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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004536
Title: Awareness on the use of neutral zone technique for fabrication of complete dentures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The stability of complete dentures is influenced by the surrounding neuromuscular system and amount of residual alveolar bone available in the oral cavity. The retention and stability of complete denture become unfavorable when ridge resorption gets more severe, especially in the mandible. The neutral zone technique is an alternative approach for the construction of stable mandibular complete dentures. It is most effective where there are a highly atrophic ridge and a history of denture instability. The technique aims to construct a denture that is shaped by muscle function and is in harmony with the surrounding oral structures. The technique is by no means new but is a valuable one. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and awareness among dental students on the use of neutral zone technique for the fabrication of complete dentures. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire containing 10 questions will be prepared and circulated among 100 dental students belonging to two different colleges. Data collection and analysis were done based on frequencies and percentage values. Results: Among 100 participants, 13% think that neutral zone is not important for the fabrication of complete dentures, 52% think that that it is important for the complete denture fabrication whereas 35% are not sure about its importance in fabrication. About 10% practice the neutral zone fabrication technique for the complete denture, 75% do not practice this technique whereas 15% are not sure. Conclusion: From the results obtained in this survey, the knowledge and awareness about the neutral zone technique seems to be just above average and hence there is reduced incidence of practice of this technique. Thus, there is still in need for continued education about the technique and a need for motivation to adopt it in practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004512
Title: Prevalence of sleep disorder among dental students and correlation with oral hygiene status – A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of sleep disorders among dental students and to determine the effect of sleep patterns on the academic performance of students. Background: Sleep disorders can be described as the disruption of the quality and/or quantity of sleep due to certain disturbances and habits. The degree and depth of sleep disorders can hinder every aspect of a person’s life. Sleep plays a key role in daytime functionality, as well as long-term effects on overall health. Dental specialty exerts heavy stress on students and demands long hours of study and practice, which might exaggerate the poor quality of their sleep. Dental studies and practice, especially in the clinical years, require high levels of concentration, cognitive performance, and motor dexterity. Poor sleep quality or sleep deprivation can affect performance negatively. It can also be concluded that sleep quality plays a significant role in the academic performance of dental students, especially in the clinical years. Students should accustom themselves to a healthier sleep pattern to enhance their academic performance and avoid related health and psychological hazards. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 150 dental students was taken. A short pre-tested questionnaire of 19 questions was given to them. The questionnaire was designed to assess their sleep pattern and its effects on academic performance of the students. Data obtained were tabulated, statistically analyzed, and the results were obtained. Results: In this study, about 38.6% of dental students having a problem in falling asleep, in which 46% of students reported <8 h of actual sleep at night. About 30% of students reported facing difficulty in initiating sleep and sometimes 59.3% of students felt sleepy during daytime were reported. It can be noted that 39.3% of students felt disturbed sleep. Conclusion: Within the basis of this study and on the basis of results obtained, we concluded that dental students, in general, have poor sleep quality, which may be unknown to them. It can also be concluded that sleep quality plays a significant role in the academic performance of dental students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004513
Title: An in silico study on the protein network interaction induced by capsaicin against dental pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The present investigation is designed to analyze the possible protein interactions of the potent phytocompound capsaicin with the common dental pathogens together with the assessments of functional class of the proteins, virulence nature, and subcellular location using in silico tools. Materials and Methods: The study follows an in silico design, where computational tools are used to derive the preliminary data on the molecular interactions of the drug with the protein repertoire of the pathogens. The interaction was assessed by the STITCH tool followed by the evaluation of the functional class of the protein and its virulence using VICMPred and VirulentPred. PSORTb and BepiPred were used to identify the subcellular location and epitopes on the virulent protein targeted by capsaicin. Results: Several virulence factors were found to be targeted by capsaicin. Molecular chaperone was found to be the common virulence factor in most of the pathogens followed by choloylglycine hydrolase of Enterococcus faecalis, conserved hypothetical protein of Streptococcus mutans, ABC transporter ATP-binding protein and superoxide dismutase of Porphyromonas gingivalis, and pyruvate kinase of Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia. Conclusion: Capsaicin could be used as an antimicrobial agent, especially against dental pathogens as it was found to target some of the crucial proteins such as molecular chaperones of the dental pathogens.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004514
Title: Comparison of two mouthwashes in relation to perceived dryness
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Mouthwashes are medicated solutions used for gargling and rinsing. It is used as an adjuvant to mechanical procedures like brushing for removing dental plaque. Dental plaque is the main etiologic agent for the development of oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontal diseases. Mouthwashes have been used for their antimicrobial, anti- inflammatory, antiseptic, and analgesic effect. It is used for treating halitosis, gingivitis, gingival bleeding, removal of oral biofilm, demineralize teeth, and for providing freshness of breath. Along with the beneficial effects of mouth was, its adverse effect must also be taken into consideration. With increased sales of over the counter sales of mouthwashes over the past decade, its adverse effects have become more pronounced. Moreover, there is always an assumption that alcohol-containing mouthwashes have more adverse effects like causing xerostomia compared to non-alcohol containing mouth wash. Hence, the aim of the study to compare the measurement of dry mouth following the use of alcohol-based mouthwash (Listerine Antiseptic) and a non-alcohol-based mouthwash (Colgate Plax) on a healthy individual with normal salivary flow using Bluestone Mouthfeel Questionnaire (BMQ). Material and Methods: Two commercially available mouthwashes with and without alcohol content were given to study participants and were asked to rinse for about 20 ml of solution for 30 min. BMQ was distributed that responses were asked to mark, immediately after rinsing and 1 h post rinsing, and the data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The results were inconsistent with both groups and did not have any statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Hence, it was concluded that use of alcoholic mouthwash is not associated with dry mouth when compared to non-alcoholic mouthwash.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004515
Title: Attitude of patients toward the ill effects of smoking
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Smoking is the major concern in the world. Smokers constitute one-sixth of the world’s population. Many researches have been undertaken in order to determine the nature of smoking, and very little is known regarding the effects of smoking in smokers and non-smokers. Aim: The aim of the present study is to explore the attitudes of patients toward the practice of smoking. Materials and Methods: The self-administered questionnaire consisted of eight yes or no questions which were then analyzed separately based on the nature of it. The questionnaires were distributed to the patients, and they were given some time to answer. As the sample population is limited, we selected only the completely answered questionnaires. About 105 completed questionnaires were selected. Results: In the sample size of 105, 81 (77.1%) knew consequences and 24 did not know the consequences of smoking. About 75 (71.4%) knew that smoking is carcinogenic and 30 did not know. Around 65 (61.9%) knew about passive smoking and 40 did not know. About 71 (67.6%) knew that the nicotine gums and nicotine patches are alternatives to smoking, and 34 did not know. Conclusion: The relatively high rates of smokers being male suggested that the men are carefree to get awareness and are not involving much as they should in the anti-smoking campaigns and programs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004516
Title: Receptivity of students in a lecture class
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Lecturing is widely used teaching method in higher education. Instructors of large classes may have only option to deliver lecture to convey information to large group of students. Various methodologies have been employed including lecture, PowerPoint presentation, and interactive sessions. The receptivity of students varies in different lecture sessions. This study was carried out to analyze interaction of students in a lecture class through a questionnaire-based study and also to improve the effect of teaching in various methods. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the receptivity of dental students in a lecture class through a questionnaire. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 20 questions was prepared to attain information regarding the receptivity of students in a lecture hall. This study was conducted among a sample of 115 students who were doing 1st and 2nd years in the Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. The data collected were analyzed. Results: Thirty-three agreed that communicating well with the lecturers helped them to improve their learning. Of 57 2nd year students, 42 agreed to this. Twenty-eight of the 1st year students answered that the team-based learning helped them to retain the learned things easily. Thirty-six of the 1st year students agreed listening to the lecture keenly helped to improve their performance. Most of them preferred the online quizzes and pointed out that visual and auditory materials help in recollecting the lectures. Conclusion: Blended learning with different teaching methods into dental education appears to be an important development and provided courses if appropriately designed, they can be instrumental in encouraging effective learning.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004517
Title: Bleeding disorders in dental care
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Initial recognition of bleeding disorders which may indicate the presence of systemic pathological process may occur in dental practice. Oral care providers must be aware of the impact of bleeding disorders on the management of dental patients. The present significant concerns to the dentist conducting invasive procedures as they prolong post-operative bleeding wound healing and increase the risk of infection. With appropriate management strategies, nearly, all bleeding disorder patients can benefit from the full range of dental procedures available to establish and maintain good oral health. Patient with bleeding disorders places a major challenge for dentists. Adequate understanding of the medical conditions is essential to reduce the risk of dangerous complications. Emphasis should be placed on providing appropriate replacement therapy before the dental procedure, selection of conservative treatment approaches, and use of local hemostatic measures to facilitate hemostasis. From this review, we can understand the types and management of bleeding disorders and its effects on the delivery of oral health care.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004518
Title: Drug abuse analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography with monolithic columns – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
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The problem of drug abuse has become one of the toughest problems for governments around the world. Based on the cases of drug abuse, a method of drug abuse analysis is needed to monitor its levels in the body. Several methods have been developed, but the most widely used is HPLC. The application of HPLC method requires fast and inexpensive testing techniques. In the past, particle columns were used for analysis many compounds. However, because of the tendency for blockages and backpressure to be very high, monolithic columns are used as an alternative for those problems. There are many applications and development of monolithic columns for drug abuse analysis. Monolithic columns are used for separation substance of drug abuse in their matrices. Based on the research that has been done, monolithic column shows better results compared to particle columns such as high selectivity, low cost, easy and simple preparation, and also minimizing high backpressure.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004519
Title: Awareness of basic life support among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Basic life support (BLS) includes recognition of signs of sudden cardiac arrest, heart attack, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and defibrillation with an automated external defibrillator. It is very important that every person in the community knows about BLS to save lives and improve the quality of community health. Aim: The aim of our study is to assess the awareness and knowledge about BLS among dental students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected questions pertaining to BLS among dental students through survey planet among 102 dental students. A questionnaire is regarding the knowledge and attitude toward BLS. The results were analyzed using an answer key prepared from the advanced cardiac life support manual. Results: About 31% of the students have an average knowledge about BLS and 17% has a good knowledge and 15% has an excellent knowledge on BLS and 37% of them have very poor knowledge on BLS. Conclusion: The awareness and knowledge regarding BLS is inadequate among dental students. Spreading awareness and teaching the basics of advanced life support to the medical and paramedical team as well as teaching BLS and first aid to the community will be the prime responsibility of this new emergency specialty, and also, by introducing BLS regularly in the academic curriculum and by routine hands-on workshops, all the health-care providers should be well versed with the BLS skills for effectively managing the life-threatening emergencies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004520
Title: An in vitro application of mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with calcium hydroxide
