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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004119
Title: Anti-inflammatory activity of Murraya koenigii – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India
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Background: In the ancient time, many naturally occurring plants played an important role in discovery in many therapeutic agents. It has been shown to have beneficial role such as therapeutic uses include beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, antibiotic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Murraya koenigii leaf ethanolic extract by in vitro analysis. Materials and Methods: The plant leaf powder was loaded into Soxhlet extractor and subjected to extraction with ethanol. After extraction, the solvent was distilled off and the extracts were concentrated on water bath to a dry residue and kept in a desiccator. Results: Protein denaturation is a process, in which proteins lose their tertiary structure and secondary structure by the application of external stress or compound, such as strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent, or heat. Denaturation of proteins is a well-documented cause of inflammation. As part of the investigation on the mechanism of the anti-inflammation activity, ability of plant extract to inhibit protein denaturation was studied. It was effective in inhibiting heat-induced albumin denaturation. Maximum inhibition of 88% was observed at 500 µg/ml. Aspirin, a standard anti-inflammatory drug showed the maximum inhibition of 99% at the concentration of 100 µg/ml compared with control. Conclusions: Results indicate that the ethanol extracts of M. koenigii possess anti-inflammatory properties. These activities may be due to the strong occurrence of polyphenolic compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and phenols. The extract fractions serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger or acting possibly as primary oxidants and inhibited the heat-induced albumin denaturation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004166
Title: Socket shield technique for immediate implant placement- A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The purpose of this review is to gain more insight regarding the potential application of a novel technique known as socket shield (SS) with respective to immediate implant placement in the esthetic zone. The recently popularized socket technique involves intentional retention of a thin buccal section of the remnant root at the time of immediate implant placement to preserve the buccal crestal bone from resorption. Histological evidence demonstrated the formation of periodontal ligament and/or cementum on the implant surfaces in contact with/in proximity to the SS. Some clinical reports indicated stable results at 12 months. However, a few studies also reported infection and resorption of the SS and bone loss. It would be difficult to predict the long-term success of this technique until high-quality evidence becomes available. Given some negative results, clinicians are recommended to use this technique with caution. Reason of this review is to provide updated knowledge and awareness in the SS for immediate implant placement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004109
Title: Antidiabetic potencies of Phyllanthus niruri Linn and thin-layer chromatography profile
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia
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Background: Indonesian society often uses Phyllanthus niruri Linn to treat diabetic mellitus. Objective: The study aim of this research was to determine the antidiabetic activity of alcoholic extract of P. niruri Linn (AEPN) in diabetic rats model and identified active compound by thin-layer chromatography. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five rats were divided into four groups: Group I was positive control (glibenclamide 0.63 mg/kg bw); Group II was negative control (water 10 mL/kg bw), and Groups III and IV were AEPN at a dosage of 2500 mg/kg bw and 5000 mg/kg bw. All rats were injected by alloxan at a dose of 750 mg/kg bw intraperitoneally. Blood glucose level was the measurement on days 0, 4, 11, and 15. Data were analysis by one-way ANOVA followed by least significant difference test. Results: AEPN at a dosage of 2500 and 5000 mg/kg bw for 15 days can reduce blood glucose level in diabetic rats model significantly (P < 0.05). This extract contains flavonoid, tannin, and quinone. Conclusion: The AEPN has antidiabetic effect in diabetic rats model induced by alloxan.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004111
Title: Knowledge, attitude and practice survey on the use of dental photography by undergraduate and postgraduate dental students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of undergraduate (UG), postgraduate (PG), and FDS (fellowship) students toward dental photography. Background: Dental photography is coming up to be an important aspect of dentistry. It can be used as a method of record keeping or documenting procedures. It can also be used for proof in legal aspects. It is a good way of showing the patients the difference in the oral condition before and after treatment. This study is done to check UG students attitude toward dental photography. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted involving UG, PG, and FDS students at Saveetha Dental College. The students were asked a series of questions that analyzed their level of knowledge and understanding regarding dental photography and its importance. Results: Around one third of the students felt that case documentation is useful for medicolegal purposes and about half of them preferred Dental photography as a mode of documentation. It was also found that about 56% of the students record cases on mobile phones and dedicate not more than 5 minutes for photographic documentation. Majority of the students felt that there is no need for advanced training or accessory equipments for dental photography. Conclusion: Dental graduates should understand the importance of dental photography and efforts should me made in the form of workshops and seminars to impart training in this expertise.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00004112
Title: Molecular modeling of cytochrome P450 enzyme from insects to find binding affinity to various compounds
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the molecular modeling of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) from insects to find binding affinity to various compounds. Introduction: CYP class of enzymes forms a basic defense mechanism as a part of Phase I metabolism in insects and other animals. Modeling the structure of insect-specific CYPs will help us to find compounds which can be docked with it. This will give rise to potential insecticidal compounds. Materials and Methods: Data retrieval was done using the National Center for Biotechnology Information protein database and PubChem database. Three-dimensional modeling was done using the Swiss-model server and Open Babel application. Molecular docking was done using iGEMDOCK software. Results: It was found that deltamethrin binds well in comparison to the other compounds in terms of binding energy. Further studies are required in understanding the changes in binding affinity of deltamethrin to variants of this class of CYPs. Conclusion: This study helps engineer compounds with superior binding affinity to various insecticides and hence improves binding affinity and action against insect vectors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004113
Title: Anti-inflammatory activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles prepared using amla fruits
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nanobiomedicine Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Anti-inflammatory activity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles prepared using amla fruit. Objective: Preparation of ZnO nanoparticles using amla fruit extract and its anti inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Collection and preparation of amla fruit extract, synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using amla fruit extract, collection of NPs using centrifugation, anti- inflammatory activity of ZnO nanoparticle using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and inhibition of albumin denaturation assay were used. Results: Aspirin, diclofenac, and ibuprofen are the most commonly used drugs for the inflammation which belongs to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory group of drug. These drugs result in adverse side effects and damage the human biological system such as liver and gastrointestinal tract and may also cardiovascular system. According to the research, ZnO particles produced from amla fruit showed the anti-inflammatory activity and thus can be considered as a potential candidate as an anti-inflammatory agent, thus reducing the major health problems. Conclusion: The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized from the amla fruit. All these data with results show that ZnO nanoparticle produced from amla fruit potent anti- inflammatory property. The present study shows that ZnO nanoparticle can be used for various medicinal purposes. Further investigations are required for the development of new classes of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs from amla fruit.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004114
Title: Antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles synthesized using herbal formulation against clinical pathogens
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have a wide range of application in a variety of fields such as medicine, food, cosmetics, and agriculture. They are used as antimicrobial and antifungal agents in agriculture and can potentially be used as targeted drugs for the human body. This antibacterial activity of AgNPs is being taken advantage of, in producing antibacterial textiles, coatings on medical devices, cosmetics, toothpastes, laundry detergents, soaps, home appliances, etc. The aim of this research is to study the antibacterial efficacy of AgNPs synthesized using herbal formulation against clinical pathogens. Materials and Methods: Herbal formulation was created using the leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Moringa oleifera. To this, silver nitrate solution was added and the solution was transferred to an orbital shaker for AgNP preparation. The powder of AgNPs was created. A fresh bacterial suspension of clinical pathogens such as Serratia, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus was cultured in Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Different concentrations of NPs (20, 40, and 60 µl) were incorporated into the wells and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The antibiotics were used as positive control. Zone of inhibition was recorded in each plate. Proper documentation methods were used. The bioreduction of pure AgNO3 was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy. Results: Color change was seen after the preparation of AgNPs. The peak in UV-visible spectroscopy was seen to be at 390 nm. The zone of inhibition was seen to increase with an increase in the concentration of AgNPs in the agar wells. The zone was smallest in A. hydrophila sp. culture, whereas it was seen to be the largest in Serratia sp. culture. Conclusion: We can conclude by saying that herbal synthesis of AgNPs is highly eco-friendly and should be practiced more than chemical synthesis of the same. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs was comparably effective to the control used and in the future, they can be administered as antibiotics in the era of multidrug resistance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004115
Title: Zinc oxide nanoparticles green synthesis using Moringa oleifera and tulasi a formulation and its anti-inflammatory activity
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nanobiomedicine Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: To study the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using plant formulation and its anti-inflammatory activity. Introduction: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are metal oxide nanoparticle paves the way for new field of biomedical application from diagnosis to treatment. ZnO semiconductor is a material that can be easily synthesized with different structures due to its chemical behaviors. ZnO NPs can be synthesized from various plants. Materials and Methods: The ZnO NPs were synthesised using herbal formulations and anti-inflammatory activity using protein denaturation method. Results: ZnO NPs synthesized from Moringa oleifera and tulasi extract have high anti-inflammatory activity that can be used for many medicinal purpose and many health-related diseases such as arthritis, cancer, and thyroid function.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004116
Title: Morphological and morphometrical analysis of sphenoidal tubercle with reference to spine of sphenoid bone in dry human skull
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The sphenoid bone is an unpaired bone of the neurocranium. It is arranged in the norma basalis part of skull toward the front, before the temporal bone, and the basilar part of the occipital bone. This bone accidentally presents varied morphology so its description and denomination are a topic of discussion. The aim of the study is to determine the morphological and morphometrical analysis of sphenoidal tubercle with reference to the spine of sphenoidal bone. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in 50 dry human skull bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality was collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. Anteroposterior, transverse, and vertical diameter at the base of sphenoidal tubercle were measured. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The maximum anteroposterior diameter of the sphenoidal tubercle is 6.33 mm and the minimum is 1.55 mm. The maximum vertical diameter of the sphenoidal tubercle is 6.71 mm and the minimum is 0.87 mm. The maximum transverse diameter of the sphenoidal tubercle is 7.11 mm and the minimum is 0.93 mm. Conclusion: Due to the localization of the sphenoid tubercle in close proximity to the maxillary artery groove and maxillary nerve groove, it serves as an anatomical landmark that should be considered as a parameter for the surgical approach of the infratemporal fossa and the neurovascular elements contained in it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004117
Title: Effect of parent’s dental anxiety and oral health literacy on children’s oral health
