapes such as oval, round, irregular, and tetragonal. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult dry human skulls of unknown sex of South Indian origin were investigated. The damaged skulls were excluded. The anteroposterior (AP) and transverse diameter was measured for posterior cranial fossa and foramen magnum using a Vernier caliper. Average and standard deviation were calculated using statistics. Results and Discussion: It was found from the study that the higher range of AP diameter in posterior fossa could be due to different genetic factors, habitus, belonging to different geography, races, and also due to demineralization of the dry skull and the lower range of AP diameter of foramen magnum could be due to demineralization of the dry skulls and the differences could also be due to genetic factors, habits, geographical, and races. Conclusion: The morphometry of foramen magnum and posterior cranial fossa is necessary for surgeon during the surgeries of foramen magnum meningiomas or posterior cranial fossa lesions. The variations of the shape of foramen magnum and posterior cranial fossa are important in neurological interpretation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003847
Title: Morphological study of the pterion: An important landmark for neurosurgery and to determine its clinical significance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The pterion is known to be the weakest part of the skull and the most interesting bone meeting points in craniofacial osteology. Pterion depicts the H-shaped sutural junction of frontal, sphenoid, parietal, and temporal bones within the temporal fossa. Materials and Methods: The material for the study was 50 dry human skulls which were collected from the anatomy department of this college. The skulls were of unknown sex and race. Abnormal and damaged skulls were discarded. Both the sides of the skull were studied for the locations and types of the pterion. The shapes of the Pteria were noted by observing the articulation of the bones forming the sutures. The types of the Pteria were recorded. The photographs were taken of all the types of Pteria. Observation and Results: On observing the sutural pattern and the bones articulating to form the pterion, we found that sphenoparietal type of pattern was most common on both the right and left sides. The second most common type observed in our study was epipteric type. Discussion: The most common variety of pterion in the present study was found to be of the sphenoparietal type. The study revealed the distance from the center of pterion to posterolateral aspect of frontozygomatic suture as 3.46 ± 0.2 cm and from the center of pterion to the midpoint of the upper border of zygomatic arch as 3.98 ± 0.2 cm. Conclusion: The most common variety of pterion in the present study was found to be of the sphenoparietal type.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003848
Title: Study of the occurrence of foramen of Huschke in dry South Indian skulls
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study the occurrence of foramen of Huschke in dry South Indian adult skulls and study its clinical significance. Background: The foramen of Huschke is an anatomical variation, of the tympanic portion of the temporal bone. It is formed after 1 year of birth and usually closes at the age of 5, but, sometimes, it persists throughout life. This is due to deficiency in normal ossification of tympanic ring into tympanic bone, in the first 5 years after birth. The foramen is present at the anteroinferior aspect of the external auditory canal, posteromedial to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The presence of this foramen may reduce the middle and inner ear structures and make them prone to injury. The clinical significance of the presence of the foramen of Huschke is that it acts as a potential route for infections of the external acoustic meatus affecting the TMJs and parotid gland. It can also give rise to tumors originating in the fossa, which may reach the external acoustic meatus, leading to cases of salivary fistulas in the same acoustic meatus. Complications resulting from TMJ arthroscopy have also been seen. The occurrence of this aperture is a very rare disorder. Due to these problems, it is important for surgeons and doctors, working in the TMJ and ear region, to consider the possibility of its presence. They should, accordingly, undertake surgical procedures to avoid injury. Materials and Methods: This study was done by examining 50 dried South Indian adult skulls available in the Anatomy Department of Saveetha Dental College. A probe was used to find and locate the foramen in the tympanic plate of the temporal bone of the skull. These skulls were chosen irrespective of their gender and age. Although all skulls were of more than 5 years of age, since foramen of Huschke is formed at the age of 5. Results: Out of 50 skulls, only two skulls had the foramen of Huschke. Conclusion: This study concludes that even though the occurrence of the foramen of Huschke is very rare, it is a clinically very important part of the skull and can have many adverse effects of its existence.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003849
Title: The morphometric study of mandibular foramina in dentate and edentulous human mandibles in Tamil Nadu
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study provides the morphometric study of the foramina located in the mandible. Materials and Methods: For this survey, 50 dry adult human mandibles are investigated. The lingual foramina are divided into medial and lateral foramina. Foramina located at the alveolar process and the midline is divided according to its location at the genial tubercles. The height of the mandible in the genial symphysis and the distances from the foramina to the alveolar crest and the lower border of the mandible are measured. Results: The measurements of medial and lateral lingual foramina are 97.9% and 78.4%, respectively. Discussion: The precise knowledge oSf the topography of the foramina and its contents is of importance to the dentists, oral maxillofacial surgeons during surgeries. The foramina’s location is directly affected by the dental status. The morphology of edentulous mandibles increases the risk of intraoperative complications at the anterior mandible.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003850
