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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003945
Title: Influence of gender and locality on the attitude of adolescence toward aids
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study the influence of gender and locality on the attitude of adolescence toward acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Materials and Methods: A total of 100 adolescents were randomly selected from rural and urban area for this study. The age range was between 12 and 45 years with a mean age of 29 years. Attitude toward AIDS scale was used for data collection. Statistical test and findings showed no significant gender difference. Male and female showed similar attitude toward AIDS. There was a significant local effect.Results: People those who live in urban area were found to have more attitude than those who live in rural area. Among the 100 adolescents who participated, 83% of people prefer that making social awareness program will bring out a vast change in community. Knowledge of the modes of transmission was higher than about prevention. Knowledge regarding their sociodemographic characteristics and attitude regarding AIDS were obtained using schematic, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. The people who were mentally disabled were excluded from the study. Conclusion: Usage of mass media to deliver key messages and using pamphlets with content would improve the knowledge of AIDS and creates an awareness of AIDS among the people in rural and urban area and to help people to improve life skill of people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00003947
Title: Spectrophotometric analytical method development of duloxetine and methylcobalamin using area under the curve method
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pharmaceutical Analysis, College of Pharmacy, Shaqra University, Dawadmi, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Introduction: Duloxetine (DULO) and methylcobalamin as a combined dosage form are used in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). There is no much information revealed on the analytical method development method for the simultaneous estimation of this combined dosage form in capsule and tablet. To develop a simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method using area under the curve was developed in pure form and in combined pharmaceutical dosage forms. Methods: The total area under the curve of a mixture at a wavelength range is equal to the sum of under the individual components at that wavelength range. Linearity was developed with 10–80 µg/mL of DULO and 0.5–10 µg/mL of methylcobalamin which were prepared in water separately from respective stock solutions. The area under the curve of DULO and methylcobalamin was measured at 260–330 nm and 340–380 nm, respectively, carried out separately. “X” values of each drug were determined at the selected wavelength ranges, 260 nm–330 nm and 340 nm–380 nm. Results and Discussion: The Beer’s law limits for each drug individually and in the mixture was within the concentration range of 10–80 µg/ml. The X values were calculated at 260–330 nm and 340–380 nm for DULO (20 µg/ml) and methylcobalamin (0.5 µg/ml) which was found to be 7997.5, 67.50 and 6100, 3600, respectively. Furthermore, the method was validated statistically, and recovery studies were carried out. Conclusion: Thus, the proposed method can be applied successfully to the analysis of cited drugs either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations with good accuracy and precision and can be employed for quality control and routine analysis of drugs in pharmaceutical formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003948
Title: Therapeutic benefits of phenibut – A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Phenibut is a neuropsychotropic drug that was discovered in Russia. Chemically, it is known as β-phenyl-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is available in powdered and capsule form. It has anxiolytic and nootropic effects. It acts as a GABA- mimetic, primarily at GABA G and, to some extent, at GABAA receptors. It also stimulates dopamine and antagonizes β-phenylethylamine, a putative endogenous anxiogenic. Phenibut is widely used in Russia to relieve tension, anxiety, and fear, to improve sleep in psychosomatic or neurotic patients or regular individuals with insomnia, as well as a pre- or post-operative medication. It is also used in therapy of disorders characterized by asthenia and in cases of insomnia and anxiety.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003949
Title: Stem-cell therapy for leukemia
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Leukemia is a group of cancer that usually begins in the bone marrow and results in high number of abnormal white blood cells. There are four main types of leukemia; acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia as well as a number of less common types. Stem cell transplantation can be done as autologous stem cell transplantation or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In stem cell transplantation, high doses of chemotherapy are given to destroy leukemia cells long with normal bone marrow. Then, the transplant stem cells are delivered by intravenous infusion. Stem cells travel to the bone marrow and begin producing new blood cells. This treatment involves risk of infections and bleeding due to depletion of normal blood cells. Treatment may involve some combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and bone marrow transplant, in addition to supportive care and palliative care as needed. Certain types of leukemia may be managed with watchful waiting. The success of treatment depends on the type of leukemia and the age of the person.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003950
Title: Awareness about implant abutment connections among dental students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: A dental implant abutment is a portion of a dental implant that serves to support or retain prosthesis. The implant abutment is used to connect the clinical crown to the implant. The stability of the implant abutment connection depends on the geometry of the mating surfaces and, knowledge about the advantages and disadvantages of the same will help in choosing the right implant system for the practice. Aim: The aim is to analyze about the awareness among dental students on different types of dental implant abutment connections. Materials and Methods: Hundred dental students and practitioners were selected randomly. A questionnaire type study was carried out among the 100 dental students and practitioners. The questionnaire containing 10 questionnaires was given to the selected persons and responses were obtained. This survey was conducted to determine the awareness among dental students and practitioners on various implant abutment connections. The responses were recorded and analyzed. Results: Among 100 participants, 37% of students were well aware of the types of connections, 46% of them were not well aware of connections, and 17% of them were unaware of the types of connections. About 20% of students selected external hex two-piece implants have commonly used connection design, 49% of the selected internal hex connection design, and 31% of the selected single piece implants has commonly used implant connection design. Conclusion: The result of the survey shows that participants are, in fact, aware of both the advantages and disadvantages of two-piece and single piece implants. However, the understanding of how a simple internal hex and a conical interface can be so different is not universal.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003951
Title: Knowledge of the awareness of dentists on the management of burn injuries on the face
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Burns are prevalent as a burdensome critical care problem. Devastating facial burns have considerable cosmetic and psychological implications on the patient and can significantly affect the functional recovery. Apart from the fact that the identity of an individual is majorly bound to facial appearance, the basic senses and several other essential functions such as vision, hearing, speech, deglutition, and respiration can be compromised by burn scars. Facial burns can be very critical to a patient’s daily existence and integral to their self-esteem. Aim: The present study aims at gaining knowledge of the awareness of dentists on the management of facial burns. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based survey study was conducted employing self-administered questionnaire at the Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. This study was conducted by assessing responses to 17 selected questions pertaining to the management of facial burns among 112 dentists through SurveyPlanet. The questionnaire was regarding the awareness and treatment plans involved in the management of facial burns and is used to assess the levels of awareness among dentists. The results were studied and analyzed. Results: In this survey, nearly 81% of the dentists have not treated patients with facial burns and 19% of the dentist have involved in the treatment of facial burns. About 56% answered that facial burn heals and nearly 25% answered for not healing and the rest answered that burns heal with a scar. About 38% of the dentists preferred plastic surgery for children and 19% did not prefer. The remaining 44% answered that plastic surgery can be sometimes be opted for children. Conclusion: The knowledge of awareness of the management of burn injuries of the face among dentists is not adequate and more awareness needs to be created. The main goal of the management of facial burns is the restoration of the normal facial subunits, good anatomical balance with symmetry, and a dynamic facial expression.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003952
Title: Cytotoxic effects of acrylic denture base materials among undergraduate dental students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Acrylic resins are the widely used materials in dentistry. It is one of the oldest materials, which is used for the fabrication of denture bases. They are also used for removable partial or complete dentures and also for implant-supported removable dentures. It is very important to have a knowledge on the use of acrylic resins as the residual monomer produced from acrylic resins has more allergic responses on the oral cavity of patients. Aim: This study aims to assess the awareness among the dental students on the cytotoxic effect of acrylic denture base materials used in patients and methods to minimize the effects. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of the dental students on handling the acrylic denture base materials in patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dental students were chosen and a questionnaire including six questions was surveyed and the results are obtained. The questionnaire included questions concentrating on the knowledge of the students about the cytotoxic effects of the acrylic resin materials and their causes and the methods to minimize these cytotoxic effects of the acrylic denture base materials. Results: About 100% of the students were aware of the use of acrylic resin materials in dentistry among which 8% of the students use self-cure, 33% heat cure, and 59% of students use both the acrylic resin materials. About 82% of the students were aware of the cytotoxic effects of the acrylic resin materials. Conclusion: This study concluded majority of the students having knowledge of the causes and effects of acrylic resin materials in patients, but the knowledge of minimizing the cytotoxic effects was less which has to be improved.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003953
Title: Plummer–Vinson syndrome – A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Plummer–Vinson syndrome (PVS) is a triad of microcytic hypochromic anemia, atrophic glossitis, and esophageal webs or strictures. It is one of the syndromes associated with iron-deficiency anemia. Symptoms resulting from anemia predominate the clinical picture, apart from the additional features such as glossitis, angular cheilitis, and dysphagia. Dysphagia is main clinical feature of PVS. PVS carries an increased risk of the development of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus and pharynx. The article carries a message that dental surgeons have to be familiar with the oral manifestations of anemia and be able to suspect PVS to aid in early diagnosis and prompt treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003956
Title: Assessment of pink component and white component in the extraoral profile pictures of population from three different ethnicities
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Each patient will have different teeth shade and different shade of gingiva. In this study, white component refers to the teeth shade and the pink component refers to the shade of gingiva. During fabrication of fixed partial prosthesis sometime, the teeth will have gingival recession; in such cases, the appropriate shade of gingival component can be added to make it more comfortable and more esthetic for the patient. It can also be useful in fabrication of anterior removable partial denture to make it esthetically better. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the teeth shade and gingival shade among different ethnicities. Materials and Methods: Three groups were participated in this study. Each group comprised people from different ethnicities. Extraoral profile pictures of 30 indifferent patients from three different ethnicities were collected. Shade guides were used to evaluate the pink component and white component. Gingival shade and teeth shade of different ethnicities were analyzed statistically. Results: The results were statistically analyzed. The gingival shades and teeth shades among the three groups with different ethnicities were assessed. A2 and G2 were found to be the mostly common found teeth shade and gingival shade. Malaysians and Koreans were tended to have more lighter gingival and tooth shade than the Indians. Skin complexion has a significant role in the color of gingiva and tooth.Conclusion: The tooth shade of Malaysians was much brighter when compared to all the others, whereas the gingival shade and tooth shade of the Indians was dull when compared to the shade of gingiva and tooth of other two ethnicities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003957