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is the most biocompatible material used in endodontics. It is made up of hydrophilic particles that set in the presence of moisture. MTA is used in root-end filling, direct pulp capping, and apexification. The surface hardness of MTA is not very high. To improve the hardness MTA, the possibility of mixing with calcium hydroxide (CH) is explored. Aim: The aim is to estimate the microhardness of MTA when mixed with CH as a root-end filling material. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted, (n = 30) single-rooted human teeth which includes mandibular single-rooted premolars, maxillary incisors, and canines were selected in the study. The teeth were sectioned horizontally perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth into slices with a thickness of 1.0 mm. The sliced teeth were divided into two groups – one group was filled only with MTA (Group I) and another group was filled with mineral trioxide and CH (Group II). Hardness was measured using Vickers microhardness testing machine and expressed as Vickers pyramid number (HV). Results: Group I showed hardness of 54.7 ± 4.53 (HV) and Group II showed hardness of 55.2 ± 5.07 (HV). Group II showed higher hardness value than Group I, and the mean difference between Groups I and II is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Mixing CH with MTA can improve its properties. In the present study, it is seen that CH improves the hardness of MTA. In future, MTA and CH can be used in vivo studies, and better clinical results can be obtained.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004521
Title: A review on various treatment modalities for oral lichen planus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory, autoimmune mucocutaneous disease. It affects the skin, mucous membrane, nails, and hair. It is seen in 1–2% of populations. It is slightly more prevalent in females than in males. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of OLP. Due to its side effects, various treatment modalities have been used to treat OLP. Aim: The aim of this review is to provide awareness and update on the development of the treatment of OLP. Results: An electronic search was conducted through many websites and databases to analyze the various treatment modalities for lichen planus. The studies were reviewed and compared. This review article summarizes the treatment modalities carried out for the OLP. Conclusion: OLP has been researched widely as it has been a potentially malignant disorder. Recent advancements in the treatment have been considered to reduce the side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004522
Title: Awareness among dental students about the retaining mechanisms available for implant-retained overdentures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Although there are many retaining mechanisms available for retaining the overdentures, the choice of one system over the other should be based on a complete understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of each system. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge of dental students about retaining mechanisms for implant-retained overdentures. Methodology: A self-administered questionnaire with 10 questions was prepared and circulated among 100 dental interns. Data collection and analysis were done based on frequencies and percentage values. Results: In case of retention and support, 81% of students agreed that a ball and socket retainer can provide both retention and support and 9% of them do not agree and 10% of students were not confident. About 62% of students suggested that a bar and clip retainer can give both support and retention and 17% did not and 21% of students were not confident. Conclusion: The survey shows that the participants are a little above average in their knowledge of retaining mechanisms. However, a regular and continuous assessment at the individual and group levels can lead to better understanding and choice of retaining mechanisms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004523
Title: Awareness on various retention aids used for complete dentures among dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Complete dentures are removable devices that are used to replace missing teeth. There are several difficulties associated with denture retention. This survey assesses how aware current dental practitioners are, regarding these problems associated with retention of complete dentures and what kinds of retention aids are used for the same. Aim: The study aims to assess the level of awareness regarding the denture retention aids used for complete denture retention, among dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared and distributed to 100 dental practitioners in Saveetha Dental College. The resulting data were analyzed using statistical software, to estimate the awareness levels and further promote the use of retention aids for complete dentures. Results: Regarding factors that affect denture retention, 55% of respondents opined that undercuts reduced the quality of denture retention over reduced bone height, reduced bone width, and bony protrusions. Conclusion: There is a significant level of awareness on the various retention aids used for complete dentures among dental practitioners.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004524
Title: Awareness among dental students on different techniques available for temporization in fixed partial denture – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Fabrication of provisional restorations or temporization is an important procedure in fixed prosthodontics. Provisional restorations must satisfy the requirements of pulpal protection, positional stability, occlusal function, ability to be cleansed, margin accuracy, wear resistance, strength, and esthetics. Although any technique can be used to fabricate a provisional restoration, the choice of technique will be based on the ease, predictability, and availability of materials required to accomplish the required characteristics. This is possible only when an individual has adequate knowledge about the pros and cons of different techniques. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness among dental students on different techniques available for temporization in the fixed partial denture. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted based on a questionnaire which was distributed to final-year dental students, interns, and postgraduate students of dental colleges in Chennai. The sample size was 100 students. The survey consisted of 10 questions. The questionnaire elicited awareness of different techniques employed in provisional restoration. The data were extracted and analyzed. Results: About 40% of the respondents answered that CAD CAM-processed temporary restoration has longer shelf life and were better, whereas 20% preferred conventional provisional restorations. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the students were moderately aware of the techniques used in the fabrication of temporary restorations. Further educational and awareness programs need to be undertaken to improve this status.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004525
Title: Comparison of awareness and knowledge among dental students and dental practitioners about the materials used in making secondary impression for complete denture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: A dental impression is a negative imprint of hard and soft tissues in the oral cavity and a crucial step in complete denture treatment. Common materials used for dental impressions are sodium alginate, polyether, and silicones both condensation cured silicones and addition cured silicones. However, the level of awareness and knowledge of materials used for making a secondary impression for complete denture among dental practitioners (DP) and students needs to be investigated further. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness and knowledge among dental students (DS) and DP about the materials used in making secondary impressions for complete denture. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among the DP and DS in Chennai to assess the knowledge, attitude, and awareness on oral hygiene using a pretested questionnaire. A sample size of 100 participants inclusive of 50 DP and 50 DS each were used. Questions based on the dental knowledge and attitude toward the secondary impression materials for complete dentures were asked to the participants. The questionnaire consisted of ten questions and appropriate responses were recorded. Results: Among the respondents, 58% of DS follow mucocompressive technique for making a secondary impression and more than 72% of DP follow mucocompressive technique for making a secondary impression. Among the respondents more than 72% of DS responded that light-bodied addition silicone impression material may be suitable for secondary impressions, and 60% of DP responded that light-bodied addition silicone impression material may be suitable for secondary impressions. Conclusion: Knowledge and awareness among DS were better about the materials used in making secondary impression for complete denture. However, responses of both the students and practitioners showed that they have to make continuous efforts to learn more about newer materials to render improved care to patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004526
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of school teachers toward oral health
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to asses the knowledge, attitude, and practice of schoolteachers toward oral health. Objective: A survey was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of schoolteachers toward oral health. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among the schoolteachers of different primary schools in and around Chennai to assess the awareness of schoolteachers on importance of oral health among children. Results: The results were tabulated and percentage (100%) was calculated and conclusions were drawn. This survey presented a comprehensive overview of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of schoolteachers in and around Chennai. Around 36% of teachers concluded that irregular brushing causes decay, 14.7% contributed for gum diseases, 16% of teachers concluded that it will lead to bad breath, and 16.7% concluded that irregular brushing causes stains on teeth. Only 17.3% concluded that all the factors are caused due to irregular tooth brushing. About 23.3% of teachers concluded that dental problems are due to eating sweets and ice creams. About 58% of teachers agreed for improper brushing. Only 1.3% of teachers concluded that dental problems are due to not visiting the dentist regularly and rinsing mouth. Conclusion: The schoolteachers need to be motivated to increase awareness regarding the importance of oral health among primary school students and the importance of teachers role in teaching them. They also need to be taught that oral health does play an important role in general health. The respondents need to improve their knowledge of dental problems and the reasons for the same.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004527
Title: Awareness among dental students on different types of permanent denture base materials used in complete denture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The ideal denture base material should possess some properties. It includes biocompatibility, good esthetics, high bond strength with available denture teeth, radiopacity, ease of repair, and should possess adequate physical and mechanical properties. The materials such as polystyrene and light-activated urethane dimethacrylate have been developed, but polymethyl methacrylate remains the preferred material for removable complete and partial prostheses. Aim: The aim is to analyze the awareness among dental students on different types of permanent denture base materials used in complete denture. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to understand the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of choice of permanent denture base materials among dental students and practitioners. Random sampling was done, and 100 interested participants were selected which included, both students and practitioners. A questionnaire containing 15 questions was given to the selected persons and responses were obtained and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: According to the responses, 97% of the participants prefer acrylic denture base, 3% prefer metal. About 76% of the participants said that metal is the strongest denture base material, 9% said nylon and 15% said acrylic. About 63% of the participants said that metal denture bases allow the patients to feel the cold and warmth of the food, 31% said acrylic denture base, 6% said nylon denture base. About 81% of the participants said that acrylic denture base is more economical, 14% said metal base and 5% of them said nylon denture base. Conclusion: The survey results show that the participants are more aware of the properties and nature of acrylic denture bases, which again is identified as the most commonly prescribed denture base. However, awareness about metal and nylon based or flexible dentures seem to be little lesser than that of acrylic denture bases, and both of them were identified as less common in use.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004528
Title: Prevalence of dental caries among outpatients attending a dental college in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the prevalence of dental caries among outpatients attending a dental college in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 outpatients attending dental college. Caries prevalence was assessed using decayed, missing, and filled teeth index proposed by Henry Klein, Carrole E. Palmer, and Knutson J. W., in 1938. A questionnaire containing 15 questions was framed which includes oral hygiene practice, dietary habits to assess their oral health practices. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: In this study, a total of 100 people were screened. Out of them, 60 were female and 40 were male. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) score for females was found to be 5 and males were found to be 3. Nearly two-third of people practices oral hygiene habits such as brushing and rinsing of mouth after meal, whereas remaining were recommended to practice oral hygiene habits. Conclusion: Hence, DMFT score for female is comparatively higher than males. Oral hygiene practices among the study participants have to be improved. This study is helpful to analyze the respective role of different dietary factors including protein-rich diet, age, and gender on the prevalence of dental caries, which can be helpful to counteract the potential increase in the cases of dental caries and to design and plan preventive strategies for the persons at greatest risk.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004529
Title: Indirect sinus lift techniques: A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics and Implant Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The most common anatomic limitation found in the maxillary posterior region is lack of vertical bone due to pneumatization of the maxillary sinus and close proximation of the sinus to the crestal bone. To increase the amount of bone in the posterior maxilla, the sinus lift procedure, or subantral augmentation has been developed. Bone volume can be increased by augmentation; however, augmenting the vertical bone dimension is technique sensitive. The elevation of the sinus membrane is an option to create space for augmenting the vertical bone height.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004530
Title: Effect of nanoparticles incorporated into herbal substitutes against endodontic microorganisms
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles incorporated into herbal substitutes against endodontic infections. Materials and Methods: The samples (30) were screened for antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis using agar well diffusion method. The extract was mixed with ethanol and vortexed for maximum dissolution. Luria-Bertani agar plates were inoculated with test organism. The plates were evenly spread out. Then, wells were prepared in the plates with a cork borer. Each well was loaded with 50 µl. The plates were incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The development of the inhibition zone around the well was measured (diameter) and recorded. Tetracycline was used as a positive control. Results: In this in vitro study, we assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of sliver nanoparticles with Calotropis gingantea extract and tetracycline against E. faecalis. The antimicrobial activity of nanosilver particles with C. gingantea extract was moderate compared to that of conventional tetracycline. Tetracycline rapidly killed the bacteria in the Petri dish, only partial disinfection can be achieved in the surface wall of the root canal and tetracycline was relatively effective. More the concentration of the sample, more is the antibacterial effect of the sample. Conclusion: Silver nanoparticles incorporated into the extract C. gingantea against E. faecalis are less effective than tetracycline. Therefore, increasing concentration of the extract C. gingantea in nanoparticles can be assessed in the future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004531
