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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004397
Title: Protective role of Maha Vallathy Leghiyam on 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced experimental oral carcinogenesis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Meenakshi Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The aims of this current study were to examine the effects of Maha Vallathy Leghiyam (MVL) on changes in lipid peroxidation (LPO) status of malondialdehyde (MDA) generation. MDA is a major LPO product that is mutagenic and tumorigenic. The potential protective effect of MVL was 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO)-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The male Wistar rats were subjected to the 50 ppm of carcinogen 4NQO through drinking water, and the activity of MVL against the carcinogenic cells was studied through LPO and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) hydroxyl radical formation. Results: The obtained result was visualized as an increase in the expression of the LPO and hydroxyl radicals in the serum of control and experimental group of animals, these results were associated with the generation of MDA. The administration of MVL (100 mg/kg body weight) protects the generation of LPO products, thereby proves its anticancer potential. Conclusions: The administration of MVL has caused significant decrease activities of LPO and LOOH, these aspects suggesting the protective nature of MVL against the carcinogenic nature of water-soluble carcinogen 4NQO by efficiently decreasing the oxidative damage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004334
Title: A study on thyroid function test in children with nephritic syndrome admitted to a tertiary care hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: This is a comparative study which was conducted to find out any impact of nephritic syndrome on status of thyroid hormone level in children with nephritic syndrome. Methods: The study was done from March 2018 at Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The study was carried out in a total of 60 children of age between1 and 8 years of which 30 children (N Group) were admitted for reason other than nephritic syndrome (excluding known cases of thyroid disorder) and 30 children were suffering from nephrotic syndrome (NS group). Thyroid hormone level (free T3, free FT4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]) was tested in all children. Results: The free FT4 and free T3 levels in NS group patients were low. TSH level was high in NS group. FT4 level was low in NS group in comparison to N group which was statistically significant. Hypothyroidism was found more in younger children <6 years of age in comparison to children >6 years which was statistically significant. Conclusions: This study concluded that incidence of hypothyroidism was more in children with NS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004335
Title: A simple febrile seizure presented with pneumococcal meningitis with negative blood culture result
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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A 10-month-old boy with occult bacterial meningitis presented with a simple febrile seizure. On examination, the patient was alert, interactive, and smiling responsively without meningeal signs; focal neurologic findings are normal no signs of extreme illness. His parents were reluctant to allow a lumbar puncture and the patient was admitted for observation without lumbar puncture. His fever resolved and he was playful, had good oral intake, and was discharged 24 h after admission. His initial blood culture result remained negative. Within 24 h of discharge, the patient had a focal febrile seizure, came back to the hospital, and was found to have meningitis with a penicillin-susceptible, non-vaccine Streptococcus pneumoniae strain 12F

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004336
Title: Automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) or automated ICDs have advanced from the treatment after all other options have run out to the best quality level treatment for patients at high hazard for ventricular tachyarrhythmias. High hazard patients incorporate the individuals who have endured hazardous arrhythmias, and people with heart maladies who are in danger for such arrhythmias, however, are symptomless. Utilization of an ICD will influence the patient’s personal satisfaction. A few medications can generously influence defibrillator capacity and viability, and conceivable medication gadget communications ought to be considered. Patients with ICDs may experience personal digital assistants, antitheft identifiers, and numerous different wellsprings of potential electromagnetic impedance. Notwithstanding treating ventricular tachyarrhythmias, new defibrillators give full highlighted double chamber pacing and could treat atrial arrhythmias and congestive heart disappointment by methods for biventricular pacing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004337
Title: Formulation of face cream using methanolic extract of Citrus limon
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Photoaging is a continous process induced due to exposure to radiation from sun which affects human skin. Materials and Method: Thus this research work is targeted to prepare and evaluate the antioxidant cream comprising the methanolic peel extracts of citrus limon. Result and Discussion: Antioxidant activity was deciphered by employing stable 2,2 -Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). Methanolic extracts obtained from citrus lemon exhibited high anti oxidant properties. Conclusion: The three oils eucalyptus, olive and Almond oils are examined for antibacterial properties through disk diffusion technique. The creams were formulated with citrus limon peel, olive oil with different concentrations namely F1 to F6.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004338
Title: Treatment of municipal solid waste by biocomposting
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Nowadays, dumping of municipal solid waste is a major environmental issue. This solid waste consists of remarkable decomposable organic matter with high carbon-nitrogen ratio. Composting is a biochemical method of stabilization that prepares waste residuals for beneficial use as a soil conditioner. Aim and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to reduce the toxicity of heavy metal solid waste and to prevent environmental pollution. Materials and Methods: Cow dung was used as inoculants to accelerate the process. The waste was mixed with inoculums in three different concentration ratios (waste: cow dung 1: 1; 1: 5; 1:10) and rice straw is used as the bulking agent, which acts as the carbon source for the composting microbes. Results: The reduction in toxicity level is observed through these parameters namely, temperature, pH, moisture content, phosphate level, COD, ash, carbon/nitrogen ratio. Periodic monitoring is performed regularly. Conclusion: The process will reduce the environmental damage in a short period of time.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004339
Title: Extraction of pectin from various citrus fruit peels and its fat reduction activity
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, BIHER, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background:The pectin a heteropolysaccharide which is mainly present in fruit peels and used as food gelling purposes. Pectin is also needed in medicines, stabilizer in confectionery and main source of dietary fiber. This pectin can be used as dietary fiber supplement which helps for constipation and impaired digestive issues. It reduces the cholesterol naturally anti-diabetic activity and weight reduction Aim and Objectives: The present case was focused on the health benefits of antioxidants rich fruit peels as a content of pectin. This research emphasized on the pectin which was extracted from three different fruits, namely lemon, Citrus reticulata (orange), and Citrus limetta (sweet lemon) peel powder using three different pH (2.0, 2.2, and 2.5), respectively. Results and Discussion: This study has been divided as effect on yield of pectin at physical parameters and characterization of the fat reduction activity. The output of the work reflected that the Vitamin C rich citrus fruit peels are good source of pectin and providing benefits of jelly for industrial use and its commercially binder for pharmaceutics and also a source of weight reduction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004343
Title: Clinical practice guidelines in the testing of pulp sensibility and vitality
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Accurate assessment of the pulp status is not only an important step to achieve success in endodontic therapy but is also one of the greatest challenges in clinical practice. The dental pulp is not available for direct examination as it is encased in hard tissue. Thus, there is always uncertainty involved in the pulpal diagnosis. Hence, to determine the pulpal status, indirect methods must be incorporated. The vitality of pulp is function vascular supply of the pulp within a tooth, and pulpal circulation is true determination of pulp vitality. The assessment of pulpal status is a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. The conventional pulp testing methods include thermal stimulation, electrical or direct dentin stimulation fall short of ideal pulp vitality testing. Pulp sensibility tests indirectly monitor pulp vitality by measuring neural responses. A new approach to determine vital pulp tissue by optical technology includes dual-wavelength spectrophotometry, pulse oximetry (PO), Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF), and transmitted light- photoplethysmography. These tests are non-invasive, objective, painless and are very sensitive to detect pulpal blood components or blood flow.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004344
Title: The antisecretory effect of sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) leaves ethanolic extract on rat pyloric ligation model
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Padang Bulan, Medan 20155, Indonesia
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Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate the antisecretory effect of Andrographis paniculata leaves ethanolic extract on rats pyloric ligation model. Materials and Methods: The rats were grouped randomly into seven groups, i.e., normal, induction, vehicle control, ranitidine 27 mg/kg body weight (BW) as standard, and three doses of the extract (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg BW). Rats were treated with the extract orally for 7 days. Rats were starved for 48 h before the pyloric ligation. The sacrificed was done 19 h after the pyloric ligation and the stomach was isolated for gross macroscopic, microscopic, and gastric secretion examination, i.e., number of ulcers, ulcer scores, ulcer index, percent inhibition of ulcers, histopathological test, secretion of gastric fluid, gastric pH, total gastric acidity, and mucosal index. Results: The macroscopic examination indicated A. paniculata leaves ethanolic extract; the extract reduced the number, score and index of ulcers, and increased the percentage of ulcer inhibition. The extract also reduced gastric fluid volume, total gastric acidity, and increased the gastric pH with a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological tests showed the doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg BW of the extract maintained mucous cells from erosion. Conclusion: A. paniculata leaves ethanolic extract possessed antisecretory effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004345
Title: Anxiety levels of dental students during administration of their first local anesthetic injection
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception and anxiety levels of undergraduate dental students during their first local anesthetic (LA) administration. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year in February 2019 among the dental students of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. One hundred clinical students were randomly enrolled in the study including undergraduates from the 3rd year, final year, to internship. The students were administered with a closed-ended, validated, structured questionnaire to assess their anxiety levels and experiences during the first local anesthetic injection administration. Student experiences were assessed based on the 5-point Likert scale and their anxiety levels based on the interval scale of anxiety response. Data collected were tabulated, statistically analyzed, and results obtained. Results: About 46% of students agreed that their hands shivered and were anxious during the administration of the first LA injection. Two-thirds of the participants agreed that delivery of LA gives stress to both the patient and the dental student, and anxiety levels of students will have an impact on patient’s cooperation during LA administration. Three-fourth of students agreed that more emphasis should be laid on LA teaching methodology in dental curriculum and simulations with models/cadavers would prepare them better for the first LA administration. The anxiety level of students was significantly high before the injection procedure, which increased further during the injection and considerably reduced after the procedure. Conclusion: According to our study, the students’ preferred the use of preclinical models rather directly onto the patients for their first LA administration. Hence, need for a preclinical simulation model in LA training program is recommended.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004346
Title: Frequency of readmission in Iranian heart failure patients within six months after discharge and its association with guideline directed medical treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Cardiology, Fellowship in Heart Failure and Transplantation, Heart Failure Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Ir
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Background and Aims: Assessment of heart failure (HF) therapy based on guideline was less frequently performed. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of readmission or mortality in HF patients according to guideline directed medical treatment. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was done from March 2016 to March 2017 in one of the tertiary heart centers located in Isfahan, named Chamran Hospital. A total of 503 patients with a diagnosis of HF were recruited in the research. Demographic data, prescribed medication, and para-clinic information were gathered during hospitalization period. The frequency of re-hospitalization and mortality was assessed 6 months after discharge, and its relation with aforementioned variables was evaluated. Results: The mean age of participants with the dominance of males (61.8%) was 70.8 ± 11.8 years. A total of 175 (34.8%) patients had been readmitted or died during 6-month follow-up. Participants with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class of IV and renal diseases had raised likelihood of re-hospitalization or death (odds ratio [OR]: 5.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42–21.5, P = 001 and OR: 2.53, 95% CI = 1.11–5.79, P = 0.02, respectively). In contrast, individuals with heart rates (HR) of 80–100 beats/min showed decreased chance of adverse clinical outcomes compared to subjects with HRs of <60 beats/min (OR: 0.08, 95% CI = 0.009–0.77, P = 0.02). Conclusion: Our data suggested that HF patients having higher NYHA functional class or kidney problems and HRs of 80–100 beats/min had increased and decreased likelihood of readmission and mortality, respectively. Several longitudinal studies are required confirming these associations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004347
