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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004328
Title: Role of rebamipide in the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcer – A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a recurrent inflammatory condition characterized by painful, multiple ulcers in the oral mucosa. Rebamipide is a gastroprotective agent which is used to treat many inflammatory diseases. A number of clinical trials were done using rebamipide on recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAUs). Thus, this systematic review aimed to analyze the existing literature on the role of rebamipide in the treatment of RAU. Materials and Methods: The following electronic databases were searched, namely, PubMed (Mesh), Cochrane Library, and Wiley online library using keywords rebamipide and RAU. The articles were screened on the basis of title and abstract. Full text was then procured for the relevant articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. For each study, the following data were extracted: Authors, study design, description of participants (sample size, mean age), length of study, drug dosage, and main outcome. Results: The initial search yielded a total of 31 studies, of which 25 articles were excluded. The full texts of the remaining six articles were found and thoroughly read and assessed. Rebamipide has shown to have a reduction in the pain score, ulcer count, ulcer size, and faster healing for RAU in all the six articles. Rebamipide has proven to be more superior when compared to other drugs with no side effects and minimal recurrence. Conclusion: This systematic review has proven the demand for future clinical trials to assess the use of rebamipide in treating RAU. Based on the above six articles, rebamipide has proven to benefit patients who are suffering from RAU. Further, clinical trials should be conducted with a larger sample size for better understanding about the drug, rebamipide.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004295
Title: In vitro cytotoxic effects of copper nanoparticles synthesized from avocado seed extract
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aims and Objectives: The present work mainly deals with the study pertaining to the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using avocado. The CuNPs were synthesized using a rapid, single-step, and completely green synthetic method. Materials and Methods: The synthesized CuNPs were characterized using ultraviolet- visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, from 300 nm to 700 nm wavelength. Results: In the UV-Vis spectrum, a single, strong, and broad surface plasmon resonance peak was observed at 520 nm that confirmed the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. Conclusion: The green synthesized method is convenient, eco-friendly and can be applied in various applications and the use of avocado has added advantages that the plant has many medicinal properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004275
Title: Knowledge and awareness of recent advances in implants among students studying in a private dental college
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of dental undergraduate students regarding recent advances in implants. Objective: The main objective of this study is to assess the knowledge of dental undergraduate students regarding recent advances in implantology. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire will be given to 100 dental students comprising questions to evaluate the knowledge of recent advances in implants. The questionnaire will be administered through the SurveyPlanet app and results will be statistically analyzed. Results: About 100% of the respondents were aware of dental implant as a treatment option and that dental implants can be used to support dentures after fabrication, they were also aware that alveolar ridge length and width, interarch distance, and placing the right implant based on the indications play a major role in the success of implant. About 81% of the respondents were aware of the absolute contraindications for implant placement. About 89% of the respondents were aware of the additive and subtractive surface modifications of implants. About 17% of the respondents were aware of pterygoid implants which are indicated in cases of deficient bone in posteriors and in case of direct sinus lift. About 12% of the respondents were aware of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implants which use PEEK and are designed using CADCAM. About 6% of the respondents were aware of Roxolid implants which use an alloy of 15% zirconia and 85% titanium which show an increased mechanical strength. About 11% of the respondents were aware of anatomic root form implants which mimic the shape of the root. About 4% of the respondents were aware of porous tantalum trabecular material (PTTM) implants which use PTTM along with titanium and are used in cases of low bone density. Conclusion: This survey shows that dental students who took the survey have adequate basic knowledge of the implants but lacked knowledge of recent advances in implants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004274
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of pediatricians regarding pediatric liquid management
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Pediatricians have the opportunity to influence the oral health of children as they are the first health professionals to come in contact with infants and young children. They are in an ideal position to influence the supply and use of pediatric medicines. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pediatricians regarding pediatric liquid medicaments (PLMs) and its effect on dental health. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 16 multiple choice questions was prepared based on sugar-containing PLMs and sugar-free PLM using online software. This study was conducted online which included 100 participants who were practioners working in clinics and hospitals. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: A total number of 100 pediatricians participated in this study. Almost 42% of them considered age and bodyweight of the child, 42% of them considered cost of the medicine, and 15% of them considered pharmaceutical company to be relevant while prescribing. Nearly 88% of pediatricians knew that the PLM was sweet in nature. About 67% of pediatricians stated that pH of PLM is responsible for deleterious effect on teeth. About 72% of pediatricians were aware of hidden sugars present in PLM. Only 48% of pediatricians were aware of availability of sugar-free medicine. About 70% of pediatricians were of the opinion that sugar-free medicine is not as sweet as sugar-containing medicines and is more expensive (65%). Conclusion: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of pediatricians regarding PLMs and its effect on dental health were not satisfactory.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004273
Title: Space maintainer – A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Tamil Nadu, India