Title: Ergonomic use of dental operator chair among dental graduates using anthropometric data
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The practice of dentistry involves various and wide high finesse dental preparations, precision, and control in execution which can be physically and also mentally challenging. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. In the field of ergonomics applied in dentistry, one of the most discussed themes is the working posture of the dentist. In dentistry, the working position is represented by the spatial arrangement of the dentist’s entire body around the patient must be distinguished. The ideal posture of a dentist provides optimal working conditions as well as physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical procedure. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the optimal ergonomic requirements of dental operator chairs for dental professionals in India. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 150 undergraduate students ages ranging between 18 and 24 years. The demographic details were collected from the students along with their anthropometric details (height and weight). Students were categorized into 3 major groups for comparison, (i) 3rd year undergraduate students, (ii) 4th year undergraduate students, and (iii) internship students. The height of the students was measured with a tape fixed to the wall in meters (m) while the weight was measured with a weighing scale in kilograms (kg). In addition, the seat height was kept with a constant angulation of 135°, and the student was then allowed to adjust the height of operator tool according to their comfort. Then, the height from the floor to the knee angle was measured and recorded. Results: The results showed that there was a wide variability among the 3rd year, final year, and also the interns based on their height, weight, 135° angulation of the seat, and the adjustments required for their proper comfort while treating a patient. Most of the students did not follow the proper parameters which are required for the use of a dental operator chair. Conclusion: The students in this study were not familiar with the principles and parameters of ergonomic of the dental operator chair and did not sit correctly on the dentist chair, thus resulting in various musculoskeletal disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003958
Title: Red blood cell count changes in cancer patients under radiation therapy – A prospective study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Normal red blood cell (RBC) count ranges from 4.2 to 6.1 million cells per microliter of blood. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is a therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as a part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells. However, normal cells like RBCs are also affected. Aim: The present study evaluates the change in RBC count among the patients who are undergoing radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: This study was done to assess the change in red cell count of the patients who are under radiation therapy at Rai Clinic in Chennai. The RBC values of 32 patients undergoing palliative radiotherapy with five fractions. Complete blood count reports were collected from a local cancer clinic with the consent of patients and the counts were collected for five fractions. The technique of radiation used as three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy technique for all the patients. Results: Throughout the radiotherapy, the RBC counts can vary from 4.2 to 6.1 million cells per microliter of blood. After the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth fraction of radiotherapy, the average range of RBC is from 3.04 to 3.74 million cells per microliter, 3.80 to 4.50 million cells per microliter, 3.86 to 4.56 million cells per microliter, 3.45 to 4.15 million cells per microliter, and 3.33 to 4.03 million cells per microliter, respectively. Conclusion: Radiation exposure in cancer patients and its impact on RBCs have been investigated for 32 patients. There is no drastic difference in the RBC count; therefore, it is least effected. In conclusion, a routine serial blood count determination during the entire course of radiation does not show any significant abnormalities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003959
Title: Comparison and analysis of lip prints among North Indian and South Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The wrinkles and grooves on the labial mucosa called sulci labiorum forms a characteristic pattern called as lip prints. The study of lip print is cheiloscopy it is used as an identification tool in the forensic department these days since lip prints are unique as fingerprints in each individual’s. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the lip prints of North Indians and South Indians and to analyze its uniqueness. Materials and Methods: The study group consists of 100 people, which included both 50 North Indians and 50 South Indians. The subjects had no lesions on their lips and they were not sensitive to lipsticks. A single coat of lipstick was applied on the subject’s lips evenly, not too thick. The subjects were asked to keep their lips in a closed and resting state, and a strip of cellophane tape was used to take the lip print impression. The grooves and furrows in the impression were clearly examined using a magnifying glass, and the type of lip print was identified. The number of lines and furrows, length, branching, and combination was noted and recorded. Then, the lip prints were compiled, analyzed, and interpreted. Results: Lip prints are unique like our thumbprint and in correlation of lip prints among North Indians and South Indian, Type 2 was dominant in North Indian upper right lip; Type 1a was dominant in South Indian. Type 1a was dominant in both North Indian and South Indian upper left lip. Type 2 was dominant in both North Indian and South Indian lower right lip Type 2 was dominant in North Indian lower left lip; Type 1a was dominant in South Indian lower left lip. Conclusion: Lip prints are unique and it can be used for identification purposes. Among North Indians and South Indians, Type 2 and Type 1a were most predominant in both the population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003960
Title: Antimicrobial effects of Salvadora persica and Prunus persica on oral pathogens
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Good oral health has a major influence on one’s general quality of life and well-being. Plants have been used for centuries to improve dental health and to promote oral hygiene, and this practice persists in several communities throughout the world. Miswak is a natural toothbrush picked from the tree Salvadora persica. Peaches contain fluoride and a small amount of calcium. Fluorides help to reduce bacterial acid production; it tends to inhibit the rate at which bacteria’s grow in the oral region. This research is about the comparison between the effect of miswak and peach on selected oral pathogens. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antibacterial activity miswak and peach oil against oral pathogens. Methodology: The antibacterial activity is carried out by agar well diffusion technique against the bacterial pathogens. The test materials used were miswak powder and peach oil. Miswak powder was mixed with distilled water and added into the well and the peach oil was introduced directly into the well. Chlorhexidine is a positive control. The zone of inhibition is measured in mm diameter. Results: This study proves that the effect of miswak on oral pathogens is better than the peach on oral pathogens. Streptococcus mutans showed the maximum susceptibility toward the miswak and peach oil with 26 mm and 22 mm zone of inhibition, respectively. The antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis showed zone of inhibition 21 mm and 17 mm with miswak and peach oil, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, both miswak and peach oil showed antimicrobial activity against the bacterial strains tested. Inhibitory activity of miswak was more when compared to peach oil.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003961
Title: Post insertion complications in patients’ wearing conventional complete denture and bio functional prosthetic system dentures
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Complete dentures are essential to rehabilitate the stomatognathic by improving masticatory efficiency, phonetics and aesthetic appearance of the completely edentulous patients. Hence, the follow-up care of complete denture is an important step and it helps to correct minor problems and complications. As wearing complete dentures that are ill fitting or uncomfortable to wear may have adverse effects on the denture supporting tissues and the oral health of the patient. Edentulism is considered as the final marker of disease burden of oral health. Patient satisfaction is an important parameter to determine quality and success of treatment. However, many studies have demonstrated that patient satisfaction with complete denture significantly decline over time due to their fit and other factors, as a result, patient dissatisfaction translates into time loss for the dentist. Aim: To evaluate the post insertion complications in patients’ wearing conventional complete dentures and bio functional prosthetic system dentures. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire based study being conducted in Saveetha dental college and hospitals, Chennai. The study was carried out on 150 patients visiting Saveetha dental college and hospitals who have been treated with either conventional complete denture or bio functional prosthetic system dentures, and the post insertion complications were evaluated between them. The questionnaire consisted of questions based on various post insertion complications like pain on insertion and removal, ulceration, aesthetics, difficulty in speech, ill fitting dentures, difficulty in mastication, reduced tongue space. Satisfaction regarding fit, aesthetics, function and comfort were compared. Results: Based on this study, the result was that patients who had obtained the biofunctonal prosthetic system dentures were more satisfied with the various aspects of the denture such as aesthetics, fit of the denture, and had no pain on insertion or problems with mastication or speech, whereas comparatively, patients who had obtained the conventional complete denture had pain on insertion of dentures, ulcers, and problems during mastication and speech. Conclusion: According to this study conducted, it can be concluded that patients who had obtained conventional complete dentures had more post insertion complications, compared to the patients who had obtained biofunctional prosthetic system dentures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003962
Title: Choice of career as a dentist – A survey among dental students in Saveetha Dental College
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Career is one of the most important decisions one will ever make. The choice of dentistry as a career could offer prestige, relative autonomy, an income above average, the opportunities to help others, creative, and artistic challenges. Dentists occupy an important position in society as professional health care workers. The opportunity to participate in dental education in many countries, especially in the developing countries, is limited to a small percentage of the community. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the career options and reasons for choosing dentistry as a career among students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was developed and circulated among 100 undergraduate dental students studying at Saveetha Dental College. A list of 10 questionnaires that possibly influenced students’ decision to study dentistry was presented to the students of Saveetha Dental College. All the students were given an ½ h time to complete the questionnaire. The data were collected, tabulated, and analyzed. Results: Forty-three (42.9%) students took dentistry as their own interest. Private practice is a key motive for choosing dentistry. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that reasons for choosing dentistry as a career among the surveyed dental students are mostly related to social and vocational factors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003963
Title: Study on prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs among acute coronary syndrome patients in South Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Hypertension or high blood pressure is a condition, in which the force of the blood against the artery walls is too high. The increasing prevalence of the condition is blamed on lifestyle and dietary factors such as physical inactivity, alcohol and tobacco use, and a diet high in sodium. Hypertension can be primary and secondary. Primary hypertension results from a complex interaction of genes and environmental factors. Secondary hypertension results from identifiable cause. Long-term prevalence of this can lead to major health risks. Aim: The present study evaluates the drug utilization pattern of antihypertensive drugs in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients among South Indian population. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted for a period of 1 month (December 2016) based on in and outpatient medical records of patients admitted in Saveetha Medical College and Hospital in Chennai. Fifty patients were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Only patients with ACS and hypertension were included in the study. Non-hypertensive ACS patients and hypertensive patients with no signs of ACS were excluded from the study. The prescription forms were analyzed for various parameters such as gender of the patient, type of antihypertensive drugs used, type of therapy (monotherapy or two drug combination therapies), and other diseases associated with hypertension. Results: About 53% of the patients were prescribed amlodipine, 22% of the patients were described atenolol, 20% of the patients were prescribed enalapril, and 5% of the patients were prescribed diltiazem. Conclusion: Monotherapy was the most commonly used mode of treatment according to the current study. However, it does not indicate that monotherapy is better or more efficient than the other since the treatment of choice also depends on the severity of the condition and the patient’s history. If the patient response to monotherapy is less, then combination therapy is used for better prognosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003964