Title: Localization of GluR1 subunits of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5- methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors in rat migraine model
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, AIIMS, Mangalagiri,Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India and PhD Research Scholar, Bharath University, Chennai, India
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Introduction: Migraine is characterized by headache due to imbalance between excitation and inhibition of neurons disabling normal day-to-day activities. The excitations of neurons are done by excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate which plays a key role in creating any pathology related to neurons. Materials and Methods: This study was done to identify GluR1 a subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor in the cells of trigeminal ganglion after inducing migraine and compare it with control rats. Results and Discussion: The GluR1 subunits were localized in the cytoplasm of neurons and these subunits were upregulated following migraine. The GluR1 was also localized in satellite glial cells and nerve fibers indicating these subunits expressed in neurons and migrate during nociceptive sensitization. This GluR1 expression in the cells of trigeminal ganglion may be crucial in nociceptive sensitization, leading to migraine and other painful conditions like trigeminal neuralgia. Conclusions:  This study concludes that the GluR1of AMPA receptors are up-regulated following migraine which are involved in crucial mechanism inducing migraine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004348
Title: Standard operating protocol for immunohistochemical epithelial markers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important application of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to determine the tissue distribution of an antigen of interest in health and disease. IHC is widely used for diagnosis of cancers; specific tumor antigens are expressed de novo or up-regulated in certain cancers. Cytokeratins (CKs) are intermediate filaments of the cytoskeletons found in all types of epithelial cells. Thus, they are specific for epithelial cell lineage. CKs are over-expressed in Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to normal mucosa because cancerization of normal oral epithelium could lead to variation of degree of differentiation of epithelium. Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), a product of Mucin 1 gene, is widely distributed in epithelial and mesothelial tissues and tumors arising from them. Squamous cell carcinomas show positive EMA staining of cytoplasmic membranes. Aim: The aim of the study was to formulate a standard operating protocol for immunohistochemical epithelial markers, CK, and EMA. Materials and Methods: Two tissue blocks of known histopathological diagnosis were procured from the archives of the department of oral and maxillofacial pathology. Four sections of 2.5 µm were cut from each block. Eight lysin coated slides were thus prepared and incubated overnight. The slides used were positive controls of CK and EMA. Three variations were tried and compared with the normal immunohistochemical protocol. Results: The staining intensity, uniformity of staining intensity, and specificity of variation 3 were better, compared to the normal protocol for CK and EMA. Variation 3 showed minimal background staining compared to other variations. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the variation in which deparaffinization was done for 35 min, antigen retrieval for 1 whistle, incubation time increased to 80 min, and 3,3’ Diaminobenzidine chromogen to buffer ratio altered to 1:25, showed better result and can be used as a standard operating protocol for immunohistochemical epithelial markers, CK, and EMA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004349
Title: Evaluation of microleakage of four commercially available fluoride-releasing pit and fissure sealants – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, BIHER, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: To evaluate and compare the micro leakage of four commercially available fluoride releasing pit and fissure sealants with conventional etch and seal technique and with application of self etch adhesive (7th generation bonding agent). Materials and Methods: 80 extracted sound maxillary premolars were chosen and divided into two groups. Group A:- conventional etch and seal technique. Group B:- self etch adhesive and seal technique. All the sealed teeth sample were thermocycled and then subjected to pH cycle. Teeth sample were immersed in 1% methylene blue dye and sectioned and degree of dye penetration were examined under stereomicroscope. Result: There is no statistical difference was noted in the microleakage levels between the group etch and seal technique and with the use of self etch adhesives and seal technique. Conclusion: As per the current evidence it is clinician choice of choosing the technique by weighing the time benefits, isolation difficulty in pediatric patients and cost factors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004350
Title: Effects of systemic hypertension on changes in intraocular pressure through angiotensin II activation and non-pigmented epithelium cell proliferation of ciliary processes in a rat model of hyperten
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia
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Background: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of systemic hypertension on changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) through activation of angiotensin (ANG) II and non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) cell proliferation of ciliary processes. Methods: An experimental study was conducted on four groups of rats: Group I was the negative control group while Groups II, III, and IV were experimental groups that received deoxycorticosterone acetate salt injections at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 2, 6, and 10 consecutive weeks, respectively. ANG II expression was examined using immunohistochemistry analysis. NPE cell proliferation was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining and was calculated based on the mitotic index. Data were analyzed using path analysis. Results: Final systolic blood pressure (BP) showed an increase in all groups. Systolic BP had significant effects on ANG II expression and NPE cell proliferation. ANG II expression had significant direct effects on IOP and NPE cell proliferation. NPE cell proliferation had a significant direct effect on IOP. The final IOP in Group II was 21.42 mmHg and mean delta IOP was 7.78 mmHg; the other groups had lower IOP measurements. Systolic BP had no significant direct effect on IOP (t-statistic 1.527, P < 1.984). Conclusion: Systemic hypertension influenced ANG II expression and NPE cell proliferation. However, it did produce changes in IOP.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004351
Title: Evaluation of PH and buffering capacity of sports drinks and carbonated drinks
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dietary intake of young adults has been modified in the recent years. This decade has shown the increase in consumption of carbonated and energy drinks. People are unaware about the acidogenic ad cariogenic properties of the carbonated drinks which cause dental erosion, dental caries, etc. This study is done to evaluate the pH and buffering capacity of sports and energy drinks. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the pH and buffering capacity of sports drink and energy drink. Materials and Methods: Three groups were selected of which Group 1 is mineral water, Group 2 is carbonated drinks, and Group 3 is energy drink. Before the study, the drinks were kept unopened and in normal room temperature. PH meter was used to measure the PH of each beverage. Buffering capacity was measured using the same pH meter at pH 5 and pH 7. The data are recorded in mean and standard deviation. Statistical Analysis:  Kruskal- Wallis Test was used to compare the mean differences of pH between the groups. Results: Results show that carbonated drinks are more acidic compared to energy drinks. Conclusion: Consumption of carbonated and energy drinks should be reduced amount youths since it causes dental erosion and other medical problems.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004352
Title: Infective endocarditis in children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Infective endocarditis affects children and adults of all age groups and both the sexes, and it is seen worldwide. The infecting organisms have increased in number over a period of 5 decades. The main reasons for this increase are the use of indwelling catheters, central lines, prosthetic valves, devices used in the closure of congenital heart diseases, and cardiac surgery including transplantation. Availability of echocardiograms, advanced diagnostic tests like polymerase chain reaction, improved culture facilities, etc., during the past few decades, have all contributed to the improvements in diagnosis. However, still, the wide range of organisms including fungus that produces infection contributes to the mortality and morbidity. Early detection and commencement of early treatment can bring down the mortality and morbidity in infective endocarditis significantly.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004353
Title: Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome: A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome, also known as a broad thumb-hallux syndrome or Rubinstein syndrome, is a condition characterized by short stature, moderate-to-severe learning difficulties, distinctive facial features, and broad thumbs and first toes. People with this condition have an increased risk of developing non-cancerous and cancerous tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma. This condition is sometimes inherited as an autosomal dominant pattern and is uncommon, many times it occurs as a de novo occurrence, it occurs in an estimated 1 in 125,000–300,000 births. Hereby, we report a 4-year-old male child who presented with the distinctive features of this syndrome.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004354
Title: Renal abscess due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- producing Escherichia coli in a 13-year-old girl
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Infections caused by community-acquired extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an increasing public health concern. This is the case report of a 13-year-old girl with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections who developed a right renal abscess. Percutaneous abscess drainage and subsequent microbiological culture revealed ESBL Escherichia coli. Establishing a definitive diagnosis of ESBL E. coli renal abscess may necessitate obtaining a microbiological culture, especially in children with apparent risk factors for the selection of ESBL-producing organisms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004355
Title: Ectopic thyroid mimicking a thyroglossal cyst: A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental abnormality. Clinically, it may be difficult to differentiate an ectopic thyroid gland from a thyroglossal cyst. Investigations such as thyroid function test and a thyroid (Tc-99m) scan will help in making the diagnosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004356
Title: A case study of hemoptysis in 4 years old
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Hemoptysis is a rare complaint in the pediatric population. Although most cases of pediatric hemoptysis are from benign causes and are self-limiting, there is a need to establish the severity of hemoptysis and establish the cause, which can be assessed by eliciting a good history and a thorough physical examination. The most common cause in pediatric age group is lower respiratory infections: pneumonia and tracheobronchitis, foreign body aspiration, and aberrant bronchial artery circulation. Here is a case of 4-year-old female patient who presented with 2 days history of hemoptysis two episodes to the pediatric emergency. She was brought by the mother who provided the history of the child. There were no similar complaints in past and no significant family history. She also gave a history of recurrent lower respiratory tract infections since birth. The patient was stable on admission no respiratory distress, afebrile, and no evidence of current bleeding. She was given nebulization with salbutamol and she responded well. The patient was discharged with instructions to follow-up with a pediatric department.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004357
Title: Distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to vesicoureteral reflex: A case report in a 14-year-old girl
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is the most common congenital anomaly of the urinary tract that occurs in 30–50% of children presenting with recurrent urinary tract infections. Long-standing untreated VUR results in renal scarring and hydronephrotic change ultimately leading to chronic renal failure and arterial hypertension. However, it may also result in diffuse tubulopathy compromising the concentrating capacity of tubules and urinary acidification defects. Renal tubular dysfunction should be considered in all children with VUR presenting with failure to thrive, rickets, bony deformity/pain, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. We report such a case of a 14-year-old girl who presented with rickets, failure to gain weight and height, bony pains, and muscle weakness with a history of VUR. On investigation, she was found to have normal anion gap metabolic acidosis with hypokalemia suggestive of distal renal tubular acidosis. She responded well to oral alkali and potassium replacement therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004358
Title: Pantoea infection - A rare case report from South India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Pantoea agglomerans is an opportunistic plant pathogen and a rare human pathogen causing infection in the immunocompromised patients, especially in the absence of characteristic risk factors. It is an opportunistic human pathogen, reported to cause neonatal sepsis, septic arthritis, synovitis, osteitis, cholelithiasis, urinary tract infection, respiratory infections, skin allergy, and blood stream infections, particularly in association with the contamination of intravenous fluids. Here, we report a case of Pantoea sepsis occurring in a child admitted with febrile illness in Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004359
Title: Effects of omega–3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy: A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Omega–3 fatty acids are essential and can only be obtained from the diet. The requirements during pregnancy have not been established, but likely exceed that of a non-pregnant state. Omega–3 fatty acids are critical for fetal neurodevelopment and may be important for the timing of gestation and birth weight as well. Most pregnant women likely do not get enough omega–3 fatty acids because the major dietary source, seafood, is restricted to 2 servings a week. For pregnant women to obtain adequate omega–3 fatty acids, a variety of sources should be consumed: Vegetable oils, 2 low-mercury fish servings a week, and supplements (fish oil or algae-based docosahexaenoic acid).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004360