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Premature loss of primary teeth can result in the loss of arch length, leading to malocclusion. Early interception and prevention of malocclusion in deciduous and early mixed dentition prevents the development of pronounced anomalies in the late mixed dentition and permanent dentition, thereby, reducing or eliminating the need for later comprehensive orthodontic treatment. Space maintenance forms an integral part of preventive and interceptive orthodontics. This article has reviewed and summarized some of the variables to be considered when effecting space control, the factors that dictate appliance selection, the indications, and use of space maintainers in primary and mixed dentitions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004272
Title: Pharmacological evaluation of green chilli induced diabetes
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Asian Institute of Medicine Science and Technology, 08100 Bedong, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia
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Background: Green chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var frutescens) is well-known as a spice used in many cuisines across the world. Capsaicin, as the pharmacologically active component of chili, has been shown to have antioxidant, local analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects based on many studies conducted on the red chili pepper. However, there are limited data regarding the green chili and controversy on defective insulin secretion caused by capsaicin, which in turn may result in diabetes, a metabolic disorder resulting from impaired insulin action or secretion. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the potential diabetogenic effect of ethanolic extract of Capsicum frutescens (EECF) or known as green chili in normal healthy rats. Materials and Methods: Extraction with ethanol solvent was conducted on the fruits of C. frutescens and used as experimental diets in rats for pharmacological evaluation. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Normal control rats were untreated and had normal standard diet. Diabetes was induced experimentally in overnight fasted rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at dose of 77 mg/kg body weight (BW). Another two groups of rats were orally administered with EECF in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution but at different doses, i.e., 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg for consecutive 3 weeks. The blood glucose level (BGL) of all the rats was monitored with the help of glucometer and blood collected from tail vein. At the end of 21st day, blood was drawn from retro-orbital plexus in all groups of rats and centrifuged to obtain the blood serum for biochemical analysis. The rats were sacrificed on the same day and organ (pancreas) was taken for histopathological analysis. Result: Significant reduction in BW was noticed in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The EECF-treated rats showed inhibition of BW gain because of no marked change in BW throughout the study. Severe hyperglycemia occurred in the rats after STZ injection, in contrast to the lower BGL in rats treated with EECF, in which the BGL below 63.0 mg/dL to be considered hypoglycemia. High-dose EECF caused further reduction in BGL. The pancreatic acinar lining cells appeared mildly swollen with an increase in granularity. Elevated activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and urea were seen in STZ- and EECF-treated rats, indicating some degree of damage to the liver and kidney. The high-dose EECF treated rats had the highest level of these biochemical markers, followed by low-dose EECF and STZ-treated rats. Conclusion: Green chili or EECF contributed to the hypoglycemic effect in normal healthy rats but might induce hepatocellular damage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004270
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of fixed partial denture maintenance among the undergraduate
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding fixed partial denture (FPD) among the undergraduate. Introduction: Dental defects have caused an adverse effect on patient’s satisfaction with their prosthesis in function and esthetics. They suffer from different self-image which affects their emotional stability and confidence. Patients with poor oral hygiene have greater plaque accumulation in the gingival sulcus leading to gingivitis, and moreover plaque accumulates beneath the pontics rather than in the buccal or lingual surfaces leading to caries formation. Even with the best design of the pontic, application of the oral hygiene interventions is necessary for the removal of bacterial plaque and to prevent inflammation of the adjacent tissues. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in a dental college in Chennai. Samples were collected on a random basis. A sample of 100 students were asked to fill the questionnaire with conscious. Samples included students of 3rd year, final year, and interns and students other than those criteria were excluded from the study. The data were collected and were statistically analyzed. Results: It was found that 35% of the patients use interdental aids and 65% of the patients fail to use interdental aids. On analyzing the use of desensitizing toothpaste, it is found that 58% of the patients use desensitizing toothpaste and 42% of them do not use. About 74% of the students give post-operative instructions to their patients, whereas 26% of the students fail to give. About 71% of the patients follow post-operative instructions and 39% of the patients are careless about their hygiene and do not follow. Conclusion: Patients should be given more awareness about FPD maintenance in the form of models, videos, demonstrations, etc. They should also be told about the importance of oral hygiene and dangerous aspects of not maintaining oral hygiene and about the failure of the treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004271
Title: Correlation of dental age, skeletal age, and chronological age among children aged 7–16 years: A retrospective study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Growth can be one of the most uncertain variations, but understanding the same is very important for diagnosis and treatment planning. Skeletal age and dental age have been used to determine a child’s developmental age. Several researchers have evaluated the association between dental and skeletal maturity with chronologic age on different population. Aim: This study aims to find the correlation between the dental age, skeletal age, and chronological age among children aged 7–16 years of age. Materials and Methods: A total samples of 27 participants distributed among both genders in the age group of 7–16 years were selected. Skeletal age was estimated using cephalogram and dental age was measured using Demirijan’s method. Results: There was a significant relationship seen between the males and females in relation to chronological age, dental age, and skeletal age. P value was found out to be <0.001. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed correlation with statistical significance (P < 0.01) between dental and skeletal ages among all the subjects and females attained maturity earlier than males in the present study population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004276