Title: Effect of aroma on pain perception and anxiety levels in patients undergoing fixed prosthetic dental treatment in dental clinic – A prospective study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics and Implantology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: There is a remarkable increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) evidenced around the globe. Aromatherapy is a commonly used CAM and one of the non-pharmacological strategies that have long been regarded as a popular means of treatment for anxiety. Dental procedures frequently evoke considerable degrees of anxiety, especially when preceded by anxious waiting in the dental clinic and lack of information on the dental procedures. Although studies are being conducted for the use of aromatherapy in alleviating anxiety in health-care setting, further research is required in the same lines to substantiate the existing evidence. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of aromatherapy on pain perception and anxiety levels in patients undergoing fixed prosthetic dental treatment. Materials and Methods: We included 20 patients between the ages of 25 and 55 years in our study. The participants were assigned to either a control group or to a test group. Ambient odor of lemongrass oil was diffused in the operating cubicle and was maintained through a candle warmer made of ceramic, for the test group. The participants were requested to fill the demographic details. Patients were asked to score their levels of pain using visual analog scale (VAS) after the dental appointment. The patients were also assessed for anxiety levels preoperatively as well as postoperatively, using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: The results were statistically analyzed and interpreted. VAS scores were collected in the form of pictorial response and then graded into ranks. Since the data were non-parametric, Mann–Whitney U-test was performed and it showed a statistically significant difference between the test and control groups (P < 0.05). According to the anxiety scores, the data were ranked and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed. The test showed post-operative anxiety scores less than pre-operative, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: This study concluded aromatherapy with lemongrass oil showed statistically significant effectiveness on pain perception and anxiety levels in patients undergoing fixed prosthetic dental treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004532
Title: Implant considerations and surface modifications – A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental implants represent a reliable treatment option in oral rehabilitation of partially or fully edentulous patients to secure various kinds of prostheses. Dental implants have become a standard procedure for single tooth replacement not only in the esthetic zone, providing many advantages but also challenges in sophisticated patients. The process of osseointegration was reported more than 45 years ago. However, it was not until the last decade that the focus of biomedical research shifted from implant geometry to the osteoinductive potential of implant surfaces. Surface characteristics such as topography, wettability, and coatings contribute to the biological processes during osseointegration by mediating the direct interaction to host osteoblasts in bone formation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004533
Title: Knowledge about post-extraction complications among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The most common dental procedure done in the dental clinics is the extraction of teeth. Each dental practitioner should know the various complications that can happen during these procedures. Post-extraction complications generally do not occur; however, there are times when the dentist is faced with post-extraction complications. In such instances, the dentist should be aware of the treatment procedures and management of post-extraction complication. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of dental students regarding post-extraction complications and their management. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 150 dental students was taken. A short pretested questionnaire of 13 questions was given to them. The questionnaire was designed to assess their basic knowledge about the post-extraction complications and its management. Data obtained was tabulated, statistically analyzed and results obtained. Results: About 40% of dental students reported bleeding to be the most common post-operative complication, followed by pain 30%, swelling 16.6%, and dry socket which is 13.3%. All 150 dental students agreed that thorough medical history can be useful for treating complications. About 39% of dental students responded that localized pressure by biting on gauze arrest bleeding. Majority of students were aware that displacement of the tooth into maxillary sinus is highly seen during extraction of maxillary 1st molar. Conclusion: This study revealed that knowledge about post-extraction complications among most of the undergraduate dental students was adequate. Good quality of treatment can be maintained, if future dentists have a good knowledge of post- extraction complications and the methods of preventing and managing them.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004535
Title: Knowledge and awareness about recent advances in implants among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental implant is an artificial root that is surgically inserted into the jawbone to support a single tooth replacement, fixed partial or complete denture, or maxillofacial prosthesis. It is an ideal option for people with good oral health who have lost a tooth or teeth due to injuries, periodontal diseases, and failure of endodontics. It is also used for the treatment of edentulousness and is associated with improved denture retention, stability, and functional efficiency and thus improving the quality of life of the patient. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of dental undergraduate students regarding recent advances in implants. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire will be given to 100 dental students comprising questions to evaluate the knowledge about recent advances in implants. The questionnaire will be administered through the survey planet application and results will be statistically analyzed. Results: About 100% of the respondents were aware of dental implant as a treatment option and that dental implants can be used to support dentures after fabrication, they were also aware that alveolar ridge length and width, inter-arch distance, and placing the right implant based on the indications play a major role in the success of implant. About 81% of the respondents were aware of the absolute contraindications for implant placement and 19% were not aware. Conclusion: From the above survey, we can conclude that dental students have adequate basic knowledge about the implants but lacked knowledge on recent advances in implants. This shows the need of educational intervention to enhance the knowledge through interactive learning aids, seminars, workshops, and including the medical and dental significance of recent advances in implants as a part of the curriculum.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004537
Title: Management of burns occurring on the face – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of the study was to review the management of burns occurring on the face. The objective of the study was to determine the reason for facial burns and to assess the methods by which management of facial burns can be done. Burn injuries are an important health problem. Burns frequently occur on the head or neck. These areas are central to a person’s identity and play a key role in communication, so facial burns must be dealt early and must have a complete knowledge about it and its management. Hence, this review is to explore in detail the reasons for the occurrence of facial burns and the ways by which we can prevent them and ensure a long term success of its management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004538
Title: Knowledge on oral hygiene measures in patients with dental implants
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The purpose of a prosthodontic treatment is to replace a certain number of lost or damaged teeth in order to achieve a functional and esthetic rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system. Tooth decay, gingival inflammation, and periodontal disease are quoted as the most common biological complications of fixed prosthodontic appliances. It is well known that these conditions are caused by bacteria settled in the dentogingival plaque accumulated due to insufficient oral hygiene in patients with fixed prosthodontic appliances. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge on oral hygiene measures in patients with dental implants and also the role of dentists in creating the awareness. Materials and Methods: In this study, a questionnaire was framed on the basis of analyzing the knowledge on oral hygiene measures in patients with fixed dental implants and conducted on 50 patients visiting Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. Results: About 80% of the patients said that they are aware about oral hygiene measures needed for implants and received awareness through their dentist; likewise, 10% of the patients were not aware about the need of hygiene measure in maintaining the dental implants. Conclusion: The current study concludes that the knowledge regarding the maintenance of dental implant prosthesis in this group of patients was insufficient. Hence, dentists should be encouraged to provide regular dental examinations and oral hygiene advice for all patients rehabilitated with dental implant prosthesis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004539
Title: Peri-implant health in single piece implants: A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics and Implant Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Peri-implantitis is a localized pathological condition that results in loss of soft tissue and supporting crestal bone around the implant, whereas peri-implant mucositis is the inflammation of the soft tissues only around the implant. Approximately 65–70% of all infectious diseases, including periodontal and peri-implant diseases are associated with biofilms. The concept that bacteria play a major role in the etiology of peri-implantitis and peri-implant mucositis is well documented in the implant literature.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004540
Title: Skin graft in facial reconstruction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to review the skin grafts in facial reconstruction. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the various skin grafts that can be used in reconstruction of the face and the technique by which it is performed. Background: The skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology, skin grafting is the transplanting of skin and, occasionally, other underlying tissue types to another location of the body. Reason: Hence, this review is to explore in detail the various skin grafts used in facial reconstruction and to ensure a long-term success of the treatment. Conclusion:  The skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology, skin grafting is the transplanting of skin and, occasionally, other underlying tissue types to another location of the body. Hence, this review is to explore in detail the various skin grafts used in facial reconstruction and to ensure a long-term success of the treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004541
Title: Role of cone beam computed tomography in dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Cone beam computed tomography (or CBCT) is an imaging technique consisting of X-Ray complied with tomography which is currently used in the field of dentistry, such as in the fields of oral surgery, endodontics, and orthodontics. Integrated CBCT is also an important tool for patient positioning and verification in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) which processing the image, the scanner of the CBCT rotates around the patient’s head, producing nearly 600 distinct images. For interventional radiology, the patient is positioned offset to the table so are now finding-rays are divergent, forming a cone. CBCT has been widely and very commonly used in the diagnosis and in the treatment planning of implant dentistry, interventional radiology (IR), among various other things. Perhaps, because of the increased access to such technology, CBCT scanners many that the region of interest is centered in the field of view for the cone beam. A volumetric data set is obtained with a single 200 degree rotation over the region of interest. The software which helps in scanning collects the raw data and redevelops it, producing what is termed a digital volume composed of three-dimensional voxels of anatomical data that can then be manipulated and assessed with specialized software. As in any radiographic imaging system, CBCT requires X-ray production, X-ray attenuation by an object, signal detection, image processing, and image display. These parameters are vital to all aspects of dental imaging, but they are understandably more sophisticated for CBCT. During a rotational scan of an object, multiple exposures are taken at fixed intervals (angles) of the rotation. Each of these exposures is referred to as a basis image. The images are standard radiographic images captured on the detector, and the signal of each projection is unique for each of the different angles in the rotational arc. Instantaneously, the image data for each basis image are sent to a data-storage area so that the detector can be cleared to capture the next basis image at a position interval further along the rotational arc. Once the rotation is complete, and all the basis images are made, the complete set of basis images forms the “projection data.” The total number of basis images taken depends on the radiographer’s preferences and the scanner’s capability. This total ranges from 100 to 600 basis images per scan. The greater the number of basis images, the longer the scan time, the greater the radiation dose, and the better the quality of the constructed images.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004542
Title: Role of spirulina in the management of oral submucous fibrosis – A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the existing literature on the role of spirulina in the treatment of  oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of the electronic literature databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar) was carried out to identify all relevant studies published up to December 31, 2018. Various combinations of the following keywords were applied: OSF, oral submucous fibrosis, idiopathic scleroderma of the mouth, juxta‑epithelial fibrosis, Asian sideropenic dysphagia, spirulina, and herbal therapy. Titles and abstracts of all the retrieved articles were screened, and irrelevant studies were excluded. Full texts of the potentially relevant studies were obtained and thoroughly assessed for inclusion. Manual search was also done to rule out additional studies. Results: The initial search yielded a total of 12 studies. Following an initial screening of the titles and abstracts, four studies were found irrelevant and were subsequently removed. The full texts of the remaining seven studies were sought and thoroughly read and assessed. Two of these studies were excluded due to the exclusion criteria. Ultimately, the five studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. The five studies assessed parameters such as mouth opening, burning sensation, cheek flexibility, and tongue protrusion. Conclusion: From the five clinical trials, we can conclude that spirulina is an effective treatment in managing oral submucous fibrosis. Although only five clinical trials have been done, further clinical trials are necessary to prove the efficacy of spirulina in managing oral submucous fibrosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004543
