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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004857
Title: Functional outcome of hemiarthroplasty in fracture of neck of femur in elderly using Austin Moore and bipolar prosthesis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedics, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India (Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the functional outcome of Austin Moore prosthesis (AMP) versus bipolar hemiarthroplasty prosthesis in fracture neck of femur. Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Department of Orthopedics, in Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences Pondicherry, from 2016 to 2019. The patients included 60 years or older, having displaced intracapsular neck of femur fractures. Patients with comorbids, arthritis, and pathological fractures were excluded from the study. Patients were randomly divided equally into two groups; each group operated on using standard techniques for Austin Moore and bipolar hemiarthroplasties, respectively. Functional outcome was measured as very good, good, fair, and poor using Harris Hip Score in follow-up visit at the monthly interval and at 6th months. Results: The total number of patients was 30 (15 in each group). The final functional outcome showed that, in bipolar prosthesis, 14 (97.3%) patients had satisfactory status, while one (2.7%) patients had unsatisfactory status. In the Austin Moore group, 11 patients had satisfactory status, while four had unsatisfactory status. Conclusion: Bipolar prosthesis had a better functional outcome than Austin Moore hemiarthroplasty. We suggest this as a first choice of treatment in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004860
Title: Cri-du-chat syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric Nursing, Sree Balaji College of Nursing, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Cri-du-talk issue is an unprecedented inherited issue in light of chromosome deletion on chromosome 5. Its name is a French articulation (“cat cry” or “call of the cat”) implying the trademark cat-like cry of affected children. It was first depicted by Jérôme Lejeune, in 1963. The condition impacts a normal 1 of 50,000 live births over all ethnicities and is dynamically typical in females by a 4:3 ratio. Around 33% of children lose the cry by the age of 2 years. It has similarly been seen that people with the condition experience issues bestowing. While levels of capacity can go from two or three words to short sentences, it is consistently proposed by restorative specialists for the child to encounter a kind of language guidance/help with the help of a professional. There is authentically not a specific strategy to see the condition as the cerebrum mischief achieved by this condition occurs in the first place times of early life form improvement. Genuine treatment is now and again required in infant youngsters and they can be treated in neonatal pathology workplaces.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004733
Title: Evaluation of serum calcium level with chronic periodontitis in Thiruvallur district (Saveetha Dental College)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162 Poonamallee high road, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the serum calcium (Ca) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Introduction: Periodontitis is defined as an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganisms, or group of specific microorganisms, resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with increased probing depth, recession, or both. Ca mineral is abundant and essential element present in the bones and teeth, offering a structural function. It is vital for proper development and maintenance of calcified oral tissues. The deficiency of serum Ca is a risk factor periodontal disease and salivary Ca, due to its affinity to be readily taken up by plaque, is an important factor not only regarding the onset of periodontitis but also significantly with regard to dental health. This study shows the relation of serum Ca level with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients were selected from those attending the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and divided into two groups as follows: Group I – Normal healthy individuals – 20, Group II – Individuals with periodontitis – 20. Sample Collection: Informed consent was obtained from the patient before sample collection. Blood was collected 3 h after lunch approximately at 4 pm. About 3 ml of venous blood was collected and distributed in plain collection tubes and centrifuged in 3000 rpm for serum. Then, serum was separated and analyzed to estimate the cortisol by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using ROBONIK ELISA READER. Results: All the data were analyzed using the SPSS package. Paired sample t-test analysis was done to find out significant differences between the two groups. All the tests were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05 level.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004595
Title: Prevalence of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Burn Centers in Iraq
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Jabir Ibn Hayyan Medical University, Najaf, Iraq
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Background: Hospitalized burned patients are at high risk to multidrug-resistant infections mainly due to a disruption of the skin barrier, alterations in the specific and nonspecific components of the immune system, and prolong treatment. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of healthcare-acquired infections responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in burned patients worldwide. Few studies have handled bacterial isolation from bedsheets for wound burn patients at the Al-Diwaniya Burn Center, Iraq. Methods: A total of 100 swabs from bedsheets of wound burn inpatients at the Al-Diwaniya Burns Center were included in this study. Swab samples were cultured on cetrimide agar. Colonies that were suspected to be P. aeruginosa were confirmed using biochemical tests and analytical profile index 20NE. The study includes molecular detection of three aminoglycosides modifying enzymes genes: acc(3’)-I, aph(3’)-IIb, and aad A1 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Throughout this study, among 100 swab samples collected from bedsheets of burn patients, 27% of them yielded bacterial growth P. aeruginosa was most frequently isolated bacterial species (20 isolates). Thirteen isolates (65%) revealed high levels of resistance against aminoglycosides using disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. The highest MIC range (512–1024 μg/ml) was detected among tested bacterial isolate against gentamycin (55%) and kanamycin (35%), while two isolates (15%) were resistant to amikacin (MIC: 32–128 μg/ml). Multiplex PCR was performed to detect the presence of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AME) genes and the results of molecular detection found that aac(3’)-I gene was the most frequently found among P. aeruginosa isolates (46%) either individually (23%) or in combination: acc(3’)-I+ Aph(3’)IIb (15%) and acc(3’)-I+ aadAI (7.7%), whereas one isolate was harboring aadAI gene individually. Conclusion: The current study concludes occurrence of aminoglycosides modifying enzymes harboring. P. aeruginosa that contaminates bedsheets of hospitalized burned patient and high potential of horizontal transfer of resistance genes among bacteria is a growing threat in the burn center and represents an alarm of crisis for clinically effective antipseudomonal aminoglycosides available in burn center.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004583
Title: Antibacterial activity of pomegranate peels aqueous extractions on dental caries and gingivitis Streptococcus mutans in compared with 0.2% chlorhexidine
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Laboratory Technique, Al Safwa University College, Karbala, Iraq
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Background: A cariogenic Streptococcus mutans is most effective cause of oral problems, particularly dental caries and gingivitis, according to our dietary system such as carbohydrates and sugars that will provide suitable environment for S. mutans to creates an acidic environment, as well as its producing for an extracellular polysaccharide, promotes the adherence and further colonization for S. mutans and other oral bacteria that causes severe dental caries and dental plaque which leading to gum inflammation or called gingivitis. Chlorhexidine as mouthwash used as antiseptic and antiplaque that cause disrupting the oral microorganisms; usually, the powerful effect of chlorhexidine is accompanied by side effects. In this study is aiming to use hot and cold aqueous of pomegranate peels extracts to compare their effects with chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: S. mutans was isolated from fifty-five patients with dental caries and gingivitis from dental clinics. Hot and cold aqueous extraction for peel powder was prepared and their antibacterial activity was assessed. Results: The results showed a great inhibitory effect for hot and cold aqueous extracts of peels on S. mutans, with inhibition zones 31 mm and 27 mm, respectively, while the lowest effect was to chlorhexidine with inhibition zone 25 mm in diameter. Conclusion: In this study, the hot and cold aqueous of pomegranate peels extracts was reported an inhibitory effect on oral S. mutans better than chlorhexidine that makes these extracts could be used as a mouthwash as it could be easily made at home.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004585
Title: A practical study to calculate alpha emission in human teeth through CR-39 track detector from Diyala, Iraq
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Basic Science, College of Dentistry, University of Alkafeel, Najaf, Iraq,
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Background: Nuclear radiation arises from unstable atoms. While many exist in nature, the majority are created in nuclear reactions. Ionizing radiation which can damage the living tissue is emitted as the unstable atoms (radionuclides) change (“decay”) spontaneously to be changed into different kinds of atoms. Materials and Methods: This study deals with the subject of natural exposure to radiation, which is considered a very important topic because it is linked to human health, the rate of alpha emission from teeth in Baquba and Al-Khalis areas was measured using a nuclear track detector CR-39 to determine the level of environmental contamination by radionuclides that are alpha emitting. Results: The results showed that the highest emission of alpha was 0.0874 mBq cm−2 in Baquba/Moaskar Khalid while the lowest emission was 0.0054 mBq cm−2 in Baquba/Al-Takya, the mean of alpha emission was 0.0312 ± 0.0040 mBq cm−2 , which indicates no environmental contamination by radionuclide’s, in which alpha emitting was compared with the previous studies. Conclusions: The data show that alpha emission rate in Diyala Governorate was 0.0312 ± 0.0040 mBq cm−2 which was within the limits allowed globally compared to the previous studies. Emission rate in smokers is higher than in non-smokers. Furthermore, it was found that emission rate in males was higher than in females. The highest alpha emission rate was in Moaskar Khalid region in Baquba city.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004594
Title: The effect of low-level laser therapy on orthodontics tooth movement and pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Laser is one of the major advancements in technology which has been used widely in various branches of dentistry. The application of laser can be classified into diagnosis, hard tissue applications, dental tissue applications, laser-induced analgesia, laser activation, and others. One of the applications of laser is low-level laser therapy (LLLT) which still undergoing many researches on its effectiveness. LLLT or also known as cold laser is used in orthodontics to help in accelerating tooth movement and relieving pain during fixed appliance treatment. The effectiveness of LLLT may give satisfaction and convenience to the patient throughout the treatment, in which it helps in reducing treatment time and pain. The mechanism of laser and its effect on orthodontic tooth movement and relieving pain will be discussed in this review.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004858
Title: Goodpasture syndrome – A review article
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Child Health Nursing, Sree Balaji College of Nursing, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Great pasture disorder is an uncommon immune system; ailment antibodies assault the lung and kidneys, prompting seeping from the lungs and to kidney disappointment. It might rapidly bring about perpetual lung and kidney harm, frequently prompting passing. It is treated with immunosuppressant sedates as corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, and plasmapheresis, in which the antibodies are expelled from the blood.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004862