Title: A survey on assessing the denture hygiene awareness among elderly patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and awareness of denture hygiene and its importance among elderly patients. Background: Denture hygiene and proper maintenance are an important aspect for any removable denture. It is necessary to have proper knowledge and follow the steps to maintain clean dentures and a healthy oral cavity. This study is to spread awareness regarding the importance of clean dentures and the adverse conditions if not done right. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey is done with about 100 subjects of similar age group. Probing questions regarding their hygiene practices were asked. The results were tabulated and analyzed to get the result.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004361
Title: Evaluation of in vitro antidiabetic effect and phytochemical screening of some wild mushroom extracts isolated in Basrah, Iraq
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Science College, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq
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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a cardiovascular risk associated with chronic hyperglycemia in the blood; it is considered a modern-day epidemic and is really known as global public health. The aim of the present study was to assess the antidiabetic activity of some wild mushroom extracts which grown in Basrah Province. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extracts were prepared from mushrooms fruiting bodies and their phytochemical analysis was determined. However, the ability of mushroom extracts to reduce the level of blood glucose in vitro was evaluated through α-amylase inhibition assay and glucose diffusion method, as well as, the detection of crude extracts cytotoxicity was examined. Results: The results were revealed the isolation of 12 species of mushrooms due to five genera including Agaricus spp. (four species), Coprinus spp. (two species), Panaeolus spp. (two species), Psathyrella spp. (three species), and Scleroderma sp., while the phytochemical assay was showed the dominance of polysaccharides, saponins, and tannins. Since the highest effect of α-amylase inhibition was seen at 500 µg for Agaricus sp. 1 and Coprinus sp. extracts (91%) followed by Scleroderma sp. extract (90%). Conclusion: The value of index for impaired glucose distribution glucose diffusion retardation index was reached after 3 h for all mushroom extracts, whereas the result was showed increasing value with time and concentration. Mushroom extracts were not revealed cytotoxic effect at doses of 5, 10, 50, 100, and 200 µg except Psathyrella sp. 2 and Panaeolus sp. 2 extracts that seen cytotoxicity at doses of 200 and 100 µg, respectively.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004362
Title: Design and development of mucoadhesive buccal patches of chlorzoxazone
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The main purpose of this study was to formulate and evaluate chlorzoxazone mucoadhesive buccal patches, to increase therapeutic efficacy, better bioavailability, and reduce the side effect, and to provide controlled release of drug and improve patient compliance. Chlorzoxazone is used in the treatment of muscle spasm/pain and helps in relaxing the muscles. Materials and Methods: Buccal films of chlorzoxazone were prepared by solvent casting technique using film-forming mucoadhesive polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and ethyl cellulose with different concentrations. Five different formulations were prepared and evaluated with respect to patch thickness, surface pH, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, swelling index, determination of moisture and moisture absorption, and in vitro release study. Compatibility study was carried out by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral analysis. Results and Discussion: FT-IR study confirmed the absence of any drug/drug-polymer excipient interaction. All the prepared formulations were evaluated. The formulation F2 showed good drug content compared other formulations and in in vitro release studies of formulation F2 show better drug release for a period of 4.5 h. F2 shows decrease in drug release with an increase in amount of polymer. Therefore, F2 was selected as best formulation. Conclusion: The above study concluded that possibilities of the making of mucoadhesive drug delivery system for chlorzoxazone which will be more efficacious and also having satisfactory sustained release profile which may provide and increased therapeutic efficacy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004363
Title: Impact of patient counseling on medication adherence and quality of life in hypertensive patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The research aimed to evaluate the effect of patient counseling in hypertensive patients on medication adherence and quality of life (QoL). To enhance the intervention of pharmaceutical care, better knowledge of hypertension, increased adherence to antihypertensive treatment, and improved general health-related QoL can result. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study. A total of 132 patients have been enrolled; 111 patients have completed the study. Patients in the intervention group received patient counseling, patient information form (PIF). Medication adherence and QoL were assessed using the Morisky and Minichal-Brazil scales. The score was evaluated and statistically analyzed. A comparative study was conducted between pre- and post-consultation scores. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between pre- and post-consultation. Conclusion: The research found a significant rise in drug adherence respondents following completion of pre- and post-consultation. However, the interventional activity record reduced the still important QoL at the end of the intervention team.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004364
Title: Evaluation of cardiovascular disease risk and renal function in women with uterine fibroids
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Recent studies have found a positive association of uterine fibroids with hypertension. However, other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and renal function have not been evaluated. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the CVD risk factors and renal function in women with uterine fibroids. Materials and Methods: A total of 77 reproductive- aged women (18–60 years) were enrolled in the study and were divided into case group (n = 37) women with uterine fibroids and control group (n = 40) without fibroids. The following clinical and demographic parameters such as age, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and further renal function markers (urea and creatinine) were recorded at baseline and 3-month follow-up period and compared between the groups. Results: Comparison of CVD risk factors between women with and without uterine fibroids revealed that the presence of hypertension (29 [78%] vs. 8 [20%], P = 0.003), diabetes mellitus (5 [13.5%] vs. 1 [2.5%], P = 0.04), and hyperlipidemia (4 [10.8%] vs. 2 [5%], P = 0.03) was significantly higher in patients with uterine fibroids than in the control group. Conclusion: Uterine fibroids were associated with a significant elevated risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004366
Title: Formulation, in vitro and in vivo X-ray study of gastroretentive drug delivery system of risedronate sodium tablet using natural polymer guar gum
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Purpose: The purpose of the study was to design and prepare effervescent floating gastroretentive tablets for sustained risedronate sodium (RS) release and enhance oral bioavailability. Materials and Methods: Various tablet formulations of the RS were prepared by direct compression method. A systematic approach in the design of the formulations was adopted, where using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) and guar gum in various concentrations along with sodium bicarbonate were investigated for its physicochemical properties (in vitro floating behavior, drug release profile, etc.). Subsequently, a final optimization step involved based on the physicochemical properties to achieve the desired effect. The formulations were evaluated in vitro and in vivo X-ray study in albino rabbits. Results: The formulation consisting of sodium SCMC/guar gum (F7) showed good floating properties (45 S floating lag time) with nearly zero-order controlled drug release for 12 h (R2 = 0.9641). In vivo X-ray studies of F7 in albino rabbits showed a good floating ability up to 8 h study compared to a commercial conventional product. Conclusion: The good quality of the effervescent gastroretentive tablets of RS developed is an indication that the approach used is suitable for the formulation of the drug to sustained drug release and enhanced oral bioavailability.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004367
Title: Mimosa pudica and Limonia acidissima gum loaded mucoadhesive microspheres of glipizide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: In vitro and in vivo evaluation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The purpose of this present study is to prepare, characterize, and in vivo evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres of glipizide for prolongation of gastric retention in animal stomach, thereby increase the bioavailability of those drugs having narrow therapeutic index. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared by ionic gelation method using sodium alginate along with Carbopol 934P (Car934P), Mimosa pudica, and Limonia acidissima gum mucilage as gel forming and mucoadhesive, respectively. Prepared dosage form characterized by their parameters such as particle size, micrometric properties, drug entrapment efficiency, swelling index, mucoadhesion capacity, in vitro drug release, and in vivo studies to confirm their suitability to gastroretentive drug delivery systems. Results: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study was confirmed that there was no chemical interaction between the drug and polymers. The flow properties were found to be excellent and in vitro drug release study was performed in pH 1.2 HCl buffer for 12 h time duration. It was observed that formulation F3 showed optimum drug release (96.76%) for 12 h and was retained in rabbit stomach mucosa of rabbit for more than 8 h during X-ray study. It was proved that the drug release from the microspheres followed zero-order kinetics and mechanism was found to be non-Fickian transport. Conclusion: Based on the result, it was concluded that natural polymers have promising mucoadhesive in rabbit stomach like synthetic polymer (Car934P) and formulation F3 showed better retardation effect than the other formulations and it was concluded that prepared dosage form has better mucoadhesion and bioavailability.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004368
Title: Formulation and evaluation of herbal gel from the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn. for antimicrobial activity
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, VISTAS, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The study was conceived to formulate an herbal gel from the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of B. variegata Linn. and to evaluate its physicochemical parameters and microbiological assay. Materials and Methods: Formulation of 1% and 2% Gel for Antimicrobial Assay. The microbial evaluation was carried out using cup and plate method for all the formulations of gels. The Antibacterial Assay was carried with the Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis compared with the standard ciprofloxacin. Antifungal Assay was performed against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida albicans compared with the standard Clotrimazole. Results: The studies had revealed that the developed herbal formulations of 1% and 2% exhibited good minimum inhibitory concentration. In the antibacterial studies, a comparison made with the standard ciprofloxacin (24.5 mm), 2% ethanolic extract of the herbal gel formulation had shown the maximum effect for Bacillus subtilis (22.7 mm). In the antifungal studies, a comparison made with the standard clotrimazole (28.9 mm), 2% ethanolic extract of the herbal gel formulation had shown the maximum effect for Candida albicans (23.1 mm). Conclusion: Herbal formulations have growing demand in the world market. A very good attempt was made to establish the herbal gel containing B. variegata ethanolic extract. The studies had revealed that the developed herbal formulations of 1% and 2% exhibited good minimum inhibitory concentration. The phytoconstituents present in the bark might be responsible for the antimicrobial activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004369
Title: Effect of probiotics in antibiotics associated diarrhea and gastric acid suppressants in secondary care pediatric hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: This study aims to determine the effects of probiotics in the treatment of antibiotic and gastric acid suppressants associated diarrhea. To estimate the reduction in the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea with the administration of probiotics and to identify factors associated with such reduction. Materials and Methods: Patients aged 4 months–13 years who have been receiving antibiotics of both genders are included in the study. The effects of probiotics in the treatment of antibiotics and gastric acid suppressants associated diarrhea were evaluated. This study has been carried out for the period of 6 months in PCMC the child care hospital, Pallavaram, Chennai. Results and Discussion: Eighty-six patients who had antibiotic and gastric acid suppressants associated diarrhea were included in this study and appropriate treatment was done with probiotics and antibiotics, and their frequency of diarrhea was evaluated for next 1 week. Conclusions: The appropriate data were obtained and evaluated based on that probiotic alone shows superior response than antibiotic group.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004370
Title: A comparative study of pregabalin and gabapentin combinations in type 2 diabetic neuropathy patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder; most of the patients are affected with nerve pain called neuropathic pain, which is acomplication that arises from diabetes called diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic Neuropathy Patients (DNP) results if the diabetic patient has high blood sugar levels for a long period. These high sugar level can damage the vessels that supplies blood to the nerve. Aim and Objective: To evaluatethe effectiveness of drug in Diabetic Neuropathic Patients (DNP). Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at general medicine department as a prospective study for 6 months using data entry form and pain rating scale form. Results: In this study,150patients with diabetic neuropathic pain were included and out of this 75 patients were given with Pregabalin + Alpha lipoic acid and remaining 75 were given with Gabapentin + Methylcobalamine therapy and the patients were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and the statistical analysis was done by Microsoft excel. Conclusion: From the present study we concluded that monotherapy with Pregabalin+Alphalipoic acid or Gabapentin+ Methylcobalamine produces clinically meaningful pain relief in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy and pain reduction was superior with Gabapentin+ Methylcobalamine compared to Pregabalin+Alphalipoic acid.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004371