Title: Awareness on Autoimmune disorders among college students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The immune system protects us from viruses, bacteria, foreign substances, and even cancer cells, but it does with a balance. An autoimmune disease is a condition in which your immune system mistakenly attacks your body. Autoimmune processes can have various results, for example, slow destruction of a specific type of cells, stimulation of an organ into excessive growth, or interference in its function. Frequently affected organs and tissues include the endocrine gland, such as thyroid, pancreas, and adrenal glands; components of the blood, such as red blood cells; and the connective tissues, skin, muscles, and joints. The aim of this survey is to create an awareness on autoimmune disease. Materials and Methods: It is a questionnaire-based survey conducted among 100 students in Chennai. The results were documented and analyzed. Results: From the survey, it was evident that more than half of the individuals who took survey were aware of autoimmune disease and were able to correctly identify the autoimmune disease among other diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003851
Title: Radiographic analysis of various restorations on teeth – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Radiographs are very essential diagnostic aids in the field of dentistry. The radiopacity of the restorative materials plays an important role in distinguishing the material from the surrounding hard tissues. The aim of this study is to test the ability of dental students to identify radiographs of various dental restorations on maxillary premolar teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 natural maxillary premolar teeth were collected from clinics. Class 1 cavity preparation was done using a 245 bur. The teeth were then randomly allocated into three groups of 10 each and restored with amalgam, composite, and glass ionomer cement, respectively. Standard radiographs of the teeth were taken. A questionnaire was then prepared and distributed to 210 dental students of various dental colleges. The obtained results were then subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Only 75% of the final years answered amalgam as the right option. About 70% of the final years and 90% of the interns answered composite as the right option. About 82% of the postgraduates, 72% of the interns and 60% of the final years answered guaranteed investment contract as the right option. Conclusion: The ability of the Final year students to identify the correct restoration was lower than that of the Interns and Post graduates. There was no significant difference between the Interns and Post graduates in identification of the restorations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003852
Title: Assessment of effect of chamomile oil on dental anxiety for patients undergoing extraction – A randomized controlled trial
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this survey is to assess whether aroma therapy helps in reducing the dental anxiety levels of patients undergoing extraction. Background: Chamomile oil has antimicrobial properties that can last long and has more effect compare to the other essential oils. It constitutes angelic acids, tiglic acid, pinocamone, farnesol, bisabolol, cineole, beta-caryophyllene, azulene, and camphene. They belong to the Asteraceae family. Two most commonly used chamomile oils include German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). Chamomile oil has various uses which include stress relief, pain relief, menstrual cramps, skin disorders, and joint pain management. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients were chosen as subjects to conduct this experiment. Of which, 25 of them were used to represent the control group and the other 25 patients represented the experimental group. The patients were recruited from the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College. The patients from both the groups were assessed based on their anxiety level when they first entered the clinic by giving them each a questionnaire. Chamomile oil was filled in the diffuser, drop by drop, and diluted with water. The oil was then allowed to heat up, and the scent produced was allowed to dissipate throughout the clinic. The anxiety levels of the patient were assessed again. The anxiety levels of the patient were measured using the state-trait anxiety scale. The hemostatic changes, including blood pressure and heart rate of the patient, were also monitored before and after the procedure. Statistical Analysis: The results obtained were analyzed with the help of the SPSS software. A paired t-test was done to assess the systolic, diastolic, and pulse rate before and after the treatment. An independent t-test was done to compare the anxiety levels of patients before and after the procedure. Results: It was found that chamomile oil does, in fact, help reduce anxiety levels of people. It can be associated with it possessing aromatherapeutic properties that help sustain the calm mental state of an individual. Conclusion: It can be concluded that chamomile oil does, in fact, have therapeutic properties and has a positive effect on dental anxiety levels of patients undergoing extractions in particular.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003853
Title: Estimation of stature using hand length among the students of Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Stature calculation is very much necessary for measuring growth factors, lung volumes, muscle strength, glomerular filtration rate of kidneys, and metabolic rate. However, the estimation of stature can be difficult in people with mutilated, deformed, or amputated body parts. Aim: This study helps us to estimate the stature using the regression factor obtained using the hand length and handbreadth. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 individuals between the ages of 18 and 22 which include 50 males and 50 females were selected and their standing length, hand length and hand breadth were measured. Analysis was made in finding the differences in the stature, hand length, and breadth between the males and females in both their right and left hand. Linear regression equations were made to estimate the stature using hand length and breadth. Multiplication factor is calculated which is the ratio of stature to the hand length and breadth. Results: Out of 100 individuals, 50% of them were male and 50% of them were female between the age groups of 18 and 22 years. Stature in males was 169.5 ± 9.5, and in females, it is 155 ± 7.6. It is observed that males have greater stature than females. Conclusion: In both males and females, hand length showed greater correlation coefficient than handbreadth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003854