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry,Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences,Saveetha University, Chennai , Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Dental fear and anxiety have been shown to be a major factor contributing to avoidance of dental checkup routines resulting in poorer oral health. Low health literacy is one among many reasons why preventable diseases remain so common and why people often do not adopt healthy practices. It is important to detect patients with inadequate oral health literacy (OHL) and to improve the level of communication between the provider and the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of parental dental anxiety and OHL on children’s oral health, with selected sociodemographic variables among patients in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A sample of 187 subjects from the Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals was administered the rapid estimate of adult literacy in dentistry (REALD)-30 and the Dental Anxiety Scale-Revised (DAS-R). The data collection of the children’s oral health was from the patient records. Data were analyzed using t-tests, analysis of variance, and correlations. Results: The distribution of DAS-R scores and OHL values shows that children of parents having less anxiety have good oral health, only eight participants having fair oral health and only few parents having high anxiety and severe anxiety. The Pearson product-moment correlation shows negative correlation between DAS-R and REALD-30 scores, which was statistically significant. There is a statistical significance different between the education level of parents and REALD-30 scores as well as DAS-R and OHL level. Conclusion: It can be concluded that factors affecting poor children’s oral health are interrelated and include parents’ lower OHL skills and higher dental anxiety scores. It is understood that better communication between parents of pediatric patients and dental care providers is important to reduce oral health disparities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004118
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of DNA fingerprinting among college students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: In recent years, a study of human genetics has grown exponentially. With this scientific field and its accompanying techniques, a scientist has been able to determine the difference between individuals using DNA fingerprints. British Geneticist, Dr. Alec Jeffrey developed a powerful tool for use in forensic science popularly known as DNA fingerprinting. DNA fingerprinting can be used to establish the identity of unidentified decomposed human remains. DNA fingerprinting can also be used to determine relatedness among humans, relatedness among ancient population, studying about breeding in endangered species, thereby aiding in breeding programs in zoological parks, etc. Aim: this study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and awareness of DNA fingerprinting among college students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey by means of a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Questionnaire was distributed to 100 students of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. Questionnaire consisted of three parts which are used to characterize pediatricians knowledge (seven questions), awareness (seven questions), and attitude toward DNA fingerprinting and its applications (three questions), etc. Results: The results were reported by summarizing responses of the respondents to each of the 17 questions in the questionnaire. Among the respondents, 46% of them were female respondents and 54% of them were male respondents. The response toward knowledge of the development of DNA fingerprinting, 46.2% quoted for Alec Jeffrey, 15.4% of the respondents quoted for James Grick, 19% of the respondents quoted for Khorana, and 19.2% of the respondents quoted for James Watson. Results for agreement toward mini-satellites is short non-coding repetitive sequence present throughout the chromosomes, 54% of the respondents do not agree with the statement and remaining of the respondents (46%) agreed with the statement while response toward the statement that DNA technique used to demonstrate the similarity between different animal species with reference to some specific protein coding in DNA sequence, majority of the respondent, 30.8% of them quoted for phyto blot, 38.5% quoted for garden blot, and 7.7% for plant profiling. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it may be concluded that there is a lack of proper awareness and knowledge of DNA fingerprinting techniques and its applications among dental students. Students should be well informed about its applications in various genetic fields by conducting some educational programs. To accomplish this objective, DNA fingerprinting topics in the medical curriculum and dental curriculum so that physician and dentist can impart their greater role. Regular education programs can be conducted. Articles in the medical journals DNA fingerprinting and applications can be published. Many workshops can be conducted.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004120
Title: The effectiveness of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis, depending on the polymorphic markers of cytokine genes
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical and Biological Disciplines, Medical Institute, Belgorod State University, Pobedy Str. 85, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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Aim: The paper presents the results of a study of interrelationships of polymorphic cytokine loci (rs1800629 TNFα, rs909253 Ltα, rs767455 TNFR1 and rs1800469 TGFβ-1) with the features of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. Method: The study of therapy efficiency (medication with glucocorticoids, cytostatics, and angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors) was conducted among 169 patients with CGN (79 men and 90 women). The average age of patients was 36.2 ± 8.9 years; the duration of disease was 7.4 ± 5.6 years. In this research, homozygotes by pro-inflammatory and fibroblastic alleles were combined into one group with heterozygotes. Results and Discussion: The research materials were processed by statistical methods, using the program Statistica 8.0. The criterion cChi-square was applied with the aim to analyze the compliance of the observed distribution of genotypes with the expected, based on the Hardy– Weinberg equilibrium. In the process of comparative analysis of the frequencies of alleles and genotypes of the studied loci between the control and case groups of patients, the Chi-square criterion was used, with Yates correction for continuity. Conclusion: It has been established, that in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis, which have proinflammatory gene alleles of lymphotoxin α (rs909253) and the tumor necrosis factor receptor (rs767455), glucocorticoid therapy is not very effective (only 10-30% of these patients are steroid sensitive). In case of non-inflammatory alleles of these genes, the efficiency of hormone therapy is maximum: steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome is observed in 73-90% of patients (p <0.001).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004121
Title: Methodical approach to conducting a multi-aspect matrix analysis of the drug range
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Management and Economics of Pharmacy, Belgorod State University, Pobeda 85, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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Aim: The purpose of our study is to develop a methodology for multi-aspect matrix analysis of the drug range prescribed in outpatient clinics. Method: In the process of research, we used such methods as systemic and structural analysis and pharmacoeconomic ones. Result and Discussion: The objects of the study were 390 outpatient cards of patients at the age of 7–17 years with ENT diseases; 125 expert questionnaires of otolaryngologists and 50 questionnaires of a sociological survey of parents of patients with ENT diseases; official sources of information: “State Register of Medicines;” “Encyclopedia of Drugs: Register of Medicines in Russia;” “Vidal Reference Book. Drugs in Russia;” Reference book by M.D. Mashkovsky “Drugs;” “Handbook of drug synonyms;” and Price lists of implementation center “Protek” in Kursk (Russia). In this article we propose the original method of a multi-aspect matrix analysis which allows positioning drugs by integrating a significant number of indicators obtained during a pharmacoeconomic study in a multidimensional analytical matrix in order to make a decision on its inclusion in the assortment list for the treatment of a specific nosology. Conclusion: We carried out the approbation of the methodical approach and the development of brand portfolios for the treatment of chronic tonsillitis in children. Brand portfolios provide doctors and patients with the opportunity to choose a complex of drugs that meet best the requirements of pharmacotherapeutic efficacy as well as the patient’s expectations and economic possibilities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004122
Title: Methodical approach to conducting a comprehensive pharmacoeconomic study of drug care in medical organizations
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Management and Economics of Pharmacy, Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “Belgorod State National Research University” (NRU BelSU), Pob
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Aim: The problem of rational pharmacotherapy in outpatient and inpatient therapy is one of the most significant to date, due to the occurrence and progression of most pathologies. Method: In this regard, it is important to develop a methodological approach to conducting a comprehensive pharmacoeconomic study of drug care in inpatient and outpatient settings of medical organizations (MO), assessing the continuity of treatment, the results of medical prescriptions, as well as the implementation of methodological, managerial, and economic support for pharmacotherapy. The main objective of comprehensive (hereinafter tandem) pharmacoeconomic study is to develop restrictive lists (formulary lists of drugs for stationary conditions and brand portfolios of drugs for outpatient) that are optimal according to the criteria “pharmacotherapeutic efficacy” – “characteristics of drugs” – “compliance with consumer expectations” – “price.” Result and Discussion: The methodical approach provides for simultaneous and sequential execution and comparative analysis of the research stages: Formation of the database of the drugs; structural analysis of the drug assortment; ABC analysis of the drug assortment; multidimensional examination of the assortment; and regulatory cost analysis and determination of the drug budget of the inpatient department. Conclusion: A methodical approach has been developed for conducting a comprehensive pharmacoeconomic study of drug care simultaneously in outpatient and inpatient settings. This approach may be of interest when optimizing the issues of succession and sequence of treatment in medical organizations (MOs) for pharmacotherapy of patients with different nosologies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004123
Title: Purification and characterization of protease and lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from some wound and burn infection
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Babylon Province, Iraq
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Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a type of bacteria that causes many diseases, especially hospital infections (nosocomial infections) because of its wide spread in the environment, especially the hospital environment. Methodology: Twenty isolates of P. aeruginosa were identified. Results: The isolates were 12 isolates from burn infections and 8 isolates from wound infections. The sensitivity of P. aeruginosa isolates was tested against (6) traditional antibiotics. P. aeruginosa was (100%) resistance to Ampicillin, 94.5% resistance to Cefixime, (80%) to Ceftazidime, (38.9%) to Tobramycin, 22.9% to Norfloxacillin and 3.4% to Ciprofloxacin . By observing hydrolysis zone around the colony of bacteria that grow on Peptone tween agar plate, we confirmed the lipolytic ability and produce lipase enzyme. Their abilities for production of protease enzyme was tested on skim milk agar by appeared clear zone round the colony. The optimum conditions of enzymes production were studied such as (PH, temperature) which show that 40°C , pH (8) and incubating to 48 hr. Conclusion: The enzyme Activity was decremented in these optimum conditions and The activity of the enzyme has increased when treated with Ca ions, which shows that Ca++ plays a role in the stimulation and stability of the enzyme, and did not inhibit the activity of the enzyme with the presence of reduced agents such as cysteine, while decrease the enzyme’s effectiveness of the factors EDT.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004124
Title: Immune‑metabolic disorders inner endometriosis; pharmacological correction of disorders
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Postgraduate Education, FSBEI HE Kursk State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Kursk 305041, Russia
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Aim: The complicacy of endometriosis pathogenesis makes it difficult to choose medical preparations for optimal effects on the main elements that determine the development and progression of this disease. The aim of the research: to study immune and metabolic disorders in female patients with internal endometriosis (adenomyosis) and to determine the effectiveness of immunomodulatory drugs and antioxidants inclusion into conventional pharmacotherapy of this disease. Method: A total of 62 female patients with verified adenomyosis Stage II confirmed by clinical and instrumental (ultrasound and hysteroscopic examination) methods were under observation. Result and discussion: Twenty female patients received only standard treatment, 21 examined ones additionally received the combinations of antioxidant and immunomodulatory drug: Ridostin and hypoxen or cycloferon and cytoflavin. All the preparations were administered according to the recommendations set forth in the Federal Manual on the Use of Drugs. In the peripheral blood, indicators of the cytokine system, complement and functional metabolic activity of neutrophils were detected. The intensity of lipid peroxidation (LPO), the state of the antioxidant system was assessed at the systemic (circulating blood plasma) and local (aspiration biopsy of the uterus cavity) levels. Conclusion: It was established that in patients with adenomyosis there is a combination of LPO activation with the development of oxidative stress with endothelial dysfunction and immune inflammation. The inclusion of drugs with immune modulating and antioxidant effects into standard pharmacotherapy corrects the development of immune inflammation, levels oxidative stress, restoring the activity of the antioxidant system enzymes and reduces the activation of LPO.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004125
Title: Dynamics of drug sustainability Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Belgorod region for the period of 2008–2017
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Microbiology, Belgorod State University, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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Aim of the study: to assess and compare the structure and dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs, including multiple and broad, in the Belgorod region in newly diagnosed patients and patients with relapses of tuberculosis. Methodology: the article analyzed the structure and dynamics of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the main and reserve anti-tuberculosis drugs for the years 2008-2017 in the Belgorod region. The authors used data from statistical accounting forms 07-TB and the centralized bacteriological laboratory. For the ten-year period 2008 - 2017 in the Belgorod region, against the background of a happy tuberculosis epidemiological situation, a decrease in morbidity and mortality, there has been a general increase in the resistance of the pathogen to anti-tuberculosis drugs. An alarming tendency to an increase in the wide drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is registered, which is an extremely unfavourable sign, significantly complicates the appointment of adequate therapy to patients and reduces the effectiveness of treatment. Conclusion: all of the above emphasizes the importance of monitoring the drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is an integral part of controlling the spread of this infectious disease. It is necessary to continue this work, which will make it possible to predict the risk of spreading drug-resistant tuberculosis and differentiate the approach to anti-epidemic measures at the regional level.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004126