Title: Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female students in South Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the awareness among women in Southern Chennai about breast cancer and breast self- examination (BSE). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 384 female students studying in the southern regions of Chennai. A pre-evaluated questionnaire consisting of questions related to demographic data, awareness, assessing, and knowledge of breast cancer and BSE was determined. Results: Breast cancer being the most common cancer among women, the questionnaire was collected from a total of 384 female students with age ranging from 18 to 27 years. The general knowledge of breast cancer was very varied among the students with the highest of 75%. The students knew about the symptoms of breast cancer with percentages higher than 30%, responses to questions regarding risk factors were also varied with the highest of 40.5% with late menopause as a risk factor. Among the total students, 57% do not know about the BSE and 43% knew about BSE before the intervention. Conclusion: Diagnosis of breast cancer and attention at an early stage by giving appropriate awareness and knowledge of breast cancer and BSE and could mean for better treatment outcomes and complete cure with early reporting of signs and symptoms. This could prove to lower the burden on the symptoms and also the economy on the treatment plan. This study proved that the majority of the female students were not aware of the disease and BSE. Awareness and knowledge were spread among the female students to prevent and lower the chances of breast cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004372
Title: Formulation development and evaluation of self-nanoemulsified liquisolid compacts of a poorly soluble biopharmaceutics classification system Class II drug
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim and objective of the present study was to formulate and develop self-nanoemulsified liquisolid compacts of an antihypertensive biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) Class II drug of felodipine which has poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability (19.7 mg/L; log P, 4). Methodology: Felodopine was identified by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy at λmax of 364 nm. A series of self-nanoemulsifying formulations F1-F9 were prepared using isopropyl myristate as oily phase, labrasol as surfactant and capmul C8 as cosurfactant, respectively. The prepared liquid self-nanoemulsifying system was solidified using solid carrier colloidal silicon dioxide (Aerosil 200). Initially, the solubility was examined in different oils, surfactants, and cosurfactant, and ternary phase diagrams were constructed to optimize the ratio of excipients having a greater microemulsion region. Results and Discussion: The self-nanoemulsified liquisolid compacts were developed and evaluated for droplet size determination, particle size distribution, dilution studies, and in vitro drug release studies. The in vitro dissolution studies revealed that the release patterns of the formulation (F2) containing 60% surfactant, 10% oil, and 30% cosurfactant show the least emulsification time and maximum drug release of 95% within 1 h concluding that the prepared self-emulsified liquisolid compacts with promising in vitro characteristics were expected to solve the oral delivery problems encountered for highly potent lipophilic drugs. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the prepared self-emulsified liquisolid compacts of felodipine were promising carriers to solve the oral delivery problems encountered for highly potent lipophilic drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004373
Title: In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic bark extract of Guettarda speciosa (L.) by human red blood cell membrane stabilization
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The anti-inflammatory effect of medicinal plants is aimed to be evaluated as inflammation is the clinical condition associated in many disease states. Medicinal plants are widely distributed all over the different regions of India. Aim: Thus, the present study was aimed to carry out anti-inflammatory activity of bark ethanolic extracts of Guettarda speciosa which is used in ancient traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: The suppression of hypotonicity-induced human red blood cell membrane lysis was got as an estimation of the anti-inflammatory activity. Results: The percentage of membrane stabilization for methanolic extracts and diclofenac sodium was conducted at different concentrations (50–2000 μg/ml). Discussion: Hence, it can be suggested from the present study that possible mechanisms in anti-inflammatory activity were suppressing prostaglandin synthesis. Conclusion: In the future, studies are needed to evaluate in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of G. speciosa.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004374
Title: Formulation and evaluation of ibuprofen nanoparticulate gel
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies(VISTAS), Pallavaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of the present work is to formulate and evaluate ibuprofen nanoparticulated gel for topical delivery to treat inflammation and penetration enhancement. Nanoparticles being a drug delivery system which may reduce the toxicity and also low dose is enough to achieve the required therapeutic effect. As ibuprofen is one of the most widely used drug in treatment of inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and various inflammatory conditions and long-term use of ibuprofen causes several GIT problems. The objective of the present work is to decrease the side effects of ibuprofen by administering the drug topically and to increase the bioavailability of ibuprofen by converting into nanoparticles. The present work helps to minimizing the drawback of long-term use of ibuprofen these drug loaded nanoparticles were incorporated in gel. The prepared drug-loaded nanoparticulate gel was evaluated for physical appearance, homogeneity, pH, drug content, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability and in vitro diffusion studies. All te prepared nanoparticulate gel formulations were clear and good homogeneity. The formulated topical gel containing ibuprofen Nanoparticles can be successfully used to increase the bioavailability of drug and to overcome the side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004375
Title: Analysis of prescribing pattern of antibiotics and susceptibility patterns of uropathogens among patients with urinary tract infections
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence, prescription pattern of antibiotics, response to various antibiotics, and culture sensitivity status and other therapeutics considerations in patients of complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). Materials and Methods: Patients who are diagnosed with UTI are included in this study. The prescribing pattern of these UTI patients and occurrence of UTI in both men and women is also evaluated. The study has been carried out for the period of 6 months in Employer State Insurance Hospital, Tertiary Care Hospital, Chennai. Results and Discussion: A total of 95 patients with UTI were included in this study. It was found that Escherichia coli was the major susceptible organism to cause infection and it shows higher in the long course of treatment requirement. About 72.6% of UTI patients are treated with ceftriaxone and 62.1% of patients are treated with norfloxacin. Conclusion: Norfloxacin and ceftriaxone are found to be most commonly and majorly prescribed drug among the UTI patients and E. coli was found to be major organism to cause UTI.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004376
Title: Tyrosine kinase titration for scabies and bacterial and viral infection of human’s skin
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Wasit University, Kut, Iraq
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Background: Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) is a key regulator for cellular proliferation and differentiation, growth, and death. PTK is a potent regulator for adaptive immune response. Thus, it could be an interesting antigen for serological to determine scabies and other bacterial infections that are diagnosed presumably on subclinical symptoms. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to compare the measurement of secretory PTK in the serum of scabies-infected group, bacteria-infected group, and virus-infected groups. Materials and Methods: PTK levels were tested in the sera of 50 patients with scabies infection and 14 patients with bacterial infection and 11 patients with viral infection using human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The control of this study included healthy individuals with no history of infections. Results: PTK levels in the sera of scabies-infected group were significantly higher compared to the healthy group (1.57 ± 0.34 vs. 0.99 ± 0.12, P < 0.05). PTK levels of virus-infected patients were found not significantly higher compared to the healthy group (1.61 ± 0.32 vs. 0.99 ± 0.12, P > 0.05). High levels of PTK detected in the sera of bacteria-infected group compared to the control but statistically the difference non-significant (1.5 ± 0.14 vs. 0.99 ± 0.12, P > 0.05). Conclusion: ELISA analysis showed that PTK levels were higher in the sera of scabies patients compared to the other infected patients. Titration of PTK levels using ELISA in the sera of patients with scabies, bacterial, and viral infections could provide sensitive and specific diagnostic approach for early detection.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004377
Title: Estimation of iron oxide nanoparticles on white albino mice induced with iron deficiency anemia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Biology, Science Faculty, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq
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Background: The biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using microorganisms is developing as an eco-friendly method for NP synthesis due to it’s cheap, simple, and non-toxic. Iron supplement drugs such as ferrous sulfate are the most used drug for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, but this supplement reported that can yield undesirable side effects. Methodology: This study estimates the effects of iron oxide and chitosan iron oxide NPs (IONPs) on serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin markers in comparison to ferrous sulfate in iron deficiency anemic albino white mice. The biosynthesis of iron oxide and chitosan IONPs and the mice were divided randomly into two major (A and B) groups and four minor groups (B1, B2, B3, and B4), each of four mice. No material was added to the nipple of Group A (control). Group B1 was a positive control group, where mice were let without treatment during the completely of experimental period. Group B2 was treated with one daily dose (4 mg/kg) of commercially available iron supplement product containing ferrous sulfate, Group B3 was treated with one daily dose (4 mg/kg) uncoated IONPs, and Group B4 was treated with one daily dose (4 mg/kg) chitosan-coated IONPs. Results: Serum iron and ferritin in Groups B3 and B4 were significantly higher than Group B2 (P < 0.05). In addition, transferrin was lower. The average level of serum iron in the same groups was remarkably more than the groups received ferrous sulfate with similar doses (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The freshly Bacillus sp. has the capability to biosynthesized Fe3 O4 NPs with faster rate and slight toxicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004378
Title: Estimation of antibacterial activity of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, and silver nanoparticles against multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical cases in Amara City, Iraq
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Food Technology, College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq
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Background: Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are responsible for health-care-associated infections and hospital outbreaks, with multidrug resistance to antimicrobial agents such as aminoglycosides, carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and polymyxins. It is found that the frequent use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of nearly all antibiotic super bacteria which carry the super-resistance gene called NDM. Materials and Methods: Three species P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and Serratia marcescens isolated from clinical cases, their diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility testing were achieved using Vitek2 systems depending on Gram-negative diagnosis and sensitivity cards. Results: The results revealed that P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii were resistant to antibiotics (ticarcillin, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, minocycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) used in this study, oppositely, S. marcescens was sensitive. The results also showed that minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanoparticles (NPs) is varying according to the type of NPs, the dimension, and bacterial species; the MIC for zinc oxide (Zn O) NP sizes (20, 30, 50, and ~ 150 nm) was determined between 625 and 2500 µg/ml, titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) NP sizes (10, 50, and 100 nm) were 3125–50,000 µg/ml, and silver NPs (AgNPs) (90 nm) were 2500 µg/ml for all isolates. In addition, our results reported that S. marcescens isolate was resistant to TiO2 (10 nm) NPs. Conclusion: Zn O NPs found to have best activity against bacterial growth compared to AgNPs and TiO2 NPs, suggesting the use of these NPs in special preparation to treat such multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004379
Title: Antibacterial activity of date molasses against Enterobacter aerogenes isolated from burns infections in Karbala Province
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Kerbala, Iraq
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Background: Enterobacter aerogenes is a Gram-negative bacteria belong to Enterobacteriaceae family, widely spread in nature, and it is a part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract. Recently, there have been many reports of increased nosocomial infection with these bacteria, especially in the intensive care unit. E. aerogenes opportunistic bacteria mostly causing nosocomial diseases, such as bacteremia, particularly in elderly or debilitated patients, respiratory tract infections, and urinary tract infections, particularly in catheterized patients. Materials and Methods: The current study determined the antibacterial activity of date molasses against E. aerogenes bacteria which cause burn inflammation of patients who visited or attended Al-Hussein Educational Hospital in Karbala Province. Results: The correlation between molasses and antibiotics was evaluated using fractional inhibitory concentration, and the combination results revealed that the antibacterial activity of molasses could be improved by using with antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of molasses reached to 35 mg/ml, but the MIC of molasses in combination with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin reached to 15 and 25 mg/ml, respectively. The ability of E. aerogenes bacteria to produce hemolysin toxin, protease enzyme, and biofilm production came to be reduced when treated with MIC of date molasses. The enhanced antibacterial activity of molasses against E. aerogenes bacteria when combined with antibiotic opens the way of the other studies to show mechanical work of this combination. Conclusion: The main conclusion of this study is the enhanced antibacterial activity of molasses against E. aerogenes bacteria when combined with antibiotic, and this opens the way of the other studies to show mechanical work of this combination.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004380