Title: Oral changes in patients undergoing chemotherapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Cancer is a class of disease characterized by out of control cell growth. It is also common term for neoplasm or tumors that are malignant. All cancer is caused by the malfunction of genes that control cell growth, division, and maturation. Chemotherapy is responsible for the long-term survival of patients with malignancies. Chemotherapeutic regimens have a deleterious effect on both normal cells and tumor cells. Certain normal cell such as oral mucosa divides rapidly. Thus, the effect of chemotherapy may result in oral complications such as mucositis, xerostomia, and osteoradionecrosis. These complications have a negative impact on patients’ quality of life, and it may be life-threatening in some case.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004544
Title: Branches of internal laryngeal nerve – A cadaveric study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Laryngopharynx being the common gateway for many health-care specialists such as oral surgeons, ENT surgeons, anesthetists, upper gastrointestinal endoscopists, and bronchoscopists as it becomes important in studying the pyriform fossa. The nerve in close association with this region is internal laryngeal nerve (ILN). The submucosal neural network can be anesthetized by topical application or injection of local anesthetics. In this study, the anatomical landmarks related to it, point of entry and pattern of main divisions of ILN are analyzed. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 en bloc cadaveric specimens were analyzed from the Institute of Anatomy, Madras Medical College, Chennai, and Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu, India. Conventional dissection method was used in the identification of the branches of superior laryngeal nerve and specifically its internal laryngeal branch. Results: Points of entry of ILN into submucosal plane after piercing the thyrohyoid membrane, in relation to midpoint of the line joining the tips of greater cornu of hyoid and superior horn of thyroid cartilage were noted. It was 7 mm in 77.5% (31/40), 10 mm in 15% (6/40), 5 mm in 5% (2/40), and 15 mm in 2.5% (1/40). It branched (a) before piercing the thyrohyoid membrane in 92.5% (37/40) and (b) after piercing the thyrohyoid membrane in 7.5% (3/40). It divided into two divisions in 45% (18/40), three divisions in 35% (14/40), four divisions in 7.5% (3/40), and multiple points of entry in 12.5 (5/40). Conclusion: This knowledge of variation in the branches and area of supply of ILN is essential. It is not the nerve to be neglected as the knowledge of its branching pattern is very much essential for the surgeons operating in this area, where the confluence of air and food passage occurs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004545
Title: Handwashing techniques among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Good hand hygiene is one of the most important actions healthcare workers can take to reduce the spread of infection and protect the lives of their patients. The main medical purpose of washing hands is to cleanse the pathogens and chemicals which can cause personal harm or disease. Handwashing reduces the number of transient organisms on the skin surface. Materials and Methods: This study is an educational study devoted to improve skills about hand hygiene. It was carried out among 50 dental students within a dental college, Chennai. We observed the handwashing technique done by the student and instructed them with a proper way of handwashing technique. To assess the knowledge, attitudes and skills of hand hygiene among dental students. Results: In this study, handwashing skill training was effective. Only 10% of participants are aware of proper six steps whereas 90% were not aware of the proper six steps of handwashing technique. After giving an hands-on training, all were aware of the proper six steps of handwashing technique. Conclusion: It was found from the study that there was a significant improvement in hand hygiene techniques, which helps to avoid the spread of nosocomial infection from dental professionals to patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004546
Title: Antimicrobial effect of Triphala on oral microbes – An in vivo study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth. Bacterial plaque is known to have an etiologic role in inflammatory periodontal disease. Triphala is being extensively researched for its various therapeutic effects including its anticaries, antioxidant, anticollagenase, and antimicrobial activities. The use of Triphala on subgingival plaque might cure periodontal disease without any side effects or toxicity. Materials and Methods: Triphala capsules are finely powdered in a sterile aluminum foil using mortar and pestle, and sterile saline is mixed with finely grind powdered to form a thick paste. On antimicrobial analysis – in nutrient agar, using a sterile tube metal is punched well on agar, oral microbes such as lactobacilli, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were inoculated on nutrient agar. Triphala paste is added in a well on nutrient agar and incubates at 37°C for 24 h. Results: This study was undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Triphala against oral microbes using agar well diffusion method. Triphala showed a maximum zone of inhibition measuring 18 mm on three well and 15 mm against lactobacilli. The maximum zone of inhibition for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was 17 mm on three well and 16 mm on two well. Both species were found to be resistant to the action of Triphala. Conclusion: The purpose of the study is to determine the antimicrobial effect of Triphala on subgingival plaque in periodontal patient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004547
Title: Awareness of medicolegal aspects among dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India  
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Background: Dentistry as a profession is not only mentally and physically demanding but also requires the practitioner to be on their toes always with no scope of errors. In the present times, the patients are becoming more educated, scrutinizing, and aware of their legal rights. Legal jurisdictions and threats to be sued not only hamper professional growth but also the practitioner’s dignity. It is, therefore, essential that dental practitioners are aware of their legal rights and responsibilities. Materials and Methods: A pre-tested questionnaire will be distributed to 100 dental practitioners in Chennai. The level of knowledge regarding various aspects of medicolegal issues in dentistry was recorded. Results: Almost all participants were aware of informed consent forms and about the Consumer Protection Act, in general, but not specific legal details. Around 90% did not have an indemnity policy and those who had, had it for <20 lakhs mostly. The participants suggested the need for increased civil defense education programs to improve their medicolegal knowledge. Conclusion: The purpose of this survey is to highlight the status of awareness and knowledge of medicolegal aspects of dentistry among dental practitioners.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004548
Title: Assessment of position and size of nasopalatine duct in dentulous patients using cone-beam computed tomography
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics and Implant Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Nasopalatine canal is a significant structure which has a prominent role during dental treatments such as extraction and implant placement. During extraction damage to the canal leads to trauma of the nerves and vessels of the canal causing paraesthesia of the premaxilla. And likewise while placing an implant, improper evaluation of the location of the canal might lead perforation causing the same former adverse effect along with improper osseointegration of the implant. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the position and size of the nasopalatine duct using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in dentulous and edentulous cases in Chennai population. Materials and Methods: The study is done using CBCTs collected from the Department of Implantology in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. A set of 50 CBCTs are collected for the study without any gender bias and patient age ranging from 23 to 80 years. All the CBCTs are assessed in sagittal and coronal views for the dimensions of the nasopalatine canal. Results: As per the gathered data, the evaluated population has an age ranging from 23 years to 80 years and out of which 15 are male and 9 are female. The mean value of the canal from the anterior wall of the foramen to the anterior nasal spine in males is 14.69 mm and in females is 12.74 mm. The thickness of the buccal cortex from the foramen in males is 6.38 mm and females is 6.20 mm. Conclusion: There is a significant difference in the position and size of nasopalatine ducts in completely edentulous patients with respect to gender. Increased knowledge of this anatomic structure and its diversity leads to enhanced surgical procedures and reduced complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004549
Title: Comparison of orogranulocytes between generalized chronic periodontitis patients with and without Type II diabetes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim is to evaluate and compare the orogranulocyte count between generalized chronic periodontitis patients with and without Type II diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples were collected from 40 individuals who were categorized as healthy patients (n = 20) and patient with Type II diabetes (n = 20). Smears were prepared and stained with eosin stain and observed under the microscope. The neutrophil count was observed, tabulated, and analyzed. Results: It was observed that the mean orogranulocyte count in chronic periodontitis patients without diabetes was significantly higher (mean = 10.20 × 106 cells/ml) than the chronic periodontitis patients with diabetes group (mean = 8.05 × 106 cells/ml) (P = 0.000). Conclusion: It is observed that the orogranulocyte count in periodontitis patients with diabetes is lesser than periodontitis patients without diabetes. Thus, it is concluded that the orogranulocytes can be considered as a diagnostic marker for predicting chronic periodontitis in diabetic patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004550
Title: To study the difference in the maintenance of oral hygiene between the left and right side of the oral cavity among left- and right-handed individuals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Most of the diseases of the oral cavity are a result of poor oral hygiene. Oral hygiene is usually linked with activities of manual dexterity mainly brushing habits, efficiency, technique, etc., when compared to other prophylactic measures. Brushing efficiency is directly related to the manual dexterity of the individual. Hence, the aim of this study is to analyze the difference in the maintenance of oral hygiene between the left and right side of the oral cavity and predict whether the patient is left or right handed. Materials and Methods: The entire study was conducted at Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University. Thirty left and right handers each were chosen randomly. Handedness was determined using the Edinburgh Handedness scale. All the required values to evaluate the oral hygiene status of the individuals were recorded during intraoral examination. Results: The mean oral hygiene index (OHI) values for right-handed individuals on the right side of their oral cavity were 1.53, and on the left side were 1.37 and the mean OHI for left-handed individuals in the right side was 1.01 and on the left side was 1.25. The difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). From our study, it can be concluded that handedness of an individual affects their oral hygiene. However, the values are not statistically significant; clinically, it was very well significant. This may be a result of small sample size. Conclusion: From our study, it can be concluded that handedness of an individual affects their oral hygiene. However, the values are not statistically significant. This may be a result of small sample size. Hence, a larger study population will help in enabling us to find out if left handed individuals brush their left side or their right side better and vice versa.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004551
Title: To assess the knowledge of organ donation and embalming among medical college students: A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge of organ donation and embalming among medical college students. Background: Organ donation can be considered as one of the greatest acts of humankind. Not all are blessed with perfectly healthy and functioning organs. Various factors such as genetic and birth defects, excessive medications, immunological factors, and systemic diseases may affect the functioning of vital organs. This, in turn, might threaten the very existence of that individual. Although there are a lot of advancements in the medical field, sometimes it becomes impossible to treat the defects in the organs. This strikes the need for organ transplantation and organ donation forms the basis for the same. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted at Saveetha Medical College and Hospitals, Tamil Nadu. Medical college students of all years starting from the 1st year to interns were included in the study, whereas those students who were unwilling to participate in the study were excluded from the study. A self-administered questionnaire consisting 15 multiple-choice questions in English was developed and handed over to the students. Results: From the collected data, it was found that most of the medical college students irrespective of their year of study had inadequate knowledge of organ donation and embalming. Conclusion: With a steady rise in cases of organ failures, organ transplantation is a viable treatment option, but the shortage of organ donors poses a setback to this potential solution. It is, therefore, essential to give importance to organ donation and transplantation and this can be successfully done by incorporating these topics in their regular curriculum.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004552
Title: Chemobrain: Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore, Karnataka, India
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The association between cancer chemotherapy and cognitive impairment is well recorded and much sought after. At times, the diagnosis of cancer itself may induce cognitive impairment. The stress experienced by cancer patients after diagnosis or during or after treatment may also result in cognitive impairment. The chemotherapy drugs themselves are stressors that cause adaptive signals and these could limit their clinical values. It is important to skim through the confounding factors and establish a stronger link between chemotherapy and cognitive impairment. This review article is aimed at evaluating the available information on cancer chemotherapy and cognitive impairment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00004553
Title: A review on burning mouth syndrome and its management
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) can be defined as an intraoral burning sensation or dysesthesia, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day over more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions. This condition still remains as one of the most unexplained medical conditions and is, hence, without a definitive treatment strategy. Symptoms include radiating pain, dysgeusia, numbness, tingling sensation, and xerostomia, and the pain is often relieved while chewing candy. Etiological factors are broadly classified into primary and secondary causes which could possibly contribute to BMS. Topical and systemic medications have been most commonly used to treat the condition. Non-pharmacological or behavioral management is a recent advancement toward the management of BMS. This review briefly explains the possible etiological factors, diagnosis of BMS and focuses on the various treatment strategies that have been used so far.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004554
Title: Effect of Nepenthes ampullaria Jack extract on the cell growth, cell membrane integrity, and morphology of mycobacterial cells
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Technology and Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Pagoh Educational Hub, 84600 Pagoh, Johor, Malaysia.