Title: Patient with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelocytic leukemia at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Doctoral Program of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia
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Background: According to the World Health Organization, there are 250 cases of leukemia globally. The case fatality rate (CFR) is at 76%, for young/middle age, the CFR is 35–40%, and for age older than 60, it is 5–15%. The occurrence of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) is 3.5/100,000 people per year, with a higher occurrence in men than in women (4.3 vs. 2.9, at the age of 67 years old). The incident of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) mostly occurs in people over the age of 70 years old and tends to turn into AML. The objective of this case report is to know the number of leukemia cases, especially AML and MDS cases that are based on gender and age. Methods: These data were gathered from 228 leukemia patients from a total of 434 visits. Incomplete exclusions were applied to 47 people with the age range of 14–77 years old, while the remaining 181 people formed the complete sample. The diagnoses of AML and MDS are based on the morphology of blood smear cell and hematology analysis. Results: In Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, AML is found at 38.66% and MDS at 4.98% from 181 samples, with higher cases in women than men. Conclusion: In summary, patients with AML diagnosis were related to age; the highest risk of AML was found at the ages of 46–61 years (37.14%) from 70 people. There were four patients with an MDS diagnosis at the ages of 14–29 years, while there was only one older aged patient, aged 62–77 years old (11.1%), showing that the younger age group presents a higher risk. We hope future research will further observe new biomarkers to diagnose AML, MDS, and MDS-related AML.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004127
Title: Comparison of visual field defect severity level between nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with and without metabolic syndrome
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
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Background: Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) is the second most common optic neuropathy in adults, with an incidence rate of 2.3–10.2/100,000 population/year in the US. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is known to be one systemic risk factor of NA-AION. This study aimed to determine the relationship between NA-AION and MS. Methods: This study use data from medical records from neuro-ophthalmology polyclinic in Dr. Saiful Anwar General Hospital from 2015 to 2017. Visual acuity (VA) established from Snellen chart examination, anterior segment from biomicroscopy examination, posterior segment from direct fundoscopy, and perimetry (geographic appearance of visual field defect and mean defect [MD]). Laboratory examination (MS component based on International Diabetes Federation 2006 consensus), waist circumference, blood pressure, height and weight, as well as patient with edema papil at neuro- ophthalmology outpatient clinic, in Dr. Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Malang. All data of NA-AION patients with and without MS were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 (Chi-square, Spearman correlation, and Mann–Whitney U-test). Results: This study involved 52 samples from medical record data where most subjects were in the age ranging of 41–60 years old, mean age 54 years, and no gender predominance. More than one-third (40.38%) of NA-AION patients experienced MS. The correlation between MS and perimetry MD value was weak (P = 0.322), Spearman correlation contingency coefficient of 0.251, and Mann–Whitney result sig. Z (0.612). The initial patient VA was 6/6–6/18. In this research, a mean waist circumference of 85.5 cm and body mass index of 26.5 (OW) were obtained. The bilateral attack, segmental edema of optic nerve hypoplasia, and altitudinal visual field defect with MD >12 dB were most dominant. Conclusion: About 40.38% of patient with NA-AON experienced MS, showing a weak correlation with no significant difference between the presence and absence of MS. No gender predominance was found. A multidisciplinary scientific approach is needed to identify the risk factors of NA-AION.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004128
Title: The effect of lutein and zeaxanthin administration on reactive oxygen species levels in blood serum and contrast sensitivity changes in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medical Brawijaya University, Saiful Anwar General Hospital Malang, Indonesia, East Java, Indonesia
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Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. The high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes can cause pericyte loss and endothelial damage, which causes disturbances in visual function. This study aims to investigate the effect of lutein and zeaxanthin (L/Z) administration on ROS levels in blood serum and contrast sensitivity in patients with non-proliferative DR (NPDR). Materials and Methods: This study used a pre- and post-test control design. All subjects were NPDR patients. ROS levels in blood serum were measured using ELISA and contrast sensitivity was examined using the Pelli-Robson chart, before and after administration of 6 mg of lutein and 0.5 mg of zeaxanthin (Cendo-TGF®) for 30 days. Correlations were performed to examine the relationship between changes in ROS levels and contrast sensitivity. Results: The mean ROS level before L/Z administration was 15.512 ng/ml and was reduced to 6.707 ng/ml after L/Z administration (P < 0.05). The mean contrast sensitivity before L/Z administration was 1.286 and was increased to 1.425 (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between ROS serum level and contrast sensitivity, but this was not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: L/Z administration is able to decrease ROS levels in blood serum and increase contrast sensitivity scores in patients with NPDR. The reduction in ROS level is positively correlated with increasing contrast sensitivity score, but this correlation is not statistically significant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004129
Title: The effect of Nigella sativa and other plants on bacteria isolated from diabetic foot ulcers
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Clinical Laboratories Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Basrah, Iraq
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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic lifelong disorder distinguishes oneself by chronic hyperglycemia and caused damage of organs. Bad control of diabetes leads to skin infections and non-healing foot ulcers which common in clinical practice. The access to the hospital and mutilation will increase and conversely result in long-term economic, physical, social, and mental disability to the patient. Methodology: This study is designed to identified bacteria from diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients by tissue specimen and investigates the sensitivity of these bacteria to Nigella sativa (NS) oil, other essential oils, and compounds. Results: Staphylococcus epidermidis 50% was recorded the highest occurrence in patients followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 20%, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli 13.3%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3.3% was recorded as the lowest occurrence in patients. Polymicrobial growth cultures were present in 6 (100%) of patients and appeared as S. aureus with E. coli and K. pneumoniae in 2 patient’s 33.3%, S. epidermidis with E. coli in 2 patient’s 33.3%, S. epidermidis with P. aeruginosa in 1 patient 16.6%, and S. aureus with K. pneumoniae in 1 patient 16.6%. (NS) oil has antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Almond oil, silver sulfadiazine, and hydrogen peroxide 3% were the only showed antibacterial activity. Conclusion: Tissue specimen is a good method for bacterial isolation in DFU. (NS) oil, almond oil, and some compounds have antibacterial properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004130
Title: The influence of interferon-gamma +874 T/A and interleukin-10 −1082 G/A polymorphisms on culture conversion in Javanese multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
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Aim: To determine the influence of gene polymorphisms, especially IFN-γ +874 T/A and IL-10 −1082 G/A to sputum culture conversion of Javanese MDR-TB patients in Indonesia. In this study, the influence of IFN-γ +874 T/A and IL-10 −1082 G/A gene polymorphisms to the sputum culture conversion of Javanese MDR-TB patients was investigated. Method: This study was conducted in patients suspected to have MDR-TB in Moewardi hospital from January 2011 to April 2014. Sputum conversion status, epidemiology, and clinical data of patients were collected. IFN-γ and IL-10 polymorphisms were obtained using Polymerase chain reaction methods. During the study period, 120 from 179 participants that met the inclusion criteria were willing to sign the informed consent. Seven patients dropped out, and six patients died. Result and Discussion: A total of 61 patients had MDR-TB, and 46 patients had TB resistant to rifampicin. Patients with mixed genotypes of +874 A/A IFN-γ and −1082 A/A IL-10 had the longest time of sputum culture conversion (Hazard ratio [HR] = 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.030–8.028; and P = 0.040). Patients with mixed genotypes of +874 T/T IFN-γ and −1082 G/A IL-10 have the fastest time of culture conversion (HR = 0.441; 95% CI: 0.223–0.870; and P = 0.018). Culture conversion of MDR-TB patients was influenced by −1082 A/A IL-10 gene polymorphism (deceleration) and +874 T/T IFN-γ and −1082 G/A IL-10 gene polymorphism (acceleration). Conclusion: The +874 T/T IFN-γ and -1082 A/A IL-10 gene polymorphisms influence culture conversion (deceleration) and the +874 T/T IFN-γ and −1082 G/A IL-10 gene polymorphisms accelerate the culture conversion of Javanese MDR-TB patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004131
Title: Comparison of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in Tenon’s capsule tissue at superior fornix, inferior fornix, and interpalpebral area in socket contracture
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Dr. Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
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Background: This study aims to observe the difference between the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in Tenon’s capsule tissue from superior fornix, inferior fornix, and interpalpebral area in socket contracture. Methods: This was an analytic observational study with cross-sectional approach. Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was measured with immunohistochemistry staining. Data were analyzed with Kruskal–Wallis test and continued with Mann– Whitney U-test and Spearman correlation tests. Results: The subjects were three socket contracture patients which two subjects with Grade 4 and one subject with Grade 5. Subjects were about 42-year-old men and women. Tenon’s capsule from inferior fornix showed the highest expression of MMP-2 (P = 0.018). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in MMP-9 expression in these three areas (P = 0.212). There was no correlation between the expression of MMP-2 and MMP- 9 (P = 0.978). Conclusion: There was a significant difference in MMP-2 in Tenon’s capsule tissue from superior fornix, inferior fornix, and interpalpebral area.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004132
Title: Comparison of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in Tenon’s capsule tissue at superior fornix, inferior fornix, and interpalpebral area in socket contracture
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Dr. Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
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Background: This study aims to observe the difference between the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in Tenon’s capsule tissue from superior fornix, inferior fornix, and interpalpebral area in socket contracture. Methods: This was an analytic observational study with cross-sectional approach. Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was measured with immunohistochemistry staining. Data were analyzed with Kruskal–Wallis test and continued with Mann– Whitney U-test and Spearman correlation tests. Results: The subjects were three socket contracture patients which two subjects with Grade 4 and one subject with Grade 5. Subjects were about 42-year-old men and women. Tenon’s capsule from inferior fornix showed the highest expression of MMP-2 (P = 0.018). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in MMP-9 expression in these three areas (P = 0.212). There was no correlation between the expression of MMP-2 and MMP- 9 (P = 0.978). Conclusion: There was a significant difference in MMP-2 in Tenon’s capsule tissue from superior fornix, inferior fornix, and interpalpebral area.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004133
Title: The role of immunoglobulin M anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in blood serum in peripheral nerve damage of multibacillary leprosy
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Doctoral Program Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia
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Background: Schwann cells can also induce upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 productions, which is thought to be one of the cellular mediators of nerve damage from leprosy, especially in paucibacillary (PB) leprosy. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the roles of immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-phenolic-glycolipid 1 (PGL-1) and MMP- 9 in peripheral nerve damage in multibacillary (MB) leprosy. Methods: The levels of IgM anti-PGL-1 and MMP-9 were examined by ELISA technique, while laboratory examination of the skin incision was done to determine the bacterial index (BI) and the morphological index (MI) after Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Serum IgM anti-PGL-1 and MMP-9 levels were significantly different between leprosy patients and household contacts (P < 0.005). There was a significant difference in serum IgM anti-PGL-1 levels between leprosy patients with BI values <3 and ≥3 (P < 0.005), but no significant difference was found in serum MMP-9 levels between leprosy patients with BI scores of <3 and ≥3. IgM anti-PGL-1 (P = 0.006) was statistically significant as a variable that was more responsible for peripheral nerve damage in MB leprosy than MMP-9 (P = 0.042). Conclusion: IgM PGL-1 was more important than MMP-9 in causing peripheral nerve damage in MB leprosy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004134
Title: The evaluation of effectiveness of pharmaceutical correction of the physiological stomach function with the use of information technologies
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: National Research South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Lenin Prospekt, 76, Russia.