Title: The relationship between fasting serum glucagon and insulin resistance in obese and non-obese individuals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Ministry of Health of Iraq-Babil Health Directorate, Alsadik General Teaching Hospital, Iraq
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Background: Obesity is a condition manifested by an abnormal distribution of adipose or fatty tissue or excessive accumulation of fat in the body that may lead to many serious health problems such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, cancers, joint problems, and respiratory and neurological problems. Methodology: One hundred people were included in this study: Classified according to their body mass index (BMI), 50 obese patients and 50 non-obese individuals. Exclusion Criteria: History of diabetes mellitus, finding of high blood glucose on biochemical examination, history of taking drugs that cause obesity or an increase in body weight, and patients with diseases of high growth hormone and pregnant women were excluded from the study. Investigations including: Fasting blood sugar, fasting serum glucagon, and fasting serum insulin were used. Insulin resistance (IR) was measured using homeostasis model of assessment IR module. Results: The mean age for the study group was 34.00 ± 9.43 years old while that of the control group was 34.50± 7.40 years old. The mean BMI for cases was 39.23 ± 6.71 kg/m² and 23.08 ± 1.19 kg/m² for the control individuals. There is association between IR and obesity as it well known and a non-significant relationship between fasting serum glucagon and obesity/IR (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Obesity is associated with IR without a high level of fasting serum glucagon.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004381
Title: Plasma fibrinogen as biomarker in asthmatic patients in Hila city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Ministry of Health of Iraq, Babil Health Directorate, Iraq
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Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory process characterized by airway obstruction with hyper responsiveness to variable stimuli which reversible by drugs or by itself. A more new evidences, coagulation activation has been established in the bronchial tree of asthmatic patients. Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of plasma fibrinogen as inflammatory biomarker in asthmatic patients. Patients and Methods: A case–control study was carried out in this study which includes 90 individuals. These subjects were divided into two groups: The first group includes 50 asthmatic patients and the second group includes 40 apparently healthy individuals. Student’s t-test was used to determine the difference in means between control and asthma groups for numerical variables using SPSS version 20.0 software. Results: The current study shows a significant changes between patients and control group parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1], FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC], fibrinogen level, and asthma control test [ACT]). Furthermore, the study reveals a significant negative correlation between plasma fibrinogen level and FEV1/FVC in patients group. The study reveals a significant negative correlation between plasma fibrinogen level and FEV1 in patients group. Furthermore, the study reveals a significant negative relationship between plasma fibrinogen level and ACT in patients group. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated increased plasma fibrinogen concentration in asthma compared to control group. This increasing correlates positively with severity of asthma and thus can be considered as biomarker in predicting status.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004382
Title: Type III secretion systems among clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Imam Hassan College for Medical Science, Iraq
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Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is important player among many of the top ten diseases. Its important causative agent among pulmonary infections, burn and wound infections and urinary tract infections may be due to their withstanding or adaptability to survive among different habitats. Many virulence factors are responsible for this array of infections and the important one is Type III secretion systems (T3SSs). They are virulence determinant among P. aeruginosa that can orientate the infection style whether it is toxigenesis or invasiveness. Materials and Methods: Investigation of T3SS can be achieved by PCR and sequencing. Results: The results revealed that T3SS effector proteins are responsible for immune counteraction or voidance (especially interfering with phagocytosis and immaturation of interleukin IL-1B), impairment of many cellular processes, cell shape deformities, and may cause losing of cell integrity in respiratory and wound infections. Conclusion: T3SS plays a key role in pathogenesis and immune counteracting in some pseudomonal infection.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004384
Title: Microbiological profile with antibiotic resistance pattern in patients of pneumonia in Iraq
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Basic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Al-Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq
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Background: Pneumonia is the most serious infectious disease. It is broadly defined as an infection of the lung parenchyma and is clinically divided into community-acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia. In general, bacteria are the etiology of pneumonia; however, the microbial pattern, the antimicrobial sensitivity, and emerging resistant pattern differ from place to another one. The major bacteria isolated in pneumonia disease are Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, and Staphylococcus aureus, particularly in association with influenza virus infection. Methodology: One hundred and thirty-three isolated bacteria of pneumonia disease were collected from the Teaching Laboratory of Baghdad Medical City, Al-Zafrania hospital and General Hospital Salah Al-Deen in Baghdad and Salah Al-Deen, Iraq, from May 2017 to January 2018. Bacterial isolated had been identified according to the microscopic, biochemical tests, and cultural characteristics. Later, an antimicrobial sensitivity test was done to these bacterial isolates. Results: Of 133 bacterial isolates from pneumonia patients, 72 (54%) of the cases were K. pneumonia, 35 (26%) were S. pneumonia, and 26 (20%) were Moraxella catarrhalis bacteria. Conclusion: Bacteriological profile is important to determine empiric treatment for pneumonia disease. K. pneumonia showed higher susceptibility to imipenem and higher resistance to piperacillin; S. pneumonia showed high susceptibility to vancomycin and high resistance to erythromycin; and M. catarrhalis showed higher susceptibility to cefo and higher resistance to erythromycin. Empirical antibiotic therapy can help to decrease mortality and improve the recovery of the disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004385
Title: Electrospinning approaches for periodontal regeneration: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: College of Dentistry, University of Alkafeel, Kufa, Iraq
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Periodontal disorders are globally prevalent, destructive inflammatory conditions that affect the tooth-supporting tissues, and they are a precursor of premature tooth loss. Tissue engineering (TE) using scaffolds is a promising approach to repair alveolar bone defects resulting from aggressive periodontal lesions. In this field, among numerous methods to produce nanofibers, electrospinning has gained an emergent popularity in the research community due to its remarkable features such as cost-effectiveness, versatility, and amendable operation parameters. Periodontal regeneration was one of the most extensively studied applications for this impressive technique. Major progresses have been achieved in terms of adopting new materials or technique modifications to expand its capabilities. However, there are still some limitations that are hindering the progress of this technique for biomedical applications. Hence, this article will discuss the general concept of electrospinning and surveys the current state of the art in the field of electrospinning to regenerate the periodontal system. In the field of periodontal regeneration and TE, composite, functionalized scaffolds, cell sheets technique, and incorporating additive manufacturing techniques were suggested to overcome these limitations. The review concluded that there still a noticeable paucity in the clinically proven studies that can amplify the hopeful results reported by contemporary literature.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004386
Title: First report of Borrelia spp. and Borreliella spp. in blood, urine, and buccal cavity of patients with psychiatric disorder in Basra Province, Iraq
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathological Analysis, College of Science, University of Basrah, Iraq
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Background: Psychiatric cases define as a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning. Psychiatric cases are still as idiopathic, but in recent years, however, it has been thought that infectious disease (bacteria or virus) is related to these disorders. To achieve this hypothesis, the present study included the uses of electronic diagnosis or so-called biosensor apparatus to detect the infections in psychiatric disorder patients. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and eighty-nine patients enrolled in the present study were suffering from psychiatric disorders including 174 females and 215 males, with ages ranged between 3 and 73 years. Psychiatric patients were first examined physician using biosensor apparatus under. Patients have been indicated that the presence of many causative agents including Borrelia spp. in blood was more investigated by collecting blood samples to detect the anti- Borrelia immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody in serum of those cases according to Biomerieux (France). Results: The results of immunology study indicated the presence of anti-Borrelia IgM and IgG. Two hundred and fifty-five of 389 patients were positive, 209 of them positive for IgG (chronic cases) and 46 positives for IgM (acute infections) in addition to four were positive for both IgG and IgM. One hundred and one of 389 patients who were 27 positives for IgM and 33 were positive for IgG have accepted to enroll in the present study for further characterization using molecular approach. Whole blood, urine, and buccal swab samples were collected from those patients for molecular detection. DNAs were extracted according to Geneaid and then using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and universal primers, 16S rRNA gene was amplified. Sixty-four of 101 patients of whole blood samples, 23 of 50 samples of urine, and 45 of 45 from buccal swab were positive to 16S rRNA. For more specific characterization, nested PCR for amplification part of 16S rRNA, fla-B, and Osp-A genes was performed. Results of nested PCR were positive to 20 samples (15 seropositive and 5 seronegative) of whole blood to the 16S rRNA and Fla-B genes, whereas Osp-A gene did not show bands. Sequencing of randomly four positive samples showed that one of them100% identical with uncultured Borrelia spp. and three of them have 100% identity to Borrelia burgdorferi according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Conclusion: The present study results showed an actual presence of Borrelia and Borellella in blood of psychiatric patients which gives hope for eventual treatment of psychology disorder.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004387
Title: Prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis among women suffering from bacterial vaginosis in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf city/Iraq
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Biology, Faculty of Education for Girls, Kufa University, Iraq
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Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is described as a shift in the balance of the vaginal microflora characterized by an increase in the vaginal pH, a reduction in lactobacilli, predominantly hydrogen peroxide producing species, and an increase in number and/or type of facultative and anaerobic bacteria, vaginal infection is frequently the cause of distress and discomfort in adult women. The present study was aimed to investigate the distribution of Gardnerella vaginalis among women suffering from BV. Methods: A total of 76 secretion swabs have been collected from high vaginal and endocervical canal of women suffering from vaginosis and 10 secretion swabs from healthy women. Samples were collected from specialized medical clinics during the period from April 2018 to July 2018 in Najaf – Manathrah district. BV was characterized according to Amsel criteria, while polymerase chain reaction technique was carried for detection of bacteria associated with BV using 16SrRNA gene for molecular identification of G. vaginalis. Results: Molecular detection of bacteria associated with BV showed that G. vaginalis was detected in 63% and 71% of high vaginal swab and endocervical swab of women with BV, respectively, in comparison with healthy women which was 20%, by appearance of amplicon with molecular size 301 bp. A wide distribution of G. vaginalis (detected in high vaginal swab) among the age group 15–25-year-old compared with those detected in endocervical, which shows a high percentage of detection among age group 26–36 years old. Significant differences have been observed between G. vaginalis and age group at P < 0.05. Furthermore, G. vaginalis was detected in a high percent (13% from high vaginal swab and 26.3% from endocervical swab) from women suffered from one case of abortion. Conclusion: A correlation has been founded between prevalence of G. vaginalis and age group with occurrence of BV that lead to abortion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004388
Title: Treatment-free remission after stopping tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase achieving major molecular response
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Oncology, Mataria Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt
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Purpose: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal disorder which resulted, in 95% of patients, due to the presence of distinctive cytogenetic abnormality, the Philadelphia chromosome. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the treatment of choice for this disease. Assessing the treatment-free remission is a hot area for CML patients. Patients and Methods: This study included 54 CML patients in the National Cancer Institute during 2016 and 2017 which stopped the treatment with TKIs. Results: The median age for the study population was 36.5 years. All were in major molecular response (MMR) for at least 2 years. All cases stopped their TKI and followed up regularly by clinical examination and polymerase chain reaction for breakpoint cluster region-Abelson, of our cases, 54% remain in MMR during the study period (12 months) and 91.3% of the relapsed cases regain their MMR after resumed the same TKI. Conclusion: Trial to stop TKI for eligible patients is a safe and effective maneuver.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004389
Title: Interleukin-6 response to shock wave therapy versus polarized light therapy in the treatment of chronic diabetic foot ulcers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy for Integumentary, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Deraya University, Minia, Egypt.