Title: Biochemical evaluation of patients with breast cancer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rate is increasing in developing countries as compare to developed countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different courses of chemotherapy treatment on serum biochemical profile of breast cancer patients. In the present study, 200 breast cancer patients were selected to study variations in serum biochemical level of breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: The mean values of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase [SGPT]), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were found to be 32.58 ± 19.7 mg/dl, 1.05 ± 0.59 mg/dl, 8.6 ± 1.3 mg/dl, 27.3 ± 4.02 U/L, 27.9 ± 10.24 U/L, and 111 ± 2 4.04 U/L before the start of chemotherapy courses. The mean values of total and direct bilirubin, total serum protein, albumin, and fasting and postprandial glucose level were 0.30 ± 1.3 mg/dl, 0.13 ± 0.11 mg/dl, 8.11 ± 0.5 g/dl, 3.5 ± 0.07 g/dl, 96 ± 25 mg/dl, and 110 ± 25mg/dl before the start of chemotherapy treatment. Results and Discussion: The level of serum blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, AP, bilirubin, and postprandial glucose level was found to be more than normal reference range; while the level of creatinine, (AST or SGOT), (ALT or SGPT), total serum protein, albumin, and fasting blood glucose level was reported to be within normal reference range during the different courses of chemotherapy. Conclusion: The present results suggest serum biochemical parameters as an important diagnostic tool in the disease monitoring and metastasis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003855
Title: Attitude and awareness toward teaching and participation in a formal clinical teaching for senior medical students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The teaching and participation of senior medical students are very important as the experience in the field helps the students to practically understand the subject in a better way and the application of the subject on the clinical field is made easier while working with patients. This survey was done to find out the attitude and awareness of senior medical students toward teaching and participation in formal clinical teaching. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was done and 100 senior dental and medical students from Chennai actively participated in the survey. The results of the survey are compiled and documented. Results: This survey was done to create awareness among senior medical students toward teaching and participation in formal clinical teaching. This survey proved that not many people were confident in formal clinical teaching. Conclusion: This survey is done to create awareness of formal clinical teaching for senior medical students and to spread the importance of it in the dental and medical field.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003856
Title: In vitro alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the ethanolic extract of Lactuca sativa
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the in vitro alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the ethanolic extract of Lactuca sativa. Introduction: Diabetes is a disease which has many factors and leads to numerous complications and, thereby, it demands various approaches to treatment. The major spring of blood glucose is carbohydrates obtained from diet such as starch, which is hydrolyzed by α-glucosidases and pancreatic α-amylase, so it can be absorbed by the small intestine. Therefore, an effective treatment option for diabetes mellitus is to inhibit the activity of α-glucosidases and pancreatic α-amylase. Exploration of novel and effective plant-derived compounds for the treatment of diabetes made us choose L. sativa. Materials and Methods: The plant extract was prepared. Subsequently, the extract was subjected for fractionation. Different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mg/ml) of extract and fractions were subjected to α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. The absorbance was measured and the percentage of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity values of extract and fractions was calculated. Results: It was found that with increasing concentration, there was an increase in percentage of inhibition. Therefore, we found that L. sativa possessed potent antidiabetic activity. Conclusion: It was found that L. sativa extract possessed good antidiabetic activity. Considering our search for natural cure for diseases, further in vivo studies followed by animal and human studies analyzing the biological capacity, effectiveness, etc…, are required to determine that L. sativa is effective for the treatment and prevention of diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003857
Title: Evaluation of pulmonary function test on auto drivers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Air pollution is widespread where vehicles are the major contributor. One such people who are exposed to air pollution are auto drivers. Their lung function is measured using the spirometer. Measurements include forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), VC, peak expiratory flow, maximal mid-expiratory flow curve, and forced expiratory flow rate (25–75%). Background and Reason: Air pollution is widespread where vehicles are the major contributor. One such people who are exposed to air pollution are auto drivers. Their lung function is measured using the spirometer. Measurements include FVC, FEV1, VC, peak expiratory flow, maximal mid-expiratory flow curve, and forced expiratory flow rate (25–75%). Long-term exposure to traffic air pollution is associated with a decrease in lung function and an increase in respiratory disorders. Traffic air pollution includes a list of pollutants but the major being particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, lead, and carbon monoxide (CO). Drivers who spend 10 h daily in traffic pollution are at higher risk of restrictive lung disorders. Long-term exposure to ozone produces mainly pulmonary fibrosis, which could be associated with a decrease in FVC and FEV1. CO is one of the most air pollutants and has been associated with lung diseases. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of restrictive lung diseases amongst the open cabin auto rickshaw drivers. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 members of auto drivers were chosen in Chennai city. Data collection and analysis were done over a period of 2 months from November to December 40s male auto rickshaw drivers working for a minimum of 6 h per day in the Chennai Metropolitan Area were selected. Various auto rickshaw stands in Chennai were approached for obtaining 40 auto rickshaw drivers for selection criteria. Results: The study shows the mean FVC of the group I is (2.94 ± 0.58 L) when compared with the mean FVC of the group II (3.27 ± 0.33 L) showed highly significant reduction value of about (P < 0.01). The mean FEV1 recorded in Group I was 2.67 ± 0.51 L which showed statistically significant reduction, but for P < 0.05 as compared to control group whose mean FEV1 was 2.91 ± 0.34 L, however, the FEV1/FVC % did not show statistically significant. Conclusion: The findings of the study show that air pollution has an adverse effect on the ventilatory lung function on chronic long-term exposure to air pollution with the prevalence of the restrictive type of lung disorder. Although some of the parameters were significantly altered in some subjects, suggesting a restrictive type of disorder were apparently asymptomatic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003858
Title: In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Plumeria acuminata using membrane stabilization assay
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Plumeria acuminata this is commonly called as perungalli in Tamil language belongs to the family of Apocynaceae that can be widely found in India mostly in southern parts. The leaves of the plant are enriched with the milky juice that contains the property of anti-inflammatory property. The decoction of leaves is applied for cracks and eruption of the soles of the feet. P. acuminata is known as good terminator for the reaction due to inflammation. Materials and Methods: The leaves of P. acuminata are collected and the plant extract was taken; then, we check for anti-inflammatory using membrane stabilization assay. The steps involved are the preparation of red blood cell suspension then using heat-induced hemolysis assay. We can find the anti-inflammatory property. Results: Small dose cures the inflammation when the concentration increases the side effects also increases. Hence, it is good to use in small concentration. Conclusion: The leaves of P. acuminata contain anti-inflammation activity. Thus, it can be used as future medicine in small quantities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003859
Title: Awareness on ecological changes among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to conduct a survey on awareness on ecological changes among college students. Introduction: The environment affects our health in an exceeding number of ways. Environmental risks have been proved to have a considerable impact on human health, either directly by exposing individuals to harmful agents or indirectly by disrupting essential ecosystems. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire-based study. A set of questionnaire is framed and an online survey was conducted among college students using surveyplanet.com. 100 college students have taken the survey, and the results were statistically analyzed. The participants volunteered for the survey. Results: From the above survey, 100 college students have participated and have answered the given questions. Conclusion: Students care about the environment, but they still are not properly aware of the consequences of not treating the environment properly. “The earth is what we all have in common” let’s protect it together.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003860
Title: Preparation and evaluation of lornoxicam film-forming gel
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
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Objective: The objective of the present study was to prepare a topical film-forming gel of lornoxicam for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, using a patient-friendly drug delivery approach. Materials and Methods: Lornoxicam film-forming gels were prepared using polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinylpyrrolidone polymeric blend in varied concentrations, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) as plasticizer, ethanol, and water as solvents. The prepared film-forming gels and films formed after solvent evaporation were evaluated and the influence of the concentration and ratio of polymeric blends used, as well as the concentrations of plasticizer and ethanol were investigated. Results and Conclusions: All the prepared film-forming gels showed satisfactory properties regarding homogeneity, consistency, spreadability, and pH value. Variation in the concentration of polymers, ethanol, and PEG 400 showed a variable effect on drying time and drug release rate from film-forming gels. Drug release from all gel formulations follows Higuchi’s model with Korsmeyer and Peppas release exponent values (n) within the range of 0.5850–0.9485, indicating diffusion-controlled mechanism. Optimized formulation F5 was found to have better characteristics among others by having a drying time of 5 min and 55 s, a sustained release profile of 34.44% drug release after 6 h and comparatively good results in other tests. Film-forming gels of lornoxicam with sustained release profile were successfully developed and may provide a promising effective formulation which may improve patients’ compliance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003861
Title: Incidence of the premasseteric branch of the facial artery – a cadaveric study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Melmaruvathur Adhi Parasakthi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The facial artery belongs to the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. During its course, the artery passes deep to the subcutaneous fat over the cheek, risorius, zygomaticus major and minor muscles near the angle of the mouth, but superficial to buccinator and levator anguli oris muscle, and finally, it terminates as the angular artery near the medial angle of the eye. The facial artery gives labial and nasal branches, and occasionally, it gives premasseteric branch near the anterior border of the masseter muscle which usually supplies that muscle and its adjacent areas. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted using conventional dissection method in 21 adult cadaveric heads, i.e,. 42 hemifaces, in the Institute of Anatomy, Madras Medical College. Results: In the present study, the premasseteric branch was found to arise from the facial artery soon after its entry into the face. It was observed to be present in 12/42 (28.5% of the specimens). Conclusions: The prior knowledge of the presence of the premasseteric artery is very important for surgeons to avoid unintentional complications during surgical procedures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003863