Title: Mental health inventory
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Mental health is a state of physiological maturity – a relatively constant and enduring function of personality. According to the World Health Organization, mental health includes  subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, inter-generational dependence, and self-actualization of one’s intellectual and emotional potential, among others. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the mental health status of dental students of Saveetha University. Materials and Methods: A survey based on mental health questionnaire by Augustes was used to evaluate the mental health of individuals. A total of 50 individuals studying I BDS were selected. They were made to sit comfortably and were given the questionnaire to fill. Once done, the results were collected and tabulated. Results: The scores were calculated as per the options, and the scores were tabulated as below 40 indicating depressive state, 40–80 indicating normal mental state, and above 80 denoting hyperactive mental state. About 25 individuals fall under the score 40–80 and the average was calculated to be 60.2, 12 individuals fall under the score 0–40 with an average of 30.25, and 13 individuals under the score 81–120 with an average of 97.76. Conclusion: This study concludes that individuals differ in their mental health values. Hence, suitable corrective measures should be undertaken to address this.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003965
Title: Dental fluorosis and the prevalence of dental caries in children age on 6–16 in Malaysia
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Fluoride is a double-edged sword. The fluoride produces a dose-dependent effect on the dentition. However, this is not confined to increased caries resistance. Fluoride causes various disorders, together called fluorosis, if accumulated above certain levels in the body. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the dental fluorosis prevalence among 6–10 year-old school children in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 school children in the age group of 6–16 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean’s criteria index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to the WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall health status of the child was assessed by DMFT index. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of Grade 2 fluorosis was the highest and Grade 5 fluorosis was the lowest in all the age groups. The number of children was highest in the age group between 15 and 16 years followed by the age group between 6 and 7 years. The overall DMFT increased as the age of the children increased in the different age groups. The DMFT increased as the severity of fluorosis increased up to Grade 2 and then decreased from Grade 3 to Grade 5. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the risk of dental fluorosis was significantly higher in this Johor Bahru area which shows more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003966
Title: Awareness of oral cancer among tobacco users attending an outpatient dental hospital
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Cancer is a group of disease involving abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way, with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Oral cancer refers to cancer in the oral cavity. Oral cancer, which includes cancers of the lips, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palate, sinuses, and pharynx, can be life threatening if not diagnosed and treated early. Researchers in oral cancer believe that lack of public awareness has also been considered to be a potent barrier for early detection of cancer. Aim: The aim is to understand the awareness among individuals about oral cancers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 randomly selected individuals who were tobacco users, attending a private dental college in Chennai. Both smokeless and smoking tobaccos users were included irrespective of their gender. A self-structured questionnaire was used to access the knowledge of the participants based on gender, type of habit, educational level, early signs and symptoms, and awareness of oral cancer. The obtained data were collected and analyzed. Results: All patients invited to this survey accepted to participate and there was more male predilection with a count of 86% and the female being 14%. About 84% of the participants said that oral cancer is contagious. Out of all the 50 participants, 33 of the participants were willing to quite their habit and the rest were not willing to quit it. Conclusion: The oral cancer awareness and knowledge in the present population are poor. Moreover, many of the individuals though they know about the health hazards of tobacco still continue using tobacco. Early diagnosis and rapid access for treatment of cancer are an important factor for improving outcomes for oral cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003967
Title: A review on treatment and management diabetic foot ulcer
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism. Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which slows down the wound healing process. Many studies show a prolonged inflammatory phase in diabetic wounds, which causes a delay in the formation of granulation tissue and reduction in wound tensile strength. Diabetic ulcers form due to a combination of factors, such as increased body weight, numbness of the foot, poor circulation, irritation, and trauma. Ulcers often progress to infections of the surrounding tissue, osteomyelitis, and amputation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003968
Title: Evaluation of variation in shade in metal-ceramic restoration from the shade tab
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: During shade matching, the most popular approach is to match the shade of the natural teeth to a shade guide to specify the shade of the final restoration. Digital photography acts as a communication tool between the laboratory and the dentist. However, the accuracy of the shade in the final restoration might vary from the shade tab due to multiple factors. The aim of this study is to assess the variation in shade of ceramic restoration from the shade tab. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the difference in the shades between the shade tab and glazed porcelain. Materials and Methods: Forty glazed metal ceramic restorations shade matched using Vita classic shade guide were included in the study. Photographs of the restoration before cementation were taken under natural lighting condition with black background by the same operator; an online software (Image Color Summarizer 0.76© 2006–2018) was used to analyze the color clusters; the CIELAB values of the average of each cluster were analyzed. The images were clustered such that the ceramic restoration falls in a single cluster. The ceramic restorations were compared with the photographs of their respective shade tabs taken under same conditions. Results: Independent t-test was performed for L*, a*, and b* values separately. There was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.00) between the restoration and the shade tab in “a* value.” There was no statistically significant difference in the L* value (P = 0.059) and b value (P = 0.677). Conclusion: Shade matching assisted by digital photographs is considered to be more accurate when compared to visual methods. However, the changes in the final restoration from the shade tab might happen. The result of this study indicates that there is change in the glazed ceramic restoration from the shade tab used for shade matching.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003969
Title: Multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny of maternally expressed gene 9 class of long non-coding ribonucleic acids
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Targeted functional studies over the past decade have identified essential roles for lncRNAs in development, differentiation and various cancers.Although overall sequence similarity is minimal, xenotypic lncRNAs have been found to exhibit micro-homology and are functionally and structurally conserved.Mechanistic and functional characterization would greatly enhance the relatively new field of lncRNA structural biology. The aim of this study is to perform multiple sequence alignment of maternally expressed gene 9 LncRNA and understand the evolutionary relationship with other similar species. Materials and Method: Sequence of the MEG9 LncRNA was collected from the LncRNAdb which had an accession number EU616813.1. This sequence was downloaded in FASTA format and saved. Blast was performed to search and identify possible similar sequences to MEG9. Result: From this phylogenetic tree, it was clearly understood that there exists a high level of convergence of this MEG9 across species with commending sequence identity such that the taxonomical considerations are also maintained.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003970
Title: Structural annotation of hypothetical proteins of Streptococcus mutans
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai- 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Streptococcus mutans is one of the serious pathogens, facultative Gram-positive, anaerobic cocci predominantly found in the human oral cavity known to be involved in promoting tooth decay. Although the genome of this bacterium is already sequenced, there still remain proteins for which neither the function nor the structures are known yet. Therefore, in this study, we will be performing structural annotation of the hypothetical proteins present in S. mutans to find proteins that are similar in fold for further understanding. Materials and Methods: The FASTA sequence of the selected hypothetical protein of S. mutans was subjected to structural annotation using the online server HHpred. Results and Conclusion: It was found that the hypothetical proteins which were selected had glucosyltransferase function and structural annotation supported the finding.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003972
Title: Establishment of in vitro – in vivo correlation of antihyperlipidemic activity
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Sciences, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: In the proposed studies, we aimed to establish the in vitro–in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of antihyperlipidemic activity. We developed new in vitro chicken liver assay method for the evaluation of antihyperlipidemic activity and by using this method also evaluated atorvastatin antihyperlipidemic activity. In the proposed study, we aimed to correlate the in vivo response (serum total cholesterol) with an in vitro response (concentration of an extract of liver homogenate in isopropyl alcohol). Materials and Methods: Then, we hypothesized that chicken liver could be tried as an alternative to rat liver to avoid ethical issues. Moreover, chicken liver is widely available. Thus, we decided to include chicken liver homogenate as the source of enzymes for the in vitro biosynthesis of cholesterol homogenate with and without atorvastatin. We were selected n-hexane:isopropyl alcohol organic mixture to extract the lipid content from chicken liver. Isopropyl alcohol was used to make up the final volume before testing cholesterol content in residue. Results: Both in vitro and in vivo method results showed antihyperlipidemic activity and found that new apparatus is worth for screening activities. Conclusions: A good correlation was obtained between in vitro and in vivo data. Thus, it was concluded that an IVIVC was established for antihyperlipidemic activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003974
Title: Various techniques in the fixation of mandibular fractures – A review literature
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The efficacy in the fixation of mandibular fractures has been improving day by day. The techniques in the refinement of fixing mandibular fractures have evolved drastically. These progressively improving techniques provide functional and esthetic outcomes in the oromandibular fixation. The recent advances in the surgical techniques, plating technology, and thorough understanding of the angiogenic property have made fixing reliably complicated mandibular fractures possible. This review article highlights the state of the art technology and latest innovations in the mandibular fracture fixation. Conclusion: As an end point, the newer advancements and techniques are going to be upgraded day by day, thus aiding in the comfort of the patient as well as to the clinicians for better results and better prognosis. Different types of techniques are available according to different types of mandible fractures. This article throws insight into the various techniques (conventional to contemporary) of mandibular fracture fixation readily useful to the clinician as well as to the patient on the prognosis part.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003975
Title: Surgical management of atrophic mandibular fractures: A review literature
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: In current trends, there is a significant raise in the elder population thanks to the improved medical facilities and the advent of innovative drugs . The elder population are more mobile now and are getting engaged in leisure activities nowadays to a larger extent so that the earlier infrequently reported atrophic mandibular fractures are becoming frequent. This article deals with conventional as well as new techniques that are found to manage atrophic mandibular fractures efficiently. Conclusion: The surgeons feel that the fracture of atrophic mandible is the most difficult to treat, as the procedures are more technique sensitive. As the population gets old, the surgeons will encounter lot of fractured atrophic mandible cases more often than not. There are a lot of techniques in treatment that are more practical, and surgeons must have a thorough understanding of both advantages and disadvantages of it.  It is becoming directly proportional that the treatment of atrophic mandibular fractures improves day by day as the plating systems evolve.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003976
Title: A review on antibacterial properties of Melia azadirachta