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Background: Diabetic foot is one of the most feared complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) characterized by definite inflammatory reaction as one of the DM complications. Foot ulcers are one of the danger complications among diabetic patients. The ulcers can be inflamed after the period of time and lead to pain and disability. The advancement of foot ulcer can cause amputation of lower limb. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the response of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and ulcer surface area to shock wave therapy versus polarized light therapy in chronic diabetic foot ulcer. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 diabetic patients with chronic foot ulcer participated in the study, their age ranges from 55 to 65 years of age. They randomly assigned into three groups, Group A (15 patients) received shock wave and traditional wound care, Group B (15 patients) received polarized light therapy and traditional wound care, and Group C (controlled group) (15 patients) received traditional wound care only. Subjects were assessed pre and post 2 months of study. The foot ulcer is measured by planimeter method and IL-6 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The shock wave and polarized light therapy groups show significant improvement of foot ulcer surface area and lowering of IL-6 (P < 0.05) but not significant in controlled group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both polarized light therapy and shock wave therapy are effective in increasing the healing of diabetic foot ulcer and lowering of IL-6, but polarized light therapy is more effective than shock wave therapy in increasing the healing of diabetic foot ulcer and lowering of IL-6.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004390
Title: Effect of biofeedback and pelvic floor muscles training on genital prolapse
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy for Women’s Health, Faculty for Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
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Background: Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition that impacts daily activities. Biofeedback and pelvic floor muscles training are used to improve the function and support of the pelvic floor muscles. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized controlled trial. Overall, 40 patients were participated in this study as genital prolapse of any type (Stages I and II) was randomized into two equal groups. The control group received pelvic floor muscles (PFM) exercises treatment program (contraction of the anterior and posterior fibers of pubococcygeus muscle in three steps) while experimental group received biofeedback treatment program (by the perineometer device) with addition same physiotherapy program received by control group for 12 weeks. All the women in both groups were received PFM exercises program as a home routine, and a prolapse lifestyle advice leaflet through the study period. All patients in both groups were evaluated pre- and post-treatment with strength of PFM measured by the perineometer Neen Peritoneal device and the modified oxford grading scale, the level of genital prolapse measured by translabial ultrasound and the severity of the symptoms of genital prolapse measured by subjective curing rate scale. Results: Statistical analysis using pre- and post-treatment design indicated that there was a significant difference between groups in the strength of PFM, there was a significant reduction of the level of genital prolapse, and there was a significant difference between groups in the improvement of the severity of the symptoms of genital prolapse. Conclusions: Biofeedback and pelvic floor muscles training are effective intervention to increase the strength of the pelvic floor muscles, reduce the level of genital organs prolapse and improve the severity of the symptoms of genital prolapse.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004391
Title: Detection of tumor p53 mutations in lung adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry in Iraq patient
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Iraq
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Background: Lung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed of all cancers and is responsible for approximately 1.76 million deaths each year worldwide. There are two main types of bronchogenic carcinoma: (1) Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), this type of cancer is present in approximately 15% of people with lung cancer and (2) non-SCLC accounts for most bronchogenic carcinomas. We aimed to investigate to find correlation between the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression and presence of tumor p53 (TP53) mutations with a study of clinicopathological (age, sex, stage, and grade). Materials and Methods: We used 50 tissue blocks embedded in paraffin wax which were obtained from 50 patients (16 females and 34 males) suffering from lung adenocarcinoma, while controls were 30 samples from healthy, histopathological examination study by hematoxylin and eosin stain and detection of mutation in TP53 by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction, and detection of protein expression in p53 by IHC. Results: Our study results have, confirmed the mean age of patients group was 51.84 +/-15.70 years and performed study shows no correlation between stage of disease with the age of patients while P53 expression were recorded in immunohistochemical method in positive rate shows highly significant difference between patients and control healthy (P < 0.05). The correlation between p53 expression and age, gender was not significant while it was significant with grade and stage. That means the frequencies of TP53 codon 72 gene polymorphisms in the 50 Iraqi patients with lung adenocarcinoma were with significant differences with that of the 30 healthy controls (P ˂ 0.05). had found as not significant with, gender, sit of tumor but significant with grade and stage. Conclusion: Our results indicates no correlation between stage and grade of disease withe age of patients and while P53 expression were recorded in immunohistochemical method in positive rate highly significant difference seen between patients and control healthy, had found as not significant with age and gender, but it was significant with, grade and stage while TP53 significant difference between patients and healthy controls but it was not significant with, gender and site of tumor but significant with grade and stage, there is no correlation between expression of p53 and TP53.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004392
Title: Acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Turkcap (Malvaviscus arboreus Cav.) leaves
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl Raya Bandung Sumedang Km 21, West Java, Indonesia
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Background: Turkcap (Malvaviscus arboreus Cav., Malvaceae) leaves, empirically, are used as a hair growth stimulant in the Salawu area, Tasikmalaya district, Indonesia. Ethanolic extract of Turkcap leaves contains polyphenols, essential oils, terpenoids, saponins, and sapogenin. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of Turkcap leaves ethanolic extracts on Swiss Webster mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were given Turkcap leaves ethanolic extract at a dose of 500, 2500, 5000, 10000, and 15000 mg/kg body weight mice. Results: The safety level of Turkcap leaves ethanolic extract was 6th category, i.e., relatively harmless, based on the classification of the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. Conclusion: Turkcap leaves were safe.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00004393
Title: Lip color formulation using mangosteen rind extract (Garcinia mangostana L.)
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jawa Barat 45363, Indonesia,
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Objective: This study aimed to extract dyes from the skin of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana Linn) and utilize them in the manufacture of cosmetics, especially lip color preparations. Materials and Methods: The research included material collection and plant determination, dye extraction and phytochemical screening, physical stability test of mangosteen peel extract, lipstick formulation with extracts of mangosteen peel various concentrations, physical stability test of lipstick preparations made, safety tests, hedonic tests for preparations made, and statistical data analysis. Results: The separation of mangosteen rind pigment produced a thick extract of dyes of 15.52% w/w. Phytochemical screening resulted that G. mangostana peel extract showed the absence of quinone and steroid compounds. Mangosteen rind extract was quite stable at temperature of 10–50°C, but not in the temperature range between 60°C and 80°C. Storage evaluation for 56 days, pH, and color (by thin-layer chromatography) was stable, observation of fungal growth, the exit of rough gains, or liquid during storage time did not occur. Lip color formula with various concentrations of mangosteen rind (10, 15, and 20%) was safe to be used. Conclusion: Based on the hedonic test, lip color formula containing various concentrations of mangosteen rind color (10, 15, and 20%) was quite preferred by consumers. And among the three, the most preferred formula was formula 3, which was lip color with the addition of a dye concentration of 20%.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004394
Title: Role of melatonin in oral cavity: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The purpose of this article was to summarize the role of melatonin (MLT) in the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for the relevant published literature. The following search items were used in various combinations: MLT, periodontal, gingiva, periodontium, drugs, immunity, osseointegration, cancer, methacrylate, dental implants, and dental materials. Results: MLT is a hormone secreted by the pineal glands. It exhibits a circadian rhythm with the highest values at night. Both endogenous and exogenous MLT are metabolized by cytochrome P450 mono- oxygenase enzymes, CYP1A2, in the liver. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticoagulopathic properties. These properties help in control of a wide range of disease processes in the body. MLT also helps in promotion of osteoblast property and helps in bone remodeling. It counteracts the cytotoxicity of drugs and dental materials. MLT plays a preventative and therapeutic role against oral cancer due to its antioxidant properties. Conclusion: Collectively, the results indicate that MLT is beneficial to the oral cavity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004395
Title: Detection of vancomycin resistance in multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis isolated from burn infections
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq
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Background: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the main causes of nosocomial infections. The clinical importance of E. faecalis is related to its antibiotic resistance because it is intrinsic resistance. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis (VRE) acquired the vancomycin (VA) resistance by a plasmid that permits the sensitive bacteria to become resistant and has the ability to transfer this resistance to other unrelated bacteria. Materials and Methods: During the period of 3 months from 1st March to 31st May 2019, a total of 50 swabs were collected from patients with burn infections from patients in Al-Hilla General Teaching Hospital, Al-Hilla City, Babylon, Iraq. The swabs were cultured on selective and differential media and incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24–48 h. Using VITEK 2 system was used for more confirmative diagnosis. Results: All samples yielded bacterial growth 100%. A total of 71 bacterial isolates were identified. Morphological and biochemical characterization of bacterial cultures revealed that 14/71 (19.7%) of total isolates were E. faecalis. The disc diffusion method was used for antibacterial susceptibility test against 22 antibiotics. Among 14 isolates of E. faecalis, only 5 isolates (35.7%) have resistance against VA. Conclusion: The emergence of VRE became a great challenge with serious complications of the control policy for nosocomial infections in our hospitals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004396
Title: Immunomodulatory activity of Plectranthus scutellarioides (L.) R.Br. leaves ethanolic extract and its fraction on rat using carbon clearance method
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung, Sumedang KM 21, Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia
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Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of the ethanolic extract and fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water fraction) obtained from Plectranthus scutellarioides (L.) R.Br. leaves which employed in the immunity experimental model. Materials and Methods: The cellular immunity was conducted by a carbon clearance method in comparison to commercial immunostimulant containing other standardized plant extract, Phyllanthus niruri (50 mg/kg, orally) in male rats (Rattus norvegicus) of Wistar strain. The dose of the P. scutellarioides ethanolic extract and fractions was administered at 102 mg/kg and 510 mg/kg orally once a day for 6 days, respectively. Each experimental group consists of four animals. Results and Discussion: The result of this study revealed that the Plectranthus leaves extract produced a significant increase in the phagocytic index (>1.5) compared to its fraction. According its phagocytosis index, the extract was classified as a power strong immunomodulator candidate. The strength of immunomodulatory effect of the extract was almost having similar protection as the P. niruri extract as the standard agent. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of Plectranthus leaves possesses potential immunostimulant properties