Title: Hemophilia in children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Child Health Nursing, Sree Balaji College of Nursing, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Hemophilia is a hereditary issue, which means it is the consequence of an adjustment in qualities that were either acquired (passed on from parent to kid) or occurred during advancement in the belly. There are many blood coagulating variables associated with the framing of clumps to quit dying. Two normal factors that influence blood coagulating are factor VIII and factor IX. Diagnosing hemophilia is finished with blood tests, including total blood tally (complete blood count), prothrombin time, initiated halfway partial thromboplastin time factor VIII level, and factor IX level tests. Treatment relies on the sort and seriousness of the hemophilia. The objective of hemophilia treatment is averting draining entanglements (essentially head and joint drains); self-mixed factor VIII or IX can enable a youngster with hemophilia to lead a close typical lifestyle. Tremendous advances have been made in the treatment of hemophilia, and most patients would now be able to lead full, solid lives with cautious administration of their condition.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004890
Title: Breast cancer overview: Epidemiology, tumor heterogeneity, diagnosis, treatment, and risk factors
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Human Genetics, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research (Deemed to be University), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Cancer is a global burden. Cancer is a disease characterized by morphological and molecular change resulting in uncontrolled proliferation and spread. In females, breast cancer is the leading cancer in incidence and mortality. Next to the lung cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer when considering both the sexes. Breast cancer which stood second is moving toward the first position in cancers of females due to lack of preventive strategies. The high incidence and the high mortality combined with differences in the incidence and mortality rates worldwide make breast cancer a major area of concern in both developing and developed countries. The mortality to incidence rates is rapidly increasing in Asian countries than Western countries this may be due to the available health-care system that parallels the socioeconomic development of the country. Breast cancer presents tumor heterogeneity; different subtypes exist based on histology and molecular subtypes. This review summarizes the epidemiology of breast cancer worldwide, Asian countries and also in India. It also presents an overview on the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, leading to breast cancer, methods of diagnosis, different treatment modalities such as surgery, combination therapy, radiation chemotherapy, and targeted therapy; the interplay of genetic factors in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategy has been presented.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004584
Title: Assessment of some chemical parameters of drinkable water
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pharmaceutic, College of Pharmacy, University of Alkafeel, Kufa, Iraq
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Background: The quality of drinkable water is a major public concern. The drinkable water must be free of unusual taste, odor, and turbidity and of constant chemical composition, with no pathogenic microorganisms and toxic substances. Materials and Methods: To assess the fulfillment of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for the drinkable water, a cross-sectional study has been carried to investigate the quality of drinkable water provided by the public system, in which samples have been taken throughout 92 days period (October, November, and December). Some of the most important qualities such as the physical parameters (turbidity and temperature) and chemical parameters (total chlorine, free chlorine, combined chlorine, total dissolved solids [TDS], and pH) were examined in situ by the use of portable digitized devises. Results: The statistically significant difference was absent (P > 0.05 [NS]) in comparison with turbidity and TDS before and after filtration in water treatment plant. There was an irregularity of both total and free chlorine concentrations in the study months, minimum = 0.33 and maximum = 2.00 ppm and minimum = 0.00 and maximum = 1.80 ppm, respectively. The total chlorine difference was highly significant (P < 0.001) between October and November and November and December. There was a clear decrease in temperature (the mean in December was 15.358°C than October and November). In addition, the maximum degree was in October = 35.70°C while the minimum degree was in December = 12.60°C. There was a decrease in mean value of pH from October, November, and December (8.096, 7.988, and 7.591, respectively). The turbidity and TDS test results are showing an increase in the values all over the time of the study 4.197, 5.189, and 5.55 NTU and 948.047, 980.51, and 939.07 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that from all parameters that were tested in the present study, the unsuitability water provided by public system for human consumption.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00004586
Title: Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro oxidative properties study of the new Schiff base 2-((4-nitrobenzylidene) amino) acetic acid
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Misan University, Iraq.
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Background: There are many evidences that the exposure of red blood cells (RBCs) to toxic chemical materials able to form free radicals causes formation of methemoglobinemia. One of these toxic chemical materials is nitrite, which leads to an autocatalytic reaction of hemoglobin converted to methemoglobin (Met-Hb). Methemoglobinemia is a pathological condition studied mostly under in vitro conditions, in which the ferrous iron of hemoglobin (Hb) converts to ferric iron if the oxy-Hb of RBC mixed with a sodium nitrite in supraphysiological concentrations. This report describes the synthesis of a novel Schiff base compound glycene-4-nitrobenzylidene-Ishraq (GBI), study its characterization, and test the oxidative properties of this new compound on the RBCs. Materials and Methods: Preparation of the new compound by the condensation reaction of glycine together with 4-nitrobenzaldehyde prepared new Schiff base compound, with methanol and potassium hydroxide. The spectral data include H-NMR, infrared, and C.N.H characterized a prepared compound. Then, the GBI screened to assess its ability to a mechanism of oxidation or anti-oxidation as in vitro study on human hemolyzed blood through the reaction of the synthesized compound (GBI) with the Hb of the erythrocyte with the present of sodium nitrite as a control, which is a known oxidative material. Results: It appears from the results an excessive oxidative effect in a dose dependent increases in the concentrations of GBI on the human blood cells through conversion of oxy-Hb into Met-Hb. Conclusions:  The chemical reaction of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and glycine led to the formation of the new compound (2-(4-nitrobenzylidene) amino) acetic acid which was found to be a strong oxidizing compound that caused the conversion of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin when the compound was tested on erythrocytes in invitro study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004587
Title: Antioxidant potential of hesperidin on free radicals by methotrexate-induced oxidative kidney damage
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study is done in the renal protective activity of hesperidin in oxidative stress condition. The anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX) which is used as a lifesaving drug produces kidney damage by producing oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Normal rats given vehicle for 7 days are served as vehicle control. Rats given intraperitoneal injection of MTX (25 mg/kg body weight) 24 h before the treatment. Rats given pre-treatment with hesperidin orally for 7 days. Rats given pre-treatment with hesperidin before the induction of hepatic damage by the administration of MTX. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed by cervical decapitation. The blood and kidney tissue were used to assess the biochemical change. Results and Discussion: The activities of marker enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenases were found to be elevated in MTX-induced nephrotoxicity. Hesperidin treatment challenging with MTX brought back the activities of marker enzymes to near normal by protecting the cell membrane integrity. An enhancement in lipid peroxide levels with a simultaneous depression in the levels of antioxidants was observed in rats challenger with MTX. Hesperidin on treatment exerted a significant free radical quenching. Decline in the activities of membrane-bound phosphatase found during MTX-induced nephrotoxicity was reverted back to normal when treated with hesperidin, indicating the membrane-stabilizing potential of hesperidin. Histopathological observations in MTX-induced and hesperidin-treated rats reveal the protective nature of the hesperidin against MTX-induced nephrotoxicity and further support the renal protective potential of hesperidin. Conclusions: The result suggested that hesperidin has potential clinical applications in MTX-induced nephrotoxicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004588
Title: A prospective observational study on safety and efficacy of teriparatide in patients with osteoporosis in clinical practice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of teriparatide (TPTD) in patients with osteoporosis and to reduce the incidence of fracture in osteoporotic men and post-menopausal women. Methodology: It was the prospective study with a 3-month observational period. The patient’s demographics were collected through questionnaires and a face-face interview with the patient. Baseline parameters such as body weight, number of fractures, bone mineral density (BMD), serum calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were assessed before initiating therapy. Patients were prescribed with TPTD 20 mcg daily subcutaneously for 3 months. The safety and effectiveness of the drug were assessed by reporting of adverse events and changes in parameters.The patients rated the severity of the pain using visual analogue scale score. The statistical analysis was conducted using SAS software. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: From the following data, the baseline parameters showed improvement in osteoporosis patients after the TPTD treatment and clinical fracture incidence decreased after initiation of the therapy resulting in increased BMD t-score thus proving its safety and effectiveness. Conclusion: TPTD is the first documented effective anabolic treatment of osteoporosis. These findings may provide useful information for clinical decision making in the management of osteoporosis. The study demonstrated that TPTD has favorable safety and effectiveness profiles including health related quality of life in osteoporotic patients. Our observations support the use of TPTD for the treatment of patients with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture for the full- approved treatment duration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004589
Title: Effect of workshop education on knowledge of specialized assistants in Arak University of Medical Sciences about professional medical and forensic medicine laws
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Surgery, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