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and perception of trabecular implants among dental students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Newer implant biomaterials such as trabecular implants have been introduced that have provided and proven to be a better replacement for titanium. Materials and Methods: The study was carried among 100 UG and PG students and staffs in Saveetha Dental College. Each student and staff were asked to independently fill the survey which consisted of questions related trabecular implants and its properties. Results: The extent to how much dental students and dental practitioners know about trabecular implants being used as new implant biomaterial in recent years progressively increases from dental practitioners to postgraduates then when compared to the final years. This can be attributed to increased knowledge and exposure to the different clinical conditions and the extensive research in the same field. Conclusion: Though most of the students and staffs seem to be aware of trabecular implants , very few had an idea or the knowledge on the properties of trabecular implants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004277
Title: Characterization of silver nanoparticles using avocado extracts using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nanobiomedicine Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objectives: The present work mainly deals with the study pertaining to the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using avocado. The AgNPs were synthesized using a rapid, single-step, and completely green synthetic method. Materials and Methods: The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using various instrumental techniques such as ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM). The synthesized AgNPs were found to be spherical in shape with an average diameter of 35.6 nm. The synthesis nano practices solution is primarily characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, 3 ml of the solution is taken in cuvette and scanned in double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer from 300 nm to 700 nm wavelength. Results: In the UV-Vis spectrum; a single, strong, and broad surface plasmon resonance peak was observed at 420 nm that confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. TEM result shows 2–6 nm difference. Conclusion: The present study shows that aqueous leaves extract of avocado can be used efficiently for the synthesis of AgNPs at room temperature. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be stable at room temperature. The green-synthesized method is convenient, eco-friendly and can be applied in various applications, and the use of avocado has added advantages that the plant has many medicinal properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004278
Title: Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles prepared from amla fruit seeds
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nanobiomedicine Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Nanoparticles have exceptional physiochemical, organic, and optical attributes and are utilized as antimicrobials in various fields. They have innumerable uses including diagnosis and cure of diseases, battling against microbial contaminants, purification of air and water, cosmetics, and clothing. Recent advances include synthesis and development of nanoparticles using physical and biological means which majorly involves synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts which eliminates the laborious process of maintaining the microbial cultures. Materials and Methods: The collected fruit seeds are washed dried powdered and subjected to nanoparticles synthesis by adding silver nitrate solution to the amla extract solution. Results: The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed strong spectrophotometric absorbance around 420 nm. They also show very strong resistance against fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus niger. With an increase in the concentration of the AgNPs, the zone of inhibition also increases. Conclusion: The AgNPs were prepared using amla fruit seed extract and were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The AgNPs obtained using amla fruit seed extract show high antifungal activity and hence can be used for antifungal commercial drug production in the near future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004279
Title: Effectiveness of green tea on oral health in children
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Departmnet of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Green tea is an important source of polyphenol antioxidants. Polyphenols including epigallocatechin-3-gallate constitute the most interesting components in green tea leaves. Green tea has the potential to protect against various malignant, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. There is a growing body of evidence pointing a beneficial role of green tea and its polyphenols in oral health. Green tea protects against bacterial-induced dental caries. Tea polyphenols possess antiviral properties, believed to help in protection from viral infections. In addition, green tea polyphenols can abolish halitosis through modification of odorant sulfur components. Oral cavity oxidative stress and inflammation may be reduced in the presence of green tea polyphenols. Altogether, there is an increasing interest in the health benefits of green tea in the field of oral health. Nonetheless, there is still a need for more clinical and biological studies to support guidelines for green tea intake as part of prevention and treatment of specific oral pathologies. In this study, first, we introduced particular information about the tea, such as plant morphology, its active constituents, and medicinal supplements. Then, we described some important oral and periodontal diseases with essence of easy understanding and at the end explained documents of how green tea and its supplements could improve oral and periodontal health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004280
Title: A survey to assess the knowledge of dental practitioners on development of occlusion and eruption pattern
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge among dentists treating pediatric patients about the development of occlusion and eruption pattern in children. Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and create awareness among dental practitioners treating pediatric patients about the importance of the development of occlusion and eruption pattern in children. Background: Childhood is the mirror in which the propensities of adulthood are reflected; similarly, the type of occlusion in primary dentition predicts the occlusion of the permanent dentition. An ideal occlusion is the perfect interdigitation of the upper and lower teeth. The emergence of the primary dentition is a valuable time for the development of oral motor behavior and the acquisition of masticator skills. The clinician needs to be able to predict the influence that different treatment options will have on the occlusion and dentition when the child’s development is complete. Materials and Methods: A closed-ended questionnaire comprising 15 questions based on eruption sequence, pattern, and occlusion was given to 100 dental practitioners. Data were analyzed by computing the percentage response for each question. Results: The results show that 66% correctly responded about simian spaces. About 62% of the practitioners knew about early mesial shift. Only 36% of the clinicians responded correctly about mesial step, whereas 53% answered it as distal step. About 93% were aware of the Broadbent phenomenon/ugly duckling stage. About 70% were aware of self-correcting anomalies. About 52% knew about the sequence of eruption of permanent teeth in maxilla. Conclusion: This study concludes that most of the dental practitioners treating pediatric patients are aware of the development of occlusion and eruption patterns in pediatric patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004282