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Aim: The paper describes the potential use of the drug “trimebutine” in children. It presents the results of the research of its effectiveness in teenagers at the moment of exacerbation of chronic gastritis with regard to an accelerated motor- evacuation function of the stomach. Materials and Methods: In the course of the study, such methods as a clinic anamnestic survey, an observational supersonic scanning of abdominal space with examining the gallbladder function, and a supersonic scanning of stomach with examining its motor-emptying function are used. The study has been conducted regarding the voluntary informed consent of the patients. The design of the study is aligned with accordance to the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association and has been approved on the meeting of the local ethics committee. Results: The results presented in the current study, verify that trimebutine (“trimedate”) is a regulator of a motor function of gastrointestinal tract and possesses a significant pain-alleviating effect, caused by its unspecific effect on all the types of opiate receptors. Conclusion: Nevertheless, it should be noted that the effect of the discussed drug on the children of other age groups as well as the children with a normal or slower emptying function of stomach needs further researching.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004135
Title: Morphological and morphometrical analysis of the sacroiliac joint with respect to sacral hiatus
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: According to human anatomy, the sacrum is a large bone that is triangular situated at the base of the spine. The sacrum is a complex structure that provides support for the spine and provides accommodation for the spinal nerves. The sacrum articulates with four bones such as it articulates with the last lumbar vertebra above, the coccyx below, and the ilium portion of the hip bones on either side. Sacral hiatus (SH) is an opening that is located inferior to the 4th or 3rd fused sacral spines or lower end of median sacral crest. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 70 dry human sacrum bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality will be collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. With the help of Vernier caliper and ruler, the measurements such as the length, breadth, and diameter of SH will be measured. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: Average diameter of auricular surface of sacrum on the right side was 43.52 ± 1.91 mm and on the left side was 44.25 ± 2.63 mm in males. Average diameter of auricular surface of sacrum on the right and left side was 46.27 ± 2.73 mm and 46.9 ± 1.58 mm, respectively, in females. Mean length of SH was 27.22 ± 4.13 mm. Mean breadth was 9.17 ± 2.65 mm. Mean depth was 4.36 ± 1.57 mm. Conclusion: There have been numerous studies linked to the reliability of sex estimation through the quantitative assessments of sexual dimorphic traits of the sacrum. With the sacrum being designated as a portion of the pelvic girdle, which is a known reliable and frequently used means of estimating sex, the sacrum’s location and function do imply that it may be also used in sex estimation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004136
Title: Prevalence, knowledge, and awareness of thyroid disorders among young adult women population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Thyroid is the small gland located at the back of the neck and it performs many vitally important functions. Thyroid disorders are the most common type of endocrine disorders prevailing worldwide. Any dysfunction of this gland has profound impact on health and well-being. People affected by thyroid disorders often have inadequate knowledge of the nature of thyroid diseases, its complications, and related risk factors. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the adolescent and young adult female population of Saveetha Dental College to assess the knowledge, attitude, and awareness of thyroid disorders. A simple random sample was drawn to reach the required sample size of 86. The response was, therefore, estimated by personally collecting the completely filled questionnaire from the 86 samples. Results: Of 86 samples taken in for the survey, about 83% of the individuals were aware of the thyroid disorders and it was estimated that the syndrome was more prevalent among the female young adult population. Conclusion: It was found that the thyroid disorders are more common among the adult population than the younger and older groups as analyzed by this study. Furthermore, the existing knowledge of the effects and risk factors of thyroid disorder was adequate among young adult female population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004137
Title: Determination of sex using os coxae in relation to ischial tuberosity – A morphometric study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Sex determination of an unidentified individual is one of the main objectives when human skeletal remains are found, both in forensic investigation and archaeological studies. The distinctive morphology of the human hip bone and its clear sexual dimorphism build it of interest from anatomical, social science, and rhetorical points of analysis. Determination of biological sex is one of the most important determinations to be made from undocumented human remains which this study is aimed for. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 30 dry human pelvic bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality will be collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. With the help of Vernier caliper and ruler, the measurements such as minimum iliac breadth (MIB), maximum auricular length (MAL), and maximum ischiopubic length (MIPL) are measured. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: The average of MIB in male was found to be 57.61 ± 2.11 mm and in female was found to be 53.45 ± 3.14 mm. The MAL in male was 53.71 ± 1.67 mm and 49.16 ± 2.82 mm in females. The MIPL in male and female was 113.23 ± 4.89 mm and 107.2 ± 7.63 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The chances of attaining high levels of accuracy and reliability regarding sex identification are related to the skeletal components analyzed and the ability of techniques utilized to analyze shape and size differences among the sexes. The current opinion regards the os coxae or hip bone as the most reliable sex indicator because it is the most dimorphic bone, particularly in adult individuals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004138
Title: Morphological and morphometrical analysis of variations of the first rib with reference to its angle of curvature and its clinical implications
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Although many bones of the human skeleton show the sex-, age-, and race-related differences, the distinctive morphology of the human rib bone makes it of utmost interest from anatomical, anthropological, and forensic point of view. The human first rib bone is one of the most informative bones in the human body. Morphometry of the rib bone is important for the anatomist as well as for the anthropologist for population studies. Moreover, specimen identification and sex determination from skeletal remains have great importance in many forensic medicine and related investigations. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 20 dry rib bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality were collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. With the help of Vernier caliper, the measurements such as the length, breadth, and diameter of rib bone were measured. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: In male, the average total length of the first rib on the right side was found to be 67.28 ± 2.34 and on the left side, it was 66.43 ± 3.42. In female, on the right side, it was 61.32 ± 1.6 and on the left side, it was 63.85 ± 1.56. In male, the average of ventrodorsal breadth of the first rib on the right side was found to be 21.57 ± 2.93 and on the left side, it was 20.4 ± 1.62. In female, on the right side, it was 18.5 ± 2.84 and on the left side, it was 17.43 ± 1.79. The mean angle of curvature of the right and left rib in male was 45.5° and 46.2°. In female, it was 41.5° and 42.8° on the right and left side. Conclusion: There are no much studies in literature for comparing the angle of the first rib between the right and left sides for Indian population. The present study was an initial step in estimation of the angle which can be used for estimating sexual dimorphism. Further researches on the first rib can add to the information and help the forensic anthropologists to identify the sex of an individual.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004139
Title: Assessing occurrence of flatfoot condition among student population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Flatfoot (pes planus) is a clinical condition associated with unusual biomechanical alterations in medial longitudinal arch. The medial longitudinal arch of foot is impaired, and hence, the entire sole touches the ground making the sole of foot to flatten. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of flatfoot among males and females of the student community aged between 18 and 25 by calculating the Chippaux-Smirak index (CSI). Materials and Methods: The study included 50 college students. Their ages ranged between 18 and 21 years. Footprints of all the 50 subjects were obtained using simple ink print method. The presence of flatfeet was diagnosed by calculating the CSI. If the CSI is greater than 45%, then the individual is considered flatfooted. Results: Of 50 subjects, 25, i.e. 50% had flatfeet with P < 0.05. Ten of 25 females (40%) were found to be flatfooted, whereas for males, it was 13 of 25 (52%). Conclusion: The study was successful as we concluded with a significant result (P < 0.05) about men having quite more significant flatfeet. The foot screening procedure presented in this study provides a strategy for recruiting participants with normal and flatfoot impression. The present study suggests that simple ink print method is a cost effective and easier way of diagnosing flatfeet deformity clinically.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004140
Title: Actions of riluzole on GluR5 subunit of kainate receptors in rat migraine model
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, AIIMS, Mangalagiri, Andhra Pradesh, India
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Introduction: Migraine a major public health problem occurring due to the consequences of serial multi-pathophysiological changes in the trigeminal nerve ganglion leading to imbalance in the excitation and inhibition. The glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system causing excitotoxicity to the sensory neurons leading to sensitization and nociception. Materials and Methods: The present study was done to determine the effects of riluzole on the GluR5 subunits of kainate receptors after inducing migraine. The rats were treated with riluzole (6 mg/kg) after inducing migraine with nitroglycerin 10 mg/kg. Results and Conclusions: The nitroglycerin treated rats showed intense staining for GluR5 subunits and there was a decrease in its expression after riluzole treatment. This study concludes that the GluR5 subunits are upregulated during migraine and riluzole can be used to control those upregulation by its neuroprotectant property.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004141
Title: Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy and phytochemical constituents of the extracts of Andrographis paniculata against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Vivekanandha Dental College, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria has led to the search for newer plant-derived antimicrobial agents with lesser side effects. Andrographis paniculata (Nilavembu), the chief ingredient nilavembu kudineer has been successfully used in the treatment of dengue fever outbreak in India. Hence, this study was proposed to examine the antibacterial activity of A. paniculata against multidrug-resistant isolates of Gram-positive cocci (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]) and Gram-negative bacilli (extended-spectrum beta- lactamase [ESBL]-producing Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Standard strains, ATCC 25922 E. coli, ATCC 25923 S. aureus, ATCC 27853 P. aeruginosa, and ATCC 29212 E. faecalis were used as controls. Methods: Extracts such as methanol, acetone, chloroform, and ethanol of A. paniculata (leaf) were prepared by cold percolation method. Agar well diffusion method was employed to assess the antibacterial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using microbroth dilution method. Results: Results showed methanol extract exhibited maximum antibacterial activity against clinical and control strains. Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract has confirmed the presence of an array of bioactive compounds. Conclusion: Methanolic extract of A. paniculata could serve as a potential herbal alternative in the management of infections caused by VRE and MRSA, while the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata could be used in the effective therapeutic management of ESBL-positive P. aeruginosa.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004142
Title: Awareness of BMI among dental students – A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Today, all over the world, there is evident change in lifestyle of people mainly due to the excess availability and irregular food habits. People basically prefer foods that are cheaper, foods which are prepared faster, and foods which satisfy our hunger; high preference is predominantly given for taste. People usually prefer for junk and other fancy foods rather than having traditional healthy and nutritional food. The reason given for unhealthy food habits is lack of time, stress, preference for taste, etc. This study is about analyzing the awareness of body mass index (BMI) among dental students. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases. In Phase I, the weight and height of the students were calculated using weighing machine and measuring tape. Their BMI was calculated and tabulated to obtain results. In Phase II, a survey of 15 questions was prepared and circulated among the participants to know about the food habits, lifestyle, family background, and other medical conditions. Results and Discussion: Majority of the participants are healthy, but still most of the healthy persons are in the risk of being underweight or overweight. Even though there is good awareness of improper food habits and improper lifestyle, participants accept that they still follow unhealthy food habits. From the survey, it was evident that awareness of lifestyle and food practice is very important in the current scenario.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004143
Title: Awareness of lifestyle diseases and associated risk factors among college-going students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the awareness pertaining to lifestyle diseases and its risk factors in college-going young adults. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire of 16 questions was prepared to gather information such as height, weight, eating habits, and lifestyle of college students. On the basis of responses, a statistical analysis is performed. Results: Only a minor 1.2% of the population exercise regularly and 13.2% never do vigorous exercise. A majority of 38.7%, 28%, and 24% of the people spend their leisure time on social media, surfing the internet, and watching television, respectively. Conclusion: The awareness among the student with regard to nutritional value of food was impressive, although it did not reflect in their eating habits. Knowledge is an essential ingredient for healthy behavior and this can be imparted from family members and/ or educational institutions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00004144
Title: Evaluation of acute oral toxicity induced by aqueous extract of Mahavallathy leghiyam in rats
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Meenakshi Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Mahavallathy leghiyam (MVL), an authentic concocted Siddha preparation was prescribed for neoplasms since ancient medicinal practices and, therefore, currently followed for palliative care. Materials and Methods: The present aim was to investigate the acute oral toxicity of 34 components bearing test drug named MVL, especially in male Wistar albino rats. The ingredients are basically daily used herbs and nature-derived products that have renowned medicinal properties in literature. Results: The acute toxicity was performed for 28 days with the dose limited at different concentrations such as 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight in each group of the experimental animals. During the experimental period, the weight of the rats was evaluated at standard intervals. Various other observations such as mortality, behavior, injury, and signs of illness (if any) were conducted once daily. Conclusion: At the end of each experimental period, blood parameters were analyzed. There were no signs of mortality or significant differences in hematological and biochemical results. Even body weight changes were not distinct compared to the control group. Therefore, this may lead to the conclusion that 28 days of MVL oral dosing did not affect the homeostasis of the test animals. Even at different concentrations of MVL, the biochemical and hematological results were close to control group, which showed no adverse effects even up to highest of 2000 mg/kg body weight.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004145
Title: Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in diabetic and nondiabetic patients
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Medical Laboratories, Southern Technical University, Amarah Technical Institute, Missan, Iraq