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Prosthodontics , Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim is to evaluate the antibacterial properties of “Melia azadirachta.” Data and Sources: The databases of Medline, Google Scholar, Embase, and Scholars Portal databases were searched for the related topics, which were also manually analyzed by the reviewers, according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Bibliographies of reviews and randomized control trials, identified in the search strategy, were analyzed for studies published outside the electronically searched journals. The studies considering in this review were evaluated and ranked based on the protocol put forth by center for evidence-based medicine (Oxford, 1995). Study Selection: The studies considered were based on the data extraction and analysis of quality and publication bias. Conclusion: The extracts are found to be beneficial in diseases such as herpes, heart diseases, hepatitis, fungal infection, malaria, psoriasis, and ulcer. There is wide scope for the material in the treatment of various diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003977
Title: Implant success rate in patients with osteoporotic bone
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Osteoporosis, a quietly progressing metabolic bone disease that leads to minimizing of bone mass, is widely prevalent in India and fractures due to osteoporosis are a common cause of mortality and morbidity in adult Indian males and females. Low bone mass with microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue is the main characteristic features of osteoporosis and are also the leading causes for increasing risk of fractures. Likelihood of developing osteoporosis in women is 4 times when compared to men. The maintenance of oral health in adults with osteoporosis is important. Studies revealed that osteoporosis is one of the risk factors for osseointegration process during dental implant healing. Hence, osteoporosis is considered a questionable condition for the placement of dental implants. However, literature states that osteoporosis patients are not contraindicated for dental implants. The aim of this study was to determine whether a diagnosis of osteoporosis shows its effect on the survival rate of osseointegrated dental implants. Aim: The aim is to evaluate the success rate of implants with osteoporotic bone. Objectives: (1) To evaluate the implant success rate in the patients with osteoporotic bone, (2) To assess various treatment options in the patients with osteoporotic bone. Study and Design: A review was done on the success rate of dental implants with osteoporotic bone. A wide evaluation of articles was done, and the data were collected from various search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, research gate, Scholars portal database, Medline, Embase, and few other hand search articles. The bibliographies were evaluated with the other electronically searched articles. The studies included were evaluated and analyzed. Conclusion: Based on the above literature search, dentists should perform a proper assessment of treatment planning while placing dental implants in osteoporotic patients for a better implant survival rate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003978
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice survey on temporization following tooth preparation among Indian dental practitioners
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Temporization following tooth preparation is mandatory to ensure tooth stability and therefore to prevent tooth movement and additional treatment. It enables to maintain proper occlusal and proximal contacts to promote patient comfort and maintain their tooth position. The interim covering for a tooth after its preparation is mandatory to maintain tooth vitality. This provides security and comfort for the patients during the fabrication of the final restorations. Aim: The aim of the survey is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of temporization followed by tooth preparation among the Indian dental practitioners. Study Design: The study was conducted in April 2019. It was conducted among the Indian dental practitioners to evaluate their KAP of preferring temporary crowns after tooth preparation in their general dental practice. A questionnaire survey was formed and sent to general dental practitioners all over India. All the questions are close-ended, which takes 3–5 min to fill up. We got back 85 responses from dentists. All the data collected were subjected to elicit in the form of detailed pie charts. Results: Almost all the doctors felt that temporization is an important step in the process of fixed prosthesis. All of them would prefer to fabricate in an indirect method. Dentists would like to give the crowns for a week before the permanent cementation, and many of them are capable of fabricating in 1 h and rest in 1/2 day. Conclusion: All fields of human activity have been affected by great advances of technological developments. As a matter of fact, when a patient looks for a dentist, it is to improve specifically esthetics because in a highly competitive and modern society a young, beautiful and natural appearance is very important for success.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003979
Title: A literature review on the contemporary treatment modalities in implant dentistry
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim is to evaluate the contemporary treatment modalities in implant dentistry. The aim of the study is to evaluate the contemporary treatment modalities in implant dentistry and to evaluate various implant treatment options in dentistry. A literature search was done in the following databases: (1) Medline (Ovid), (2) PubMed, (3) Embase, and (4) Google Scholar. To assess the implant longevity, the bone quality and its clinical evaluation were evaluated. Clinicians should actively reassure edentulous patients to attend annual recall evaluations, to consider denture replacement in a timely manner, and to contemplate the potential use of end osseous dental implants as an operative means of improving their own perceptions of function, appearance, and image.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003980
Title: Survey on osteoporotic condition in menopausal women in Chennai
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Osteoporosis is a disorder where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone. Complications caused include chronic pain. Menopausal women are more prone to osteoporosis. It mostly occurs between 49 and 52 years of age. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 participants took part in this survey. A questionnaire containing 19 questions regarding awareness on osteoporosis was distributed among menopausal women. The data were collected through the Survey Planet and then analyzed. Results: The present survey observed that 40% of the participants unaware about estrogen deprivation, 43% felt some rare pains, 42% of the participants are suffering from very low vitamin D level, 23% from low Vitamin D level while 35% have normal level. Conclusion: From the survey, by the responses of the participants, it is clear that the people are aware that menopause influences osteoporosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003981
Title: Radicular cyst
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The main aim of this review was to give a detailed view of the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for the radicular cyst. Pulpal necrosis occurs as a consequence of caries affecting the tooth along with periapical inflammatory response will result in radicular cyst. This review gives a detailed view of the cyst. The radicular cyst comes under classification of inflammatory cysts. Radicular cysts show similar radiographical characteristics in relation with pre-existing chronic periapical periodontitis, making it difficult to diagnose. This arises due to inflammation from the epithelial residues found along the periodontal ligament mostly following the pulpal necrosis. The radicular cyst spontaneously heals after extraction or root canal treatment. Various different literatures have debated about the treatment of the radicular cyst. Thus, in our review, we have detailed about the various aspects of radicular cyst.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003982
Title: Dermatoglyphics – palm printing
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dermatoglyphics, in general, is the study of ridged skin on palms. A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. It contains information such as texture, idents, and marks that are used for criminal, forensic, and in may commercial applications. Methods: For the purpose of the study, randomly selected males and females of 25 were chosen. Palm prints were collected using blue ink on A4 size white paper for the study. By using corresponding parameter ridges were studied. Results: Dermatoglyphics of palm prints are different from one individual to other. Not our left and right palm prints are same. Conclusion: This study will give us the significant results of the identity of each individual. Dermatoglyphics gives us a clear proof in forensics, anatomy forensics, and many criminal cases. It also helps in making our study easy and proves that each individual has unique palm prints.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003983
Title: Periostin – Its role in asthma and inflammation: A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India
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Asthma is a diverse illness with many, overlying phenotypes. Biomarkers are currently being inspected and developed to distinguish the disease phenotypes and to categorize the responders to appropriate treatments. Recently, an extracellular matrix protein, namely Periostin, has been identified as a novel biomarker for asthma. Periostin production and release is facilitated by IL-4 and IL-13 in the epithelial cells of the airways and the fibroblasts in lungs. It has been established as a significant biomarker of Th2-mediated airway irritation as well as a diagnostic marker for eosinophilic airway diseases. It has also been on trial in attempts to predict the response in asthmatics who are on inhaled corticosteroids. However, additional inquiries are warranted to establish the exact role of Periostin in allergic airway disease. The articles for this review were collected using key words like ‘asthma’, ‘Periostin’, ‘inhalational corticosteroids’, ‘Type 2 inflammation’ making use of search engines like Google scholar, Medline, Pubmed. It is hoped that this review will aid the practitioners and asthmatics to understand the role of Periostin in detecting steroid hypo-responsive asthma.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003984
Title: Synthesis and screening of antibacterial activity of bionanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Nanotechnology is one of the most active fields in researches nowadays in modern material science and technology. The present leads to the synthesis of Aloe vera silver bionanoparticles and studying its antimicrobial property against Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Siver bio nano particles were synthesized used Aleo vera extract and they were characterized using ultra violet – visible spectroscopy. The anti microbial property of the synthesized bio nano particles were screened by agar well diffusion technique and the zone of inhibition were recorded and compared with positive control amoxycillin. Results: The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles with A. vera extract was moderate compared to that of control – amoxicillin. Conclusion: Silver bionanoparticles of A. vera extract were found to be less effective than the control amoxicillin. Thus, by increasing the concentration of A. vera extract in the nanoparticle, the effectiveness of A. vera as an antibacterial agent can be assessed in future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003985
Title: Nano in micro – The role of nanobrush in dentistry
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai - 600 100, Tamil Nadu, India
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Nanotechnology or nanoscience refers to a field of applied science whose theme is the control of matter on an atomic or molecular scale. In general, nanotechnology deals with structures 100 nm or smaller and involves developing materials or devices within that size. Nanotechnology entered dentistry with the advancements in diagnostics, material sciences (mainly composites and bonding agents), preventive dentistry, and dental surgical procedures. A new standard innovation in endodontics is the use of nanobrush for cleaning the root canals along with irrigating solutions. This article is a review that highlights the significance of nanobrush in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003986
Title: Awareness and knowledge of the usage of e-cigarettes and risk in oral cavity among smokers – A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: An electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is a handheld electronic device that simulates the feeling of smoking. It works by heating a liquid to generate an aerosol, commonly called a “vapor” that the user inhales. Commercially available e-cigarettes are marketed with different levels of nicotine, and the distribution of inhaled levels remains unclear. These data demonstrate that the vapor generated from e-cigarettes contains potentially harmful compounds, although in levels much lower than observed in smoke from conventional cigarettes. Aim: This study aims to create the awareness and knowledge of the usage of e-cigarettes and risk in oral cavity. Materials and Methods: It is the questionnaire-based online survey using the link created in SurveyPlanet. This survey was taken by 100 participants. The participants with poor preventive practices are significant. The information collected through the survey is analyzed the presented statistically. Conclusion: E-cigarette aerosol generally contains fewer toxic than the deadly mix of 7000 chemicals in smoke of regular cigarettes. However, e-cigarette aerosol is not harmful. Yet, only 16% of the population uses e-cigarettes compared to the normal cigarettes. Thus, proper awareness should be created among youngsters about e-cigarettes.

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[Note circulated from Journal side keep yourself updated  Indian Govt has baned E-cigarette  from sept 2019 comes into force, consumption, production, manufacturing, import, export, transport, sale, distribution, storage and advertisement of e-cigarettes would become illegal in India.] 