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Objective: The study is aimed to evaluate the antimycobacterial properties of Nepenthes ampullaria extracts and to investigate its effect on cellular growth, cell wall integrity, and morphology of mycobacterial cell. Materials and Methods: N. ampullaria root was obtained from Johor National Park, Endau Rompin, and was extracted with methanol, water, ethyl acetate and n-hexane. The antimycobacterial activity of the extracts was tested using microdilution assay. The time-kill assay, leakage of compound absorbing at 280 nm, and field emission scanning electron microscopy were carried out to investigate the effect of the extract on cellular growth, membrane integrity, and morphology. The bioactive compounds present in the crude extract were investigated using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results: The hexane extract of N. ampullaria demonstrated the best antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.39 and 1.56 mg/mL, respectively). At 3-fold of MIC, hexane extract of N. ampullaria killed the entire bacterial cell within 8 h of exposure by causing the cell lysis. The GC–MS analysis revealed the presence of phytoconstituents that might contribute to the antimycobacterial effect. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the antimycobacterial properties of N. ampullaria and further studies could lead to the development of new antituberculosis agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004555
Title: To assess the competency level in diagnosis of maxillary fractures among dental college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to analyze the competency level in diagnosis of maxillary fractures among dental college students. Background: Maxillary fractures are the second most common midfacial fractures, first being the zygomatic fractures. Some of the common causes of maxillary fractures are road traffic accidents (RTAs), assault, and other causes. Usually, the best way to diagnose or identify fractures is by analyzing radiographs. Radiographs can be of two types – intraoral and extraoral radiographs. Maxillary or midfacial fractures are analyzed using extraoral radiographs which include the following: Occipitomental view, submentovertex view, lateral cephalogram, Water’s view, and cone-beam computerized tomography. Maxillary fractures are not common when compared to mandibular fractures. This could be due to the anatomy of maxilla. However, it is most important to read about maxillary fractures due to the increasing RTA. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted at Saveetha Medical College and Hospitals, Tamil Nadu, India. Dental college students of all years starting from the 1st year to interns were included in the study, whereas those students who were unwilling to participate in the study were excluded from the study. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 1 essay type and 11 multiple-choice questions in English was developed and handed over to the students. The participants were instructed not to discuss the questions or answers among themselves or others. Results: From the collected data, it was found that most of the dental students irrespective of the year had inadequate knowledge of maxillary fractures and the tools used for its diagnosis. Conclusion: From the above study, it can be concluded that the knowledge regarding the diagnosis of maxillary fractures among dental students is poor. Although majority of them have adequate knowledge regarding the clinical features of maxillary fractures, radiographic knowledge and confidence level in diagnosing the same seem low and inadequate. Hence, it is important for the dental curriculum to focus more on the radiographs and diagnosis part of maxillary fractures as their frequency rate is increasing with the increase in RTAs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004556
Title: Role of spices and herbs in controlling dental problems
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Herbs and spices are not just useful to us as flavoring agents, but they are actually nature’s way to treat dental infections also. Several dental problems such as toothache and caries have become very common among the human population across the globe. These are mainly due to the action of microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and lactobacilli. Such problems can actually be cured naturally using herbs and spices such as cloves, thyme, peppermint leaves, goldenseal, and green tea which contain particular substances (that are found in dental medicines), which act against the microorganisms causing dental problems by either killing them or inhibiting their growth, are used to treat these problems. Some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry produces adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and staining of teeth, and financial considerations in relation to allopathic medications in developing countries create a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective, and economical. Hence, the search for alternative products continues, and herbs and spices that were used as traditional medicines in ancient times are considered as good alternatives. Therefore, understanding the role of herbs and spices in controlling dental infections can help people to cure and prevent these infections in a natural way and help them overcome all the above problems.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004557
Title: Carious lesions and glass-ionomer cement restorations
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Management of carious lesions involves four steps – control over bacterial infection, reduction of risk levels, remineralization, and long-term follow-up. Glass-ionomer cement is a durable and a reliable material to be used for restoration in primary teeth. It is biocompatible, anticariogenic and has remineralization properties which make it a preferable option for treating carious lesions. Although various restorative materials are available for restoration, its remineralization properties along with anticariogenic activity overweigh its use over other materials.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004558
Title: Oral cancer and levels of C-reactive protein – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is highly painful and fatal. Since oral cancer is a disease with high mortality, early diagnosis can aid in whole lot of treatment options and opportunities for the patient. Oral cancer which is considered to have a strong relation with chronic inflammation triggers the release of C-reactive protein (CRP) which is usually released in response to inflammation. CRP was discovered by Tillet and Frances, in 1930. CRP was discovered in Oswald Avery’s laboratory during a research on Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. CRP comes under the class “acute-phase proteins.” Acute-phase proteins are plasma proteins which play a very important role in inflammation. They are released into the bloodstream in response to any pathological or physiological changes. CRP is a pentameric non- glycosylated polypeptide. Each component of CRP has 206 amino acid residues. It belongs to the short pentraxin family. Pentraxins have a characteristic structure. It has a cyclic 5-fold symmetric arrangement of protomers. The synthesis of CRP occurs primarily in the hepatocytes of the liver. From various studies on oral cancer, it has been observed that there is an elevation in the serum levels of CRP in oral cancer. These elevated levels significantly differ with different stages and grades of cancer. Therefore, elevated CRP levels which act as a prognostic marker can play a very important role in early diagnosis of oral cancer and thus save lives.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004559
Title: Therapeutic management of wounds in Asian elephants
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Elephant Research Centre (Centre for Elephant Disease Control and Prevention and Elephant Formulary), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technolo
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A review study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of wounds in Asian elephants. Antibiotics were used to treat the Asian Elephant wounds. This study primarily focus on the efficacy and better dosage forms of the various medicines that were used to treat the wounds in Asian elephants. Recent studies showed that nano-formulated curcumin//gelatin-blended nanofibrous mats (NMs) accelerates acute wound healing through Dkk-1-mediated fibroblast mobilization and MCP-1- mediated anti-inflammation and recently new approach has been designed in ulcer prevention and wound healing treatment for animal diseases using Doxycycline and Amoxicillin/LDH Nanocomposites. In future, nanotechnology can be used for the management of wounds in elephants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004560
Title: Malaria and its management in Meghalaya
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Meghalaya is known for its exotic natural flora and fauna. It is a part of the seven sisters of the Northeastern states of India; with many of the scientist and research discoveries, the place was found to be a home for various and different types of traditional drugs used by the local people to treat the diseases. Among the many diseases, malaria was found to be a major disease in the state suffered by the people, especially those that live in the Garo Hills district and Ri-Bhoi district. These people used the local plants as medicines to cure the disease. Certain local plants from the state have been recorded as being useful for the treatment of malaria, namely, Leng-Budu, Do-Grikmi, Sokchon, Naronchi Budu, Chirota, Ginseng, and Carambola. These local plants are used by the people to treat malaria disease. These plants are majorly found in the districts of Garo and Ri-Bhoi and smaller parts of the East Khasi Hills district.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004561
Title: Preliminary phytochemical screening and cytotoxic activity of Indian medicinal plant against human breast cancer cell line
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of Alstonia scholaris (Bark) against human breast cancer cell line Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Materials and Methods: The bark part of A. scholaris was subjected to Soxhlet extraction using hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and aqueous solvents based on their polarity. The crude extracts obtained were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis and tested for cytotoxicity activity against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) using MTT assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of different extracts, i.e., hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of A. scholaris revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, etc., as major components. The cytotoxic activity of four different extracts was studied using MCF 7 cell line. The ethanol extract of A. scholaris showed significant cytotoxic effect when compared to other extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained indicated that the ethanol extract of A. scholaris has excellent cytotoxic activity, and further studies will be performed to isolate the novel compounds for chemotherapeutic use.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004562
Title: Pharmacogenomics in periodontal therapy – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Pharmacogenomics is the application of genomics technology to the development of specific drugs and its relationship with dentistry is a recent area of research. Diseases and disorders can be associated with misspellings or genetic mutations. The knowledge of how genetic variation interferes in the response to treatment will allow the development of drugs to be used, for instance, in oral and systemic infection therapy; for the management of oral lesions (e.g., herpes and squamous cell carcinoma), bone resorption (e.g., periodontal diseases), and chronic oral and facial pain; and for the management of autoimmune and temporomandibular joint disorders. The availability of newer technologies for identification and characterization of the human genome has enabled our understanding of the genetic variations in a majority of human diseases. Human genomic sequence varies in <1% among the different population group and these differences known as gene polymorphisms are the primary reasons for differences in individuals’ response to various drug therapy. Furthermore, understanding the genetic changes may enable implementation of targeted therapy, thus providing for effective treatment strategies and minimizing the adverse side effects. Pharmacogenomics is a recent development in the field of personalized medicine which focuses on the genetic determinants of drug response at the levels of entire human genome. It primarily deals with tailoring of drug therapy for every individual based on their genetic makeup and identifying new target in various diseases for drug therapy. While the application of pharmacogenomics in systemic illness is well researched, its role in oral diseases needs documentation. Periodontics, cariology, and oral pathology, among other areas, represent a vast field of research yet to be explored. In summary, dentistry begins to show an increasingly close relationship with pharmacogenomics, which may result in the development and improvement of treatment modalities more individualized and potentially more effective. This paper aims to discuss the relationship between pharmacogenomics and dental practice, focusing on clinical implications and current researches.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004563