Title: Anticancer activity of Triphala extract against oral cancer cell lines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: This study aims at evaluating the anticancer activity of Triphala extract on oral cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: MTT assay was performed for assessing the anticancer activity of the extract. The extract showed increased cytotoxicity with increased concentrations. This study was conducted to see if Triphala is effective in treating oral cancer in a natural way rather than the other harmful treatments. Results and Conclusion: Triphala extract exhibited a consistent cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003864
Title: Pharmacokinetic study of pemetrexed disodium in rat plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, The Bapatla College of Arts and Sciences, Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh, India
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Aim: Novel analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of pemetrexed disodium in rat plasma using HPLC. Objective: The objective of this research was to develop a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detector to study the pharmacokinetic parameters by non-compartmental design in albino Wistar rats, which offers the good selectivity and specificity than the methods reported earlier. Materials and Methods: HHypersil BDS C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ particle size) column, methanol, and acetonitrile in the ratio of 90:10 (v/v) used as mobile phase with flow rate of 0.8 mL/min at 219 nm wavelength. Calibration standards of pemetrexed disodium at concentrations of 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 μg/mL and IS at 100 μg/mL were prepared by spiking appropriate amount of the standard solutions in processed blank plasma obtained from rats. Method is validated in accuracy, precision, specificity, sensitivity, linearity, recovery, and stability. Results and Conclusition: The method was successfully used to perform the determination of plasma concentrations of drug after intravenous administration of 10 mg/kg dose to 12 albino Wistar rats, and they were anesthetized with intraperitoneal administration by mixture of ketamine (60 mg/kg) and xylazine (6 mg/kg). Blood samples were drawn from the femoral artery at 0, 10, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min. AUC (0-t) = 8168.5 μg/mL/min. AUMC (0-t) = 175634.2 μg/mL/min*min. AUC (0-∞) = 8300.52 μg/mL/min. AUMC (0-∞) = 195535.6 μg/mL/min*min. Tmax = 10 min. Cmax = 56.39 μg. T1/2 = 21.28175 min. Clearance = 0.803 mL/min/kg. This method showed excellent sensitivity, reproducibility, specificity, and velocity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003865
Title: Awareness on influence of communication skills in career
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to create awareness among people on influence of communication skills in career. Introduction: Effective communication skills are extremely important for the successful career of present engineering students. Candidly speaking, effective communication skills are equally essential for everyone in today’s ultracompetitive business world. Soft skills, which are also identified as essential skills, are the critical skills that demonstrate interpersonal competence and organizational communication effectiveness which are essential for managerial or administrative success. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire on awareness of the influence of communication skills in career was prepared. The questionnaire was sent to 100 students through SurveyPlanet link and the data were statistically analyzed. Results: This study analyzed the knowledge and awareness on influence of communication skills in career. It is clear that many students are not fluent in English and feel uncomfortable in communicating with others. Students have to focus on communication skills so as to become dynamic and efficient communicator which is a very urgent need in the present corporate world. Conclusion: Hence, communication plays an important role in influencing a person’s career.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003866
Title: Microhardness of pit and fissure sealant treated tooth after exposure to two different kinds of beverages – A Pilot study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Dissolution of the mineralized tooth structures occurs on contact with the acids that are introduced into the oral cavity. Soft drinks have many potential health problems. The inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential, resulting in dental caries and potential enamel erosion. Soft drinks have a detrimental effect on the teeth on prolonged exposure. Acidic soft drinks cause enamel demineralization on etched tooth surfaces and also cause erosion of the restoration. Aim: This study aims to know the effects of soft drinks on microhardness in pit and fissure treated tooth. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the molar teeth extracted for surgical or orthodontic treatment from the department of oral surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, were used. The teeth were cleaned by soaking them in 5% sodium hypochlorite. Four circular discs were prepared using autopolymerizing monomer and polymer with a diameter of 5 cm. Class 5 buccal cavity was prepared on the sample molar teeth and was restored with pit and fissure sealant and was light cured. These restored and cured samples were embedded in the center of the acrylic discs with restored surface facing upward. Microhardness was done using the method ASTM E384-2011 IN MICROLAB. Results: The microhardness of material was reduced after 7 days, but this reduction in the test groups was not significant as compared with the controls. Microhardness of the samples reduced more in Cola compared to the samples immersed in Minute Maid. This can also be explained by the pH of the beverage; the pH of Cola is less (2.52) compared to the pH of Minute Maid (3.8). Conclusion: The decrease in microhardness also depends on exposure time and chemical composition of composites and soft drinks. Hence, producing and introducing a new pit and fissure sealant with its compositions changed so that it resists the erosive action of the beverages is solution for the erosive action of the beverages on the sealants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003867