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003987
Title: Free radical scavenging activity of plant-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nanobiomedicine Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to synthesize and study the free radical scavenging activity of plant-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Introduction: ZnO NPs have received much attention recently as it has many properties such as its extensive antimicrobial activity, eco-friendliness, and simplicity. ZnO especially has special attention due to its excellent antibacterial nature. In addition to these properties, ZnO NPs were also found to be less toxic in in vitro test. ZnO NPs characterization is done ultraviolet-visible techniques. ZnO NPs exhibited high antioxidant activity against DPPH free radicals scavenger. Materials and Methods: Collection and preparation of plant extracts, synthesis of ZnO NPs, characterization of ZnO NPs, and preparation of NPs powder were used. Results: The plant extract is in dark green color and the ZnO NPs are seen in light yellowish in color. The graph reached its peak at a wavelength of 380 nm. Conclusion: This research shows that ZnO NPs show excellent biocompatibility and less toxicity. Hence, the NPs are expected to be utilized in the future in various industries for wide purposes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003988
Title: The effect of exercise on back pain and lordosis in the second trimester of pregnancy
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Iranshahr University of Medical Sciences, Iranshahr, Iran
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Introduction: Low back pain increases during pregnancy. However, due to rapid weight gain and displacement of the body’s center gravity, low back pain, and lumbar lordosis are more common in the second trimester of pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of stretching exercises on low back pain and lordosis is in the second trimester of pregnancy. Methods: This clinical trial study was done on 60 pregnant women at 16–24 weeks of pregnancy who referred to health centers of Mashhad in 2014. The intervention group received stretching and strengthening exercises 3 days a week (morning and evening each time for 15 min), and the control group received usual care for back pain. Quebec back pain questionnaire and flexible ruler were used. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, ANOVA and paired t-test were used to analyze data. Results: The results showed that significant changes in terms of back pain at different times in both groups (P < 0.001). Back pain was significantly decreased after 3rd week in the intervention group (P < 0.001); however, it was significantly increased from the 4th week in the control group (P = 0.025). Conclusion: The results show that exercise therapy significant effect on reducing low back pain and lumbar lordosis in the second trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, the use of exercise therapy is highly recommended to prevent and treat this common and costly problem.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003989
Title: Hepatocurative effects of methanol extract of Acanthus montanus leaves on acetaminophen-induced liver failure in rats
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria
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Objective: This study was designed to investigate hepatocurative activities of the methanol extract of Acanthus montanus leaves on acetaminophen-induced liver failure in rats. Materials and Methods: The acute toxicity and hepatocurative activities of the extract were studied using mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. The rats were distributed into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 served as normal control while Goups 2–5 were acetaminophen-induced orally. Groups 2 and 3 served as negative and positive controls, respectively, while Groups 4 and 5 served as the hepatocurative groups. Liver failure in rats was induced with 2500 mg/kg body weight of acetaminophen administered orally. Group 3 was treated with silymarin, 100 mg/kg body weight whereas Groups 4 and 5 were treated with the extract, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the methanol extract of A. montanus leaves, respectively. Results: The acute toxicity results on methanol extract of A. montanus leaves in mice showed that the extract caused no adverse reactions or death in the mice. Treatment of acetaminophen-induced liver failure in rats with the extract caused significantly (P < 0.05) reduction of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and total bilirubin concentrations and significantly (P < 0.05) increased total protein, albumin, direct bilirubin concentrations, and improved liver histomorphology that were negatively altered by acetaminophen toxicity. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that methanol extract of A. montanus leaves possesses hepatocurative activities capable of restoring liver failure and ameliorating adverse effects associated with hepatotoxicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003990
Title: Awareness of alternative medicine in dentistry among dental students – A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Alternative medicine is defined as any practice that is put forward as having the healing effects of medicine but is not founded on evidence gathered using the scientific method. Some of the examples are Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. Even though alternative medicine is widely practiced in India, its full potential is not used in other medical fields such as dentistry. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleansing and antimicrobial plaque agents. Aim: This study aims to create the awareness of alternative medicine in dentistry among the dental students. Materials and Methods: This study consists of a questionnaire about awareness of alternative medicine, its types, side effects, consideration over allopathic medicine, etc. It is done in the form of online survey and sent to 100 dental students. Results were statistically analyzed and calculated. Results: From the results obtained, it is clearly inferred that there is minimum knowledge of alternative medicine among the dental students and is not ready to advice alternative medicine. Conclusion: There is minimum knowledge of alternative medicine among the dental students and is not ready to advice alternative medicine. This study is about creating awareness of alternative medicine and promotes its wide use in dentistry so that alternative medicine will also contribute more in near future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003991
Title: Flavonoids from cell suspension culture of Ocimum tenuiflorum and its enhancement using response surface methodology
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi) is an aromatic shrub belonging to the basil family Lamiaceae and has been used in Indian traditional medicine. Various characteristics such as its antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, antiallergic, antimicrobial, and anti- inflammatory activities are major reason to produce the phytochemicals in vitro. The current paper studied the enhancement of flavonoid in the plant cell suspension culture of O. tenuiflorum. Callus was initiated from leaf explant under optimized treatment of plant growth regulators. Effect of major factors such as precursors and elicitors on the synthesis of flavonoid in the suspension culture was studied. All the optimization studies were carried out with the help of Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology. Results indicated optimization of elicitors and precursors resulted in 2-fold increase in flavonoid synthesis. The generated results can be employed after the validation in upscaled operations for flavonoid production.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003992
Title: Anti-alopecia activity of waste cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) peels
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, 45363, Indonesia
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Objective: Hair loss (alopecia) is the most common hair problem. The objective of this study was to determine the activity of growth stimulant activity of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) fruit peels. Materials and Methods: The cacao peel extract was extracted with ethanol 96% solvent and fractionated with water. n-hexane and ethyl acetate solvents and then tested for hair growth stimulant activity of extracts and waste cacao peels fraction with modified Tanaka et al. method. In this test, the concentration of ethanol extract of cacao fruit peel was diluted to 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% which were tested in test animals, namely, rabbits. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the test results showed that the ethanol extract of cacao fruit peel effluent had a hair growth stimulating activity starting at a concentration of 15%. In testing the fraction of cacao fruit peel fraction, it was found that the n-hexane fraction had the best activity compared to the other fractions and positive controls (minoxidil 2%). All data obtained in the study were analyzed statistically. Conclusion: Waste cacao peels ethanol extract had a growth stimulant activity at a concentration above 15% with the n-hexane fraction had the best activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003993
Title: Improvement of extracellular secretion efficiency of recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli: Signal peptide fusion, surfactants addition, and phospholipase C coexpression
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java, 45363, Indonesia
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The secretion of heterologous proteins into Escherichia coli cell culture media offers significant advantages for downstream processing, which can avoid the production of inclusion bodies, cost and time savings, and endotoxin reduction. However, E. coli does not secrete proteins into the extracellular medium naturally or under standard laboratory conditions. For this reason, several recombinant protein secretion strategies are carried out for targeting the protein to translocate into the extracellular environment to obtain the target proteins in an optimal amount. One important component of these strategies for E. coli is the secretion of proteins across phospholipid membranes. Thus, improving its secretion efficiency in E. coli is a main challenge that must first be solved. The generated efficient strategies that have been studied for improving extracellular protein secretion in E. coli are the use of signal peptides to translocate the target proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane into the periplasmic space and release the target protein into the culture media during the secretion process, the mechanical disruption by the addition of surfactants in growth media to chemically permeabilize the cell and the coexpression systems using phospholipase C to increase membrane permeability through its phospholipid hydrolysis activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003994
Title: Advanced myofunctional appliance in children – A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Nowadays, children are developing different malocclusions which are meant to be corrected during their developmental stage instead of treating more invasively in their adult stage. Myofunctional appliances are destined to establish muscular balance and eliminate oral dysfunction and thus guiding in proper growth of maxilla and mandible. Many advancements have been developed in myofunctional appliance therapy recently. Thus, this review is done to assess the effects of advanced myofunctional appliance in children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003995
Title: Awareness on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease among college students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India  
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Introduction: Cardiovascular disease involves the impairment of heart and blood vessel. Cardiovascular disease is a common term used to describe a range of disorders that affect the heart. Cardiovascular disease, which is also called heart disease, is the leading cause of death among men and women. There are several risk factors, so awareness can be spread to control this disease. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out among 100 college students; 10 questions were given to each of them. A validated, online self-administered questionnaire was used to gather the data to each of them to avoid discussion among them and also to avoid false results; thereby, no bias is evidence in this study. The results were statistically analyzed; descriptive statistics were used to analyze the percentage. Results: The results turned out to be positive, the response was good and awareness was created among patients who took the survey. However, further measures have to be taken to spread awareness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003996
Title: Awareness of sleep pattern among university students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Sleep-wake cycle consists of roughly 8 h of nocturnal sleep and 16 h of daytime wakefulness in humans, is controlled by a combination of two internal influences: Sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythms. In university, many students have a lot of academic load stressful work and a hectic schedule which significantly alters sleep-wake patterns, leading to increased sleepiness, impaired attention, impaired performance, and alterations in mood. There is a lot of impact of sleep loss on physiological and cognitive functions which include memory and attention, complex thought, motor response, and emotional control. It is well documented that sleep loss can adversely affect mood. We all know how irritable we become after a night spent tossing and turning. A growing body of medical evidence links inadequate sleep with anger, anxiety, and sadness. Materials and Methods: A survey of 13 questions was prepared to know the awareness of sleep pattern among college students. The survey was conducted among 102 students from various colleges through SurveyPlanet link. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: According to survey, 97% of students are aware that a perfect sleep- wake cycle determines the health of an individual. 68.3% of students feel that sleeplessness affects their mood, energy, and relationship. 69% of students agree that they feel fresh after sleep. 56% of students sleep <7 h. According to a study, late teens require proper 8 h of sleep. 90% of students have habit of using gadgets before sleep. Conclusion: From this survey, I want to conclude that the students are not having a proper sleep-wake pattern so they should be guided to have a healthy lifestyle, hence, a healthy generation. Parents and teachers should guide the children as they are still in their late teens to have proper sleep and healthy lifestyle.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003997
Title: Diabetes mellitus and extraction
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most frequent pathologies that general physicians and dentists encounter, due to its high prevalence worldwide. Diabetes brings with it a greater risk of periodontal disease, which is the most frequent complication. Moreover, the possible influence of periodontal disease on glycemic control is still not well established. Other various manifestations of diabetes are xerostomia, sialadenosis, and burning mouth syndrome with regard to dental caries, oral lichen planus, and candidiasis, for dental treatment. Patients should receive short morning appointments to reduce stress. The dentist has to be aware of the possible occurrence of an acute complication (hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia). Furthermore, these patients suffer from delayed wound healing and major susceptibility to secondary infections.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003998
Title: Standardization and xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential of Solanum virginianum