Title: Testing of the questionnaire on dental care satisfaction in a sample of adult patients visiting dental hospital − A cross-sectional survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Traditional assumption that patients share their doctors’ values is very much questionable today. During the past two decades, many studies evaluated the satisfaction of various patient groups with dental care, trying to assess factors that motivate patients to seek dental treatment. In questionnaire studies, dental care has been evaluated in various dimensions, such as technical competence of the dentist, his/her personality and organization of the surgery, interpersonal aspects of care, accessibility/convenience, treatment-related pain and fear, and general satisfaction. Aim: The aim of the study was to test and develop a questionnaire which covers dental patients’ attendance, satisfaction with dental care, oral health self-evaluation, attitudes, and knowledge about oral health. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out at Saveetha Dental College. All the outpatients reporting for treatment at dental hospitals were included in the study until the sample size is achieved. A total of 100 individuals visiting dental clinics during the study period were asked to fill and return the questionnaires immediately, or soon after the visit. Conclusion: The use of professional terminology in questionnaire survey should be tested before applying to a broad population. The final instrument for measuring dental care satisfaction should be formed on the basis of statistical evaluation of relative importance and comparative load of different questions/statements to be included in the questionnaire.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004564
Title: Low level radiotherapy and biostimulation effect on periodontal tissue healing – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Laser therapy has a long history of medical application and has begun to show great promise in dental applications. There is evidence that laser therapy is a useful adjunct to conventional routine dental care and is rising in popularity among dentists. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is defined to supply direct biostimulative light energy to the cells. Laser biostimulation is widely used to improve the patient comfort, treatment, and life quality. It has been reported that low-level semiconductor diode lasers could enhance the wound healing process. The periodontal ligament is crucial for maintaining the tooth and surrounding tissues in periodontal wound healing. Low-level semiconductor diode lasers have been used in LLLT, there have been few reports on their effects on periodontal ligament fibroblasts. The low-level lasers do not cause temperature elevation within the tissue, but instead it produces their effects from photo biostimulation effect within the tissues. The therapy performed with low-level lasers is called as LLLT. Low-intensity laser therapy also has stimulating effects on bone cells and can accelerate the repair process of the bone. However, further research needs to be done in laser efficacy for periodontal treatment. Laser biostimulation appears to influence the behavior of the repair process. This paper aims at reviewing the most interesting aspects of the use of low power laser in the tissue-repair process, biostimulation, various mechanism of action, implications on in vitro, in vivo, animal and clinical studies, clinical application on various fields in medical, dental and orthopedics and LLLT effects on inflammatory process, effects on cells, and wound healing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00004565
Title: Estimation of E-guggulsterone, Z-guggulsterone and myrcene in Mahayograj Guggul tablet by high- performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method: A marketed herbal formulation
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Mahayograj Guggul is a herbal formulation, which contains part of Commiphora mukul, the main active constituent is E- and Z-guggulsterone, used for the treatment of Arthritis and cholesterol-lowering activity. Method: Quantification of phytochemical compounds by HPTLC method, this is method is simple, accurate and precise method estimation of Mahayograj Guggul herbal formulation by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method. Respective standards were spotted on the silica plates for the development process Acetone:Toluene (19:1 v/v)used as mobile phase. The analysis was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm using HPTLC scanner. Results and Discussion: The Retention factor (Rf) values of herbal formulation compared with the Rf value of standard markers such as E-guggulsterone and Z-guggulsterone and myrcene, and it shows confirmation of abovementioned phytochemical compounds. The peak area of herbal formulation and standard compounds was compared to ensure the presence and their quantities were estimated. Results show that this method is a simple, linear, and specific method for the estimation of phytochemical compounds in the marketed herbal formulation by HPTLC techniques. This method can be used for the quantification of guggulsterone isomers as well as myrcene in the marketed herbal formulation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004566
Title: Prevalence and pattern of use of complementary and alternative medicine in diabetes patients in a south Indian tertiary care teaching hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in diabetic patients in a South Indian tertiary care teaching hospital. Need for the Study: Majority of the patients are not reporting to their physicians regarding their alternative medicine use along with the contemporary medicines. Clinical pharmacists play a major role in identifying CAM usage, encouraging the patients to report to their respective physicians. By knowing the frequency of alternative medicine use, an expected herb-drug interaction can be minimized. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study observed in 169 diabetic patients. Results: Among 169 diabetic patients, 41.4% of diabetic patients were CAM users. Fenugreek (23.07%) and Keezhanelli leaves (16.9%) were used widely. The majority of the CAM users were above 55 years (57.3%) old and belonged to Class III, which is lower middle class (37.9%) concerning to socioeconomic status. There was a significant association between the CAM users and non-CAM users in age and socioeconomic status (P < 0.017 and P < 0.042), respectively. Many patients chose CAM therapy (41.4%) as they were not satisfied with existing conventional treatments. Conclusion: Patients need to be encouraged to disclose their CAM usage to the health-care providers to avoid drug interactions. The clinical pharmacists and other health-care professionals play a significant role in finding out drug interaction between existing conventional medicine and alternative therapies used by diabetic patients for their glycemic control. By knowing the common risk factors, further complications can be minimized to improve the patient quality of life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004567
Title: Study of various species of ant venom and their medicinal use
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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An ant (Formicidae) being a eusocial insect has been recently studied, and it is found that an ant venom has shown pharmacological activity. Some species of ants such as fire ant venom possess antibacterial activity and have shown to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis, while Dinoponera quadriceps have shown antibacterial (Trypanosoma cruzi) activity. According to Chinese history, it has been found that Chinese have been using Chinese ant (dry powder) in the treatment of arthritis. Based on the research by Chinese researchers has found an ant (Polyrhachis lamellidens) powder possesses polyrhacitides A (1) and B (2), which is effective in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as well as hepatitis due to its anti- inflammatory property. An Australian jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) has shown, fire ant, Chinese ant (P. lamellidens) anticancerous. Similarly, an alkaloid called solenopsin – A and B derived from the fire ant venom, which is effective against some species of bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli and also in treating psoriasis (an autoimmune disorder).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004568
Title: Lifestyle and substance use-an important cause for treatment-resistant depression and major depressive disorders
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Depression is common mental health disorder or illness across the globe with a high rate of prevalence. The depression is mainly associated with comorbid conditions such as substance abuse and ultimately leads to the treatment-resistant depression (TRD), where the patients develop an inadequate response to the adequate antidepressant therapy and that is the focus of the review. Recent studies confirmed that substance abuse and substance dependence disorders are positively related to lifestyle. This review is discussed about the hypothesis between the lifestyle style pattern, substance use disorders, and TRD. The first half of the review is discussed about the definitions, prevalence, and extent of substance use in different regions. The objective of the review is to provide concise data that, how the health-related lifestyle, extent of substance and its relationship with the TRD and depression. In second half of this review, review emphasized the positive and negative relationships between the unhealthy lifestyle, substance use, and TRD. The unhealthy lifestyle leads exposure to stress environments, which in turn influences many to practice substance use which may act as the risk factor for the depression and long-term untreated depression may relapse into the TRD. In the conclusion of this review, the complications of lifestyle and substance use, their direct impact on the development of depression, and TRD.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004569
Title: Knowledge attitudes, and practice survey on usage of tissue conditioners among South Indian dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Mucosal health may be promoted by hygienic and therapeutic measures which are applied in an appropriate method. The usage of tissue conditioner is advantageous as they prepare the preferred oral structures to withstand all the stress from the prosthesis. Although the ease of use in tissue conditioners is evident, the prolonged contact of these dentures may elicit changes in the underlying soft tissues, they may traumatize the oral tissues. Aim: The aim of the survey is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) on the usage of tissue conditioners among South Indian dental practitioners. Study and Design: The survey was conducted among South Indian dental practitioners about their KAP in the usage of tissue conditioners among their complete denture patients. A questionnaire survey was formed and sent to 100 dental practitioners all over in South India through online forms. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using frequency of responses and standard deviation. Results: The data acquired from this survey have been represented by descriptive analysis and were shown in pie charts. The survey exhibited that the frequency of dentists to use tissue conditioners is 50% followed by rare usage of tissue conditioners. All the practitioners observed side effects such as candida infections, discoloration of the material, and bad odor. More than 80% of the dentists felt that it improves the fit of the denture. About 79.3% of dentists would prefer to sterilize the dentures with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. Conclusion: Although the usage of tissue conditioners is easy, the long-term contact of these bases may elicit changes in the underlying oral tissues.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004570
Title: Spark erosion in dentistry – A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The complexity in the fabrication of fixed prosthesis found to be very common in dentistry. There is necessary for it to be maintained. The spark erosion method had become more popular in tool and die industry. Since then, dental profession has adapted its uses for fabricating precision removable partial dentures. Both the screw-retained framework and the removable superstructure are spark eroded to create a very passive and intimate fit. Mechanical failures from a non-passive fit may cause unexpected failure of implant and prosthesis. This may also affect the surrounding gingiva adversely. Spark erosion is expected to offer excellent support, retention, and stability. The stability offered that way is similar to a fixed prosthesis. Many clinical reports describe that the spark erosion method improves the function and esthetics of the prosthesis in long term without the expenses of the commercial laboratory.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004571
Title: Knowledge and awareness of recent advances in implants among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of dental undergraduate students regarding recent advances in implants. Objective: The main objective of this study is to assess the knowledge of dental undergraduate students regarding recent advances in implantology. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire will be given to 100 dental students comprising questions to evaluate the knowledge of recent advances in implants. The questionnaire will be administered through the SurveyPlanet app and results will be statistically analyzed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004572