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Background: Recently, new evidence began to emerge indicating a relationship between diabetes and Helicobacter pylori infections. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, a random sample of 140 (76 male and 64 female) subjects. They were divided into two main groups, diabetic and nondiabetic patients. H. pylori was detected in 71 (50.7%) of samples while 69 (49.3%) of samples were H. pylori negative. Results: Out of 71 patients positive for H. pylori, 40 (57%) were not diabetic, while 31 (43%) were diabetic, as the glucose concentrations in the blood increased significantly in compare with bacteria infected nondiabetic patients. In correlation with age, the present study showed that the rates of infection vary according to the age groups. The current study found that H. pylori infection was higher in males than in females, and in the center of Maysan Governorate (urban) rather than the districts and areas (rural). Conclusions: The study concluded that H. pylori bacteria significantly increased blood sugar concentration in nondiabetic individuals, making them more susceptible to future diabetes unless treated.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004146
Title: Influence of barefoot exercise in subjects with flat foot in pregnant women primiparous
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Physiotherapy, Saveetha College of Physiotherapy, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: During pregnancy, the center of pressure on the feet shifts posteriorly to compensate for the increased anterior abdominal mass. It may contribute to loss of arch height may predispose to painful musculoskeletal conditions. This study aims to improvement of the arch of the foot in pregnant women primipara’s by giving barefoot exercises and maintains the strength of the foot. Materials and Methods: This single group pre- and post-quasi-experimental study design included 40 samples according to who fulfilled inclusion criteria. Outcomes measured through using navicular drop test, after completing the pre- test measures the subjects were introduced to the interventional procedures and followed regularly, based on the protocol. After 4 weeks of intervention, post-test measures were calculated. Results: Statistical analysis made with quantitative data, paired t-test was used to analyze significant changes between pre- and post-test measurements. P < 0.0001 was considered as statistically significant. Conclusion: From the result, it has been concluded that barefoot exercises are effective in increasing the arch of the foot in pregnant women primipara’s.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004147
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and perception regarding occlusal stamp technique for composite restorations
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: “Stamp technique” is a new technique for restoring Class I and Class II restorations with accurate occlusal topography. This technique is suitable in cases where caries is evident during the clinical examination or routine radiographic examination of teeth with intact marginal ridges and ideal occlusal anatomy. The purpose of this study is to know the knowledge, awareness, and perception regarding occlusal stamp technique for composite restorations. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted. A questionnaire containing 18 questions on composites and stamp technique was prepared and shared among dentists, and dental students and the responses were statistically analyzed. Results: The survey received 144 responses. About 68.3% of the participants have heard about the occlusal stamp technique and 70.7% of the participants felt that occlusal stamp technique is a technique sensitive procedure. Conclusion: Only a few people have knowledge about the occlusal stamp technique, and more in vivo studies have to be done to prove the success of occlusal stamp technique.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004148
Title: Prevalence of diabetes with the study of fingerprints
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes could be a condition wherever individuals do not turn out enough hypoglycemic agent to satisfy their body’s wants and/or their cells do not respond properly to hypoglycemic agent. Hypoglycemic agent is vital as a result of it moves aldohexose, a straightforward sugar, into the body’s cells from the blood. It conjointly includes a range of alternative effects on metabolism. Aim: The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of diabetes with the study of fingerprints. Materials and Methods: Fingerprints of 60 individuals, 30 cases and 30 controls, were taken manually with stamp pad ink in a clear paper and studied according to principles of dermatoglyphics with the help of magnifying glasses. The patterns analyzed were loops, arches, and whorls. Results: There was a significant increase in the number of loops and a significant decrease in the number whorls in individuals with diabetes in comparison to the individuals without diabetes. Conclusion: The results show that there is a change in the fingerprint in individuals with diabetes which shows that this can be used to predict and prevent the occurrence or prevent further complications through proper medication, etc.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004149
Title: Scientific and therapeutic effects of self-healing
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Biofield therapies offer a novel, non-invasive approach to treating chronic diseases based on assessing and adjusting an individual’s physiological and emotional responses through their bio-energetic field. Reconnective healing™ (RH) is defined as: “…not just energy healing, but instead a more comprehensive spectrum of healing composed of energy, light, and information.” Objectives: Several biofield therapies, such as reiki, therapeutic touch, and Johrei, have already been reviewed in the literature but RH has received little attention even though it is taught and practiced worldwide. This review provides a critical assessment of RH as a healing modality. Methods: Scientific research articles published in peer-reviewed journals addressing RH were identified using relevant databases and archives. Information was extracted from each article that met selection criteria for evaluation of the quality of reporting and design. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the five currently published peer-reviewed research papers involving RH and assesses whether RH provides consistent physiological outcomes between the studies. Results: These results, taken together, suggest: (i) Exposure of a healer or healee to RH, either directly or indirectly, amplifies their degree of autonomic arousal and energy, (ii) RH can reduce pain and improve range of motion in people with shoulder limitations, and (iii) when individuals experience RH as a group, their autonomic nervous systems simultaneously show sudden similar responses consistent with the idea that RH is mitigated by entrainment of biofields. Conclusions: Since these studies are extremely varied in design, it is not possible at this point to reach conclusions about the general effectiveness of RH. More clinical and physiological research performed on different populations under a range of conditions is needed to support this health-care approach.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004150
Title: Study of anti-apoptotic activity of sage oil on oral cancer cell lines – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Naturals herbs can be commonly used for the research of drugs that could be used to treat cancer as it has become a leading cause of death in several developing countries. Globally, cancer is one of the leading causes that affect the human population. Salvia officinalis, commonly known as sage oil has wide range of therapeutic and culinary properties. The bioactive components present are helpful in treating several problems in the human systems. They are capable of eliminating toxic substances due to the anticancer properties. Aim: The aim of the study on the anti-apoptotic activity of sage oil on oral cancer cell lines. Through these researches, it would be easier to make available medicines to all the people for an affordable cost. Materials and method: Sensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells was determined individually by the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidefor.) colorimetric assay. Result: The herb sage oil shows similarities with tamoxifen which is a commercial drug used for breast cancer. Conclusion: Medicinal use of sage oil is confined to traditional or folk medicines which give clue that higher research should be made for new drug molecules of definite activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004151
Title: Evaluation of antibacterial activity of dry ginger against Enterococcus faecalis
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: E. faecalis is a part of the normal intestinal flora of humans and animals. They have been long recognized as important human pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine and formulate the antibacterial activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (dry ginger) extract against E. faecalis as they are easily available and cost effective. Ginger has been widely used all over the world in Ayurvedic medicine, for a wide array of unrelated ailments including arthritis, cramps, rheumatism, and vomiting. Aim: This study aims to observe the antibacterial activity of dry ginger extract against clinical isolates of Enterococci faecalis. Materials and Methods: The investigation of antibacterial activity of dry ginger extract against E. faecalis was done by agar well diffusion method. Results: The extract showed good antibacterial activity at different concentrations with maximum zone of inhibition of 24 mm at a concentration of 100 µg/ml.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004152
Title: Knowledge and awareness about antibiotic policy among dentists
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of medical and Technical Sciences Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these medicines. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out through online containing 10 questions on knowledge about antibiotics among dentists. Based on their answers, the data will be recorded after analyzing the recorded data and the results will be tabulated. Results: About 93% of dentists are aware about the antibiotic policy. The results of this analysis suggest that there is uniformity in the rationale for antibiotic use among dentists.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00004153
Title: Awareness and knowledge about usage of e-cigarettes and risk of cardiovascular disease among smokers
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: E-cigarettes, also called a vape pens, e-cigars, or vaping devices, are electronic nicotine delivering systems, which gives an aerosolized mixture containing flavor liquids and nicotine that is inhaled by the users. Regardless of the design, each device has a common functioning system. E-cigarettes are composed of rechargeable lithium battery, vaporization chamber, and a cartridge. Aim: The aim of the study was to create awareness and knowledge about usage of e-cigarettes and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among smokers. Materials and Methods: It is a questionnaire-based survey. A set of 15 questions was framed and was conducted among 100 youngsters who use e-cigarettes, in an online forum, survey planet. The results were analyzed and were computerized. Results: About 74% of youngsters are aware of e-cigarettes and its adverse effects, whereas 40% of them are suffering from CVD and unaware of the nicotine consumption. Hence, a proper awareness to be created among the youngsters to quit smoking. Conclusion: Therefore, further research should establish under short-term effects and adverse effect of e-cigarettes usage and also the risk of CVD among the smokers. Ultimately, we need to underscore the need for prevention control and awareness to be created among the vulnerable population group such as youngster and children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004154
Title: Estimation of bacterial load in a three-way syringe used by a dentist in clinics
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to estimate the amount of bacterial load in a three-way syringe used by a dentist in clinic. Background: The three-way syringe is an indispensable accessory in dental practice and normally is not cleaned properly. Bacteria capable of causing serious disease may be present in the three-way syringe. Simple infection control precautions can, therefore, prevent any iatrogenic infections. Materials and Methods: The sample collected was 20 in number using a cotton swab. The samples were inoculated into nutrient agar using spread plate technique. The culture plates were inoculated at 37 for 24 h and observed for microbial growth. Results: This study shows that the three-way syringe used by dentist was contaminated with various microorganisms. Conclusion: The main aim of the study is to create awareness to the dentist that the three-way syringe can spread infection in clinics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004155
Title: Awareness and knowledge of toothbrushing and oral hygiene among children aged between 7 and 17 years
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge of toothbrushing and oral hygiene maintenance techniques among schoolchildren. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire is prepared which contains 10 questions and will be distributed to schoolchildren to answer it. Based on their answer, data will be recorded. After analyzing the recorded data, results will be tabulated. Objective: The objective of this study was to access the knowledge and awareness of toothbrushing and maintenance of oral hygiene status among schoolchildren. Results: Majority of the population, i.e., 76% have awareness of toothbrushing and oral hygiene maintenance and remaining 24% lack awareness due to various reasons such as socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Regular dental visit must be made at least once in a year. Hence, it is important of every schoolteacher and every dentist to provide awareness to have an oral disease-free society.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004156
Title: Osteometric analysis of thoracic vertebrae with reference to pedicle and its clinical applications
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: One of the important complex structures of the human body is the vertebral column and spinal cord present in it. Even more complex is the thoracic part of vertebral column with two end segments toward lumbar (T9-T12) and cervical (T1-T3) region appearing to be transitional zones, and the presence of the combination of critical vascular supply and narrow spinal canal is responsible for the utmost importance and it is referred to as the middle zone. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 40 dry human vertebrae of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality will be collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. With the help of Vernier caliper, the measurements such as the width and height of the pedicle of thoracic vertebrae were measured. Then, the transverse pedicle angle of thoracic vertebrae is measured using protractor. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: The mean transverse pedicle width of T9, T10, T11, and T12 thoracic vertebra was 4.78 mm, 5.87 mm, 6.23 mm, and 6.94 mm, respectively. The mean pedicle height of T9, T10, T11, and T12 thoracic vertebra was 10.22 mm, 11.36 mm, 12.45 mm, and 13.17 mm, respectively. The mean transverse pedicle angle of T9, T10, T11, and T12 thoracic vertebra was 5.1°, 4.5°, −2.6°, and −2.9°, respectively. Conclusion: The major importance for the width, height, and angle of the pedicle of thoracic vertebrae is mainly for the implant surgeries required for fracture of thoracic bone or any other related damage to the pedicle.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004157
Title: Osteometric analysis of dry human clavicle with reference to rhomboid fossa to determine sexual dimorphism and its forensic anthropological significance
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The characteristic slightly S-shaped clavicle provides communication between the chest and the upper limb, so it plays an important role in the whole function of the shoulder girdle. For clavicle, various parameters including length, midshaft circumference, sternal end, acromial end, and rhomboid fossa have been used to identify sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The rhomboid fossa of clavicle, an area of the inferior surface of the sternal end of clavicle, could be present as an impression, tuberosity, depression, or fossa. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 40 dry human clavicle bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality will be collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. With the help of Vernier caliper, the measurements such as the length, breadth, and diameter of rhomboid fossa were measured. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: The average length of the rhomboid fossa of clavicle in male and female was 22.90 ± 1.37 and 20.08 ± 1.54, respectively. The average breadth of the rhomboid fossa of clavicle in male and female was 11.24 ± 0.92 and 10.03 ± 0.768, respectively. The average diameter of the rhomboid fossa of clavicle in male and female was 17.07 ± 0.79 and 15.05 ± 0.48, respectively. Conclusion: Rhomboid fossae were more common in males (36% left and 31% right) than in females (3% left and 8% right). Rhomboid fossa on the right clavicle is indicative of a male clavicle with 81.7%; a fossa on the left clavicular bone is indicative of a male with 92.2% probability.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004158