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Background and Purpose: There is a legal relationship between the doctor and the patient in today’s world. However, most doctors do not have the exact knowledge of the laws in the medical system. Considering the significance of the research subject, an educational intervention was designed and implemented regarding knowledge of specialized assistants working in educational hospitals of Arak University of Medical Sciences about the medical and legal system laws. Materials and Methods: The present study is an educational intervention, which investigates knowledge of 83 assistants of Arak University of Medical Sciences from general surgery, neurosurgery, gynecology, pediatrics, interns, emergency medicine, and psychiatry in two groups: The first group consisted of 52 residents of the 1st and 2nd -year and the second group consisted of 31 residents of 3rd and 4th -year about laws of the forensic and medical system. An educational workshop including lecture, group discussion, and educational pamphlets was held for increasing information of assistants about medical system laws. A questionnaire containing pre- and post-test items was given before and after workshop so that impact of educational workshops on awareness and attitude of assistants is assessed. The analysis was done using SPSS statistical software by descriptive and inferential statistical indexes and Wilcoxon tests. Findings: At the end of the workshop, assistants perceived professional medical laws as their support, and the workshop was effective on awareness in this regard. The significant difference was observed between awareness and educational workshop (P < 0.0001). The significant difference was observed about information of assistants about professional medical and forensic medicine law after the workshop (P < 0.0001). A significant difference was found in the extent to which assistants found themselves guilty in cases referring to forensic medicine (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in the knowledge of assistants about professional medical laws that increased their self-confidence in the treatment of patients (P = 0.6). Assistants believed in professional medical laws and forensic medicine laws when dealing with patients. This issue showed a significant difference (P = 0.02). In addition, the workshop created a significant difference in the assistant’s awareness for counseling and discussions with the professors about the problems in medical professional laws (P = 0.006). Overall, results showed significant pre-test and post-test differences (P < 0.0001). Discussion and Conclusion: Results suggest that holding educational courses about medical and legal laws are effective for awareness and attitude of learners, and thus it is suggested that such workshops are held for all medical staff to increase awareness and familiarity with medical and forensic medicine laws.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004590
Title: Awareness of laser dentistry among dentists in Chennai ‑ A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness of laser dentistry among dentists in Chennai. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out among dentists in Chennai. A questionnaire was designed and administered to dentists in Chennai. The questionnaire contained items related to use of laser in five different dental specialties: Oral surgery (8 items), endodontics (4 items), periodontics (4 items), operative dentistry (10 items), and pediatric dentistry/orthodontics (4 items), in addition to sometimes in laser production (4 items). (Advantage of laser, effect of laser on dental tissues, expenditure of laser treatment, biggest deterrent in practicing laser dentistry, types of laser to have in practice). The data were entered and analyzed statistically significant. Results: Dental lasers were introduced to dentistry in the mid-1960s. However, still, lasers are not being used to their full potential. The results of this survey clearly indicate that dental practitioners and students are interested in using laser technology. However, still, lasers are not being used to their full potential. The results of this survey clearly indicate that dental practitioners and students are interested in using laser technology. Furthermore, growing number of patients seeks out for the clinics where laser dentistry is practiced. There is a need for proper training regarding both theoretical and practical aspects of lasers. Conclusion: To conclude, this study education should be given during their college study programs on laser to increase its implementation in the field of dentistry

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004591
Title: Prevalence of pulp stones in permanent dentition
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Pulp stones are a group of calcified masses in the dental pulp of healthy, diseased, and unerupted teeth. Stones may exist either freely within the pulp tissue or be attached to or embedded in dentin. A single tooth may have 1–12 pulp stones or even more. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 orthopantomograph were collected. The prevalence of pulp stones was classified based on age group, sex, maxillary and mandibular arch, and type of tooth. Results: About 58% (n = 58) of the patients had pulp stones. With respect to the age group, the most commonly affected age group was found to be 21–30 years with 37% of pulp stone prevalence. Men were most commonly affected with 52.22%. The most commonly affected arch was the mandibular arch with 50.31% and the most commonly affected individual tooth was upper right maxillary first molar (16) with 12.10%. The first quadrant (upper right) was most commonly affected with 28.66%. Conclusion: Pulp stones lead to severe pain. Hence, by analyzing the cause and prevalence of pulp stones, it will be easier and more helpful in formulating a treatment plan.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004592
Title: Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in diabetic patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  General Medicine, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 case reports of diabetic patients were collected. A pro forma was created with details such as the name, age, fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, liver function test, renal function test, diabetic foot ulcer, electrolyte levels, and ultrasound sonography abdomen. Diabetic patients with the habit of alcohol consumption were excluded from the study. The data were collected and compared. Results: About 23% of diabetic patients had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Conclusion: From this study, we can conclude that diabetic patients are at the risk of getting fatty liver disease along with other systemic problems like cardiovascular disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004593
Title: Restorative status and prevalence of caries in patients with removable partial denture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to study the status of restoration and prevalence of caries in patients with removable partial denture (RPD). Materials and Methods: Case sheets of 100 RPD patients were collected and the prevalence of caries and restorative status was assessed from it. Results: From the 100 subjects, 36% of the RPD patients had caries. Based on the restorative status, 12 subjects did not undergo any restorative treatment, while the rest had undergone restoration. Conclusion: The prevalence of caries in patients with RPD was found to be higher than that of patients with fixed partial denture. Therefore, alterations can be made in the design of RPD such that it will reduce the incidence of caries in RPD wearers. Awareness of oral hygiene should be given to patients with RPD.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004596
Title: Mesiodistal width of maxillary central incisors between different genders in Indian population – A cross cone‑beam computed tomography study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Many anatomical structures in humans such as palatal rugae and lip prints have been studied for gender determination, although the teeth and their measurements seem to be one of the commonly employed methods. However, differences in tooth size, variations in root length and crown diameter, dental index, odontometric differences, Barr bodies, and using enamel protein have also been tried for sex determination. Teeth, which are the hardest and chemically the most stable tissue in the body are excellent material in living and non-living populations for anthropological, genetic, odontologic, and forensic investigations. Aim: To determine whether is there any differences in mesiodistal (MD) width of permanent maxillary central incisors between different genders. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 50 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) (25 male, 25 female, and aged 18–40) which is required from Department of Oral Medicine. The total number of teeth involved is 100. The MD width was measured by the use of scale in CBCT software at three regions which are apical third, middle third, and cervical third region. The measurement was repeated 3 times for each measurement. Data were analyzed. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated for each variable. All the measurement was done by a single examiner and each reading was taken 3 times, and the average of the values was obtained to minimize calculative error. Results: Males showed greater mean MD dimension for both of the teeth if compared to females. Statistical analysis of the tooth showed that MD dimension of right and left maxillary central incisors for male is significantly different in males compared to those in females. Conclusion: Sex determination using measurement of the teeth is an inexpensive and easy method of gender identification from fragmented jaws and dental remains. The results of the present study revealed that maxillary central incisors showed statistically highly significant sexual dimorphism and could be used as adjuncts for the determination of gender in individuals, as well as in groups, such as in mass disasters and archaeological sites.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004597
Title: Effectiveness of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate varnish (MI Varnish) on reduction of dentin hypersensitivity following non-surgical periodontal therapy – A randomized controlle
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) varnish on reducing dentin hypersensitivity following non-surgical periodontal procedure (scaling). Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the reduction in patient discomfort to sensitivity following non-surgical periodontal procedure. Materials and Methods: Patients with gingival recession in their lower anterior teeth and who required scaling were specifically chosen for this study. A total of 10 patients in the control group were subjected to only scaling procedure. A total of 10 patients in the test group were subjected to scaling followed by application of CPP-ACP varnish (G. C. Tooth Mousse) in the areas of exposed root dentin and visual analog scale was used to evaluate the discomfort acted by sensitivity immediate after treatment and at 1 week review period. Results: When comparing between the pre- and post-values of Group II (TEST group-CCP-ACP), there was statistically significant decrease in dentin sensitivity 1 week after the scaling procedure (P < 0.01). There was statistically significant change (P = 0.023) when comparing the 1 week post-operative values between the control and test group using Mann–Whitney U test. Conclusion: CPP-ACP has immediate action on hypersensitivity. Further study is required to see its long lasting desensitizing action. It can be effectively used in prevention of sensitivity after routine periodontal therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004598
Title: Anxiety level toward dental treatments among students from various professions – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu,
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Background: Dental anxiety is the fear toward dentistry or dental treatments. This uncomfortable feeling not only can be seen among children but it can be observed also in adult patients. Many factors can influence the development of fear toward dental treatment. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess level of anxiety among university students from various professions toward dental treatments. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students from various professional courses were involved in this questionnaire survey. A self-administered questionnaire consists of 15 multiple-choice questions was prepared to obtain the anxiety level toward dental treatments. Each question had three options, with score 1 for A, 2 for option B, and 3 for option C. The range of possible score was 15–45. Anxiety level toward dental treatments among students from various professions had been determined using modified Corah’s anxiety scale. The total score for each student was calculated and it was grouped into three levels which were low, moderate, and high level of dental anxiety. A score of 15–30 indicates low dental anxiety, 31–38 represents moderate dental anxiety, and a score of 39–45 indicates high level of dental anxiety. Results: In this current study, a total of 150 people including 50 dental students, 50 managements, and 50 law students were completed the survey. On analysis of the responses based on modified Corah’s scale, it was found that 50% of management students had high level of anxiety followed by 38% of law students and only 20% of dental students fall in the high anxiety level with score of 39–45. Conclusion: Dental students had the lowest level of anxiety toward dental treatments. Management and law students were very tensed and agitated about dental treatment