Title: Knowledge and awareness about digital impression techniques and workflow among dental practitioners – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: With the techniques of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) being applied in the field of prosthodontics, a concept of intraoral digital impressions was put forward in the early 1980s. It has drawn comprehensive attention from dentists and has been used for dental prosthesis fabrication in a number of cases. The digital impression technique is expected to bring about absolute digitization in fabrication of restorations, reducing human errors, and saving a lot of time. The knowledge and awareness required to embrace the digital workflow in a day-to-day practice needs to evaluated. Aim: The aim of the study is to conduct a survey among dental professionals regarding the workflow using digital impression techniques. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted based on a questionnaire which was distributed among 100 final-year dental students, interns, and PG’s dental professionals throughout Chennai. The survey consists of a set of 10 questions. The questionnaire was framed on the basis of knowledge about the technology employed in the digital impressions systems and its workflow among the dental practitioners. The results were analyzed. Results: Only 20% of the professionals were aware about the digital impressions and nearly 80% of the professionals were not aware about it. About 20% of the dental professionals answered that digital impressions are efficient when compared to the conventional impressions method, but majority of the dental professionals around 50% were not accurate in choosing digital over conventional impressions. Conclusion: The knowledge and awareness with regard to digital impression techniques among dental professionals was observed to be inadequate in this study. Hence, more intense continuing health education and awareness programs should be regularly conducted to facilitate improved understanding and application.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004573
Title: Analysis of knowledge about the hospital warning symbols among the clinical dental assistants in a private dental college in Chennai – A comparative study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Hospital safety signs are the main means of communicating health and safety information. There are specific colors, shape, and pattern of the safety signs. They include the use of illuminated signs and hand signals. These symbols are critical to understand without the prime knowledge. Healthcare workers come across these signs every day in their working environment. It is very important to make them aware and train them in interpreting these symbols correctly. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing 20 frequently encountered hospital signs were given to 40 clinical dental assistants’ pre- and post-training sessions. The difference in knowledge before and after the sessions was statistically analyzed. The questionnaire was tested for its face and content validity. Results: The total number of participants was 40, with a mean age of 22.2 years. During pre-training, the majority had scored below 10, 23 (57.50%), post-training scores improved drastically and the majority scored between 10 and 15, 24 (62.19%). Conclusion: Based on the aims and objectives of the study, it can be concluded that knowledge scores of the clinical assistants improved post-training. The majority of them had fair knowledge of post-training. Hence, periodic training and calibration can improve their awareness and attitude toward interpreting hospital warning symbols.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004574
Title: Management of cancrum oris – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of the study was to review the management of cancrum oris. The objective of the study was to determine the reason for cancrum oris and to assess the methods by which management can be done. Noma is an opportunistic infectious disease that mainly strikes children below the age of 5. A combination of different factors leads to its development, poverty being most important. The disease occurs in deprived and undernourished individuals with poor hygiene. Hence, this review is to explore in detail the reasons for the occurrence of cancrum oris and the ways by which we can prevent them and to ensure a long term success of its management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004575
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental practitioners regarding the effect and management of food impaction in prosthesis – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: One of the prime goals of prosthetic therapy is to establish a physiologic periodontal climate and facilitate the maintenance of periodontal health. Food impaction is the most irritating outcome in certain prosthesis. Webster defined food impaction as food being packed or wedged. It is one of the common complaints reported by the patients. Food impaction is one of the common causes of gingival and periodontal diseases. It also leads to caries of the abutment and the adjacent teeth leading to subsequent failure of the prostheses. The dentist should evaluate the etiological factors responsible for food impaction and carry out the necessary steps to treat it. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and opinion of dental practitioners regarding the effect and management of food impaction. Materials and Methods: A close- ended questionnaire comprising 10 questions regarding (1) occurrence, (2), consequences, (3) likely reason, and (4) most routinely followed the line of treatment for food impaction was distributed to 100 dental practitioners. The response data were tabulated and analyzed by computing the percentage response for each question. Results: Most of the respondents had come across patients who complained of food impaction. The most common consequences of food impaction were proximal caries. Majority of the dentists considered poor marginal adaptation of the crown as the most likely reason for food impaction. Repeating the prostheses with emphasis on prescribing and reinforcing the use of proper interdental aids was considered as the ideal treatment option. Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude, and opinion of dental practitioners regarding the effect and management of food impaction is adequate. Majority of the practitioners (87.1%) were aware and some of them (13.9%) were unaware regarding the causes, effect, and management of food impaction in various prostheses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004576
Title: Effect of autoclave sterilization on the physical properties of nickel-titanium rotary files – A review literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Endodontics and Conservative dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) is a single-use file and sterilization can lead to its atomic disturbance; thus, a complete knowledge of its physical properties post-sterilization is needed for efficiency of work. Autoclave is the standard method of sterilization for the rotary files, but the temperature here is more than 100°C. Ni-Ti files are sterilized using this technique to avoid cross-infection during root canal treatment. Due to such high heat, there can be a change in the physical properties of the files as reported by many studies. Aim: the aim of this review was to summarize on the post-effect of autoclave sterilization on the rotary files. Method: A review was done from various online research articles and the results were concluded.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004577
Title: Knowledge and awareness in the management of children with autism spectrum disorders among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Autism is used to address developmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, as well as behavioral limitations or repetition. Most children with autism suffer from learning disabilities, attention deficiency, sensation and stimulation reaction disabilities. This article will focus on the knowledge and awareness in the management of children with ASD among dental students. Materials and Methods: Hundred college students were randomly selected from the student body of various dental colleges and were asked to participate in the study by filling up an online survey on management and awareness on ASD’s. The questionnaire consisted of 13 questions based on ASDs and it’s knowledge. Results: 100 dental students participated in this questionnaire-based survey conducted through social media and emails. Dental students were partially aware of the basic knowledge on ASDs. However, their knowledge of the management of those with ASD’s is questionable. Conclusion: The dental management of a child with ASD requires in-depth understanding of the autistic behavioral profile. More knowledge on management of autistic children should be promoted.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004578
Title: Assessment of safe zone in mandible for implant osteotomy in South Indian Population: A cone-beam computed tomography study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The inferior alveolar nerve can be injured during implant osteotomy. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new imaging technique that generates 3D images at a lower cost and absorbed dose compared with conventional CT. Thus, with the baseline information about the location of the mental foramina from the genial tubercle, the number of implants and the exact location of implant osteotomy sites can be easily planned before transferring these points to the diagnostic stents for radiographic evaluation. Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the safe distance in the region of the mandible measured from the genial tubercle level to the mental foramen. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 CBCT were selected for the study from Saveetha Dental College and other institutions of patients with ongoing or completed treatments. The anatomy of the whole mandible was assessed in the coronal cross-sectional, horizontal view, and panoramic view. The genial tubercles and the mental foramen were marked. The interforaminal distance and distance between genial tubercle and mental foramen were marked. Comparison of means between genders was done. Results: The interforaminal distance in females was 50.02 ± 3.72 and in males was 50.62 ± 3.63. The independent t-test for the same gives a value of 0.67 which is statistically insignificant. The distance between the right mental foramen and right genial tubercle was 20.31 ± 2.390 and 19.59 ± 1.96. The independent t-test gives a value of 0.403 which is statistically insignificant. Table 3 shows that the distance between the left mental foramen and left genial tubercle was 21.54 ± 2.44 and 19.92 ± 1.65. The independent t-test for the same was found to be 0.05, which is statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The safe zone for implant placement is around 50 mm and there is no statistical difference between male and females in calculation of interforaminal distances or distance between genial tubercle and mental foramen.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004579
Title: Kinetic modeling on drug release from ansamycin-loaded PLGA polymeric nanoparticles intended for bacterial meningitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: With an objective to deliver ansamycin to CNS for bacterial meningitis, PLGA polymeric nanoparticles were developed using emulsification solvent diffusion technique. The release of drug from the formulations plays significant role especially when it comes to modified release dosage forms. Methods: A few of the various models used to study the release profile and explained in this research. Experimental in vitro release data were substituted with available mathematical models to establish the mechanism of release of ansamycin. Results: Several factors like physicochemical properties of drugs, excipients, dosage form design, manufacturing process variables and design impact drug release from dosage form and the release of ansamycin from the nanopartile was found to follow first order release mechanism with the release rate depending its concentration. Conclusion: It is essential to study the release pattern of drug from dosage form as it governs the efficacy of the dosage form.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004644
Title: Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of calcium hydroxide, neem, allangium, and Piper longum on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formed on tooth substrate – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: To compare the anti-bacterial efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide, Neem, Alangium, Piper longam on Enteroccous Faecalis biofilm formed on tooth substrate. Materials and Method: 40 single-rooted human upper maxillary anterior teeth with fully formed apices were collected. The root canals were then enlarged with the use of k-files till size 50. All the teeth were treated in an ultrasonic bath of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid for 5 min followed by 3% NaOCl for 5 min to remove the organic and inorganic debris. Root canal surface is then infected with E. faecalis to form a biofilm for two week. At the end of two week, all groups were treated as follows: Group 1, treated with Calcium Hydroxide; group 2, treated with extracted Neem; group 3, treated with extracted aiangium; group 4, treated with extracted Piper longam; and treated for one week. The collected dentin shavings were transferred into 1 mL of sterile saline for five times and incubated for 24 h. Colonies were counted and readings were tabulated. Dentin present in the collection of 40 teeth was taken and sends it for CFU test. Results: In treated groups, neem has shown minimum bacterial count (850 CFU/ml). Conclusion: In treated groups, neem has shown minimum bacterial count (850 CFU/ml). Moreover, calcium hydroxide, neem, allangium, piperlongam are very good chelating agents and neem, in particular, contains fruits that are rich in citric acid that may aid in removal of the smear layer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004645