Title: Estimation of orbital index as a measure of craniofacial complex – A morphometric study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The human orbit is an intricate anatomical structure which lodges the eyeball. The orbital cavity is shaped like an inverted cone made up of four walls. Each of its four bony walls has its own unique features and is perforated by a number of fissures and foramina that carry important nerves and blood vessels. The objective of the study is to provide normal reference values of orbital parameters and to measure the orbital index (OI) using morphometry. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 dry human skull bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality were collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. In both the right and left orbital cavity, the measurements such as the orbital height and orbital width are measured and the OI was calculated. All these measurements are taken by digital Vernier caliper. All the observed data will be analyzed statistically. Results: The mean value of orbital height was 37.13 mm in males and 35.18 mm in females. The mean value of orbital breadth was 44.94 mm in males and 42.98 mm in females. The calculated OI in male was 82.62 and in female, it was 81.85. The mean value of cranial breadth was 122.45 mm in males and 127.57 mm in females. The mean value of cranial length was 166.13 mm in males and 171.24 mm in females. Moreover, the calculated cranial index in male was 73.70 and in female, it was 74.49. Conclusion: This study provides useful baseline orbital morphometric data of the populations, which are very important during maxillofacial, neurosurgeries, and in the plastic surgery and also in the design of many eye protective equipment and other materialistic purposes. Furthermore, these parameters, especially OI, can be used during forensic and anthropological investigation of unknown individuals for determining gender, age, ethnicity, etc.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004159
Title: Craniometric predictors for sexual dimorphism in South Indian population using cranial index on dry human skulls
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Human skull is shown to exhibit the numerous sexually dimorphic traits. Skull is the most preferred bone for sexual dimorphism as it resists decomposition, mutilation, and even fire. Estimation of sex of the skull is an essential element of all medical-legal investigation. Sexing accuracy of skeleton varies for different bones and also in different population group. Human skull is one of the most reliable bones for sex differentiation. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 70 unknown skulls obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. The craniometric measurements such as cranial length, cranial breadth, and cranial index were analyzed using a spreading caliper to the nearest millimeter. Results: Occurrence of various types of head shapes in the present study was analyzed. The dolichocephalic type was the highest and mesocephalic was the lowest. The mean cephalic index was 71.05. Correlation analysis was made to determine the significance of association between cephalic index and cranial volume and between cephalic index and other cranial measurements. Conclusion: The result of the present study showed slightly higher cranial, nasal, and gnathic indices of male than female skulls. However, the differences were not significant, indicating less sexual dimorphism in this study. Knowledge of craniometric indices will be helpful for forensic experts with respect to the classification of races and sexes and for clinical and research purpose.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004160
Title: Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of root canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors in Chennai population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Dental Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the root canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in Chennai population-based on Vertucci classification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 40 CBCT scans of bilateral mandibular sides of patients of both sexes and ranging in the age of 18–49 years. The CBCT was collected from the Department of Oral Radiology, Saveetha Dental College. The inclusion criteria of this present study are as follows: (i) No obvious dental caries, (ii) fully formed root canal apices without resorption or calcification, (iii) absence of root canal fillings, posts, and crown restoration, (iv) CBCT images of good quality, and (v) CBCT images which included the desired area of interest. The teeth involved were investigated for the number of roots, number of root canal per tooth, and root canal pattern (Vertucci 1984). Results: All the permanent mandibular incisors have a single root. Majority of the incisors had single canal. Prevalence of second canal was found in 7.5% of mandibular central incisors and 13.7% of mandibular lateral incisors. According to gender, 12.1% of mandibular incisors of males and 9.9% of mandibular incisors of females had two canals. Vertucci Type I (55.2%) was the most commonly seen root canal configuration in central incisors, followed by Type III (28.4%), Type V (9%), Type IV (4.5%), and Type II (3%). In case of lateral incisors, the most common was Type I (57.5%), followed by Type III (22.5%), Type IV (8.8%), Type V (6.3%), and type II (5%). Conclusion: Vertucci Type I was the most common configuration in the mandibular incisors of Chennai population. Type II was the least common configuration. Incidence of two canals is higher in males than females and higher in mandibular lateral incisors than in mandibular central incisors. Proper attention should be given to the detection of a second canal during root canal treatment. CBCT provides an excellent imaging modality for detection of different canal configurations of mandibular incisors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004161
Title: Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescent school children in Malaysia
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Dental Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to find out the prevalence of malocclusion in Malaysian adolescents aged 13–17 years. Materials and Methods: A sample of 100 adolescent school children in Malaysia, both male and female, with the age ranging from 13 to 17 years was randomly selected for a dental examination. None of the subjects had previous orthodontic treatment, and all had a permanent dentition. The inclusion criteria of the study include: (i) No previous orthodontic treatment done, (ii) permanent dentition present with no remaining deciduous teeth, and (iii) all had their first permanent molars. A full clinical examination was carried out using mouth mirror and light to evaluate the anteroposterior molar relationship, crowding, overjet, overbite, crossbite, and midline diastema. Results: About 93% of the population had malocclusion out of which 80% had Class I, 8% had Class II, and 12% had Class III malocclusion. Class II occlusion was most prevalent in Indians (17.4%) and Class III occlusion had a higher prevalence in Chinese (17.9%) and Malays (12.2%). Frequency of crowding was 70% and had increased prevalence in Malays (77.6%). Normal overjet and overbite were seen in 44% and 50% of subjects, respectively. About 6% of the subjects had midline diastema. Crossbite was seen in 32% of the subjects. Conclusion: Malocclusion is a widespread phenomenon among Malaysian adolescents. Prevalence of Class II occlusion was more prevalent among Indians, whereas Class III was seen mostly in Malays and Chinese. Crowding was the most common feature seen in all three ethnic groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004162
Title: Dehydrants used in microwave tissue processing
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Tissue processing is a method in which the tissues are prepared by paraffin embedding for the sectioning of the tissue. Microwave tissue processing is a method in which the heat produced by incident energy from the penetrative properties of the microwaves is used for tissue processing. Dehydration is a step in tissue processing in which water inside the tissue is replaced by either alcohol or any substitute. The aim of this study was to systematically review the dehydrants used in microwave tissue processing in histopathology. Methods: Articles which included microwave tissue processing were collected from PUBMED, EMBASE, GOOGLE SEARCH, COCHRANE, and manual search for the past 5 years (2013–2017). A total of 12 relevant articles were selected for this systematic review. The sample size used for this systematic review was 2010, 980 tissues processed by conventional method were compared to 1030 tissues processed by microwave tissue processing. Results: About 66.6% of the studies used isopropyl alcohol as dehydrant either alone or in combination with other dehydrants in microwave tissue processing. 25% of the studies used only isopropyl alcohol for dehydration, 16.6% used combination of isopropyl alcohol and acetone, 8.3% used a combination of methanol and isopropyl alcohol, 16.6% used both ethanol and isopropyl alcohol, and 33.3% used only ethanol as dehydrant in microwave tissue processing. Conclusion: Either isopropyl alcohol or a combination of isopropyl alcohol with other dehydrants is recommended in microwave tissue processing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004163
Title: Evaluation patients satisfaction rate of health care and nursing services at surgical ward in Ali-Ebne Abitaleb Hospital (2015)
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
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Background: Patients satisfaction with health services is one of five indicators of health-care quality form WHO viewpoint. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluation of patients’ satisfaction rate of health care and nursing services in Ali-Ebne Abitaleb Hospital Surgery Department 2015. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on 200 patients admitted in the surgery ward of Ali-Ebne-Abitale Hospital. Data were collected using information forms including Dr. Mahdavi standard questionnaire of patients’ satisfaction and analyzed using SPSS v.22. Results: In this study, 200 patients (50 males and 150 females) were evaluated. The mean satisfaction rate in general surgery ward and women surgery ward and in gynecology ward was 69.48 ± 8.17 and 70.88 ± 6.49 and 70.65 ± 6.26, respectively (P = 0.462). There was not a significant correlation between satisfaction rate and patients’ age, level of education, marital status, and the number of admission days. Conclusions: In overall, this study showed that the patients’ satisfaction with medical and nursing services and amenities is at a favorable level.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004164
Title: Quantitative and qualitative morphometry of hip bone for determining sex
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study the morphometry of hip bone. Background: The hip bone is an ideal bone for sex determination because it reflects the general difference between two sexes providing high accuracy level of sex determination. This study would be helpful for anthropologists, orthopedicians, forensic experts, and anatomists. Materials and Methods: For the study, a random of 50 dry hip bones (of which 25 were male and 25 were female) was used to understand the morphometry of the hip bone. This study adopted t-test for two independent means for statistical analysis with P < 0.05 (95%). Results: There is a significant difference between male and female hip bone which would be used for sex determination. Conclusion: The present study, thus, concluded that the morphometry of hip bone is of utmost importance in the field of anthropology, forensic medicine, and surgical procedures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004165
Title: Morphometry of stylomastoid foramen and its clinical applications
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim was to study the morphometry of stylomastoid foramen and its location with respect to nearby anatomical landmarks. Introduction: The stylomastoid foramen is a rounded opening on the inferior surface of the temporal bone, between the base of styloid and the mastoid process of the temporal bone, which transmits the facial nerve. Hence, this study is to determine the precise location of stylomastoid foramen. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 dry human skulls were studied to locate the position of the center of stylomastoid foramen with respect to tip and anterior border of the mastoid process, jugular foramen, and styloid process. Results and Discussion: The position of stylomastoid foramen with respect to XY axis for the left side and right side is 50% along and 65% anterior for skulls, respectively. However, the previous study shows anteriorly for 83.15% of skulls. Moreover, the distance for the left side was higher than that of the right side, respectively, for all parameters. Moreover, the results were not significant at P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study makes possible the identification of the exact position of stylomastoid foramen and its applications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004167
Title: Review on correlation of different risk factors and global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease staging in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in Baghdad: Retrospective study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacy, Baghdad College of Medical Sciences, Baghdad, Iraq
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Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes a major cause of acute disease risk and has a significant socioeconomic effect worldwide. Risk for COPD is associated with an interaction between genetic factors and many distinct exposures to the environmental agents, which may also be impacted by the comorbid disease. In relation to indoor air and outdoor pollutants, tobacco smoke appears the main cause of COPD. Age increases the incidence of COPD, morbidity, and mortality. Then, the lung role, which hits its greatest peak in young adults, starts to decline during the fifth and fourth decades of existence. Gender’s role in COPD’s development and progression is questionable and has been the focus of many studies. A popular clinical observation is the association between low body mass index (BMI) and bad prognosis of patients with COPD and differs with various COPD phases. In the presence of not fully reversible airflow restriction, standardized spirometric tests should always confirm the clinical diagnosis. Aim: Although COPD is one of the leading causes of death, studies and data are very restricted in the region, especially Iraq. In this study, we report statistical information on risk variables for COPD patients, for example, age, gender, smoking status, and BMI in accordance with the global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) stages in Baghdad, Iraq, using spirometry information to determine any relationship between these parameters and obstruction severity. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective study among 310 patients of COPD, attended Baghdad teaching hospital and Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital from October 1, 2018, to March 31, 2019. In COPD patients, we categorized the severity of obstruction by spirometry according to GOLD staging. Status of smoking, BMI, gender, and age of all the patients was recorded. The statistical significance of an association between factors and groups was evaluated using one-way ANOVA test, Pearson’s Chi-square test of independence to contrast ratios between groups. For the relationship between BMI and COPD stage, we used the bivariate correlation of Pearson. Results: Female mean age was 69.40 (SD ± 10.154) years and males was 68.64 (SD ± 10.486) years. The maximum number of the patients was more than 50 years of age, most common age group >74 years old (38.4%) while age groups of 55–64 and 65–74 showed a moderate rate of disease incidence. The high incidence of COPD were in patients with stage I (47.42%), moderate in stage II (23.55%) and stage III (21.29%), but lower incidence of stage IV (7.74%). The result showed that most COPD patients are current smokers while only two male patients with COPD were non-smokers suggested that factors other than smoking exposure might also be involved in COPD. One-way ANOVA found that the severity of the disease increases with the age of the patients which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Chi-square test indicated that smoking status did not affect the stage of obstruction determined by post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%) predicted which is statistically not significant (P < 0.05). Applying the Pearson correlation test, we found that BMI and post FEV1% predicted were negatively correlated (r = −0.212, P < 0.01). One-way ANOVA showed that BMI of the patients was decreasing with increasing severity of the disease (GOLD), and it was statistically significant (F = 19.725, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of man is higher than women and most common age group of >74 years old. The high incidence of COPD were in patients with stage I whereas factors other than smoking exposure might also be involved in COPD. Smoking status did not affect the stage of obstruction. There was a positive correlation between severity of airway obstruction and BMI in COPD patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004168
Title: Intranasal immunization with the 54 kDa hemagglutinin pili protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae that increase the expression of β‑defensin‑2
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jember, Sumbersari, Jember Regency, East Java 68121, Indonesia