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004599
Title: Plasma carboxy-terminal telopeptide for ovariohysterectomized cat
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Health, Faculty of Vocational Study, Airlangga University, Jalan Dharmawangsa Dalam Selatan 68, Surabaya, East Java 60115, Indonesia
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Background: This study aimed to determine differences of serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide (CTx) levels in adult cats with and without post-ovariohysterectomy and to analyze the association between the duration of cats experiencing ovariohysterectomy and high serum CTx. This research is expected to provide information regarding the impact of ovariohysterectomy for animal owners who are considering ovariohysterectomy for their pets as early prevention planning for pet osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: This analytical and observational research with a cross-sectional approach was carried out at the Veterinary of Airlangga University from March 2018 to August 2018. Data and blood samples were collected from cats. An accidental sampling technique was employed, based on the database of patients at the Veterinary of Airlangga University and Private Veterinary Practice, and included adult female cats aged 6–8 years. The owners who satisfied the inclusion criteria were interviewed and signed a letter of willingness/informed consent as an agreement to be a respondent in this study after anamnesis, physical examination, and serum CTx of their pets were examined. Results: Early detection of osteoporosis by examining serum CTx is essential to prevent further development of the disease. Serum CTx examination can determine CTx levels of cats with and without ovariohysterectomy conditions and increasing osteoporosis status in cats with ovariohysterectomy. It can be used to predict the speed of decline in bone mass density and treatment success. Conclusion: Based on this calculation, it is necessary to calculate the risk factors of increased plasma CTx levels in cats that have had ovariohysterectomies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004600
Title: The effect of temulawak extract (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) on decreasing erythema and macrophages of diabetic wounds healing process in a male Wistar rat diabetes mellitus model
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
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Context: A diabetic wound in diabetes patients is involved in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. The temulawak extract as essential oils and curcumin can improving wound healing process. Aims: This research was aimed to observe temulawak extract in decreasing erythema level and the macrophages present in the healing of diabetic wounds in a male diabetes mellitus (DM) Wistar rat. Settings and Design: This study used true experimental laboratory research design with randomized post-test only control group design method. Subjects and Methods: DM was induced in white male Wistar rats using streptozotocin 40 mg/kg BW intraperitoneally then divided into five experimental groups. Three groups were administered by various doses of temulawak extract (15%, 20%, and 25%) and two groups were administered by saline and Vaseline solution as a control comparison. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA test can be performed to determine the influence of temulawak extract. Furthermore, the post hoc test was performed to determine the difference between the control and treatment groups, while the parametric test of linear regression was performed to know the influence of temulawak extract to the erythema level and the macrophage presences. Results: This research obtained that Group 2 (temulawak 20%) had the most significant influence of erythema level and macrophage presence. Temulawak extract had the influence to decrease erythema level (P = 0.041) and macrophage presence (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) has potential to decrease the level of erythema and the presence of macrophages during the wound healing process of diabetes in a male Wistar rat DM model.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004601
Title: The effectiveness of ethanol extract of purple sweet potato var. Ayamurasaki as a natural antihypertensive mitigator in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical, Airlangga University, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
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Backgorund: There is an increasing amount of evidence that oxidative stress related to hypertension can damage the function of diverse structures such as the aorta and kidney. It is a well-established fact that chlorogenic acid and anthocyanin found in purple sweet potato generate bioactive compound with antihypertensive and antioxidative activities. Purpose: The present study sought to investigate blood pressure-lowering effect and antioxidative activity of ethanol extract of purple sweet potato (EP) in deoxycorticosterone acetate/sodium chloride (DOCA–salt)-induced hypertensive rats (Rattus norvegicus). Methods: Rats were orally administrated 95% ethanol extract of purple sweet potato (var. Ayamurasaki) in a daily dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks. Systole blood pressure (SBP) and renal and aorta total malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results: Mean SBP was lowered in the hypertensive rats following EP therapy from their values at the time of administration. Renal and aorta injury was observed in the DOCA–salt hypertensive rats compared to normotensive group rats; renal and aorta MDA significantly increased (P < 0.05). In contrast, treatment of DOCA–salt in hypertensive rats with a different dose of EP significantly reduced the total renal and aorta MDA. Conclusion: This is the first report that demonstrates the lowering of blood pressure and antioxidative effects of an ethanol extract of purple sweet potato, containing chlorogenic acid, in a DOCA–salt model of hypertension.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004602
Title: Accuracy of apex locators in determining working length in single-rooted teeth – A histologic analysis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the accuracy of apex locators in determining the working length using histologic methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 extracted single-rooted teeth were collected. Access opening and coronal enlargement of the teeth were done. The working length was determined using Root ZX and Propexpixi apex locators. The orifice was closed using glass ionomer cement along with the file and was given for decalcification process to check the position of the file. Results: There was a significant difference between the pre-operative working length and working length determined by Propexpixi (P = 0.049) and between Propexpixi and Root ZX (P = 0.047). There was no significant difference between the pre-operative working length and working length determined by Root ZX (P = 1.000). Conclusion: The working length determined by Root ZX apex locator was more accurate when compared with the working length determined by Propexpixi apex locator.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004603
Title: An overview of the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophies
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The conditions are different from in their seriousness age and rate of making forward development. In males with muscular dystrophy, muscle feebleness takes care of to come into view as in early time of being young and get worse quickly. Acted on boys and girls may have delayed engine expert knowledge, powers to do well, such as being seated, standing, and walking. They are usually wheel seat dependent by late stage of youth. The occurrence of muscular dystrophies is usually more unique and silent and more full of changes. In most examples, muscle feebleness becomes clear later in time of being young or in latest age of youth and gets worse at a much slower rate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004604
Title: In vitro assessment of cytotoxicity and antiproliferation activities of the ethyl acetate fraction from Solanum torvum fruit powder toward T47D breast cancer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kediri Islamic University, Kediri, East Java, Indonesia
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Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant content of the ethyl acetate fraction of Solanum torvum fruit against cytotoxic effects, selectivity index, cell cycle, and apoptosis of T47D breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The response surface methodology-Box-Behnken design was used as the experimental design. In addition, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS), 3-(4 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and FACSCalibur flow cytometry were used in this research. Moreover, half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of the cytotoxic treatments was statistically evaluated by Microsoft Excel. Results: The results showed that antioxidant activity 2,2-diphenyl 1-picrylhydrazyl of S. torvum fruit was 87.54%, the polyphenol content was 61.61 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, the tannin content was 1.06 mg tannic acid equivalents/g, and the flavonoid content was 1.72 mg QAE/g. Meanwhile, the G0-G1 rate was 46.91%, the S-phase rate was 20.91%, and the G2-M rate was 31.25%. S. torvum fruit can increase initial apoptosis and reduce the damaging effect of cell membranes (R2) by 25.19%. In region 3 (R3), late apoptosis increased inducing cell membrane damage by 48.06%, and the necrosis rate was 13.26%. The LCMS chemical compound showed that S. torvum dried fruit contains chlorogenic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-feruloylquinic acid, 5-O-feruloylquinic acid, 3-O-feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-O dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-feruloylquinic acid, 5-O-feruloylquinic acid, and putative dicaffeoylquinic lactone. The results showed that polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, chlorogenic acids, and their derivatives in the ethyl acetate fraction of S. torvum dry fruit have cytotoxic activity with IC50 , approximately 39.17 µg/ml, and have an antiproliferation activity. Conclusion: These results suggest that S. torvum fruits might be potent as chemopreventive agents against T47D breast cancer cells.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004606
Title: Comparison of interleukin-4 with disease activity and activity and chronicity indices in lupus nephritis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Brawijaya University, Saiful Anwar Hospital, Malang, Indonesia
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Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the levels of IL-4 (interleukin-4) serum in mild and severe disease activities, low and high activity, and chronicity indices in lupus nephritis (LN) patients in Saiful Anwar Hospital. Materials and Methods: Subjects were eligible based on the American College of Rheumatology 1997 revised criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and had a renal biopsy consistent with LN. The IL-4 serum level was measured on the same day before a biopsy was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Disease activity was assessed using renal domain SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) scores. The activity and chronicity indices were scored using the National Institute of Health system. Mild disease activity has a renal domain SLEDAI score ≤4, the low activity index has an activity index <6, and the low chronicity index was defined as a chronicity index <3. Comparative analyses using a t-test and non-parametric Mann–Whitney U-test were performed. Results: Disease activity, index activity, and chronicity were assessed among 37 LN patients of Classes III and IV. There were 24 patients (64.86%) with mild disease activity compared to 13 patients (35.14%) with severe disease activity. Twenty-nine patients (78.4%) with a low activity index were compared to 8 patients (21.6%) with a high activity index, and there were 16 patients (43.2%) with a low chronicity index compared to 21 patients (56.8%) with a high chronicity index. There were differences in IL-4 serum levels in mild disease activity compared to severe urinalysis activity with P = 0.039; the levels of IL-4 serum were higher in mild disease activity (133.17 ± 79.93 pg/mL vs. 86.33 ± 70.62 pg/mL). There were no differences in IL-4 levels in the low activity index and high activity index (P = 0.599), even though the IL-4 serum level was higher in the low activity index (144.49 ± 81.79 pg/mL vs. 124.77 ± 73.01). The level of IL-4 serum was higher in the high chronicity index (147.61 ± 87.20 pg/mL) than in the low chronicity index (76.16 ± 42.32 pg/mL) with P = 0.012. Conclusion: There were differences in IL-4 serum levels between mild and severe disease activity and between the low and high chronicity indices. This study showed that IL-4 may have a positive correlation with the chronicity index in the fibrogenesis process and reduce the disease activity. There was no difference in IL-4 serum levels between the low activity index and the high activity index.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004607