Title: Evaluation of salivary nitric oxide levels in relation to caries experience and oral hygiene in children with early childhood caries – A pilot study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary nitric oxide (NO) levels in relation to caries experience. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the salivary NO levels in relation to caries experience and oral hygiene in children with early childhood caries (ECC). Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children under the age of six were included in the study. Half of the participants (n = 10) with ECC compared to the other half without ECC. Saliva of both groups was collected and NO concentrations of both groups were determined using modified Griess reaction and NO concentrations were calculated. Results: The salivary NO concentration does not correlate with the dental status.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004283
Title: Awareness of medical emergency management in pediatric dentistry among dental undergraduates and postgraduates
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the knowledge and awareness of dental students in the management of medical emergencies in pediatric dentistry. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among dental undergraduates and postgraduates. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess the awareness of medical emergencies management in pediatric dentistry. The questionnaire was distributed through online survey. The data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: The level of awareness of emergency management was less among dental students and most of them felt less confident to manage an emergency. Most of the participants also felt the need for more training for the management of medical emergencies in pediatric dentistry. Conclusion: Dental students did not have sufficient knowledge of medical emergencies, drugs, and equipment and they expect this topic should be an integral part of their curriculum. A majority of them perceived the need for further training by means of hands-on courses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004284
Title: Knowledge, attitude and awareness in prevention of dental caries among pediatricians
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and awareness in prevention of dental caries amongst pediatricians. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey by means of a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. The questionnaire was distributed to around 150 pediatricians practicing in child specialty hospitals in Chennai. Questionnaire consisted of three parts which are used to characterize pediatricians knowledge (five questions), attitudes (five questions), practices (five questions), and barriers related to oral health screening, risk assessment, counseling, referral (two questions), etc. Results: The results were reported by summarizing responses of the 150 respondents to each of the 23 questions in the questionnaire. Among the respondents, 65% of them were male and 35% were female. Most respondents had poor knowledge and awareness to prevention of dental caries. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it may be concluded that there is a lack of oral health awareness and knowledge about pediatric dentistry and infant oral health care. To overcome this, integration between medical and dental societies and educating pediatricians about children’s oral health practices. Including dental caries topics in the medical curriculum can impart greater role in prevention of oral diseases by pediatricians. Regular dental education programs for pediatricians can be conducted. Dental articles in the medical journals regarding infant oral health care and preventive guideline can be published.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004285
Title: Analysis of incidence of types of mandibular third molar impaction in different skeletal face types – A cross-sectional observation study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Mandibular third molars are unique tooth in the oral cavity due to the continuous changes in angulation and position during eruption. Their development and eruption in the oral cavity is determined by the space availability between mandibular second molar and the ramus of mandible. Screening commonly includes clinical examination as well as X-rays such as panoramic radiograph. This study aims to analyze the incidence of types of mandibular third molar impaction in different skeletal face types. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with impacted third molars who visited the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, were selected by convenience sampling technique and facial form was recorded clinically by facial index. The facial type was determined by the measure of facial index. The obtained records were compiled; processed further graphs were made to represent them. Results: In mesiofacial patients, the most common impaction was mesioangular (43%) followed by horizontal impaction (28%). In brachyfacial patients, the most common impaction was vertical impaction (46%) followed by mesioangular (33%). In dolichofacial patients, the most common impaction was horizontal impaction (47%) followed by mesioangular (28%). Conclusion: By analyzing the association of types of impaction with different facial forms will enable us to predict impactions in adolescents, thereby providing a better treatment for a better outcome.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004286
Title: Knowledge and awareness of undergraduates about Ludwig’s angina
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this survey is to assess the knowledge and awareness of undergraduates about Ludwig’s angina. Background: Ludwig’s angina has long been a fearful infective condition. The infection itself can be fatal and can cause damage to the body. Recently, the occurrence of this infection has regressed drastically to the point of it being zero to none. Due to that reason, medical professionals are only theoretically equipped with the management and knowledge of Ludwig’s angina. Ergo, this study is mainly done to assess the knowledge and awareness of undergraduates about Ludwig’s angina. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire of 10 questions was drafted and put up on a surveying website called SurveyMonkey. The link to the questionnaire was then distributed to as many as 100 undergraduate students. The results were then obtained through the website and were tabulated accordingly. Results: The results concluded that the undergraduate students did, in fact, have concrete knowledge and understanding about Ludwig’s angina. Conclusion: It can be concluded that majority of the undergraduates are aware of the medical aspect of Ludwig’s angina and can assess the infection clinically as well as theoretically.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004287
Title: Awareness of orthognathic surgery among patients seeking orthodontic treatment