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Introduction: This study aimed to determine the ability of intranasal immunization with 54 kDa pili proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae to improve the expression of β‑defensin‑2 through the upregulation of interleukin (IL)‑17A and IL‑22 expression. Materials and Methods: Purified 54 kDa pili proteins were used as an antigen in immunized Wistar rats intranasally. Wistar strain (female) mice, aged 12–16 weeks, were divided into two groups. Control, Group 1 treatment with 40 mL of phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS) containing adjuvants alone, namely, 2 μg cholera toxin B, and Group 2 with 40 μL of PBS containing the combined antigen‑adjuvant mucosal immune responses identified from nasal washing inspection of Wistar rats concentrated on IL‑17A, IL‑22, and β‑defensin‑2 indicators. Results: The results presented here indicate that mice immunized with combined antigen‑adjuvant therapy had higher levels of IL‑17A, IL‑22, and β‑defensin‑2 than the other groups. Analysis of variance testing demonstrated that there were significant differences between mice immunized with a combined antigen‑adjuvant regime compared to the other groups. Pearson correlation testing indicated there is a strong positive relationship between concentrations of IL‑17A and β‑defensin 2, and a weakly positive correlation between IL‑22 levels and β‑defensin 2. As well, between IL‑17A and IL‑22 versus β‑defensin 2, there was a moderately positive relationship. Conclusion: The intranasal immunization with 54 kDa hemagglutinin pili proteins of S. pneumoniae enhanced the expression of β‑defensin‑2

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004169
Title: The relationship between walking track analysis and histopathology in nervus ischiadicus-injured Sprague-Dawley rat
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran 65145, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
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Objective: Several studies revealed that amniotic membrane is able to protect the injured nerve from its surrounding tissue. It has a positive effect on nerve regeneration due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and anti-adhesion effect. This study will analyze the relationship of a functional test and histopathology analysis on peripheral nerve injury after primary stitching, ASCs treatment, and amniotic membrane dressing. Materials and Methods: 36 Sprague-Dawley rats used in this research divided into treatment and control group. The nervus ischiadicus from animal models were lacerated using scalpel (no. 11) and then primary sutured. The treatment group was treated using ASCs and covered with the freeze-dried amniotic membrane. The control group received an only primary suture. Results: Histopathology evaluation shows a significant decrease in inflammation reaction and fibrosis formation 5 days after surgery and treated with ASCs with amniotic membrane dressing. Walking track analysis shows significant improvement in clinical function after a week treatment. Conclusion: This study reveals ASCs treatment and amniotic membrane dressing at the wound area can heal the functional properties of injured nerve also decrease inflammation reaction and fibrosis formation, which stimulate nerve regeneration in the injured area.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004170
Title: Antimicrobial activity of Piper betle L. against some mastitis disease bacteria at different temperatures and extraction times
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, University of Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran Malang, Ketawanggede, Kec. Lowokwaru, Kota Malang, Jawa Timur 65145, Indonesia
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Aim: The present study aims to detect the antimicrobial activity of Piper betle L. at different extraction temperatures against mastitis bacteria. Material and Method: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli from mastitis-infected milk have been cultured and used in this experiment. All extractions were carried out using the maceration method, set at 20°C, 40°C, 60°C, and 80°C. Each temperature boiled at three various times: 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively. Result and Discussion: The bacterial inhibition effect of green P. betle leaf extract at various concentrations gave significant results (P < 0.05). The higher concentration, the higher the resulting inhibition of bacteria. The effect of antimicrobial activity for S. aureus is higher than S. agalactiae and E. coli. Green P. betle L. extract (with solvent evaporation) has a similar ability to 30% iodip, while green P. betle L. extract (without solvent evaporation) produces an optimum inhibition zone at a boiling temperature of 60°C for 120 min. Green P. betle L. extracts stored at refrigerator temperature result in a longer usage period of inhibitory power compared to extracts stored at room temperature. Conclusion: The bacteria inhabiting the effect of green P. betle L. extract at various concentrations gave significant results (P < 0.05). The higher the concentration used, the higher the resulting inhibition of bacteria.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004171
Title: Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from buttermilk
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Arts, Commerce and Science College, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India
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Background: The presence of antibiotics in the ecosystem induces the development of an antibiotic resistance mechanism in microbial communities. Hence, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their antimicrobial properties are emerging as areas of great interest among researchers. Lactic acid bacteria in buttermilk also have a proteolytic activity and capacity to produce such bioactive peptides. Aim: Accordingly, the objectives of the present study were to synthesize AgNPs using fresh buttermilk and filtered buttermilk, characterize them, and to evaluate their antimicrobial activity. Material and Methods: AgNPs were synthesized by addition of fresh buttermilk or membrane filtered buttermilk to 1 mM silver nitrate solution. These AgNPs were characterized spectrophotometrically. Antimicrobial activity of different AgNPs was tested temporally against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Xanthomonas axonopodis.The reduction of silver ion to AgNPs was reflected in spectral data obtained using an ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. It showed an absorbance peak at 450 nm, which is specific for AgNPs. The fresh buttermilk and membrane filtered buttermilk synthesized nanoparticles exhibited inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic X. axonopodis and animal/human pathogens E. coli and S. aureus. Maximum antibacterial activity was found against X. axonopodis (20 mm). Least activity was recorded against S. aureus (8 mm). Conclusion: The present study revealed that fresh buttermilk and membrane filtered buttermilk have significant antibacterial activity against X. axonopodis, E. coli, and S. aureus. Thus, instead of using different chemicals that are very hazardous to environment, use of alternative biocontrol agents motivates cost-effective eco-friendly management of bacterial disease control in the future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004172
Title: Awareness of foot ulcers among housekeepers
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to create awareness of foot ulcers among housekeepers. Introduction: Foot ulcers are one of the main complications in diabetes mellitus, with 15% lifetime risk in all diabetic patients. The rate of lower extremity amputation among diabetic patients is 17–40 times higher than in non-diabetics. A critical triad of neuropathy, minor foot trauma, and foot deformity was found in >63% of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Peripheral vascular disease has been identified in 30% of foot ulcers. We present a comprehensive assessment and the treatment of DFUs. We also want to notify physicians not to ignore foot assessment and examinations in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: An online survey consisting of 10 questions on awareness of foot ulcers among housekeepers was prepared and distributed. Data were collected and statistically analyzed. This study involved a sample of 100 patients. The patients were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding knowledge and awareness of foot ulcers. Results: The questionnaire showed adequate validity and reliability and thus may be used by health-care practitioners and researchers to asset the knowledge of at-risk patients regarding the warning signs of foot ulcer deterioration. Patient education regarding the importance of timely treatment seeking and warning signs should be promoted. Conclusion: Awareness of foot problems among housekeepers, clinical examination and paraclinical assessment, regular foot examination, patient education, simple hygienic practices, and provision of appropriate footwear combined with prompt treatment of minor injuries can decrease ulcer occurrence by 50%.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004173
Title: Prospective liver shielding activity of marine red algae on aflatoxin-induced toxicity in rats
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Research and Development Wing, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aqueous extract of Hypnea musciformis (red algae) was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against aflatoxin- induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Materials and Methods: The liver enzyme markers such as serum glutamic- oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and non-enzymatic marker Glutathione were assessed. Further the biochemical parameters such as urea, creatinine, albumin, total bilirubin and histopathology of control and treated were evaluated for the liver protecting activity of Hypnea musciformis against aflatoxin-induced liver damage. Results: Acute toxicity studies revealed that the LD50 value is more than the dose of 5 g/kg body weight. There is an increase in liver parameters such as SGOT (423.54 ± 5.31 U/L), SGPT (590.72 ± 6.20 U/L), ALP (428.16 ± 4.12 mU/L) and total bilirubin (4.33 ± 0.28 μmol/L). The elevated levels of liver enzymes and glutathione were significantly brought down to near normal values in Hypnea musciformis with aflatoxin treated groups. Conclusion: The aflatoxin-induced cellular damage was reduced and rejuvenated through the enzymatic and biochemical parameters by Hypnea musciformis extract. This mechanism was due to the presence of active biometabolites such as polyphenols and flavonoids in the red algal extract may interfere with the free radical formation which may conclude to hepatoprotective efficacy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004174
Title: Study of bronchial pattern of goat lungs by corrosion casting
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The corrosion casting technique by using resin is usual technique to demonstrate luminal patterns of bronchus, blood vessels, etc… in life science. A corrosion cast of a lung can give a detailed study of the bronchial patterns. Corrosion cast is done using various resin solutions. The aim of the present work is to study the bronchial tree pattern of a goat lung using corrosion casting method. Materials and Methods: Deflated lungs along with intact trachea of a goat were collected from the slaughterhouse. Commercially available rubber silicone has been injected into the lungs through the trachea so that the bronchial patterns can be easily appreciable. After complete filling, the specimen is kept undisturbed for the next 24–48 h. The tissue surrounding the cast is alone removed away and washed with plain water to remove the bloodstains. Results: After dissecting out the tissues using forceps, the cast was washed in plain water. According to the observation of the specimen, it is found that the trachea is branched into the right and left primary bronchi. The secondary bronchi are further branched to form the tertiary bronchi which resemble like fine bristles. In the right lung, it is observed that before the branching of primary bronchus from the trachea, it is known as the apical bronchus supplying the apical lobe of the right lung. Conclusion: Demonstration of bronchial pattern with its various branches is not easy without a corrosion casting preparation. This study can be a valuable teaching aid and museum specimen.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004175
Title: Effect of chebulinic acid on Bcl-2 and p53 protein expression in A431 human skin cancer cells in vitro
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chebulinic acid on Bcl-2 family protein and p53 expression in A431 human skin cancer cells in vitro. Cell Culture and Treatment: The skin cancer cell line, A431 was purchased from the National Centre for Cell Sciences, Pune, India, and cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, penicillin G, and streptomycin. The cells were placed in 5% CO2 incubator and the further experiments were started after the confluency stage was attained. The cells were incubated at 37°C with the various doses of chebulinic acid (10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml) in a CO2 incubator to find out the inhibitory concentration of IC50 . Results: A431 skin cancer cell line showed a significant increase in the levels of Bcl-2, p-Bcl2, and Bcl-xL whereas decreased in the levels of p53 at the doses of 50 and 100 µg. However, an effective dose of chebulinic acid (100 µg/ml) altered the levels bring back to the normalcy. Conclusion: The anticancer potential of the chebulinic acid is mediated through the controlling of apoptotic signaling molecules such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and tumor suppressor proteins p53. Hence, this study concludes that chebulinic acid can be used as one of the potential therapeutic herbal drugs for the treatment of skin cancer. Further studies on the molecular mechanisms of the action of chebulinic acid are warranted to ascertain its potential.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004176
Title: Effectiveness of herbal and chlorhexidine mouth rinses in the prevention of post-operative complications during third molar surgery
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objectives: Post-procedural mouth rinses are used in third molar surgery to promote uneventful wound healing and to prevent post-operative complications. Normal saline rinse, chlorhexidine mouthwashes, and hydrogen peroxide diluted with saline are some of the frequently used mouth rinses to prevent post-operative complications in intraoral surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of herbal mouth rinse with chlorhexidine gluconate mouth wash in the prevention of post-operative complications during third molar surgery. Materials and Methods: In this study, 50 patients were randomly assigned to Group A (control) and Group B (test), with 25 patients in each group. Following surgical removal of impacted third molars, patients were instructed to use mouth rinse as per the groups they were allotted. All the participants were instructed to use the prescribed mouthwash from the 2nd post-operative day to the 7th post-operative day. Control group was given 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash, and test group was advised to use the commercially available herbal mouth wash. Patients were recalled on 3rd , 5th , and 7th post-operative days for review. The pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the incidence of dry socket was also assessed by clinical parameters during the recall visits. Data obtained from the two groups were statistically analyzed by mean, standard deviation, independent sample t test, and results obtained. Results: The difference in VAS scores for pain obtained between the two groups on 3rd , 5th , and 7th post-operative days was not statistically significant. The incidence of dry socket in Group A was two and Group B was one, respectively. Conclusion: Herbal mouth rinse was found to be equally effective to chlorhexidine gluconate mouth wash as an anti-inflammatory agent. It can be concluded that rinsing with herbal mouthwash may be beneficial to prevent the post-operative complications of third molar surgery including pain and dry socket.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004177
Title: Gender determination by orthopantomogram analysis of mental foramen in South Indian population – A retrospective study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Identification of sex is the most important matter in forensic examination. Mandible is used in the determination of sex as because it has many anatomical differences between the two sexes, one such structure is the mental foramen. Thus, the aim of this study is to identify the position of mental foramen with respect to lower border of mandible and to evaluate the interrelationship between mental foramen position and gender. Materials and Methods: One hundred panoramic radiographs were selected for the analysis of mental foramen. Measurements were taken bilaterally from the superior border of the foramen to the lower border of the mandible (S-L) and inferior border of the foramen to the lower border of the mandible (I-L), respectively. Measurements were taken digitally using CDSee Application Version 2.5.9.0 from S-L and I-L. The data obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The analyzed data of the study showed that the mean values of comparison of S-L as well as I-L in males and females were significantly higher in males as compared to females. The comparison of SL and IL on the right and left side in the same patient was without any significant difference. Conclusion: The results of the present study concluded a definite sexual dimorphism in the position of the mental foramen from the base of the mandible. This method can also be applied in mass disaster where the fragments of mandible are available.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004178
Title: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of one Ayurvedic medicine, Drakshadi Kashayam