Title: Awareness of respiratory distress among college students -A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Respiratory distress is defined as an inappropriate degree of breathing effort based on an assessment of respiratory rate, rhythm, and character. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical emergency. It can occur in people who already have lung disease or in those with previously normal lungs. This disorder used to be called adult respiratory distress syndrome, although it can occur in children. The most important aspect of the evaluation of a child with respiratory distress is observation of the child’s breathing pattern and a brief, directed history and physical examination. Once the cause is identified, treatment should be started quickly to avoid progression to respiratory failure. Any disease or condition that injures the lungs can cause ARDS. More than half of the people with ARDS develop it as a consequence of a severe, widespread infection (sepsis) or pneumonia. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 college-going students participated in the survey. 12 questionnaires were prepared and linked to online SurveyPlanet. Awareness of respiratory distress and its related complications was surveyed and results were obtained. Results: Results obtained were analyzed through pie charts and bar graphs. Major four responses were taken into consideration which was of high importance in the study and by analysis 16 students are at a high risk of having ARDS. Conclusion: Not many these days are aware of the complications of ARDS. The smallest incident that might have taken place in an individual childhood which affected the lung can have a life-threatening condition later in life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003868
Title: Awareness of lifestyle modifications among pregnant mothers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to estimate the knowledge of lifestyle modification among pregnant women. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the level of awareness and knowledge of lifestyle modification among pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A well-defined questionnaire, with 15 questions along with demographic data, was distributed among 100 pregnant women. An online application called Survey Planet was used to distribute the questionnaire. The data then collected were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Results and Conclusion: Health promotion and healthy lifestyle need to be an integral part of health services provided for pregnant women. Although women are aware of the necessary lifestyle modification, further education and implementation are required.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003869
Title: Knowledge and awareness of ergonomics among IT professionals – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this survey is to assess the knowledge and awareness of information technology (IT) professionals about ergonomics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 IT professionals. A self- administered questionnaire was prepared to assess the awareness of ergonomics. The questionnaire was distributed through online SurveyPlanet link. The data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: A majority of the subjects were unaware of the goals of ergonomics, signs and symptoms, and risk factors of various musculoskeletal disorders. Many were unaware of the healthy postures for wrist, elbow, and feet. They were aware of the distance of monitor placement. Most were unaware of mini breaks. Conclusion: This study highlighted the awareness of ergonomics among IT professionals and emphasized the need for ergonomic training program to promote the awareness of musculoskeletal disorders and the healthy postures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003870
Title: Study causes of illegible handwriting prescription as a barrier for the right treatment: A cross-sectional study in Southern Iran
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Shiraz HIV/AIDS Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
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Background and Aim: Drug prescription is still performed as handwriting in many countries. Medical incidents due to physicians’ illegible handwriting have led to considerable amount of mortality annually. They also impose huge preventable expenses on the health-care systems. This study aimed to evaluate the rate and reasons for illegible handwritings and to assess the feasibility of implementing computerized physician order entry (CPOE). Materials and Methods: This cross- sectional study was performed in Fars Province. A total of 344 physicians participated in this study. Demographic documents, the feasibility of CPOE, writing methods, appropriate writing outline, the level of proper drug prescription, and use of abbreviations were investigated and evaluated, using SPSS software. Findings: Among all the participants, 66.9% were general physicians, 14.8% specialists, 4.7% subspecialist, and 13.6% interns, special, or subspecial courses resident. The average practice history of the participants was 12.5 ± 8.7 years. Most of the physicians did not agree with the implementation of CPOE. Among the 307 written prescriptions, 14.3% were illegible, 44.3% were readable, and 41.4% were legible. Only 37% of the evaluated prescriptions contained appropriate and complete drug instructions. More than half of the physicians lacked information about prescription abbreviations, and only 6% of them were well-informed. There was a significant relation between illegible writing and pharmacy-physician connections. Conclusion: In general, physicians do not write legibly; hence, it might lead to life-threatening complications among patients. To deal with this weakness, the first strategy should be preventing the illegal relationship between physician and pharmacist. The second effective strategy could be replacing traditional methods of prescription writing with CPOE.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003871