Title: Preparation and in vitro characterization of pediatric fast dissolving strip of dexchlorpheniramine maleate
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Baghdad College of Medical Sciences, Baghdad, Iraq
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Objective: The current work was conducted with the aim of preparing rapidly dissolving strips of dexchlorpheniramine maleate to improve pediatric patient adherence for the best pharmaceutical reaction through the first-pass hepatic metabolism bypass. Methods: The oral strip was prepared using various polymers hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E15, HPMC K4M, and polyvinyl alcohol) using solvent casting methodology. Various types of plasticizers polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 and propylene glycol) have been used to raise the features of the strip preparation polymer. Results: From this work, formula 3, consisting of 360 mg HPMC E15 as a polymer and 1 ml PEG 400 as a plasticizer, offers acceptable formulation characteristics and rapid drug release (100%) at 10 min compared to the Polaramine®(Schering-Plough) tablets (66.18%) on the market. Conclusion: The optimum formula (F3) has been chosen to prepare rapidly dissolving strips to be useful for pediatric drug dosage by offering quicker release and better patient compliance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004608
Title: Sex determination using various geometric and morphometric parameters of the mandible
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the sex of an individual using various parameters of mandible. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. Fifty adult dry human mandibles were taken. Out of these 50 mandibles, 25 mandibles were male and 25 mandibles were female. Using Vernier caliper, several geometric and morphometric parameters of the mandible such as bigonial distance, bicondylar distance, and mandible length, the study has been done. Results and Discussion: The mean of the male in all the three parameters considered was to be higher when compared to female. Standard deviation of male was higher in bigonial distance and the bicondylar distance and in female, standard deviation of mandible length was higher. Conclusion: The geometric and morphological parameters of mandible such as bigonial distance, bicondylar distance, and the mandible length are very useful to determine the sex.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004609
Title: Location and therapy of headache based on electromyography signals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The Nimbus proficient framework is a definitive weight redistribution sleeping cushion in the Nimbus run, offering propelled dynamic treatment, and all outpatient administration although could not care less situations. Aims and Objectives: Exchanging weight surfaces have been appeared to diminish the episodes of weight bruises contrasted and standard emergency clinic bedding and weight decreasing surfaces. Materials and methods:The Aura 3 Professional sleeping cushion has indistinguishable number of cells from the Nimbus 3 bedding (20 cells). Results and Conclusion:This has been created by new therapeutic gadget directions and is demonstrated for the treatment of patients with all evaluations of weight bruises and for counteractive action in patients who are at extremely high danger of creating weight injuries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004610
Title: Awareness on high density lipoprotein among senior citizens - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Lipoproteins are macromolecule complexes of lipids with protein. The example of such proteins holds high- density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL, and chylomicrons. In this article, we are going to see about HDL. HDL is simply abbreviated as HDL. It is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins. HDL is the smallest of the lipoprotein particles. It contains the highest proportion of proteins to lipids; thus, it is the densest. HDL are also called as good cholesterol. It is called good cholesterol because they can transport fat molecules out of artery walls, reduce macrophage accumulation, and thus help prevent or even regress atherosclerosis. HDL transports cholesterol to the liver or steroidogenic organs such as adrenals, ovary, and testes by both direct and indirect pathways. HDL is the good cholesterol because the friendly scavenger cruises the blood stream and it removes harmful bad cholesterol from where it does not belong. High level reduces the risk of heart disease but, low level causes risk, sometimes even death. Records say that regular exercise and diet maintains the HDL level and also prevents from cardiac problems. The aim of this study is to create an awareness among the senior citizen regarding the HDL. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared. The survey was conducted among the senior citizens and the data were collected. The survey was conducted using a link created by the survey planet and it was circulated among the Senior citizens. Thus, this survey was conducted among 156 senior citizens, and the result was calculated statistically. Results: Hence, it is evident from this survey that most of the participants are aware of HDL. Conclusion: Here, from this survey, we can tell that 63.5% (99/156) of the population are aware of the HDL.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004612
Title: Effect of dexmedetomidine and propofol on hemodynamic responses and recovery during tracheal extubation: A prospective observational study in a tertiary care hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anaesthesiology, Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical Sciences, Chegelpet, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Propofol and dexmedetomidine are known to assist smooth tracheal extubation after surgery. The study compared the effect of dexmedetomidine and propofol on hemodynamic and recovery responses during and after extubation. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia. Group P (n = 30) received propofol 0.5 mg/kg and Group D (n = 30) received dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/kg after spontaneous respiratory effort started and isoflurane was stopped. The hemodynamic parameters were documented at 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15 min after extubation. Ease of extubation on cough grading and sedation scores was studied. Unpaired t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Chi-square test were used to compare groups. Results: Patient characteristics were comparable among the study groups. The sedation score was significantly higher in dexmedetomidine group at 15 min (Group P = 3 [interquartile range (IQR): 3,3]; Group D = 4 [IQR: 4,4] [P ≤ 0.001]). Systolic blood pressure was significantly lesser in dexmedetomidine group at 0 min (Group P = 118.97 ± 6.63, Group D = 113.27 ± 7.58, P = 0.003), 2 min (Group P = 114.8 ± 5.6, Group D = 110.6 ± 7.49 P = 0.017), 10 min (Group P = 105.33 ± 3.53, Group D = 102.67 ± 4.96, P = 0.02), and 15 min (Group P = 107.67 ± 2.93, Group D = 101.6 ± 3.5, P < 0.001). The heart rate was lower in dexmedetomidine group at 2 min (Group P = 81.1 ± 5.12, Group D = 77.47 ± 5.3, P = 0.009), 10 (Group P = 73.7 ± 4.02, Group D = 68.1 ± 2.56, P < 0.001), and 15 min (Group P = 73.6 ± 3.94, Group D = 64.9 ± 2.19 P < 0.001). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine is an excellent drug for extubation compared to propofol.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004657
Title: Monitoring public health quality: Testing of heavy metal pollution in Cikapundung River water in Bandung city, Indonesia with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer method
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang, Indonesia
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Objective: Heavy metal content is an important parameter for determining water quality. Cikapundung River is the main river that passes through the city of Bandung, Indonesia. Technological developments and the modernization of human life have shifted public awareness about the importance of the existence of rivers. The purpose of this study was to determine the health of the people living around the Cikapundung River through water quality checks as seen from heavy metal parameters. This test uses the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) method. Heavy metals that accumulate in water and are consumed by humans will cause serious toxicity and are harmful to the body. Materials and Methods: Water samples come from two different locations on the Cikapundung River. This research includes the sampling of Cikapundung River water with quantitative analysis using the AAS method and data processing. Results: The results of testing six heavy metals in Cikapundung River water samples at two locations showed that zinc (Zn) metal was detected at concentrations of 0.05 g/L and 0.06 g/L. Conclusions: Detected Zn metal levels are still below the permissible concentration threshold based on Indonesian government regulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004658
Title: Proper premolar extraction to treat an angle Class III malocclusion
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
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Introduction: One of the most challenging problems for the orthodontist is a developing skeletal Class III malocclusion. Skeletal Class III malocclusions can be characterized by a prognathic mandible, lack of maxillary growth, or both. The orthodontic camouflage treatment can be performed in Class III malocclusion patients with a mild skeletal discrepancy in patients with no growth potential. This article aims to describe the management of dentoskeletal Class III malocclusion by extraction of the upper and lower right premolars without orthognathic surgery. Materials and Methods: The patient was treated by a fixed orthodontic appliance with a straight wire system combined with a vertical U-loop to fix the anterior crossbite combined with Class III intermaxillary elastic. Results: The anterior crossbite was improved, Class I canine and molar relation had a normal overbite and overjet, and the median line was in a line, with an overall improved facial profile. Conclusions: Camouflage treatment with proper extraction can be considered in a nonsurgical treatment of adults.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004673
Title: A cross-sectional study on tobacco usage among rural population of puducherry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India (Affiliated to Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Background: Tobacco kills more than 1 million annually in India. 266.8 million people are current tobacco users, and a substantial number of people exposed to second-hand smoke are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is high time to address the burdens caused by tobacco usage. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the epidemiological pattern about the tobacco usage and factors associated with it in the rural area of Puducherry. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in the field practicing area of Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences from April to June 2019 with a sample size of 200. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to assess the sociodemographic and tobacco usage domains. Mean, proportions, and Chi-square test was used to analysis the collected data with SPSS version 21. Results: The mean age of the study group is 45.8 ± 15.2 years. In our study, 28% of the population belonged to 16–35 years, 42.5% of them belonged to 35–55 years, and 29.5% belonged to 55 years and above. About 60.5% were male and 39.5% were female. In our study, highly significant association was found between gender and type of tobacco usage (smoking type vs. smokeless type), and P < 0.001, gender and quality of cigarettes per day with P < 0.001 and significant association between gender frequency of smokeless type tobacco usage per day with P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study shows the present epidemiological factors associated with tobacco usage and gaps in the prevention program. The present study helps in designing a module to create awareness among the tobacco users of rural Puducherry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004674