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004398
Title: Study of relationship between thalassemia disease and blood groups, weight and some of blood parameters
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathological Analysis Techniques, Al-Safwa University College, Karbala 56001, Iraq
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Background: Thalassemia is disease spread in around the world, but in largest percent in some countries such as countries of Mediterranean, therefore this disease called anemia of Mediterranean, and this diseases well-known since old time in this region. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in Thalassemia Center of Imam Al-Hussein Medical City in Karbala taken 105 samples for female persons infected in thalassemia and 105 samples for female healthy persons and they were 1–50 years old. Results: The results of present study showed that blood group A+ are formed of the largest percent while blood group AB- is formed of the smallest percent. The results of blood parameters showed that there is significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in packed cell volume (PCV) value, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and red blood cells count in persons infected with thalassemia compared with healthy persons. Results of weight showed that there is significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in weight in persons infected with thalassemia compared with healthy persons. Conclusion: There is a relationship between different blood groups, loss of weight, PCV, Hb, and thalassemia disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004399
Title: Cystatin C in type 2 diabetic patients in Iraq
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq
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Background: Cystatin C (cys-C) is a low molecular mass protein that belongs to the cysteine protease inhibitors; these proteins play an important role in the regulation of proteolytic damage to the cysteine proteases. They have a constant rate of production; its serum concentration is determined by glomerular filtration. Its concentration is not influenced by infections, liver diseases, or inflammatory diseases and used as a marker of glomerular filtration rate. Materials and Methods: A total of 107 patients sample (62 males and 45 females) from Al-Hussein Medical City in Karbala Province and Marjan Medical City in Babylon Province and 32 controls (14 males and 18 females) participate in this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), microalbuminuria, lipid profile, atherogenic index of plasma, C-reactive protein, and cys-C were measured to all patients and controls. The comparison between control and patients and comparison between albuminuria grades of patients and normoalbuminuria control group were made also the correlation between cys-C and some parameters done. Results: The results show significant increase in cys-C in patient males (P = 0.0001) and females (P = 0.03) as comparison with control group. There was also found an increase in cys-C in all albuminuria grades in males in comparison with normoalbuminuria control, but the increase in females group is found only in microalbuminuria group. There was also significant positive correlation between cys-C and each of BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HbA1c in male and female groups. Conclusions: Cys-C associated with early impairment in the renal function and the elevation appears from normoalbuminuria stage. The kidney function worsens by the presence of obesity, especially central obesity and poor glycemic control.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004400
Title: Assessment of follistatin level in atherosclerosis patients and its relation with some anthropometric criterion as predictor survival
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Physiology and Pharmacology Branch, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Kufa, Iraq
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Background: Follistatin (FST) is glycoprotein, otherwise called activin restricting protein, is an endogenously created protein that ties activin a with high fondness and restrains its bioactivity. The essential capacity of FST is the authoritative and bioneutralization of individuals from the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and activin a specifically. FST advances adipogenic separation of begetter cells. FST has been embroiled in aggravation and renovating, any adjustment in the level of FST, which might be a determinant of the seriousness of irritation, or tissue phenotypic change. Atherosclerosis is a dynamical procedure that rises up out of the interchange between lipid digestion, irritation, and inborn insusceptibility. Materials and Methods: The study was applied on 88 people aged 30–69 years, included 65 patients suffering from atherosclerosis disease. The FST level was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: The results exhibited significant increase (P < 0.05) in FST serum level of atherosclerosis patients (11.92 ± 2.522 ng/ml) compared with healthy group (0.6703 ± 0.1012 ng/ml). Significant increase (P < 0.05) in FST serum level of female atherosclerosis patients group (10.912 ± 0.5823 ng/ml) compared with male atherosclerosis patients group (2.892 ± 0.3849 ng/ml) and also compared with male and female healthy group (0.136 ± 0.0721 ng/ml, and 0.799 ± 0.2023 ng/ml), respectively. In addition, there was significant increase (P < 0.05) in FST serum level of the healthy female group compared with the healthy male group. The results indicated that there was significant increase (P < 0.05) in FST serum level of age group of 60–69 years of atherosclerosis patients and has compared with other ages. The results showed significant increase (P > 0.05) in FST serum level in the obese weight of the atherosclerosis patients group have (8.286 ± 2.112 ng/ml) compared with (over weight and normal weight) have (4.266 ± 1.012 ng/ml and 2.221 ± 0.568 ng/ml ) respectively, and results showed significant increase (P > 0.05) in FST serum level in overweight (4.266 ± 1.012 ng/ml) compared to normal weight (2.221 ± 0.568 ng/ml). There was non-significant difference in FST serum level among healthy groups (obese weight, overweight, and normal weight) have 0.7685 ± 0.0121 ng/ml, 0.6615 ± 0.1311 ng/ml, and 0.5251 ± 0.2324 ng/ml, respectively. The results showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in FST serum level of patients group according to waist circumference (111–120 cm) compared with other waist. The results showed that significant increase (P < 0.05) in FST serum level in smokers atherosclerosis patients’ group has (13.974 ± 1.433 ng/ml) compared to nonsmokers of the atherosclerosis patients’ group, and healthy group nonsmokers have 5.949 ± 2.101 ng/ml and 0.6703 ± 0.1012 ng/ml, respectively, and nonsmokers of the atherosclerosis patients’ group compared with the healthy group nonsmokers. Conclusion: FST is the new biomarker for prognostic, staging, and detection of atherosclerosis disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004401
Title: A case of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in a 12-year-old boy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare benign disorder in children which usually presents with rectal bleeding, constipation, mucus discharge, prolonged straining, tenesmus, lower abdominal pain, and localized pain in the perineal area. Here am reporting a 12 year old boy diagnosed to be as a case of SRUS, we will be discussing in detail about the etiology, diagnosis, investigation, treatment options available in this case report.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004402
Title: Causes of ischemic stroke in children – A review article
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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On average, it takes almost 24 h to diagnose an ischemic stroke in a child. Epileptic seizures are the most common clinical manifestation of cerebral ischemia in neonates and small children. Many children who have sustained a stroke have a constellation of risk factors that can lead to recurrent infarcts if they are not detected in timely fashion and then definitively treated. In this article, we present the current concept of the evaluation and treatment of ischemic cerebral arteriopathies in children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004403
Title: A case of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Bartter syndrome presents with hypokalemia; metabolic alkalosis; increased urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride; and normal blood pressure. It has a good prognosis after treating with indomethacin. Incidence is rare in neonatal period.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004404
Title: Effect of mouthwashes on different composite resin – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of mouthwashes on the different composite resins. Materials and Methods: Fifteen cylindrical specimens were prepared for each of the composite (micro hybrid composite, nano hybrid composite, and fine hybrid composite). The baseline weight of each composite was determined. These composites were dispensed into the mouthwashes (mouthwash containing alcohol and mouthwash not containing alcohol), respectively. The weight of the composites was weighed after 24 h and after 48 h. The mean values of the weight were calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey’s test. Results: Listerine cool mint (containing alcohol in its composition) caused the greatest degree of sorption in nano hybrid composite resin. It was found that among the different composite resin, fine hybrid composite showed to be the most stable and more superior than the other composites. Conclusion: Overall sorption of the composites was higher in mouthwashes containing alcohol.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004405
Title: Case study of a seven year old boy with recurrence of left lower lobe pneumonia after three years of normalcy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Pneumonia is one of the most common respiratory tract infection in the pediatric age group. Recurrence of pneumonia in child is of concern. The diagnostic workup is dependent on whether infection repeatedly occurs in the same lung lobe, or affects multiple lobes and/or different areas in different episodes. A 7-year-old boy was admitted with a second episode of left lower lobe pneumonia. The chest X-ray demonstrated a nonhomogeneous opacity without a clearly recognizable segmental distribution. A diagnosis of superinfection of an intralobar sequestration was made. The patient was treated with systemic antibiotics and 14 days later the child improved symptomatically

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004406
Title: A case of partial empty sella syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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An 8-year-old male child presented to our pediatric outpatient department with complaint of his height being short compared to peers of his age group. Systemic examination was normal. On further investigation, he was found to have a rare cause of pathological short stature. We want to present this case because of its rarity and to throw light on availability of treatment for the same.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004407
Title: Herbal formulation mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antifungal activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nanobiomedicine Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate herbal formulation (Andrographis paniculata and moringa olifera) mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its antifungal activity. Materials and Methods: Andrographis paniculata and Moringa olifera formulated and used for green synthesis of AgNPs has been gaining importance due to its simplicity and eco-friendliness. In this study, the herbal formulation mediated AgNPs are evaluated for antifungal activity using agar well diffusion method. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate herbal-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and its antifungal activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004408
Title: Pleural effusion in multiple myeloma – A rare clinical presentation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Multiple myeloma (MM) can occasionally manifest with pleural effusion. We report the case of an individual with swelling in both the legs and arm. Investigations revealed a bilateral pleural effusion, anemia, and nephrotic-range proteinuria. The diagnosis of MM was made on serum protein electrophoresis and renal biopsy. The cause of MM is unknown. Risk factors include obesity, radiation exposure, family history, and certain chemicals. MM may develop from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance those progress to smoldering MM. The abnormal plasma cells produce abnormal antibodies, which can cause kidney problems and overly thick blood. The plasma cells can also form a mass in the bone marrow or soft tissue. When one tumor is present, it is called a plasmacytoma; more than one is called MM. MM is diagnosed based on blood or urine tests finding abnormal antibodies, bone marrow biopsy finding cancerous plasma cells, and medical imaging finding bone lesions. Another common finding is high blood calcium levels. Globally, MM affected 488,000 people and resulted in 101,100 deaths in 2015. In the United States, it develops in 6.5/100,000 people/year and 0.7% of people are affected at some point in their lives. It usually occurs around the age of 61 and is more common in men than women. It is uncommon before the age of 40. Without treatment, typical survival is 7 months. With current treatments, survival is usually 4–5 years, the 5-year survival rate is about 49%.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004409
Title: Assessment of hepcidin level in hepatitis patients with diabetes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathological Analysis, AL furat Al Awsat Technical University, Kufa Technical Institute, Kufa, Najaf 54001, Iraq.