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The orthognathic surgery is a surgical procedure aimed to correct maxilla-mandibular and facial irregularities by means of an adequate dental repositioning process. Patient’s anxiety and lack of knowledge of the orthognathic surgery motivated the development of this study. This study aims to assess and increase awareness of orthognathic surgery among patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Happiness with dental and facial appearance was assessed using questionnaires completed by 100 patients who were undergoing orthodontic treatment. Questions were framed to assess the knowledge and awareness of orthognathic surgery as a treatment option for the correction of malocclusion. Results: Based on the statistical analysis made from this study, it clearly shows that the population are less aware of orthognathic surgery as a treatment modality for correcting jaw deformities. Conclusion: Using studies which involve the benefits of orthognathic surgery, we can start a small awareness program in schools and general camps to spread the knowledge of orthognathic surgery.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004288
Title: Fluorides in toothpastes – A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Good oral hygiene is necessary for the healthy teeth, gum, and fresh breath. Common fluoride sources are fluoridated drinking water, toothpaste, and some mouth rinses. Toothpastes containing fluoride help prevent cavities in both children and adults. Fluoride incorporated in toothpaste helps to protect teeth by binding with enamel to make it stronger. Toothpaste is by far the most commonly used mode of delivery of fluoride and the decline in the prevalence of dental caries in developed countries is mainly attributed to its increased use. This review aims to discuss about the fluorides in toothpastes on all aspects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004289
Title: A survey among dentists treating pediatric patients about management of caries and opinion on various restorative modalities
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to survey the knowledge and practice among pediatric dentists of the management of caries and various treatment modalities in children. Introduction: Materials and techniques used to restore carious primary teeth have changed over the past decade with the introduction of several new classes of restorative materials. As a result, dentists have to choose the most appropriate restorative material based on criteria such as site of the lesion, patient cooperation, esthetics, anticariogenicity, biocompatibility, and mechanical properties. The rationale for the use of various prevention- oriented treatment modalities in pediatric dentistry is to facilitate the maintenance of the primary dentition thereby reducing the potential for unwanted sequelae of their unplanned extraction. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 10 multiple choice formats will be given to 100 pediatric dentists regarding their approach toward preventive dentistry; their preferences for different treatment modalities for restoring carious teeth and use of topical fluorides. Data will be analyzed by computing the percentage response for each question. Results: Majority of the respondents preferred composite resin restoring carious vital anterior primary teeth. Practitioners chose extraction as a treatment option for restoring carious non-vital anterior primary teeth. Pulpotomy and stainless steel crown was preferred by many respondents for restoring carious vital posterior primary teeth. Pit and fissure sealant was the material of choice for the non-cavitated incipient carious lesion. Most of the respondents practiced atraumatic restorative treatment in their regular practice. Conclusion: Majority of the dentists treating pediatric patients are aware of the management of caries and restorative modalities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004290
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental practitioners regarding the effect and management of food impaction in prosthesis – A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and opinion of dental practitioners regarding the effect and management of food impaction. Introduction: One of the prime goals of prosthetic therapy is to establish a physiologic periodontal climate and facilitate the maintenance of periodontal health. Food impaction is the most irritating outcome in certain prosthesis. Webster defined food impaction as food being packed or wedged. It is one of the common complaints reported by the patients. Food impaction is one of the common causes of gingival and periodontal diseases. It also leads to caries of the abutment and the adjacent teeth, leading to subsequent failure of the prostheses. The dentist should evaluate the etiological factors responsible for food impaction and carry out necessary steps to treat it. Materials and Methods: A closed-ended questionnaire comprising 10 questions regarding occurrence, consequences, likely reason, and most routinely followed line of treatment for food impaction will be distributed to 100 dental practitioners. Data will be tabulated and analyzed by computing the percentage response for each question. Results: Most of the respondents had come across patients who complained of food impaction. The most common consequences of food impaction were proximal caries. Majority of the dentists considered poor marginal adaptation of the crown as the most likely reason for food impaction. Repeating the prostheses with emphasis on prescribing and reinforcing the use of proper interdental aids was considered as the ideal treatment option. Conclusion: Majority of the practitioners (87.1%) were aware and some of them (13.9%) were unaware regarding the causes, effect, and management of food impaction in various prostheses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004291
Title: Anticancer activity of L-theanine in MG-63 cell line
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to elucidate whether L-theanine has anticancer activity in MG-63, an osteosarcoma cell line, by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Materials and Methods: Cells (1 × 105 /well) were plated in 24-well plates and incubated in 37°C with 5% CO2 . The test compound was added in various dilutions, incubated for 24 h, and washed with phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4). 100 μl/well (5 mg/ml) of 0.5% MTT was added, incubated for 4 h and 1 ml of dimethyl sulfoxide was added in all the wells. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer was used to measure the absorbance at 570 nm. Results: In our study, 50% inhibition (IC50 ) was found at 62.5 mcg/ml of theanine. The cell viability was least at 1000 mcg/ml – 25.36% viability. This study concludes that L-theanine has a dose-dependent effect in reducing cell viability in MG-63 cell line. Conclusion: L-theanine is effective in reducing cell viability in MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line. Further studies could be done to characterize the therapeutic or adjuvant therapeutic effect of L-theanine in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004292
Title: A comparison of enamel demineralization after bracket debonding with or without application of fluoride varnish