Title: Poor control of hypertension among the study population from South India and the influence of demographic factors
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objectives: Higher global prevalence and inadequate control measures among the affected individuals have made hypertension, a major morbidity and mortality challenge to the modern society. The aim of the study was to assess various variables influencing hypertension control. This study is a cross-sectional study done at the tertiary level hospital, Southern part of India. Case Study: Patients with a history of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) and on more than 1-year prescription with antihypertensive drugs, more than 20 years of age, both the genders and with or without comorbidity were enrolled. Results: Various demographic variables were analyzed. Statistical analysis was done to determine the association of variables with the control of hypertension. Among the 448 patients, 244 (54.4%) were female and 203 (45.3%) were male. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic BPs were 144.81 mmHg (standard deviation [SD] ± 14.9) and 90.81 mmHg (SD ± 7.6), respectively. Only 11.8% of the hypertensive patients had a good control of hypertension. Variables such as age (P = 0.002), duration of hypertension (P = 0.052), history of drugs intake (P = 0.002), comorbid diseases (P = 0.000), and professional status (P = 0.001) had a statistically significant association with poor control of hypertension. An alarmingly, 87.2% of the study population was not controlling hypertension. Various variables were shown to be associated with poor control of hypertension. Any population with such poor hypertension control practices would lead to high morbidity and mortality, and urgent measures have to be undertaken to remove the poor control behaviors in a community.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004675
Title: A 2-year-old child presenting with anemia with nutritional deficiency
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Anemia is a common presentation in children but the differential diagnosis of iron deficiency and β-thalassemia remains a diagnostic challenge. Red blood cell (RBC) indices have been shown to perform weakly in such scenarios. One potential cause is breastfeeding, but the evidence for unusually prolonged exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) as a cause of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in older (>2 years) toddlers is sparse and the association of breastfeeding with iron deficiency in this age group of older toddlers is not unequivocally established. In this case, we describe an unusual cause of nutritional IDA in the age group of 2–3 years. Case Report: We describe a 2-year-old boy who presented to our outpatient clinic with recurrent diarrhea and anemia. The patient was febrile (99.1°F) with pale skin and signs of mild dehydration. A reduced nutritional status with a weight of 11.5 kg between the 3rd and 10th percentile was noted. Nutritional evaluation revealed that the boy was still exclusively breastfed with more than 6 times breastfeeding per day. Iron supplementation ameliorated the anemia and reduced hypochromic RBCs. Conclusion: The case demonstrates that unusually prolonged (longer than 2 years) EBF is a potential cause of IDA in older toddlers. We discuss a simple combination of laboratory tests with ferritin and red cell distribution width that together with a nutritional evaluation provide a quick diagnosis and show that even at such an advanced stage of nutritional iron deficiency oral iron supplementation is an effective treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004676
Title: Prevalence and risk factors for epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy – A prospective observational study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India (Affiliated to Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Objectives: The objectives of the study were to find the prevalence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy and assess the risk factors for epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy design: Prospective observational study setting: Pediatric Outpatient Department (OPD) of Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, subjects: A total of 79 children under 12 years of age with cerebral palsy were enrolled in the study. Materials and Methods: Mothers or caretakers of children with cerebral palsy who attended the pediatric OPD were interviewed to fill a printed structured questionnaire after consent. The details were recorded by the principal investigator. All children with cerebral palsy who had seizures were taken as cases. Children with cerebral palsy who did not have seizures were taken as controls. The data collected were tabulated in a Microsoft Excel datasheet and analyzed. The percentage of risk factors was estimated in both cases and controls. Chi- square test was done to calculate P-value. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.0. P-value <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: The total number of children with cerebral palsy recruited in our study is 79. Out of these 79 children, 46 (58.2%) had seizures and the remaining 33 (41.8%) children did not have seizures. Hence, the prevalence of seizures/epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy as per our study is 58.2%. Among the various risk factors analyzed, five factors were found to be statistically significant between both the groups, namely, consanguinity (P < 0.036), age of the mother <20 years at conception (P < 0.032), low birth weight (P < 0.001), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay for more than 48 h (P < 0.02), and spastic quadriplegic type of cerebral palsy (P < 0.04). Conclusions: The prevalence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy in our study is 58.6%. Consanguinity, age of the mother <20 years at conception, low birth weight, NICU stay for more than 48 h, and spastic quadriplegic type of cerebral palsy are the risk factors for epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004679
Title: Clinical profile of hospitalized children with febrile seizures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical profile, investigations, course in hospital, and outcome of children admitted with febrile seizures. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 children with febrile seizures were taken as study subjects. The study was conducted over 6 months, from June 2018 to November 2018. Clinical, laboratory, electroencephalography (EEG), and neuroimaging data were evaluated. Results: The children’s ages ranged between 7 and 70 months (mean = 20 and standard deviation [SD] = 14), and 58.5% were males. Majority of the hospitalized children (60 of 70) had complex febrile seizures (55%), were dull-looking (24.5%), suffered from status (17.5%), or positive meningeal irritation signs (4%). Electrolyte abnormalities were uncommon (10%), however, complete blood count was found to be abnormal in 45%, which increased the likelihood of receiving intravenous antibiotics (P = 0.01). Lumbar puncture was performed in those who demonstrated signs of meningeal irritation or those who were younger than 2 years of age. Magnetic resonance imaging brain was performed in 15.71% and EEG in 35.71%. Obtaining an EEG was less likely if the seizures were typical (13% vs. 50% in atypical, P = 0.002). Duration of hospitalization ranged between 1 and 14 days (mean = 4.7 and SD = 3.2), and only one child had meningitis, which was predicted clinically. Conclusions: Those children who were admitted frequently had complex febrile seizures, status epilepticus, or were ill-looking. Simple febrile seizures are generally investigated selectively. However, it was observed that the yield of investigations remains low and does not justify extensive work-up or prolonged hospitalization.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004680
Title: A case of Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting with dyspnea
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Vitamin B12 deficiency usually presents as megaloblastic anemia, but sometimes, it is associated with pancytopenia. Pancytopenia can be caused by underlying disorders such as few autoimmune conditions, leukemia, and nutritional deficiencies. It can present with anemia and gastrointestinal or neurological systems. Understanding the etiology of the deficiency is important for initiation of treatment. A 10-year-old child presented with complaints of fever, dyspnea, myalgia, and generalized tiredness. On evaluation, she was found to have pancytopenia caused by Vitamin B12 deficiency due to dietary deficiency. Parenteral B12 treatment led the patient to symptomatically improve. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a reversible cause of bone marrow failure and can be easily treated if diagnosed early. Eggs and animal-derived foods constitute the usual source of Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency should, therefore, be in the event of the deficiency being caused by inadequate intake or intrinsic factor deficiency, the treatment can be started quickly leading to the dramatic improvement of the patient’s condition.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004682
Title: A 6-month-old girl with incontinentia pigmenti presenting as status epilepticus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an uncommon neurocutaneous syndrome. Its initial diagnosis is based primarily on characteristic papulovesicular skin lesions and early-onset neonatal seizures. In contrast to typical early neurologic manifestations, we encountered a normally developed 6-month-old female patient with hyperpigmented whorls on her body. Following respiratory syncytial virus infection and fever, the patient exhibited status epilepticus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging studies of the patient were compatible with the findings of acute encephalopathy in IP. Genetic analysis showed an 11.7 kb deletion within the gene encoding inhibitor of kappa-B kinase gamma. The patient was treated with anticonvulsants and subsequently reached expected developmental milestones after discharge. These findings indicate that when a patient presents with status epilepticus, meticulous examination for skin lesions should be performed to determine whether the patient has a neurocutaneous syndrome such as IP (2017;7:118-120).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004683
Title: Advanced maternal age and their perinatal outcomes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: This review was conducted against a background of increasing maternal age (>35 years) and concerns for fetal and maternal welfare among this group. Consequent to these concerns, increasing trends of birth intervention such as cesarean section and instrumental birth are seen. Although evidence justifies a high rate of intervention among women aged more than 35 years, the evidence for such intervention in women aged 20–34 years is sketchy and often contradictory. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in women aged ≥35 years relatively to those aged 20–34 years. Place of Study: This study was conducted at Obstetric Outpatients and Inpatients, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chromepet, Chennai. Study Design: This was a prospective observational study. Period of Study: This study was from August 2016 to February 2018. Results: Occurrence of low birth weight babies is increased in women >35 years when compared to pregnant women of the age group of 20–34 years. Other perinatal factors affected were increase in stillbirth, neonatal death, and low Apgar at 5 min in women >35 years of age. Conclusion: Although risk and rates of adverse perinatal outcome are increased among women aged more than 35 years, midwives and women should also be aware that perinatal outcomes are generally unfavorable for this group and must have appropriate neonatal intensive care unit facilities. Perinatal morbidity, neonatal death increased with maternal age. There was also an increase in intercurrent illnesses and pregnancy complications with increasing age. There is also some suggestion in literature that social advantage may ameliorate some of the effect of advanced maternal age on perinatal outcome. Further research is required to evaluate the soundness and strength of this association.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004684
Title: Adsorption of synthetic malachite green dye using Moringa oleifera