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Aim: This study was an attempt to measurement hepcidin in hepatitis patient with diabetes for period 2018–2019 in some local hospitals. Materials and Methods: A total of 79 patients in this study, divided into 54 males in addition to 25 females aged between 30 and 60 years. These patients diagnosed as hepatitis patients with diabetes for both sexes based on history, medical examination, and taking liver function test. (Hepcidin, AST, ALT, Urea, Creatinine, and blood Glucose). Results: The results have an important elevate (P < 0.05) in level of hepcidin, liver enzyme, urea and creatinine, and blood glucose) in both male and female hepatitis patient with diabetes. Conclusion: The results show important correlation between hepatitis and diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004410
Title: A comparative study on the effect of different orifice openers on cervical dentin thickness of mesiobuccal root canals of mandibular molars using cone-beam computed tomography
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of three different instruments as orifice openers on the cervical dentine thickness of human mandibular first molars, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: Fifteen human permanent mandibular first molars were used. The teeth were thoroughly cleaned of any soft or hard tissue deposits using hand and ultrasonic scalers, disinfected by immersion in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution for 1 h, and stored in saline and the teeth were aligned in arch form and a pre-operative CBCT was taken. The samples were randomly divided into three equal groups according to the orifice opener used (n = 5). The canals were instrumented using stainless steel hand instruments, Kedo-S file, and ProTaper files. The root canals were scanned after the cervical flaring using the same pre-flaring scanning protocol; cervical dentine thickness was measured before and after flaring. SPSS version 15 software was used to compare between the tested groups and each thickness. Results: For the ProTaper group, the percentage change in mesiobuccal cervical thickness was significantly higher than Kedo-S and stainless steel hand instrument at the level of 2.0 mm and 4 mm below the cervical line. Conclusion: From the present study results, it may be concluded that regarding dentin removal from root canal walls during instrumentation, rotary nickel–titanium ProTaper file was found to be more effective than the other. Hence, further clinical trials are required to confirm the advantages of rotary instruments with regard to the tissue conservation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00004411
Title: Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method development and validation of ilaprazole and domperidone in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Bharat Institute of Technology, Ibrahimpatnam, Telangana, India
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Objective: A simple, accurate, and precise reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of the ilaprazole (ILA) and domperidone (DOM) in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Materials and Methods: Chromatogram was run through Zodiac Sil RP C18 (4.5 mm × 100 mm 3.0 µm) with a mobile phase consisting of 70:30 methanol:phosphate buffer at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 240 nm. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and solution stability. Results: The retention time of ILA and DOM was found to be 2.170 min and 7.280 min, and percentage relative standard deviation of ILA and DOM was found to be 0.52% and 0.83%, respectively. The described method shows excellent linearity over a range of 16–80 ppm of ILA and 25–150 ppm of DOM. The correlation coefficient for ILA and DOM was 0.999 and 0.999, respectively. The LOD was found to be 2.17 and 0.0372 and the LOQ values were 6.60 and 0.112, respectively. Percentage assay was obtained as 99.1% and 98.2% for ILA and DOM, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise, and accurate which is useful for the routine determination of ILA and DOM bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage form.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004412
Title: Adsorption of metronidazole benzoate from aqueous solution using pomegranate peel: A thermodynamics study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, AlSafwa University College, Karbala, Iraq
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Background: Metronidazole is a member of nitroimidazoles and has both antibacterial and antifungal activity. The overdose of metronidazole benzoate (MB) leads to high toxicity, nausea, vomiting, and peripheral neuropathy. This study is conducted to evaluate the ability of using pomegranate peel (PP) as low-cost material for adsorption MB. Materials and Methods: The factors as contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage, and temperature were investigated in experimental work. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS were calculated. Results: the result shows that the adsorption process of drug on adsorbent was spontaneity at 30°C and 40°C but was non-spontaneity at 50°C and 60°C, and exothermic in nature, also studied the adsorption isotherm of experimental data, we refitted for the Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and Dubinin- Radushkevich, and finally studied surface coverage and sticking probability. Conclusion: PP surface gives a good efficiency removal of MB from aqueous solution through physisorption and adsorption process has exothermic and spontaneity at low temperature and was non-spontaneity at high temperature with increasing of adsorption at acidic pH.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004413
Title: Correlation between iron deficiency anemia and types of infant feeding, breast, and formula milk feeding
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Haematology, Al-sadder medical City, Najaf Health Directorate, Najaf, Iraq
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Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) consider one of the most nutritional problems in world, the infants aged from 9 to 12 months, school-age children, and pregnant women are the most frequent risk group, the consequences of iron deficiency on the small children include weakness in immune system, growth defect, and neurological system disturbance. Materials and Methods: During period of 5 months of 6 months from July to the end of December 2014, a total of 100 full-term infants from aged 9 to 12 months were studied in vaccination unit in Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital. A venous blood samples were taken and were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), blood film, and serum ferritin. Results: The mean values of Hb, PCV, and serum ferritin of breastfed infants were 105 ± 2 g/l, 32.4 ± 0.17%, and 15.18 ± 1 µg/l, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of formula fed (FF) infants (111 ± 2 g/l, 33.9 ± 0.6%, and 34 ± 2 µg/ml, P < 0.05). Anemia was found in 24 BF infants (48%) compared with 11 FF infants (22%). The proportion of IDA in BF infants was significantly higher than FF infants (34% vs. 10%, P < 0.001). Risk factors of IDA included low weight, breastfeeding, inadequate complementary food, low maternal education, and low socioeconomic status (adjusted RR: 4.7, 3.4, 2.8, 5.3, and 1.9, respectively). Conclusion: IDA is more prevalent in BF than FF infants. Risk factors of IDA are low birth weight, breastfeeding, inadequate complementary food, low maternal education, and low socioeconomic status. Prevention of IDA in infants should be achieved through adequate iron-rich complementary food and screening for Hb or PCV at 9–12 months of age in the high-risk infants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004414
Title: New record of ascomycetous yeasts strains from soil in Basrah, Iraq
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathological Analyses, College of Science, University of Basrah, Iraq
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Background: Yeasts are cosmopolitan in nature. They have been found in soil with widely different texture, chemical composition, humidity, and hydrogen ion concentration at numerous geographic locations, atmospheric condition, whether in uncultivated or cultivated soils. Materials and Methods: The dilution plate method for 75 soil samples was collected from 21 area in Basrah and Dhi Qar Provinces, Southern Iraq. Soil samples were collected from both cultivated and uncultivated lands to seek the presence of ascomycetous yeasts. Results: The results reported a 1st time record of six species belong to five genera; moreover, test the ability of yeasts on halotolerance and osmotolerance media the finding showed they have variation in tolerance of salt and sugar beside of reported he ability of them in growth at 15°C, 25°C, and 37°C, the results showed different in ability of growth at three temperatures. For in addition for more accurate discrimination between morphological alike species, a molecular study represented by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-ITS2) region rDNA gene was conducted confirm our findings. Conclusions: This first study in Iraq for molecular identification of ascomycetous yeast revealed about biodiversity of yeast in soil.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004415
Title: Evaluation of abrasive wear resistance of polymethyl methacrylate material reinforced with zirconium and dental stone
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservation, College of Dentistry, University of Alkafeel, Najaf, Iraq.
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Background: The numerous advantages of polymethyl methacrylate)PMMA) make it the most dominant polymer material used in dentistry. Recently, specific attention was given to the effect of fibers, fillers, and nanofillers addition on PMMA properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zirconium and dental stone addition on the abrasive wear resistance of the PMMA material. Materials and Methods: Zirconium and dental stone powders were added to the powder of PMMA material by weight in different amounts. Seventy specimens were constructed and divided into seven groups according to the test (each group consists of 10 specimens). Abrasion wear test was performed at a constant rotation speed of 50 rounds per minute and with a load of 10 N. The duration of each test was 60 min. Results: Reduced values of abrasive wear rate were recorded for Group 2 specimens made from PMMA with 15 mg (half ratio) of dental stone which were nearer to the values of readymade teeth in Group 7 than those of pure PMMA in Group 1. Conclusions: Reinforcing PMMA with dental stone increases abrasive wear resistance of the PMMA material, while adding of untreated zirconium particles does not increase the abrasive wear resistance of PMMA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004416
Title: Efficiency of antifungal agents with culture filtrates of two basidiomycetes fungi on growth and on citrate and isocitrate genes of Trichophyton rubrum
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathological Analysis Techniques, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Hillah, Babil, Iraq
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Background: Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte in the world; it colonizes the upper layers of dead skin, causing athlete’s foot, fungal infection of nail, jock itch, and ringworm worldwide. Aim: The experiment aimed to evaluate the combinatorial efficacy of the basidiomycetes species (Marasmius palmivorus and Pleurotus ostreatus) filtrates with terbinafine on the growth and on citrate and isocitrate genes of the clinical isolate T. rubrum. Methodology: The combined efficiency of terbinafine with filtrates of both the fungal species on citrate and isocitrate genes of this pathogen was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: The results demonstrated the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of P. ostreatus and M. palmivorus filtrates (3, 6, 9, and 12%) on the growth of T. rubrum. The maximum inhibition rate to the growth of this pathogen reached 50.7% and 28.16% with P. ostreatus and M. palmivorus filtrates, respectively, at 12% concentration. On the other hand, the minimum inhibitory rate was reduced to 35.7% and 19% by P. ostreatus and M. palmivorus filtrates, respectively, at 3% concentration, compared with the maximum (50.51%) and minimum (35.29%) inhibitory rate by terbinafine at 0.006 µg/ml concentration. The -RT-PCR experiments revealed that basidiomycetes filtrates markedly affected the gene expression by downregulating the isocitrate and citrate genes in T. rubrum. In addition, the combination between terbinafine and P. ostreatus and M. palmivorus filtrates in this study showed a similar tendency by downregulation in isocitrate synthase and citrate synthase compared to the housekeeping gene (ß-tubulin genes in strain of T. rubrum). Conclusions: This innovative study focuses on the combinatorial application of culture filtrates with a distinguished antifungal agent, terbinafine, for the treatment of severe infections associated, with T. rubrum-exhibiting downregulation of citrate and isocitrate genes as antifungal targets. Moreover, the filtrates of both fungi might be a potential source of new antifungal agents and could serve as an alternative drug against T. rubrum.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004611
Title: Bacterial growth inhibitory potential of Abutilon indicum seeds
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Abutilon indicum is a small shrub grown in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia. It is used in the treatment of leprosy, ulcers, headaches, gonorrhea, and other bladder infections. Aim: This study aims to analyze the bacterial growth inhibitory potential of A. indicum seeds on the bacteria of our study. Materials and Methods: The method used in this study to analyze the bacterial growth inhibitory potential is minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. The bacteria taken for this study is Streptococcus mutans. Results and Discussion: The results obtained for this study show that the MIC of the given drug is 25 µg. Conclusion: The seeds of A. indicum can be used to prevent dental caries and for having better oral hygiene.