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate if the fluoride varnish application given before bracket placement prevents demineralization of the tooth. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate if the fluoride varnish application given before bracket placement prevents demineralization of the tooth. Materials and Methods: Two groups of extracted teeth were taken with 20 teeth in each group. Fluoride varnish application was given to one group of teeth before bracket placement, and no fluoride varnish application was given for the other group. The demineralization of enamel with and without application of the fluoride varnish is compared. Results: The application of Profluorid after bracket debonding and removal of adhesive material remnants from the enamel surface prevents the loss of calcium provoked by demineralization cycles and favors fluoride incorporation into enamel. Conclusion: The application of Profluorid after bracket debonding and removal of adhesive material remnants from the enamel surface prevents the loss of calcium provoked by DC and favors fluoride incorporation into the enamel.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004293
Title: Comparison of two commercially available packaged orange juices: Evaluation of pH with variation in temperature, titratable acidity
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to compare two commercially available packaged orange juices based on pH with variation in temperature, titratable acidity, and enamel weight loss on exposure. Materials and Methods: Digital pH meter was used to analyze pH based on temperature and titratable acidity. Digital weigh balance was used to check loss of enamel. Results: A rise in temperature had a negative influence on the pH of the beverages reducing the values in a statistically significant way. Titratable acidity was significantly higher for Tropicana juice showing that Tropicana orange juices take longer time to buffer and reach a neutral pH. Conclusion: General population should be made aware since generally there is a widespread ignorance, especially about packaged fruit juices as they are regarded as healthy but they too show a high titratable acidity and have high erosive potential.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004294
Title: Effectiveness of probiotics on Streptococcus mutans count in children
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotics on Streptococcus mutans count in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy children aged 7–14 years randomly divided into two groups which consumed or not consumed probiotics. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected in sterilized containers for 3 min. The saliva samples were transferred to the microbiology laboratory within 2 h of collection. Mutans streptococci colony counts per ml of saliva were performed on nutrient agar collected on the 1st day at baseline and 10 days post-intervention. Results: The control and study groups had no statistically significant difference before intervention. Post-intervention comparison of the groups revealed statistically significant difference (0.017). A significant reduction in S. mutans count was observed after the administration of intervention for 10 days. Conclusion: The administration of probiotics resulted in significant reduction in S. mutans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004296
Title: Knowledge and awareness of causative factors for early childhood caries among parents: A cross-sectional survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of parents toward causative factors of early childhood caries (ECC). Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 150 parents visiting the department of pediatric dentistry. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 100 parents answered the questionnaire. About 70% of the parents had good knowledge and awareness about causative factors for ECC. About 20% had poor knowledge and 10% had no knowledge about causative factors about ECC. Conclusion: Educating parents about the causative factors of ECC will help in preventing the disease from occurring in the future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004298
Title: A review on usage of midazolam as sedation for pediatric patients
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of the study was to review the effectiveness of midazolam in sedating children in clinic. The objective of this review is to learn more about the effects of midazolam toward children; therefore, it can be helpful in treating physically and mentally challenged children and also uncooperative children. Midazolam is the most lipid-soluble member of the benzodiazepines. The lipophilic nature of midazolam accounts for its rapid absorption and metabolism by the gastrointestinal tract, as well as its efficient entry into brain tissue. This property produces rapid onset and recovery. Most of the children visiting the dental clinic will have a rise in anxiety as their parents have scared them with dentists. This situation will make the pediatric patient be uncooperative and will be difficult to provide treatment. Sedation is one the best method to compromise the children till end the treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004322
Title: Rethinking pain management in dental practice - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of this review is to analyze the overdose of drug usage of opioid analgesic used in the management of dental pain. The objective of this review was to evaluate the complications caused by the overdose of analgesics and to create awareness on judicious use of medication for dental management pain. Dental pain is the single most common cause of acute medical admission secondary to unintentional paracetamol usage and overdose. There have been documented cases of serious and life-threatening health effects due to patients taking unintentional analgesia overdose secondary to dental pain. This review was done to create awareness about drug overdose and its effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004323
Title: Knowledge and awareness about early childhood caries among IT professionals
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this research is to find out the knowledge and awareness about early childhood caries (ECC) among IT professionals. Background: ECC is one of the most prevalent diseases in children worldwide. ECC is driven by a dysbiotic state of oral microorganisms mainly caused by a sugar-rich diet. In addition, poor oral hygiene or insufficient dental plaque removal leads to the rapid progression of ECC. ECC leads not only to dental destruction and pain with children but also affects the quality of life of the caregivers. Children with extensive ECC are at high risk to develop caries with the permanent dentition or will have other problems with speaking and/or eating. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done among IT professionals regarding their awareness about causation and effects of ECC. Conclusion: There was a significant awareness among the IT professionals about the ECC.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00004325
Title: Green synthesis and antioxidant property of copper sulfate nanoparticles from Aloe vera extract