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Gout is a systemic disorder which usually affects the joints of the body system with an increased incidence rate in the elderly people. The cause for gout is accumulation of uric acid in the body. Elimination of the uric acid crystals is done by inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) which is responsible for the conversion of xanthine to uric acid. Here, we have preferred the plant extract Solanum virginianum for XO inhibition which is said to have more expectorant properties with least side effects. Materials and Methods: The study included preparation of the plant extract and XO inhibitory activity was measured spectrophotometrically based on the procedure reported by Nguyen et al. and was compared with the standard drug allopurinol. Results: The inhibitory potential of the plant extract against XO activity is increasing with increasing concentration with its maximum of 60.8% obtained at 100 µg/ml. Conclusion: S. virginianum has a significant effect against the XO activity and, hence, can be preferred for the future uses in the prognosis of gout as it has less side effects when compared to the corticosteroids.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003999
Title: Survey on diagnosis and management of reversible pulpitis among general practitioners in Chennai
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge among general practitioners in Chennai about various diagnostic methods and different treatment modalities available for the management of reversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods: It includes a questionnaire-based study. The survey was conducted among 250 dentists in Chennai. The questionnaire was circulated and data were collected and statistically analyzed. The survey was conducted through SurveyPlanet. Results: Almost 60% of the dental practitioners state that tooth pain and hypersensitivity are the main symptoms of reversible pulpitis. About 32% of the dentist use cavity test and sensitivity test to differentiate reversible and irreversible pulpitis and about 42% of the dentist says that pain ceases within 1–2 s once the stimulus is removed in case of reversible pulpitis. Conclusion: Reversible pulpitis can be recovered easily if it is treated properly, it is necessary to take proper treatment in the initial stage to prevent the occurrence of irreversible pulpitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004000
Title: Estimation of stature using ocular breadth measurement
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Estimation of stature is a part of identification process necessary when dismembered body parts are found. The stature and sex are ascertained using the physical evidence present at the crime scene. Anthropometry deals with expressing human form in numbers, which has been widely used in forensic identification. Even measurement of some parameters of structures of the human body like ocular breadth can be used to estimate the stature of an individual. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 100 individuals on the basis of the measurements done on stature and ocular breadth to determine the relationship between the height of a person and that of ocular breadth using Vernier caliper. Results: It was observed that the average height of the male was 167.8 cm ± 7.9. Furthermore, the average height of female was 154.35 cm ± 6.8. The average value of ocular breadth in male and female was 3.742 cm and 3.236 cm, respectively. Conclusion: Positive correlation was found between the height of a person and that of the ocular breadth. This study is useful in many fields of research, forensic investigation, anthropometry, etc., in evaluating the height of the individual from the obtained remains of body parts such as head and eyeball of the human body.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004001
Title: Morphological evaluation of various shapes of pterion and its morphological location with reference to cranial coordinates
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Skull is an important bone that has many features. In this study, we have taken one of the features called pterion – a point of sutural meeting site in the norma lateralis of the skull where frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones meet. Morphological location is identified with reference to temporozygomatic suture and frontozygomatic suture. Materials and Methods: The present study is carried out using 50 skulls since each skull has one pterion on each side, there are 100 pterions taken into considerations. Using Vernier caliper, the distance between the temporozygomatic suture and frontozygomatic suture and sphenoparietal sutures are noted both bilaterally and unilaterally in the skull. Results: All types of the pterion were observed. There was a notably higher occurrence of the sphenoparietal type. The sphenoparietal type occurred more bilaterally. From the observation, it can be seen that females have more percentage of frontotemporal, epipteric, and stellate, while males have more sphenoparietal type of pterion. Conclusion: The findings of the present study support and extend those of the previous studies. The reason for changes in the various patterns could be genetic or environmental. Sphenoparietal type is the most common type in humans and bipedal primates.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004002
Title: Morphometric assessment of orbital dimension with reference to orbital index of South Indian dry skulls
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The orbit is a chief component and also used for the determination of sex and ethnic courses of a cadaver and is a part of the skull that possesses control over sexual dimorphic characteristics. The orbital cavity of a female skull is generally rounded, and orbits of a male skull are usually square-shaped. Thus, the aim of the study is to evaluate the orbital index (OI) of dry skulls of South Indian population by morphometry. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 70 dry human skull bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality will be collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. With the help of a Vernier caliper and ruler, the measurements such as the length and breadth of the orbital cavity were measured. The maximum orbital diameter was estimated to calculate the OI. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: The average value of the left orbital length is 0.1985. The average value of the right orbital dimension is 0.256. Conclusion: This study was done to evaluate the OI of South Indian adult dry skull and provides a useful guideline of orbital morphometric data, for clinical and surgical treatment in ophthalmology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery and neurosurgery and also in the design of eye protective equipment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004003
Title: Comparative morphometric study of sigmoid sulcus and jugular foramen in dry South Indian skulls
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The morphological variation in the sigmoid sinus alters the morphology of sigmoid sulcus and may also affect the size of the jugular foramen. This anatomical variation may be present sometimes unilaterally or bilaterally. Any such structural variation may interfere in many clinical conditions and needed to be dealt with carefully. The aim of the study is to compare and analyze the sigmoid sulcus on the left and right side of the same skull and to establish the difference between them using morphometric analyses. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 dry skulls with cranium cut opened were collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. Using Vernier caliper, the right and left sides of sigmoid sulcus and jugular foramen were measured. The observed data are analyzed and expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The sigmoid sulcus width was larger on the right side by 81% and the jugular foramen had its width larger on the right side by 78% of the cases. Conclusion: Significant changes in sigmoid sulcus were observed morphometrically between both the sides of the same skull. Reports similar to these studies add knowledge to the existing human anatomy and its structural variations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004004
Title: Determination of stature by measuring the length of middle finger in Chennai population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Estimation of stature is based on the fact that every body part bears at least few constant relationship with the height of the person. Based on this, the present study was conducted. This study provides some knowledge of the height of the individual estimated from the height of the middle finger to forensic experts and reconstructive plastic organ departments involved in the making of prosthesis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 100 subjects selected randomly among the population. Using a stadiometer and measuring tape, the height of the individual was measured and noted. Using Vernier caliper, the length of the middle finger was measured. The values are compared with the length of the middle finger to the height. Results: The average height in male was found to be 172.22 cm ± 8.63 and the average height of females was 156.816 cm ± 7.29. The average length of the middle finger was found to be 7.55 ± 2.14 in males and the average length of the middle finger was found to be 6.03 ± 1.71 in females. Conclusion: The study steadily indicates that the length of the middle finger can be used to determine the stature of the individual. It can be an important tool for stature estimation in case of remains of crime scenes in medicolegal investigations and in several natural calamities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004005
Title: Impact of wearing spectacles, contact lenses, and refractive surgeries in adolescent population – Is it genetic or lifestyle?
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The modern digital world has provided enormous electronic gadgets such as smartphones, iPads, and laptops for children. The usage of these gadgets among children is alarmingly increasing day by day. The constant use of these gadgets has led to the direct contact of the eye to it, creating a constant source of stress to the eyes and has led to visual impairment. Apart from this acquired damage to the eyes, children also get visual problems due to malnutrition and also by some genetic roots. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 subjects were taken into consideration and categorized evenly depending on their visual aids such as the subjects wearing spectacles, contact lenses, and those who underwent refractive surgeries are taken into account and were subjected to a set of questionnaires related to vision. Results: Modern lifestyle can be seen as a key factor for vision-related problems. About 48% of respondent suggests that the influence of modern lifestyle and digital gadgets use is the primary reason for impairment of vision. About 33% of respondent favored “genes” as the major causative agent. About 19% of respondent preferred “malnutrition” as the cause of visual impairment. Conclusion: The major cause of wearing spectacles, contact lenses, and refractive surgeries is acquired mostly due to lifestyle followed by genetic factors. According to the survey, hereditary is said to be a more plausible cause for vision problems slightly over malnutrition.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004006
Title: Determination of sex using forearm – A morphometric study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Gender is the first and foremost important anthropometric parameter that decides the physical identity of an individual. Gender estimation plays the most crucial role in any forensic investigations. In many crime scenarios, war casualties, natural calamities, the remains of dead body parts in which gender identity is not possible. Thus, this study was performed to predict the gender of an individual using the forearm dimension. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in male and female subjects among Chennai populations. Using measuring tape and Vernier caliper, the length and breadth of forearm were measured. The values are expressed as mean ± SD. Results: The average length of forearm in male and female was estimated. Mean and standard deviation of forearm length was calculated. The correlation was found by plotting a graph with the collected values of males and females. Conclusion: The present study depicts a significant correlation between the gender and forearm dimension of an individual. This data are very essential for the identification of gender and personal identification in war casualties and medico-legal purpose.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004007
Title: Sex determination using the distance between posterior inferior iliac spine and ischial spine in dry human innominate bone
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the sex using the distance between the posterior inferior iliac spine and ischial spine. Introduction: Hip bone is taken into account because it is the most sexual dimorphic skeletal component in humans. The greater sciatic notch is very valuable as a result of its proof against damage and is extremely sexually dimorphic. Sexual dimorphism points to the contrasting features between male and female in relation to the size and appearance. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 60 dry human pelvic bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality were collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. With the help of Vernier caliper and ruler, the measurements such as maximum jugular length, maximum jugular breadth, and diameter were measured. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: The distance between the posterior inferior iliac spine and ischial spine is greater in females than in males amped that the depth of the sciatic notch is lesser in females. All these parameters help us distinguish female and males pelvis. Thus, the pelvic bone helps in the determination of sex and is highly sexually dimorphic. Conclusion: The distance between the posterior inferior iliac spine and ischial spine is greater in females than in males amped that the depth of the sciatic notch is lesser in females. All these parameters help us distinguish female and males pelvis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004008
Title: Awareness of risk factors of noise pollution among South Indians
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Noise pollution unlike any other form of pollution, which is often visible to us, is invisible and hence less noticeable. Still, the harmful effects are very real, including ear impairment. While sound occurs due to changes in air pressure that causes our inner ears to vibrate and produces the auditory sensations we interpret as sound, we call sounds that are bothersome or undesired as “noise.” When there is a lot of consistent noise that causes negative emotional and physical effects in humans and animals, it is referred to as noise pollution. Some common examples of noise pollution are construction sites, traffic, industrial work, big events, festivals, railway, and airport traffic. Noise pollution has shown to cause stress, cardiovascular disease, sleep disturbance, and cognitive impairment, making it unpleasant and dangerous. Recent research shows that noise pollution disrupts and damages the ecosystem and the plants and animals that live in it, which, in turn, affects our health drastically. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire was prepared and survey was conducted among college students about noise pollution and data were collected. The survey was prepared on Survey Planet and administered to 60 participants about the risk factors of noise pollution. Results: Students have answered that vehicles are the most common cause of noise pollution, that is, traffic. This causes distraction and headache. It was observed that many students suffer from insomnia due to the noise pollution outdoors, and an increase in the traffic flow has also been observed in their area. The effects of noise pollution directly affect the environment and the beings, making it unpleasant ambience to live under and also cause several health issues. Conclusion: Awareness was created among the college students about the effects and risks of noise pollution. Most of the students are well aware of the traffic rules and regulation and the causes of noise pollution too. They intend to spread the awareness by doing their part to reduce it, starting from their households.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004009