Title: Awareness of domestic contaminants among homemakers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Domestic contaminants have various adverse health effects from early life, some of the most important harmful effects are perinatal disorders, infant mortality, respiratory disorders, allergy, malignancies, cardiovascular disorders, increase in stress oxidative, endothelial dysfunction, mental disorders, and various other harmful effects. The aim of this study is to present the results of a survey that was conducted to evaluate the knowledge regarding domestic contaminants and its harmfulness in the society among homemakers. Materials and Methods: Hundred homemakers from various localities were contacted through social media such as WhatsApp and email and were asked to participate in the study by filling up an online survey on domestic contaminants. The questionnaire consisted of 19 questions based on domestic contaminants in the household and its knowledge. Results: Homemakers were partially aware of the basic knowledge of domestic contaminants and various household contaminants. However, their knowledge of the management of those wastes is questionable. Based on the responses from the survey, about 76% of the homemakers are aware of domestic contaminants. Conclusion: From the above study, it is evident that the knowledge regarding the management of domestic contaminants is less in homemakers. Proper education should be provided for effective management of non-biodegradable wastes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003872
Title: In silico study of Rumput Fatimah (Anastatica hierochuntica L.) estrogenic activities and its potential as phytoestrogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medicine Science, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
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Background: Rumput fatimah (Anastatica hierochuntica L.) is a desert plant known as a traditional Indonesian medicine to help the childbirth process become more comfortable; however, there is no scientific evidence to support this. In silico tests were performed using computer simulation methods to initiate the discovery of new drug. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prediction of estrogenic activity compounds in rumput fatimah (Anastatica hierochuntica L.) and its potential as a phytoestrogen with target agonists to the estrogen receptor. Methods: Phytochemical tests of rumput fatimah (Anastatica hierochuntica L.) extract using the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method (LCMS), and the activities prediction of Anastatica hierochuntica L. was conducted using PASS SERVER In silico studies were done using PASS server to predict estrogenic activity and molecular docking by utilizing the role of computational chemistry and the ACD/I-Lab program online. Result: In this study, it was found that active compounds in rumput fatimah had low activity against estrogen receptor agonists because the average value of activity obtained was low (<0,3). The results of molecular docking using the PyRx program showed that isopimaric acid was a compound that has a binding affinity value close to that of estradiol, so isopimaric acid is predicted to be a phytoestrogen. Conclusion: Isopimaric acid is one of the estrogen receptor ligands found in rumput fatimah (Anastatica hierochuntica L.) which provided the greatest affinity and good potential as phytoestrogens.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003873
Title: Awareness on soil pollution among school students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and create awareness among schoolchildren about soil pollution. Background: The term soil pollution refers to the presence in soils of chemicals that are either out of place or at higher than normal concentrations. Such contamination may be produced by mining and industrial activity or by sewer and waste mismanagement and has led to major societal concern. Hence, it is important to create awareness among school students regarding soil pollution. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was self-formulated and was delivered by hand and collected on completion. The medium of answering the questionnaire was English. All the responses were kept anonymous. The questionnaire contained 16 questions which were framed to assess the knowledge of school students about the soil pollution. The questions were related to causes of soil pollution and effects on human beings and environment. 100 school students were randomly selected to complete the questionnaire. The responses to each of the questions were entered into the Microsoft Excel Sheet and summarized through the pie chart. Results: Most of the students stated that soil and air pollution is the major pollution affecting their locality. 63% of the students said that the reason for this is improper disposal of waste. On the other hand, students were not aware that accidental spills and nuclear wastes are the causes of soil pollution. More than half of the population stated that there is an unofficial garbage dump in their locality, which has led to soil pollution in their area. More than half of the students were unaware that soil pollution can lead to alteration in climate pattern. There was also unaware that soil vapors and skin absorption are the routes of intake of soil pollutants in humans. Conclusion: This survey shows that schoolchildren have a fairly rough knowledge about the causes and effects of soil pollution. Yet, some children are unaware about the recent causes of soil pollution such as nuclear wastes and accidental spills. Hence, it is important to educate them regarding all the causes and effects, thereby creating awareness and preventing the further destruction caused by soil pollution.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003874
Title: Adverse effects of lignocaine local anesthetic drug
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Allergic reaction due to lignocaine and other amide anesthetic agents used in dental practice is very rare, and it is suggested as a cause when adverse reactions to dental injections occur. Psychogenic reactions are the main causes of these events, of which some can be alarming. A minute proportion of adverse responses can be attributed to intravascular injections. These adverse reactions can be controlled and avoided if proper technique is handled during the procedure.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003875