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim is to synthesis and characterize copper sulfate nano particles from Acacia catechu bark extract. Objective: To asses the characterization of copper sulfate nano particles from Acacia catechu bark extract. Materials and Method: From Acacia catechu bark extract, copper sulfate particles and synthesised and characterixed using Scaning Electron Microscopy and UV spectrocopic analysis. Background: Green synthesis of the nanoparticle is a novel way to synthesis nanoparticles using biological sources. It is gaining attention due to its cost effective, ecofriendly, and large scale production possibilities. In this present study, the plant Aloe vera was taken to investigate their potential for synthesizing copper nanoparticle. The copper nanoparticles synthesized were confirmed by their change of color to dark brown due to the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance. The characterization studied was done by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Leaf extract with copper nanoparticles shows good antioxidant activity from 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Aloe vera plant leaf synthesized copper nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against clinically important pathogens. The study illustrated that the biologically synthesized copper nanoparticle was acted as an effective drug to treat the lung cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004326
Title: Evaluation of caries risk in adult orthodontic patients using Cariogram (computer-based caries risk assessment model)
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cariogram is an interactive personal computer program for caries risk evaluation that graphically shows a calculated overall caries risk for future caries after a weighted analysis of different etiologic variables of the patient. The Cariogram program is based on the input of several variables taken from a patient interview or questionnaire and the clinical examination as well as saliva testing. Therefore, study was conducted to evaluate the caries risk using the Cariogram model in orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional design conducted among 30 healthy individuals. Data regarding the Cariogram variables were collected through a questionnaire and clinical examinations. The outcome measure was the computed “chance to avoid caries in the near future,” expressed as a percentage. Results: About 80% of the people consume food thrice a day whereas 20% of the people consume food more than thrice a day. Although almost 46.7% were found to be free from obvious decay (decayed missing and filled teeth [DMFT] = 0), and the mean DMFT value was 3.1. About 46.7% of the patients had plaque index scores such as 1 and almost 53.3% of them consume sugar infrequently, and their common diet frequency is thrice a day. Conclusion: The “Cariogram” is a very useful and practical program. Patients with high numbers of diet frequency, sugar intake, plaque index, and decayed and filled tooth surfaces before orthodontic treatment often displayed a low percentage in their “actual chance of avoiding new cavities.”

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004327
Title: Role of spirulina in the management of oral submucous fibrosis – A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Oral Medicine, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic progressive debilitating disease associated with areca nut chewing habits. Spirulina is microalgae, which is rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the existing literature on the role of spirulina in the treatment of OSMF. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of the electronic literature databases (Medline/PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar) was carried out to identify all relevant studies published. Various combinations of the following keywords were applied: OSMF, OSMF, idiopathic scleroderma of the mouth, juxta-epithelial fibrosis, Asian sideropenic dysphagia, spirulina, and herbal therapy. Titles and abstracts of all retrieved articles were screened, and irrelevant studies were excluded. Full texts of the potentially relevant studies were obtained and thoroughly assessed for inclusion. Manual search was also done to rule out additional studies. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. The six studies assessed parameters such as mouth opening, burning sensation, cheek flexibility, and tongue protrusion. Spirulina showed statistical significance in clinical improvements such as erythema and ulcers, mouth opening, and burning sensation. They can be used as adjuvant therapy in the initial management of OSMF patients. Conclusion: From the six clinical trials, we can conclude that spirulina is an effective treatment in managing OSMF. To prove the positive effects of spirulina in managing OSMF, more clinical trials have to done with larger sample size and longer treatment follow-up.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004332
Title: Virtual screening to identify virulent proteins in red complex pathogens and their interactions with apigenin
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objectives: The rationale of the present investigation was to evaluate the proteins of common dental pathogens targeted by the phytocompound apigenin to exert antimicrobial property using in silico tools. Design: The present study follows an in silico approach, wherein the initial protein-apigenin interactions were demonstrated using the STITCH tool. The interacting proteins were then subjected to functional analysis, where they were classified into one of the four groups by VICMpred software. All the proteins identified were then assessed for their virulence nature by VirulentPred software. The predicted virulent proteins were further subjected to BepiPred analysis, which returned the number of peptide epitopes present in the protein. Further, the subcellular location of the proteins was confirmed by PSORTb tool. Results: Apigenin was found to interact with virulent proteins of almost all the commonly encountered dental pathogens. Conclusion: The findings of the study emphasize the promising antibacterial property of apigenin in combating the infections of the common orodental pathogens with further experimental validation in vivo and in vitro.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004340
Title: Oral changes in patients undergoing chemotherapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Cancer is a class of disease characterized by out of control cell growth. It is also a common term for neoplasm or tumors that are malignant. All cancer is caused by the malfunction of genes that control cell growth, division, and maturation. Chemotherapy is responsible for the long-term survival of patient with malignancies. Chemotherapeutic regimens have deleterious effect on both normal cells and tumor cells. Certain normal cell such as oral mucosa divides rapidly. Thus, the effect of chemotherapy may result in oral complication such as mucositis, xerostomia, and osteoradionecrosis. These complications have a negative impact on patients quality of life and it may be life threatening in some case.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004341
Title: Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporated intracanal medicament against endodontic microorganisms