Title: Evaluation of compressive strength of different types of composite resins: An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the compressive strength of different composite resins (Coltene SwissTEC, Ivoclar Tetric EvoCeram, and SHOFU Beautifil II). Background: The purpose of a dental restorative material is to simulate the biological, functional, and esthetic properties of a healthy tooth structure. Composite resins, due to their high esthetic properties, are being increasingly used in the recent past. Mechanical properties of posterior composites have an important role in the efficacy and durability of the restored tooth. Compressive strength, being the most important mechanical property of posterior restorative materials, owes a great deal to assess the quality of a posterior restorative material. This study, therefore, aims to compare the compressive strength of recently developed composites and analyze any significant differences making one better than the other. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, three different types of composites are used as follows: Group A – SwissTEC, a hybrid composite (Coltene Whaledent, Inc.); Group B – Tetric EvoCeram, a nanocomposite (Ivoclar Vivadent Inc.); and Group C – Beautifil II, a nanocomposite with Giomer technology (SHOFU Dental Corp). Ten cylindrical samples of 6 mm height and 4 mm diameter of each group were made using a custom split plexiglass mold. The composites filled in the mold were photopolymerized using light-emitting diode light-curing unit and the cured samples were stored in water at 37°C for 48 h before testing. The compressive strength of the stored samples was tested using a universal testing machine (M/S Zwick GmbH & Co., Germany) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The compressive strength was calculated by dividing the maximum load with area of the samples. Results: Results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s post hoc test. Analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the three groups (P < 0.05) and Giomer composite (Beautifil II) showed the highest compressive strength while the hybrid composite (SwissTEC) showed the least compressive strength. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that Giomer exhibited superior compressive strength compared to the nanocomposite and hybrid composite.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004662
Title: Knowledge and awareness of management of avulsion among information technology professionals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this survey is to assess the knowledge and awareness of information technology (IT) professionals about management of avulsed teeth. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among IT professionals with children aged 3–6 years. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared to assess the awareness of the management of avulsed tooth. The questionnaire was distributed through online SurveyPlanet link. The data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: About 11% of the parents had experienced dental trauma at home or school. Majority of the study were not aware of the steps to be taken in tooth avulsion. The source of information for avulsed tooth was the internet for most of the IT professionals. About 67% were unaware of the fact that permanent avulsed tooth can be replanted. About 58% of parents said that they would discard the knocked-out tooth. Conclusion: From this survey, we can conclude that IT professionals know that avulsion of tooth is an emergency and it has to be taken care of immediately. They do not know the steps to be followed for management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004671
Title: Efficacy of Kinesio taping versus McConnell (rigid) taping in treating anterior cruciate ligament injuries among football players
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of Kinesio taping and McConnell (rigid) tapes in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among football players. Background of the Study: The ACL consists of the anteromedial band, which is responsible for the anterior stability of the knee and the posterolateral band, which is control for the tibial rotation. The ACL which can be injured in daily life and during sports, this due to conditions such as movement causing extreme strain and rotation of the knee, outer impacts, immediate halting, or changing the directions, constitutes approximately half of sports injuries. During football, it is more prone to lateral ligament of ankle and ACL of knee due to prolonged knee extension and plantar flexion. When complete tearing takes place, generally, ACL reconstruction is needed. If the acute stage of ACL injuries of Grades 1 and 2, it can be managed by Kinesio and McConnell (rigid) taping. Materials and Methods: Once the study is approved by the institutional review board, 30 volunteers were selected based on inclusion criteria. It is an experimental study carried out for the duration of 2 weeks, in which individuals were randomly selected and divided into two groups (each of 15 individuals). Group A treated with a Kinesio taping along with knee strengthening exercise and Group B treated with a McConnell taping along with knee strengthening exercise, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) were used pre- and post-test to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments given to the individuals. Results: On comparing the mean values of KOOS questionnaire and VAS pre- and post-test, to the treatment. Group B has shown highly significant improvement in the pain reduction and significant improvement functional ability in both the groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that McConnell taping is advantageous for reducing pain and functional ability without any side effect and hazardous.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004745
Title: Incidence of dental caries and enamel sensitivity after interproximal reduction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Proximal stripping is a clinical procedure that involves the reduction of the enamel thickness in the proximal surfaces of the teeth with a motive to create space and align moderately crowded teeth. Tooth hypersensitivity can be one of the adverse effects of overzealous and excessive proximal tooth reduction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004747
Title: Application of rotary instrumentation in primary teeth ‑ An analysis
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Pulp therapy of primary teeth is an appropriate alternative to extraction in some clinical situations. There is no single recognized technique for pulp therapy in primary teeth, and a range of protocols and medicaments is suggested for different clinical situations (such as pulp therapy). The aim of the technique is to retain the treated tooth in a symptom-free state until it is lost naturally during the transition from primary to permanent dentition, thus avoiding the extraction procedure which may be done in general anesthesia due to scared nature of children. Root canal preparation is performed with burs, reamer, and files combined with irrigants such as saline and sodium hypochlorite. Yet, most hand preparation techniques are time- consuming which can prove to be challenging due to lack of cooperation in children and may also lead to mechanical errors (such as ledging, zipping canal transportation, and apical blockage). Therefore, the use of rotary instruments is in much demand. In this article, the application of rotary instrumentation in pulp therapy that is pulpectomy of primary teeth has been reviewed from multiple research articles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004748
Title: Association between serum triglycerides level and type 2 diabetes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The association between changes in triglycerides (TGs) concentration over time and diabetics is unknown. The aim of this work is to find an association between serum TGs level and type 2 diabetics. Materials and Methods: Fifty type 2 patients with diabetes are examined at the Saveetha Medical College, and serum triglyceride is measured in these patients. TGs are bundle of fat found in the bloodstream. The normal triglyceride level is around 100–150 mg/dl. In diabetic patients, TG level was found to be elevated. The presence of hyperglycemia stimulates the production of TGs and hence, TGs levels are usually high in type 2 diabetes. The combination of high TGs, low high-density lipoprotein, and central obesity are the hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome, which occurs in 80% of people with type 2 diabetes. Results: Of the 50 patients examined, 41 (82%) patients were found to have high serum triglyceride level. Lifestyle interventions such as diet, physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation are an integral part of diabetic management plan. There are several classes of medications used in the treatment of lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetics. Conclusion: In this study, there is a significant correlation between glycemic control and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes in this population. Familiarity with this concept helps to diagnose lipid abnormalities in patients with poor glycemic control and preventing cardiovascular events in the high-risk patient. The raised TGs levels lead to increased blood viscosity and altered fibrinolytic activity which lead to the formation of hard exudates.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004749
Title: Clotting factors and artificial agents – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The variety of wound types has resulted in a wide range of wound dressings with new products frequently introduced to target different aspects of the wound healing process. The ideal dressing should achieve rapid healing at reasonable cost with minimal inconvenience to the patient. Coagulation involves the regulated sequence of proteolytic activation of a series of zymogens to achieve appropriate and timely hemostasis in an injured vessel, in an environment that overwhelmingly favors an anticoagulant state. In the non-pathological state, the inciting event involves exposure of circulating factor VII/VIIA to extravascularly expressed tissue factor, which brings into motion the series of steps which results in amplification of the initial stimulus, culminating in the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and clot formation. Excessive surgical bleeding causes hypovolemia, hemodynamic instability, anemia, and reduced oxygen delivery to tissues, with a subsequent increase in post-operative morbidity and mortality. The role of anesthetists in managing surgical blood loss has increased greatly in the last decade.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004750
Title: Androgenic alopecia and its management
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Androgenic alopecia is a common dermatological condition affecting both men and women. In the case of men, up to 30% and more than 50% are affected. Androgenic alopecia also affects although clinical signs are usually milder and associated with diffuse thinning of the scalp hair. Androgenic alopecia invariably causes serious psychological problems, especially in women. As per the current research, the most satisfactory approaches to the treatment of baldness in men are drug therapies, such as topical minoxidil and finasteride administered systemically. Mild-to-moderate androgenic alopecia in women can be treated with antiandrogens or topical minoxidil with a good result in many cases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004752
Title: A review on the role of tranexamic acid mouthwash in oral surgery for anticoagulant-treated patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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A systematic review on the role of tranexamic acid mouthwash in oral surgery for anticoagulant-treated patients. The aim of the study was to understand the hemostatic effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) and its applied uses in patients undergoing anticoagulant therapy. Patients with hereditary blood disorders and other cardiac disorders are generally kept on anticoagulants as a precautionary method to avoid blood clotting. This complicates dental surgical procedures which required a functioning clotting pathway for eventful wound healing. Anticoagulants, which are also referred to as blood thinners, help prevent or reduce the coagulation or clotting of blood, which in turn prolongs the clotting time as a whole. The most commonly used anticoagulants are heparin and warfarin. TXA is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine that exerts its antifibrinolytic effect through the reversible blockade of lysine binding sites on plasminogen molecules. Various studies have shown an increased control of bleeding in surgical cases in those with anticoagulants who use TXA mouthwashes. Any bleeding in the mouth can be controlled by TXA working directly on the bleeding area. It is also preferred due to its high tolerability with reduced side effects. It also ensures that the anticoagulant therapy is not discontinued which does not put the patient at risk of thromboembolisms. By understanding the various aspects of TXAs such as its pharmacodynamics and mechanism of action, we can offer a better standard of care for anticoagulant-treated patients with permission for them to continue their regime by administering this local antifibrinolytic agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December [ Special Issue 2]
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004753
Title: Awareness of personal protective equipment among the undergraduate dental college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to create awareness of personal protective equipment (PPE) among dental students. Objective: The objective of the study was to spread awareness among college students, about the beneficial attributes of PPE on usage. Materials and Methods: The study was a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire was framed based on the facts revealed in the previous researches on PPE. The questionnaire consisted of 20 questions and all the participants were undergraduate students of a city-based dental college. Results: Only 70% of the participants are aware of the type of PPE to be used for each procedure; goggles usage is only 47.3% in the student level. Moreover, only 49% of students admit to have a regular usage of relevant PPE. The leakage of gloves is a commonly encountered problem by about 79% of dentists. Conclusion: The awareness of the usage of PPE is quite low among the undergraduate students. This can be attributed to negligence and lack of awareness of the potential health hazards caused by inappropriate usage of PPE. Hence, further awareness to be initiated.