Title: Awareness of mental health among teenagers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to check the awareness of mental health among teenagers. Introduction: Mental health is one of the most common issues faced by the teenagers. Mental health is associated with behavioral pattern, and psychological and social well-being of a particular individual. Dozens of mental illnesses have been identified and defined. They include depression, generalized anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and many more. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire was prepared and survey was conducted among school students about mental health among teenagers and data were collected. The survey was prepared on SurveyPlanet and was circulated among students. The survey was conducted among 101 students. Results: About 100 students took up the survey, of which 95% of the population spend most of the time in their gadgets. 73% are a single child to their parents. 53% of the students were forced to extracurricular activities due to their parents. 73% of the students felt that they experience a stressful life. Conclusion: Mental health is major concern worldwide. Mental illnesses affect 19% of the adult population, 46% of teenagers, and 13% of children each year. Thus, this survey has created awareness of mental health among teenagers through extensive questionnaire.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003876
Title: Zinc supplementation in normal conditions increases the pro-inflammatory cytokines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia
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Background: Zinc supplementation in young adults has been found to increase dose-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines. Increased proinflammatory cytokine has been found in severe sepsis and shock conditions. To determine the effect of zinc administration on normal conditions on pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to sepsis and normal conditions. Methods: A total sample of 40 rats was randomized into four control groups, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS-zinc, and zinc. Placebo normal saline was given intravenously to the control and zinc groups, whereas in the LPS and LPS-zinc groups, intravenous Escherichia coli LPS was given. Blood collection was carried out at the 2nd h after administration to measure zinc levels, and an oral distilled water placebo was given to the control group and LPS, while the LPS-zinc and zinc groups were given zinc supplementation orally for 3 days. At 8, 24, and 72 h, blood was collected to measure tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. At the 72nd h, blood was also taken to measure zinc levels. Examination of TNF-α and IL-6 levels used the enzymelinked immunosorbent assay Sandwich technique, while zinc levels used atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: The TNF-α level in the zinc group at 72nd h was higher than the control group, while the zinc group’s IL-6 level was higher than the control group at 8th and 24th h. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the zinc group were lower than LPS and LPS-zinc groups. Conclusions: Zinc supplementation under normal conditions increases the cytokines of TNF-α and IL-6. KEY WORDS: Interleukin-6, Normal conditions, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Zinc.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003877
Title: Advances in medical application of Swertia chirata plant extract in the treatment of diabetics: A brief review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, School of Agriculture and Biosciences, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major and most emerging health problem which can be described as a state of raised glucose level in blood. Such complex metabolic disorder is mainly resulting from either insufficiency of insulin or dysfunction of the same hormone. The prevalence of diabetes is shown in throughout the world and especially in third world countries. At present, there are several drugs, mainly allopathic drugs are available for the treatment of diabetes, but they are all expensive and also possess side effects. For the last one decade, a lot of new drugs and treatments have been developed based on a better understanding of their mechanisms of action against the disease. In spite of their advanced way of action against the disease, none of these drugs or treatments can alone or in combination can properly control the insulin release and prevent the complications normally generated from the disease. Even they are associated with short- and long-run adverse effects. Nature is considered as the best source of medicines. There are several medicinal herbs have been tried for indigenous remedies and treatment of diabetes. Among that Swertia chirata is considered as the most effective plant and having all medicinal properties including antihelminthic, antipyretic, hypoglycemic, and antifungal property. The plant extract is highly effective to increase the insulin output from the pancreas and can inhibit intestinal absorption of glucose. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of the plat in the form of different extracts. However, lot more studies are still required to fully understand its mechanism against hyperglycemia and to cure the disease fully.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003878
Title: Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using amla fruit against oral pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: A study of antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) synthesized using amla fruit against oral pathogens. Introduction: Nanotechnology has offered great possibilities in various fields of science and technology. It has been playing crucial role in the development of modern materials in recent years. The antifungal activity of ZnO occurs by the deformation of fungal hyphae and preventing the development of conidiophores, leading to the death of fungal hyphae causing cellular destruction. Materials and Methods: Preparation of plant extract, synthesis of NPs, characteristics of NPs, preparation of NPs powder, and antibacterial activity of NPs oral pathogens are used. Results and Discussion: The peak found in the spectroscopy indicates the formation of ZnO NP. From the above graph in Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas, the zone of inhibition increases with increase in concentration. In Streptococcus mutans, the zone of inhibition decreases with increase in concentration. Conclusion: The results conclude that ZnO NP can be used to prevent any antibacterial diseases.