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated intracanal medicament against endodontic infections. Materials and Methods: The samples were screened for antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis using agar well diffusion method. The extract was mixed with ethanol and vortexed for maximum dissolution. Luria-Bertani Agar plates were inoculated with the test organism. The plates were evenly spread out. Then, wells were prepared in the plates using a cork borer. Each well was loaded with 50 µl. The plates were incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The development of inhibition zone around the well was measured and recorded. Tetracycline was used as a positive control. Results: In this, in vitro study, we assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of zinc oxide NPs (ZnO-NPs) with Calotropis gigantea extract and tetracycline against E. faecalis. The antimicrobial activity of ZnO-NPs with C. gigantea extract was moderate compared to that of conventional tetracycline. Tetracycline rapidly killed the bacteria in the Petri dish, only partial disinfection can be achieved in the surface wall of the root canal, and tetracycline was relatively effective. More the concentration of the sample more is the antibacterial effect of the sample. Conclusion: ZnO-NPs incorporated into the extract C. gigantea against E. faecalis is less effective than tetracycline. Therefore, increasing concentration of the extract C. gigantea in NPs can be assessed in future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004342
Title: Study of antimicrobial effects of herbal toothpaste against early childhood caries
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine whether herbal toothpastes have more antimicrobial effect than fluoridated toothpaste. Materials and Methods: Four herbal toothpastes containing cardamom, clove, pomegranate, and Meswak, respectively, were selected and five samples of saliva were collected from children between the age groups of 4 and 5 years who had more than 5 teeth with caries present. Antimicrobial effect on these toothpastes was done having the control medium of 0.2% chlorhexidine and fluoridated toothpaste using that saliva sample as well as isolated Streptococcus mutans. The average zone of inhibition was calculated and analyzed. Results: Clove has been found to have better antimicrobial activity in comparison to the other herbal toothpastes and the controls. Conclusion: Herbal toothpastes have good antimicrobial properties which have to be, furthermore, studied to bring into daily usage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004480
Title: Effect of xylitol-containing chewing gum on bacterial load in saliva
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Xylitol is a white crystalline five-carbon sugar polyol obtained naturally. It has been extensively studied during the past 40 years for its effect on dental caries. Xylitol reduces the levels of Streptococcus mutans (MS) in saliva and plaque by disturbing their energy production processes, which leads to futile energy cycle and eventually cell death. It reduces the adhesion of microorganisms to the teeth surface and also reduces their acid production potential. Xylitol reduces the incidence of dental caries by increasing salivary flow and buffering the pH. The predominant modality for xylitol delivery is being chewing gum. The plaque samples of habitual xylitol users showed a significant reduction in plaque adhesiveness and insoluble extracellular polysaccharides produced by MS when compared with those who did not consume xylitol at all. Materials and Methods: The study is done to assess the reduction in the total bacterial load in the saliva after chewing xylitol-containing gum for a period of 7 days. Twenty-five individuals were selected randomly. Xylitol containing chewing gums were procured. About 14 chewing gums were given to the subjects and asked to take once in the morning and once in the evening for 7 days. Samples collected were subjected for microbiological examination. The saliva samples were diluted at the ratio of 1:80 using sterile normal saline in a sterile cuvette. Then, it is made as a uniform suspension by manual agitation. From this, 10 µl is pipetted and transferred to the surface of brain heart infusion agar. The plates were incubated for 24 h at 37°C aerobically. After the incubation, the plates were examined for bacterial growth and the total bacterial count was done manually and tabulated. Discussion: In this study, it was observed that the percentage decrease was 78.31% within 7 days of using xylitol chewing gum. In this study, it was found that the total bacterial load is reduced by chewing gum. Although it is a transient change, long-term usage will definitely improve the overall health of the mouth, whereby decreasing the risk of cariogenesis and other types of lesions in the mouth. Conclusion: Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar that prevents caries. This study was done to find out its anticariogenic property. With the positive outcome it concluded that xylitol-containing gums can be used to prevent caries. As per the previous studies, the 5–6 g of xylitol can be used without any adverse effect on long-term basis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004481
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice toward retention aids in maxillofacial prosthesis among dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, awareness, and practice toward retention aids in maxillofacial prosthesis. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 12 questions was prepared and distributed to 50 dental practitioners to assess their knowledge, awareness, and practice toward retention aids in maxillofacial prosthesis. The questionnaire was prepared online using SurveyPlanet and the link was distributed to the dental practitioners to fill the survey. Results: The survey was completed within 2 weeks from the start of the study. Overall response rate was 100% and all completed the questionnaire (50 participants) within their stipulated time. The overall knowledge of the study participants was assessed based on their responses to the questionnaire. This study reveals that the dental practitioners who attempted the questionnaire had a decent and fair general knowledge toward retention aids in maxillofacial prosthesis. Conclusion: Further, more knowledge of clinical skills is necessary to prevent the prosthesis failure in terms of retention and stability of the maxillofacial prosthesis. Further, knowledge and awareness would enhance the efficacy of usage and overcome the difficulties that are encountered in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: October [Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004482
Title: A review on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved drug tezacaftor – A cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator activator
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research (DU), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Tezacaftor is a Food and Drug Administration approved drug, the study emphasizes the mode of action, adverse drug reactions, list of clinical trials conducted so far, and the drug profile of tezacaftor. It is a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) corrector which corrects the CFTR gene in the membrane protein of the mucus-secreting organs like lungs. Although there are many drug interactions reported for tezacaftor, the potential benefits outweigh the risk. This review will give a brief view for the upcoming researchers about tezacaftor, its drug profile, clinical trials reported and will also be useful for physicians.