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Rivers and other water bodies are highly polluted by waste water released from many industries, among which dye industries play a major role. These dye effluents are very much harmful to land as well as humans. Aim: In the present investigation, plant powder of Moringa oleifera was used for reducing the color of malachite green dye which is highly harmful. Methodology: Through biosorption process and optimization of adsorbent concentration, and pH dye removal efficiency was analysed. Results: The results revealed 1g of the adsorbent dosage and pH 7was found to be the optimum level for adsorption, in which the maximum removal of color was achieved (68.75%). Conclusion: In this study, leaf powder of Moringa oleifera was found to be effective adsorbent for the removal of malachite green dye.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004687
Title: Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objectives: The aim of this study is to find out the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria inpregnancy. Place of Study: Antenatal outpatient department, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chromepet, Chennai. Period of Study: August 2016–February 2018 (18 months). Study Design: Cross-sectional, analytical study. Materials and Methods: All pregnant women attending antenatal outpatient clinic irrespective of all gestational ages. One hundred and ten pregnant women, diagnosed as asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), were included in the study, after explaining the nature of the study and obtaining informed consent for participating in the study. They were classified into different age group categories. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In our study, the overall prevalence of ASB among all pregnant women was 22%. The prevalence of ASB was more common in the age group of 16–20 years followed by >35 years, with the least prevalence in the age group of 20–35 years. Conclusion: As ASB is associated with complications in pregnancy, it is, therefore, imperative that pregnant women be screened for bacteriuria, periodically in every trimester of the gestational period. Routine urine culture tests should be carried out for all antenatal women to detect ASB, and every positive case should be treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy, to prevent any obstetric complication which is associated with pregnancy. In view of the changing patterns of bacterial resistance to common drugs, the importance of educating physicians on the use of antibiotics accordingly to provide empirical therapy is important.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004688
Title: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in South Indian women with polycystic ovarian syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objectives: The aim of our study is to study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) using the new International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and to compare the various components of MetS in between two groups (with MetS and without MetS). Place of Study: Gynaecology outpatient department, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chromepet, Chennai. Period of Study: August 2016–February 2018 (18 months). Study Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: All reproductive-age group women attending gynecology outpatient clinic with menstrual irregularities or androgenic features or infertility or obesity who are screened for PCOS using the Rotterdam criteria. Two hundred and fifty women in reproductive age group, diagnosed as PCOS using the Rotterdam criteria, after explaining the nature of the study and obtaining informed consent for participating in the study, were subjected to the new IDF criteria for the diagnosis of MetS. IBM SPSS statistical software version 21 was used for data analysis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of individual components of MetS was as follows: waist circumference >80 cm in 58%, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level <50 mg/dL in 34.40%, fasting glucose concentrations of 100 mg/dL in 34.4%, triglyceride level >150 mg/dL in 12.8%, and blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg in 3.6%. In our study, we found a prevalence of MetS of 37.6%, which constitutes more than a third of the PCOS women. In this study, we found that the prevalence of MetS among PCOS patients increased gradually from 30.2% at age <25 years to 51.5% at age >30 years. The prevalence of MetS increases as body mass index increases in the PCOS population, i.e., 2.6%, 37%, and 95.7% for normal, overweight, and obese women, respectively. In our study, there was statistically significant difference between MetS and waist circumference, serum triglycerides, serum HDL, fasting blood sugar, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: In the modern era, there is a rising trend of PCOS and increased practice of sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity. In our study, the prevalence of MetS among PCOS patients (37.6%) was high; thus, it can be concluded that PCOS patients belong to the high-risk group of developing cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular accident. Thus, it creates an important issue when dealing with PCOS patients. Despite treating the infertility and menstrual complaints of the PCOS patients, it is the treating doctor’s duty to take it as an opportunity to screen for MetS and advice on healthy diet, physical activity, and weight reduction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004689
Title: Effects of early versus late cord clamping on duration of third stage of labor
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Recent protocol proposed by the World Health Organization to manage the third stage of labor replaced the early cord clamping by deferred cord clamping to induce numerous neonatal benefits. However, this practice is still resisted in most of the Arab countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of deferred versus early umbilical cord clamping on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004690
Title: Comparison of indications of primary cesarean section in multigravida and primigravida
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the indications of primary cesarean section in multigravida and primigravida. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 cases of primary cesarean in multigravida and primigravida were done over a period of 1 year, i.e., from December 2017 to January 2018 at the Obstetric Department of Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai - 44. For all the cases, blood was sent for basic investigations such as hemoglobin, blood grouping and typing, total count, differential count, and urine examination. Special investigations in liver function tests and renal function tests were done when required, and for placental localization and abruption, intrapartum cardiotocography was done in cases where it was required. Results: This is a prospective study undertaken to analyze the indications of primary cesarean section done for 1st time in multigravida and primigravida during the study period of 2 years. Among the various indications for cesarean section in multigravida, fetal distress (27.6%) and malpresentation (17.2%) were with the highest incidence. Conclusion: Previous vaginal delivery gives the patient as well as her relatives a false sense of security. There are many cases where a cesarean becomes mandatory for her. The fact that a multigravida has had one or more vaginal deliveries should be regarded as an optimistic historical fact, not as diagnostic criteria for spontaneous delivery of the pregnancy at hand.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004691
Title: The synergistic effect for sesame oil-ciprofloxacin on the sensitivity of some Enterobacteriaceae species
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Science, University of Anbar, Anbar,  Iraq
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Background: Hospital-acquired infections are important problems in developing countries with high prevalence rate. Enterobacteriaceae members regarded the most important pathogens among those responsible for such infections. Due to the high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains in pathogenic microorganisms that have emerged in recent decades, extensive studies have been conducted on the use of natural products and biologically active compounds extracted from medicinal plants. Methodology: This study was designed to determine the effect of sesame oil on increasing the sensitivity of ciprofloxacin (CIP) resistant bacteria where oil works synergistically with antibiotic as a bacteriostatic or bactericidal. Results: Thirty-two samples of people with urinary tract infections and diarrhea were isolated at Al-Ramadi Teaching Hospital and Private Laboratories, the different bacterial species isolated belong to Enterobacteriaceae included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Salmonella. The results showed the isolates converted from CIP resistance to sensitive when mix the sesame oil with CIP and the sensitivity increased with increased the concentration of sesame oil in E. coli (8–30 mm), Klebsiella (10–26 mm), Proteus (8–22 mm), and Salmonella (10–24 mm), respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that there is an important effect of sesame oil synergistically with CIP on the Enterobacteriaceae resistant to this antibiotic and causing urinary tract infection and diarrhea and did not show the same effect when adding sesame oil or antibiotics separately.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004692
Title: Morphological and histological effect induced by cefotaxime, dexamethazon and mixture of cefotaxime and dexamethazon to the stomach, liver, kidney and lung of the rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Histology, College of Medicine, University of Wasit, Kut, Iraq
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Background: Cefotaxime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. It is often more active against Gram-negative bacteria also the first and second breed cephalosporins. Cefotaxime is very stablest in the presence of beta-lactamases output by certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and Methods: Adult rats were divided into four groups; each group consists of six rats. First group control was injected with 0.3 ml of water, second group was injected with 60 mg of cefotaxime, third group was injected 1.2 mg dexamethasone, and fourth group includes mixed (cefotaxime 30 mg and dexamethasone 0.6 mg) was injected intramuscularly in the thigh. Cefotaxime powder melted in distal water to be ready for use and introduced to the rats for 12 days. The rats were killed after 12 days from injection of drugs using chloroform and dissection the animals in aseptic circumstance to identify the morphological and histological changes of organs and comparing them to the control animals and took the stomach, liver, and kidney than placed in containers contain neutral buffered 10% formalin to fix the organs for histological study use hematoxylin and eosin stains. Results: The present study was design to adverse effect of cefotaxime (Claforan), dexamethasone alone each other and then injection two type drugs mixed to show effect of these drugs if inject mixed to the rats till 12 days and shows the morphological and histological effect of these drugs to the stomach, liver, kidney, and lung after injection in rats. This study showed there is high effect of these drugs on these organs. While I suggest injection of mixed drugs with decrease dose of each one will decrease the effects of them in tissues, while if used singly with high dose this induces many morphological changes in different tissues. Conclusion: The result of our present study revealed the cefotaxime sodium and dexamethasone should be utilized with a wariness because of them prospect adverse effects on certain organs such liver, kidney lung, and stomach and could be consumed safely with lower therapeutic doses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004693