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The present work deals with the gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of Drakshadi Kashayam, which is used in the treatment of Panduroga (anemia), jaundice, and diseases caused due to imbalance in Pitta (bile) consistency. Methods: Drakshadi Kashayam was bought from a standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and subjected to GC–MS analysis by standard procedures. The medicinal roles of the biomolecules indicated in the GC–MS profile were screened for their various medicinal roles using Dr. Duke’s phytochemical and ethnobotanical data and other data. Results: GC–MS profile of Drakshadi Kashayam indicated the presence of important biomolecules such as carbonic acid, pentyl phenyl ester, bisphenol C, histamine, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-, o-Methoxy-.alpha.-phenethylamine, benzenethanamine, 3,4-dimethoxy-.alpha.-methyl-, cis-Z-.alpha.-Bisabolene epoxide, and 1,3-Dimethoxy-5-(1-methyl-heptyl)-benzene which have medicinal roles supporting the efficacy of Drakshadi Kashayam as a liver tonic. Conclusions: It is concluded that Drakshadi Kashayam, which is an important Ayurvedic medicine, does contain some very important molecules showing its efficacy. Further research is required for a better understanding of the medicinal roles of this medicine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00004179
Title: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of one Ayurvedic skin oil, Eladi Kera Thailam
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: This study aims to know the types of biomolecules present in Eladi Kera Thailam and to correlate their possible medicinal roles supporting Eladi Kera Thailam’s role as medicine. Methods: Eladi Kera Thailam was bought from a standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis by standard procedures. The medicinal roles of the biomolecules indicated in the GC/MS profile were screened for their various medicinal roles using Dr. Duke’s phytochemical and ethnobotanical data and other data. Results: The presence of some important biomolecules such as dodecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, dodecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester, octadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, and dodecanoic acid, 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester does have medicinal roles which contribute to Eladi Kera Thailam as a medicine for skin ailments. Conclusions: The GC/MS profile indicated the presence of some important biomolecules which have medicinal properties contributing to the role of Eladi Kera Thailam as a skin cure medicine. The study is a step in the direction of understanding the molecular mechanism of contemporary and alternative medicines.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00004180
Title: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of one ayurvedic oil, Ksheerabala Thailam
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The present work deals with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of Ksheerabala Thailam which is an Ayurvedic oil used for the treatment of Vata disorders such as neuromuscular pains, sciatica, spondylitis, paralysis, myalgia, for nerve regeneration, cataract, earache, and headache. Materials and Methods: Ksheerabala Thailam was bought from a standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and subjected to GC–MS analysis by standard procedures. The medicinal roles of the biomolecules indicated in the GC–MS profile were screened for their various medicinal roles using Dr. Duke’s phytochemical and ethnobotanical data and other data. Results: GC–MS profile of the Ksheerabala Thailam indicated the presence of important biomolecules such as n-Hexadecanoic acid, 15-Hydroxypentadecanoic acid, Hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester, (3-Fluorophenyl)carbamic acid, 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenyl ester, Hexadecanoic acid, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-1,2-ethanediyl ester, Hexadecanoic acid, 2-(octadecyloxy)ethyl ester,.gamma.- Tocopherol, and .gamma.-Sitosterol; these molecules do have medicinal roles which relate to that of Ksheerabala Thailam. Conclusions: It is concluded that Ksheerabala Thailam, which is an important Ayurvedic medicine, does contain some very important molecules showing its efficacy. Further research is required for a better understanding of the medicinal roles of Ksheerabala Thailam.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00004181
Title: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of one ayurvedic medicine, Kutajarishtam
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The present work deals with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Kutajarishtam which is used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease, hemorrhoids, etc. Materials and Methods: Kutajarishtam was bought from a standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and subjected to GC-MS analysis by standard procedures. The medicinal roles of the biomolecules indicated in the GC-MS profile were screened for their various medicinal roles using Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and ethnobotanical data and other data. Results: GC-MS profile of Kutajarishtam indicated the presence of important biomolecules such aso-Acetyl-L-serine, 4H-Pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro- 3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, 2-Furanethanol.,beta.-ethoxy-, Acetic acid, 1-(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethyl)-3-methoxymethoxy-2- methyl-propyl ester and Cyclohexan-1,4,5-triol-3-one-1-carboxylic acid which have medicinal roles which correlated well with that of Kutajarishtam. Conclusions: It is concluded that Kutajarishtam, which is an important Ayurvedic medicine, contains some very important molecules showing its efficacy. Further research is required for a better understanding of the medicinal roles of this medicine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004182
Title: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of one Ayurvedic antiobesity medicine, Lohasava
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The present study deals with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of an anti-obesity Ayurvedic medicine, Lohasava. Methods: Lohasava was bought from a standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and subjected to GC–MS analysis by standard procedures. The medicinal roles of the biomolecules indicated in the GC–MS profile were screened for their various medicinal roles using Dr. Duke’s phytochemical and ethno-botanical data and other data. Results: The GC–MS profile of Lohasava indicated the presence of important biomolecules such as butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-, ethyl ester, phenylethyl alcohol, ethyl hydrogen succinate, thymol, 4-hydroxy-2-methylacetophenone, hydrocinnamic acid, 2,6-dimethoxyphenyl- beta-phenylpropionate, bisphenol C, benzeneethanamine, 2,5-dimethoxy-alpha.,4-dimethyl-and piperine. Conclusions: It is concluded that Lohasava does have a scientific efficacy toward its claimed role as a medicine in Ayurveda. Further research is required for a better understanding of the medicinal roles of Lohasava.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00004183
Title: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of one ayurvedic oil, anu thailam
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Anuthailam, an Ayurvedic oil used for the treatment of diseases related to the brain, nose, sinus, eyes, head, neck, shoulders, and arms. Anuthailam is subjected to Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis to understand the molecules present therein. Materials and Methods: Anuthailam was bought from a standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and subjected to GC-MS analysis by the standard procedures. The medicinal roles of the biomolecules indicated in the GC-MS profile were screened for their various medicinal roles using Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and ethno- botanical data and other data. Results: GC-MS profile of the Anuthailam indicated the presence of important biomolecules such as 15-Hydroxypentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester, trans-13-Octadecenoic acid, 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester, 1-Heptatriacotanol.,gamma.-Tocopherol, (3-Fluorophenyl)carbamic acid, 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenyl ester, Stigmasterol, Hexadecanoic acid, 1-(hydroxymethyl)- 1,2-ethanediyl ester, etc. Conclusions: It is concluded that Anuthailam, does have a scientific efficacy toward its claimed role as a medicine in Ayurveda. Further research is required for a better understanding of the medicinal roles of Anuthailam.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00004184
Title: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of one Ayurvedic oil, Triphaladi Thailam
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The present study deals with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of an Ayurvedic oil Triphaladi Thailam, which is used to treat spilt hair, headache, sinusitis, and rhinitis and also for diseases related to neck, eyes, ear, and throat and to understand the molecular roles of this medicine. Methods: Triphaladi Thailam was bought from a standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and subjected to GC–MS analysis by standard procedures. The medicinal roles of the biomolecules indicated in the GC–MS profile were screened for their various medicinal roles using Dr. Duke’s phytochemical and ethnobotanical data and other data. Results: GC–MS profile of the Triphala Rasayana indicated the presence of important biomolecules such as 2-[4-methyl-6-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)hexa-1,3,5-, á-Sitosterol, 1-Monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether, 1H-2,8a-Methanocyclopenta[a]cyclopropa[e]cyclodecen-11-one, and oleic acid. Conclusions: It is concluded that Triphala, which an age-old multipurpose folklore medicine does have a scientific efficacy. Further research is required for a better understanding of the medicinal roles of Triphaladi Thailam.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004185
Title: Isolation and study of antibiotic resistance pattern in Enterococcus faecalis isolated from endodontic infections
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to isolate and study of antibiotic resistance pattern of Enterococcus faecalis in root canal treated patients. Background: E. faecalis is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic or non-hemolytic bacterium in the genus Enterococcus. Enterococci are considered as one of the major causes of endodontic infections and acquired infections from the community. With the discovery of antibiotic agents and understanding of the microbiological basis of disease, infection became a treatable disease with remarkable results. Materials and Methods: Sample will be collected from patients undergoing for endodontic treatment and will be cultured for E. faecalis. Results: Of 20 samples collected from endodontic infections, E. faecalis was isolated in 12 samples. Antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out with amoxicillin, gentamicin, and ampicillin including vancomycin. Conclusion: Among the strains, we isolated none of the strains resistance to vancomycin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004186
Title: Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of herbal mouthwash versus commercially available mouthwash 2% chlorhexidine
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash has earned eponym of the gold standard to treat and prevent periodontal disease. However, it has been reported to have local side effects on long-term use. In spite of various commercially available anticaries agents, the search for an effective herbal antimicrobial mouthwash has continued. Aim: The aim of the study was to do a comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of herbal mouthwash with commercially available mouthwash 2% chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strain used was Enterococcus faecalis. Agar plate dilution technique was followed. Mueller-Hinton agar was prepared with different concentrations of the mouthwash (250 µl, 500 µl, 1000 µl, and 2000 µl) and the plates were allowed to set. Lawn culture of E. faecalis compared to 0.5 McFarland standard was made on the Mueller-Hinton agar plates. The plates were incubated at 37°C overnight and the bacterial growth was recorded as the number of colony-forming units. Results: The results were analyzed by comparing the antimicrobial efficacy of the extracts of herbal mouthwash and commercially available mouthwashes. The extracts of the herbal products exhibited less antimicrobial efficacy compared to the commercially available chlorhexidine mouthwash. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine gluconate has a very good effect against E. faecalis. In higher concentrations, it shows no bacterial growth. Therefore, in comparison to the herbal mouthwash, chlorhexidine remains as a gold standard mouthwash.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004187
Title: Natural science for caries control
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental caries is still an existing challenge worldwide and continues to be the most prevalent of all oral infectious diseases. Mutans streptococci have been identified as the causative organism for dental caries as there is ample evidence to support the same, and the elimination or reduction of such pathogenic bacteria is beneficial in controlling dental caries. The primary goal is hence directed at reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria which can be achieved by the addition of an antimicrobial mouth rinse to daily oral hygiene regimens. An ideal antimicrobial mouth rinse must be effective, act rapidly, should not cause any discomfort, be economical, and possess substantivity. In accordance with the existing mouth rinses in which the effectiveness has been proved frequently, comes with a set of drawbacks which cannot be overlooked. Hence, natural alternatives have been focused on the need of the hour. Natural products have been proven to be safe, consisting of biologically active compounds which may have potential therapeutic uses in dentistry. This review is to summarize and highlight the coexistence of nature and science on the prevention of dental caries and also to shed light on the demineralization-remineralization effects of various natural products such as Galla Chinensis, grape seed extracts (GSE), and Hesperidin on initial white spot lesions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004188
Title: Evaluation of thrombocytopenia in dengue patients at a tertiary care center
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of   Pathology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Dengue is one of the most prevalent mosquito-borne diseases in recent times, which has increased 30 fold in the past five decades. There are four serotypes of dengue virus and transmission to humans is by female anopheles mosquito. The clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic to the most serious manifestation such as dengue hemorrhagic fever/ dengue shock syndrome which may be fatal in 40%–50% of untreated patients. Thrombocytopenia is the hallmark of dengue infection (DENV), which may sometimes lead to life- threatening complications. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate thrombocytopenia in DENV and comparing frequencies between the different age groups and clinical forms to predict the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted for 10 months at Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chromepet, Chennai. A total of 100 serologically positive cases were evaluated with reference to clinical presentation and laboratory framework. Results: Majority of cases were males and in the age group of 15–30 years. Fever is the predominant symptom in all cases. The severity of the infection can be evaluated from the results and can help by enabling the adaptation of the therapeutic conduct to the needs of individual patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004189
Title: Awareness of aerosol contamination in dental chair
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to conduct a survey on the awareness of aerosol contamination in dental clinics among doctors and patients. Background: Aerosol and splatter are a greater concern in dentistry because of possible transmission of infectious agents and their potential effects on the health of patients and dental personnel. These airborne particles consist of debris and microorganisms propelled into the air from the oral cavities of the many people. These particles range from harmless to highly infectious. Materials and Methods: It is a questionnaire-based study. The survey would be conducted among 100 dental clinicians and patients. The questionnaire would be circulated, and the data would be collected and statistically analyzed. The survey would be conducted through survey planet. Results and Discussion: About 95% of the people are well aware of the aerosol contamination prevalent in dental clinics. However, most of them are still unaware of the ways to control it. Prevention is always better than cure, so it is important to educate people about the preventive measures. It is clear from the survey that about 97% of the dental practitioners are well aware of the very basic precautions needed in controlling the contaminations prevalent in clinics. Wearing a headcap, gloves, and face mask is like the basic duties of a doctor protecting the patients as well as themselves from the spread of infections. About 96% of the dentists clean their working stations and instrument tray before every single patient which is a very good thing. Uncleaned stations and trays may contain oral pathogens, aerosols, and splatters, and the next patient entering the clinic becomes prey for all these microbes and becomes highly susceptible to nosocomial infections. About 96% of people believe that immunization helps preventing any spread of infections through aerosols. It is a must for the doctors to be immunized and safe as they are susceptible to various nosocomial infections. Conclusion: About 95% of dental practitioners are aware about the contagious aerosol contamination in dental clinics, and they use precautions such as antiseptic mouthwash, rubber dam, and high-volume suction.