Title: Molecular docking of insect-based antimicrobial peptides and their target
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Insecticides are used, nowadays, more frequently in the fields. Resistance has been developed against insecticides due to the genetic modification of the insects. Molecular docking is a key tool in structural molecular biology and computer-assisted drug design. This approach also estimates the ligand-receptor binding free energy by evaluating critical phenomena involved in the intermolecular recognition process. In silico molecular docking of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and inhibitors will be done using online software. Aim: This study aims to perform the molecular docking of AMPs and inhibitors. Materials and Methods: Structures of AMPs such as dermaseptin, pyrrhocoricin, drosocin, oncocin, apidaecin, and histatin-5 were downloaded from the NCBI PubChem database. Molecular docking of the selected AMPs with the target DNAk was performed using the online PatchDock server with default parameters. Results: Of the six AMPs chosen, dermaseptin, pyrrhocoricin, drosocin, oncocin, and apidaecin were found to have been making an interaction but histatin-5. Conclusion: New insecticides can be manufactured based on these antimicrobial peptides.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004010
Title: Lupeol exerts its antidiabetic activity through insulin receptor and glucose transporter-4 in gracilis muscle in high fat and sucrose-induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Siddipet, Telangana, India
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Background: Lupeol is one of the natural herbal drugs, which is abundant in edible vegetables, fruits, and also in medicinal plants. It has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in experimental mice model. However, the molecular mechanism by which it exhibits antidiabetic property is not known. Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the antidiabetic activity of lupeol on insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) expression in gracilis muscle of high-fat diet and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic animals. Materials and Methods: The oral effective dose of lupeol (25 mg/kg body weight) was given once a day until the end of the study (60 days post-induction of diabetes) to high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum lipid profile, oxidative stress markers, and the levels of insulin signaling molecules (IR and GLUT-4) and tissue glycogen in the gracilis muscle were assessed. Results: Diabetic rats showed impaired glucose tolerance and impairment in insulin signaling molecules (IR and GLUT-4) and glycogen concentration. Serum insulin, lipid profile, and oxidative stress markers were found to be increased in diabetic control rats. The treatment with lupeol restored effectively the altered levels of insulin signaling molecules and serum insulin along with the biochemical profiles. Conclusion: Our present finding indicates that the antidiabetic activity of lupeol is mediated through the attenuation of type-2 diabetes-induced changes in oxidative stress, lipid profile, and glycogen concentration as well as altered levels of IR and GLUT-4 expression in the gracilis muscle. Lupeol has the beneficial role for the management of type-2 diabetes. Further studies on the effect of lupeol on insulin downstream signaling molecules need to be studied to ascertain its potential antidiabetic activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004011
Title: Effect of Argyreia nervosa on liver function markers in alcohol-induced male albino rats
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology Sri Lakshmi, Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India
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Background: Uncontrolled alcohol consumption is a global health-care problem accounting for 3 million deaths in 2018. Chronic alcohol intake causes damage nearly every organ in the body. Argyreia nervosa belongs to the family Convolvulaceae is also known as elephant creeper or woolly morning glory. Conventionally, the plant has been used medicinally for its broad range of clinical effects such as antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the possible effect of A. nervosa on liver function markers of alcohol-induced liver in male albino rats. Materials and Methods: A. nervosa leaf extract oral doses (100 and 300 mg/kg body weight) were given once in a day for 8 weeks to ethanol-induced rats. At the end of the experimental period, blood was collected sera from control and experimental animals. Liver function markers and lipid were assessed. Results: Ethanol-induced rats showed a significant increase in the serum levels (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma- glutamyl transferase) when compared with control animals. Serum lipid markers such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very LDL-C were also found to be significantly increased in ethanol-induced rats. Conversely, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was decreased in ethanol and sucrose-fed rats. Treatment with A. nervosa leaf extract normalized the altered levels of liver function markers and lipid parameters. The 300 mg dose of A. nervosa showed the maximum protective effect compared to 100 mg dose. Conclusion: Our data indicate the hepatotoxicity induced by chronic alcohol exposure and shows the ability of A. nervosa extract (100 and 300 mg/kg of body weight) to eliminate this toxicity. Hence, A. nervosa may be used as one of the potential medicinal plants for the protection of the liver from alcohol-induced toxicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004012
Title: Awareness of the risk factors of cardiovascular disease among young adult population – A survey-based study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a collection of several disease conditions associated to heart and the blood vessels present in it. The major cause of this disease is age, sex, familial history, smoking, alcohol, excessive consumption of high-fat diet, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, etc. However, many people are unaware of the existence of these risk factors. The aim of this study is to analyze the existing awareness of the risk factors of CVD among young adult population. Materials and Methods: The study was formulated as a questionnaire-based observational study comprising 100 young adults between the age group of 18 and 23 years. All the subjects are requested to respond to a list of questions regarding CVD and the various causative risk factors. All are examined for their knowledge and awareness of the disease and the associated risk factors. Results: From the survey, it is evident that from the 100 samples, 83% of the young adult population are aware of the CVD and its effects, and the remaining 17% responded that they are unaware of it. Conclusion: It is, therefore, evident that majority of the young adult population taken into consideration had an adequate knowledge of CVD and its effects, but at the same time, they are not much knowledge of the prevailing risk factors of it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004013
Title: Morphometric study of parasellar region with emphasis on middle clinoid process
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Sella turcica is a saddle-shaped depression in the body of the sphenoid bone at the middle cranial fossa of the cranial cavity. The region situated parallel at the two lateral sides of the sella turcica is referred to as parasellar region. The structure related to it is the cavernous sinus, which forms the main content of parasellar region. Morphometric study of this region provides some input on the anatomical arrangement of it which also reflects on the clinical conditions related to it. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried using 50 dry South Indian cut skulls showing cranial cavity. The skulls were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College. The total area, length, breadth, and width of the parasellar region were measured, and the measurements were plotted. The values were expressed as Mean ± SD. Results: The AP length of parasellar region in male was found to be 15.76 ± 0.51 mm and in female was 14.13 ± 0.92 mm. The depth of parasellar region in male was found to be 9.44 ± 0.82 mm and in female was 8.36 ± 0.54 mm. The distance from the middle clinoid process (MCP) to anterior clinoid process was 8.27 ± 0.23 mm in males and 7.52 ± 0.91 mm in females. The distance from MCP to PCP was 12.16 ± 0.72 mm in males and 10.73 ± 0.41 mm in females. Conclusion: There is a slight difference regarding the dimensions of the parasellar region in both male and female skulls. The study proved that there is a difference in the dimensions of the parasellar region with reference to MCP.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004014
Title: Awareness of Mediterranean diet among college students – A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Mediterranean diet refers to a dietary profile commonly available and practiced in olive-growing areas around the Mediterranean Sea, such as Croatia, Greece, and Iytaly. This diet is most famous for its benefit to the heart. The aim of this survey is to creare an awareness on the health benefts of Mediterranean diet. Materials and Methods: The study was an online survey carried out among college going students of Chennai and Kolkata. The participating students belonged to the age group of 17–20 years. The questionnaire was formulated in a way to elicit the awareness about the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet. Results: The survey has created an awareness on the health benefits of Mediterranean diet among the participants, as it is evident that 77.5% of the participants are willing to follow the diet.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004015
Title: Glycyrrhiza glabra mediated preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity against enteric pathogens
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the current study is synthesizing ZnO NPs and its antibacterial efficacy against enteric pathogens in Glycyrrhiza glabra. Objective: The objective of this study was as follows: (1) Synthesis of ZnO NPs using plant formation and (2) antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs. Introduction: Biological methods for nanoparticle (NP) synthesis using microorganisms, enzymes, and plants or plant extracts have been suggested as possible eco-friendly alternatives to chemical and physical methods. Materials and Methods: Bio-mediated synthesis of metal oxide NPs using plant extract is a promising alternative of traditional chemical synthesis. The antibacterial activity of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-negative) organisms by agar diffusion method. Results: Finally, the current study has clearly demonstrated that the ZnO NPs are responsible for significant high antibacterial activities. Conclusion: Therefore, the study reveals an efficient, eco-friendly, and simple method for the green synthesis of ZnO NPs using green synthetic approach.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004016
Title: Cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles synthesized using amla fruit seed
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nanobiomedicina Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to study the cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using amla fruit seed. Introduction: Silver being one of the precious metal on earth’s crust has variable uses in nanoparticles. The most common applications of AgNPs are for medicinal, food packing, plasters, antibacterial purposes, anti-cancer, and wound healing properties. In general nanoparticles are used in a spherical shape, but diamond, octagonal, and thin sheets are also popular in common shapes of AgNPs. Materials and Methods: To collect and prepare amla fruit seed extract, *Synthesizing AgNPs using amla fruit seed extract, and *Cytotoxic effect of synthesized AgNPs using brine shrimp lethality assay were used. Results and Discussion: The plant extract color is green and it reacts with silver nitrate solution and forms brown color and indicates the synthesis of AgNPs. The AgNPs have a characteristic band in the Ultraviolet (UV)-Visible region due to their surface plasmon resonance. From the current study, it is seen that the graph reached its peak at a wavelength of 460 nm. Hence, from the current study, it is noted that, as we used less concentration, it caused only half the amount of toxicity. Hence, if the concentration is above 50%, it can be used for biomedical applications. Conclusion: Hence, from the current study, it is noted that biosynthesization of AgNPs from AgNPs shows promising results for biomedical applications. An absorption peak at 460 nm in UV-vis spectrum proven the formation of AgNPs from amla fruit seed extract.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004017
Title: Knowledge and awareness of Nipah virus among general public
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation:  Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to find how many people in society are aware of this new man-killing Nipah virus (NiV). Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted for 100 people, everyone was given a questionnaire which comprises 10 questions about the mode of spread of NiV and precautions and prevention. Results: After the survey, the results were analyzed and it was seen that 92% of people aware of NiV; only 8% of people not aware of NiV. Conclusion: From this survey, we can conclude that most of the people are aware of NiV and its life-threatening potential. But most of them are not aware about the prophylactic measures for the prevention of NiV infection.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004018
Title: Morphometric analysis of petrous part of temporal bone in South Indian dry skull
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to measure the petrous part of the temporal bone in South Indian dry skull. Background: The petrous part of the temporal bone is pyramid shaped and is wedged in at the base of the skull between the sphenoid and occipital bones. Petrous originates from the Latin word petrosus, signifying “stone-like, hard.” It is one of the densest bones in the body. Materials and Methods: The present study has used 30 South Indian dry skulls, which were used from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental Collage, Chennai, India, and Vernier caliper was used for measurement. Results: There are no significant changes in the right side and left side of the petrous part of the temporal bone. Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that morphometric knowledge of petrous part of temporal bone is of utmost importance in surgical aspects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004019
Title: Awareness on influences of social media among children
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A largely spoken phrase around the world is social media. The instrument on communication such as television, radio, weekly, and daily newspapers is generally referred to as social media; actually, the ability to communicate between people is called social media. Online life has produced a marvel known as “Face book despondency,” which is a kind of misery that influences teenagers who spend excessively of their spare time drawing in with internet based life locales. The main aim of this study is to create awareness of social media among school children. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was created using an online survey portal “survey planet.” The survey was circulated among children of age group between 15 and 20. The questionnaire regarding their awareness on social media, their opinions on it and they were asked about how much time do they spend on social media The results were obtained using statistical method and the awareness on the influence of social media among children were studied. Results: According to this survey, 78% were experienced that social media have impact on their future but only 22 % were not experienced. About 65% of them felt stress reliever, 17% of them were boost energy, and 18.4% of them chose for education. Conclusion: Interpersonal organizations on the internet are luminous Web 2.0 wonders that offer the possibility to wind up some portion of, and make utilization of, aggregate knowledge. Be that as it may, the inactive emotional wellness results of unreasonable and addictive use are yet to be investigated utilizing the most thorough logical techniques.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004020
Title: Management of fear, pain, and anxiety levels during endodontic procedures: A questionnaire-based survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental anxiety is defined as patient’s specific reaction toward stress-related dental treatment, in which the stimulus is vague, unknown, or not present at that moment. It is a widespread problem that persists all over the world despite the scientific advances that made dentistry less painful. Recognition of a patient’s dental anxiety helps in provision of the vital information for a dentist in shaping up a patient-dentist relationship. According to the type of treatment, the dental anxiety and fear vary, in which periodontal or endodontic treatments have been shown to cause higher levels of anxiety than restorative or prophylactic treatments. Patient’s pre-treatment decisions and post-treatment satisfaction may be strongly influenced by social, psychological, and behavioral aspects including our knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, preferences, and behaviors. Aim: This study aims to assess the fear, pain, and anxiety levels during endodontic procedures. Materials and Methods: It includes a questionnaire-based study. The survey was conducted among 100 patients who visited Saveetha Dental College. The questionnaire was circulated and the data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: About 68% of patients have dental anxiety and the highest prevalence of anxiety is among the females. About 43% of patients state that time spent in dental chair is a factor which proportionally increase the level of anxiety and stress. Conclusion: A vicious cycle of pain and anxiety may be terminated by giving positive information to the patient before and during endodontic procedures. Hence, the patients will become aware that there are effective methods of pain control and that pain in endodontics is not inevitable.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004021
Title: Phylogeny relationship of Lygaeidae species using cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 sequences
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Insects are among the most diverse group of animals on planet, which contains more species than any other class in the animal kingdom. In general, Lygaeidae are small-to-medium-sized insects, ranging in size from approximately 1 to 12 mm. Lygaeidae exhibit distinctive black and red patterning which serve as a warning to predators that the organism possesses antipredator defenses including toxic chemical defenses.Several Lygaeidae species are of economic importance due to their status as pests,and some species can be maintained in the laboratory and have been utilized as laboratory animals in a range of contexts, particularly for the studies of insect physiology.The present study is done to understand the evolutionary relationship between the Lygaeidae species using COI sequences and derive a consensus sequence for the Lygaeidae. Materials and Methods: The method is based on first deriving a phylogenetic tree from a matrix of all pairwise sequence similarity scores, obtained using a fast pairwise alignment algorithm. Then the multiple alignment is achieved from a series of pairwise alignments of clusters of sequences, following the order of branching in the tree. Results: This study has helped in understanding and constructing a consensus sequence from the COI sequences collected from the Lygaeidae species.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004022
Title: Awareness on food safety knowledge among college students – A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the current study is to create an awareness of food safety knowledge among college students. Introduction: Food is an essential source of power. Food is much more than a substance supplying nutrients for health. Food is an important basic necessity which is essential for health and well-being of humans. Food safety is important not only for the health of consumers but also for the entire food industry and regulatory authorities. Materials and Methods: This study is the questionnaire-based survey. The survey questionnaire comprises of questions pertaining to food safety knowledge among college students. This survey was administered to the participants through the SurveyPlanet link. The results obtained were statistically analyzed. The survey was conducted among 100 students. Results: The data was collected, statistically analyzed and interpreted. Conclusion: From the survey, it is evident that there is good awareness on food safety among urban students. However, the awareness is not associated with good eating practices. Hence, it is the responsibility of the parents to cultivate good eating practices right from childhood.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004023
Title: Awareness of prenatal genetic screening test among pregnant mothers
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Prenatal screening consists of prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis, which is aspect of prenatal care that focuses on detecting problems with the pregnancy as early as possible. Screening can detect problems such as neural tube defects, chromosome abnormalities, and gene mutations. A screening test can only provide risk or a probability and diagnostic tests can provide a definitive answer. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire of 15 questions is prepared online and circulated among pregnant mothers using the SurveyPlanet app. The results were statistically analyzed and the graphs were plotted. Results: When a survey was conducted among pregnant mothers, it was found that only 40% of the women are aware of this prenatal screening test. Conclusion: The survey shows that most of the women undertaking this survey find these tests high on cost which can be a major drawback. Hence, more information about testing options should be given in a non-directive and culturally appropriate way; and the parents should make informed decisions about prenatal testing and diagnosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004024
Title: Awareness of stress-related disorders among working professionals
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this survey is to find out the knowledge and awareness of stress-related disorders among working professionals. Objective: The objective of this survey is to find out the knowledge and awareness of stress-related disorders among working professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among working professionals. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared to assess the awareness of stress-related disorders among the working professionals. The questionnaire was administered through online SurveyPlanet link. The data were statistically analyzed and interpreted. Results: The knowledge and awareness of the stress-related disorders among working professionals were about 69%, only 31% of the population remained unaware. When questioned about the awareness of preventive and control measures of stress-related disorders, 53% were aware. Almost half of the population was aware of control measures, but only 29% of the respondents are participating in the yoga sessions or meditations to relieve stress. Conclusion: The study shows high level of awareness and exposure to stress-related disorders among working professionals. It also highlights the difficulties and disorders experienced by the working professionals in their day-to-day life. The study also shows that the working professionals are aware of stress-related disorders and are also exposed to those disorders, but they are not aware of the preventive measures to control stress and stress-related disorders. Therefore, more awareness has to be created among the working professionals to relieve from stress-related disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004025
Title: Beta-hexosaminidase release-inhibitory activity by Zanthoxylum armatum extract
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the beta-hexosaminidase inhibitory activity by Zanthoxylum armatum extract. Introduction: Z. armatum DC. possesses several medicinal properties and has been commonly used in different indigenous medicinal practices to cure several diseases due to its stomachic, carminative, and anthelmintic properties. Materials and Methods: Antiallergic effects of Z. armatum extract have not been reported despite the clinical usage as an antiallergic agent. The effect of the extract on the immediate phase response will be attributed to the anti-phase degranulation from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Inhibitory effect on the release of B-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells will be evaluated according to the method of Murata et al. Results: Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Statistical significance was determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc least significant difference test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Conclusion: It is one of the prioritized medicinal plants for economic development in Nepal. Due to its diverse applications, the species can be developed as an important commodity for alleviation of poverty in rural areas. The various ethnopharmacological applications of Z. armatum have been verified by several related researches. More extensive study on the individual specific phytocomponent can lead to novel innovations for the well-being of humankind.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004026
Title: Interaction of muscle segment homeobox 1 and paired box 9 proteins involved in tooth agenesis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Muscle segment homeobox 1 (MSX1) has a critical role in craniofacial development, as indicated by expression assays and transgenic mouse phenotypes. Previously, MSX1 mutations have been identified in three families with autosomal-dominant tooth agenesis. To test the hypothesis that MSX1 mutations are a common cause of congenital tooth agenesis. Tooth development is an excellent example of a morphogenetic process driven by interactions between ectoderm and underlying mesenchyme. During the past two decades, intense research has been carried out to understand this intricate process which has revealed the fact that more than 300 genes are involved in odontogenesis. Ectoderm and mesenchymal tissues release numerous paracrine signaling molecules, which, in turn, regulate expression of an array of transcription factors that define the developmental stage of the target tissue. The major molecular signals during tooth formation include several multifunctional growth factors such as transforming growth factor β, fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. Materials and Methods: Agile Protein Interactomes Dataserver and bioinformatics server provide protein interactomes at various levels and facilitate the visualization of networks clearly. Keywords such as paired box 9 (PAX9) and MSX1 were used in this server to search and retrieve PAX9 and Mas1 protein- related network. With due literature survey and minute understanding of this pathway, its two proteins and their related entities were chosen for further study. Results and Discussion: Data retrieval and protein modeling sequences of MSX1 (NP_002439.2) 303 amino acids and PAX9 (NP_006185.1) 341 amino acids long were downloaded from NCBI portal and were saved in local drive in FASTA format. These sequences were then uploaded to the Swiss-model workspace for modeling their 3D structures. Swiss-model is an online server that helps to model 3D structure using homology modeling (reference). Furthermore, for the input sequence MSX1, a domain confirmation was performed in Pfam database. The interactions between the proteins were visualized using PyMol. Along with MSX1, PAX9 gene has been predicted to play an inclusive role in tooth development during bud stage and is required for the mesenchymal expression of MSX1, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1. Therefore, it would be imperative to study the protein-protein interaction and related network analysis to gather further insights to understand the relationship between these two genes, MSX1 and PAX9.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004027
Title: Sex determination using mandibular molar and premolar arch width and indices in South Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the sex using mandibular molar and premolar arch width and indices in South Indian population. Background: Teeth are the most durable part of our skeleton. They are more resistant to adverse conditions occurring in nature such as purification, mutilation, fire, and prolonged immersion in water. Odontometric measurements of the mandibular teeth (mandibular premolar and molar arch width and Pont’s index) can be helpful in sex determination. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 100 subjects 17–25 of age. Impression of their mandibular arch was taken using alginate and casts were poured using dental stone. The interpremolar and intermolar arch width were found out using Vernier caliper and tabulated. The Pont’s index was calculated. Results: Mandibular premolar arch width and molar arch width showed a significant difference between males and females. Maximum sexual dimorphism was shown by mandibular molar arch width (5.164) followed by mandibular premolar arch width (4.613). The predictive value of sexing a person was highest using mandibular molar arch width alone (12.8%) followed by mandibular premolar arch width (6.8). The maximum correlation was shown by mandibular molar arch width (0.358). Conclusion: Mandibular premolar arch width and molar arch width exhibited significant sexual dimorphism.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004028
Title: Sex determination using maxillary molar and premolar arch width and indices in South Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the sex using maxillary molar and premolar arch width and indices in South Indian population. Background: Teeth are the most durable part of our skeleton. They are more resistant to adverse conditions occurring in nature such as purification, mutilation, fire, and prolonged immersion in water. Odontometric measurements of the maxillary teeth (maxillary premolar and molar arch width and Pont’s index) can be helpful in sex determination. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 100 subjects 17–25 of age. The impression of their maxillary arch was taken using alginate and casts were poured using dental stone. The interpremolar and intermolar arch width was found out using Vernier caliper and tabulated. The Pont’s index was calculated. Results: Maxillary premolar arch width and maxillary molar arch width showed a significant difference between males and females. Maximum sexual dimorphism was shown by maxillary premolar arch width (5.266%) followed by maxillary molar arch width (5.230%). Maxillary molar arch width (0.402) showed a maximum correlation with gender. The maximum value of predictability was shown by maxillary molar arch width (16.2%). Conclusion: Maxillary premolar arch width and molar arch width exhibited significant sexual dimorphism.