Title: Assessing the existing knowledge on diabetes to create awareness on its root cause: A preventive study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India (Affiliated to Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major clinical and public health problem across globally, accounting 422 million people living with diabetes during 2014 and increasing in the prevalence rate steadily. Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the existing knowledge on diabetes to create awareness about the root cause for diabetes among the healthy population completed graduation with biology background in and around Pondicherry. Methodology: In the present study, 642 graduates were voluntarily participated, a structured pre-tested questionnaire relevant to existing knowledge relevant to root cause for diabetes by assessing the cell membrane and fatty acids, mechanism of complication, low glycemic index, glycation, type of diabetes, and symptoms for diabetes. Results: Result showed only 17% of population aware importance of essential fatty acids in the cell membrane, 25% of participant aware about the formation of glycation, and 28% of population aware about gluten-rich food leads to autoimmune disease. Relevant to low glycemic index food about 45% of the studied group aware, about 44% were aware that glycogen stored in the muscle cell cannot be released in the blood. Apart 93% were aware insulin action, 90% were aware types of diabetes, and 100% were aware about the symptoms of diabetes. Overall, only 15% of the studied population showed existing knowledge on root cause for diabetes on preventive aspect, and this may still further decline in general population and graduate from other non-biological background. Conclusion: The present study explored that warrant awareness on preventive aspect on root cause for diabetes in relevant to essential fatty acids rich food and it source, to change in the lifestyle, apart from screening, and treatment of diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004694
Title: Total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing power, and iron-chelating activities of methanolic leaf extract of Rhizophora apiculata Blume
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are a class of highly reactive molecules derived from the metabolism of oxygen in both pathological and nonpathological conditions. Accumulation of these reactive oxygen and nitrogen species has been involved in the development of degenerative diseases. Rhizophora apiculata Blume is an Indian traditional medicinal plant used in the curing of oxidative stress-related diseases. Objective: The present was an attempt to evaluate the total antioxidant, reducing power, and metal chelating activity of methanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata Blume. Methods: The total antioxidant activity, reducing power, and iron-chelating activity of methanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata Blume were performed using standard procedures. Results: The results have indicated that the total antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extract was 126.18 µg/500 µg, showed maximum reducing power of 0.264 O.D at 700 nm and significant Fe2+ chelating of 76.21% with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration value of 205 μg/ml. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the methanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata Blume leaves is potential source of natural antioxidants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004695
Title: Antioxidant potential of Abutilon indicum seed extract – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Free radicals are substances which are produced by our body under physical and chemical alteration. It produces oxidative stress on cells and causes diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and hepatic damage. To counteract the free radical damage on cells and disease prevention, antioxidants are required. Plants are considered as enduros source of antioxidant and there are various studies conducted on various plant extracts to assess the antioxidant potential. The present study aims to find the antioxidant potential of Abutilon indicum seed extract by in vitro analysis. Materials and Methods: Methanol extracts of the seeds of A. indicum were prepared and studied for in vitro antioxidant activity using two different methods, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and nitric oxide free radical activity. The radical scavenging activity was measured at dose-dependent concentration and compared with ascorbic acid activity. Results: The extracts from A. indicum seeds were found to scavenge the free radicals by DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging activity. The scavenging activity was dose dependent and almost equal to the activity of ascorbic acid, which is the gold standard antioxidant agent. The scavenging activity was maximum at 500 μg/ml. Conclusion: Thus, the present study ascertained the dose-dependent antioxidant potential of A. indicum seed extract through DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging activity, which can be used to treat various health ailments.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004696
Title: Prevalence of amenorrhea in patients with psychosis on risperidone: A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India (Affiliated to Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Introduction: Menstrual disturbance is a common side effect of antipsychotic use. The aim of the study is to calculate the prevalence of amenorrhea in patients with psychosis on risperidone in a tertiary care hospital of South India and compare with national and international values. Methodology: Patients between 18 and 45 years on risperidone for the treatment of psychosis diagnosed according to ICD-10, diagnostic criteria for research were included in the study. Patients with organic psychosis and gynecological problems were excluded from the study. A total of 59 patients were recruited for the study by on the basis of consecutive sampling. Results: Twenty-three (38.9%) of the 59 patients were diagnosed of amenorrhea with the majority on doses 4 mg and above. Discussion: The above results were corresponding to the values of previous studies. The study depicts the magnitude of amenorrhea as an adverse effect of risperidone in a relatively homogenous population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004697
Title: The study of serum lipid profile in children with nephrotic syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India (Affiliated to Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Background: Hyperlipidemia is an important characteristic of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children and is usually observed during the active phase of the disease and disappears with the resolution of the proteinuria. However, it may persist in some cases, leading to increased risk of atherosclerosis in later life. This study is designed to study the derangement of lipids in nephrotic syndrome children. Aims and Objectives: The aim is to study the lipid profile in children with nephrotic syndrome over 3 months of steroid therapy. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study conducted among 30 patients with nephrotic syndrome admitted in the Department of Pediatrics of a private medical college in Puducherry, over 12 months. After taking detailed history and a thorough clinical examination, these patients were investigated for serum lipid profile and serum and urinary proteins at the onset of disease and remission. Results: Among nephrotic syndrome patients, there was a significant increase in total cholesterol (mean = 422.61 mg%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (mean = 319.10 mg%), very LDL cholesterol (mean = 54.53 mg%), and triglycerides (mean = 284.06 mg%) than controls and was highly significant (P = 0.001). However, serum cholesterol subsequently reduced to normal at the end of steroid treatment (P = 0.001), whereas in case of relapses serum cholesterol reduced marginally, but it was persistently high (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The study revealed that serum cholesterol level in the first episode of nephrotic syndrome reached normal value at the end of steroid therapy. However in cases of relapses, there is a persistent elevation in the cholesterol levels, which may predispose to the development of atherosclerosis and progression of chronic renal failure.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004698
Title: Cytodiagnosis of thyroid lesions and its correlation with histopathology
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an outpatient methodology. It is practical, gives fast outcome with great affectability and explicitness. It gives exact data on the determination. It gives thought regarding careful intercession and clinical development. Aim: The present investigation is about neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid sores by FNAC and associates with histopathology and build up the affectability and particularity of this system in thyroid sores. Methodology: Of the all, out 73 cases just 13 cases were accessible for development and histopathology assessment. Of these 13 follow-up cases, cytological determination and histopathological analysis were same in 11 cases (85%) and diverse in 2 cases (15%). The review study was done in Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Department of Pathology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, between June 2018 and May 2019. Results: The base age of the patient is 10, and most extreme age of the patient is 69. All out number of cases was 73, in that 61 (83%) were non-neoplastic, 8 (10.3%) were neoplastic, and 4 (5.4%) are unsatisfactory. The all outnumber of females was 69 (94.5%) and guys were 4 (5.5%). High frequency is found in age bunch 40–49 (21 cases) and least rate is found in age bunch 10–19 (2cases). Thyroid swelling is noteworthy clinical issue yet dominant part of them is non-neoplastic and does not require medical procedure. Conclusion: The clinical screening strategy incorporates ultrasonography, FNAC, and radionucleotide filter. The greater part of the thyroid sores in this investigation is amiable. The neoplastic and dangerous sore are not many and they very much connected with histopathological assessment. Cytological conclusion of thyroid sores as indicated by Bethesda system, nondiagnostic/inadmissible, benign, atypia of dubious essentialness/follicular injury of unsure significance (follicular lesion of undetermined significance), follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, suspicious of threat, and malignancy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004699
Title: Marjolin’s ulcer in a chronic non-healing ulcer of the left leg: A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Surgery, Sree Balaji Medical College, Chrompet, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Jame Nicholas Marjolin in 1828 published the classical description of the eponym “Marjolin’s ulcer.” The most common sites for Marjolin ulcers are the extremities. It is a relatively rare condition, with an estimated 3–5% occurrence among all squamocellular carcinomas of the skin. Marjolin’s ulcer is defined as malignant degeneration arising within the pre-existing scar tissue or even in chronic inflammatory skin lesions. The most frequent site is in the lower extremity, especially the plantar foot. The average age of latency is 30–35 years with a range from 11 to 75 years. The leading cause is chronic burn wounds, as described originally by Marjolin. We present a unique case of Marjolin’s ulceration secondary to a chronic non- healing ulcer following trauma 4 years ago. The site of the ulcer is in the upper anteromedial aspect of the left leg just below the knee. The patient was treated surgically with wide local excision, at least 2 cm lateral margins comprising fascia was excised, and the defect was covered by bilateral advancement flaps which were transposed as cutaneous-subcutaneous flaps.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004700
Title: Prevalence of menstrual abnormality in adolescent girls
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Menstrual disorders are common sources of morbidity among adolescent girls and often cause anxiety for these girls and their families. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the patterns of menstruation as well as the prevalence of menstrual disorders among adolescent girls in South Chennai. Study Design: The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. Methods: The data were collected from 300 adolescent girls from the outpatient clinic and inpatients of Gynaecology Department, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital and also from schools and colleges from South Chennai. Data were collected by adopting a structured questionnaire on the prevalence of menstrual irregularity among adolescent girls in the age group of 13–19 years. Results: Three hundred adolescent girls completed the questionnaires in the age between 13 and 19 years among which 66% were from urban and 34% from rural. Girls were from socioeconomic Status I to V and maximum in the lower-middle group. The mean age of menarche was 12.3 years. Body mass index is significantly associated with menstrual disorders. The most common menstrual problem seen in adolescent girls is dysmenorrhea (38%) followed by heavy menstrual bleeding (27%), oligomenorrhea (21%), and polymenorrhea (11%), and hypomenorrhea of 3%. Among 300 girls, 36% of girls had awareness of menstruation before menarche and 64% were unaware of it. Conclusion: The prevalence of menstrual disorders among adolescent girls in South Chennai is high. Hence, steps to be undertaken for early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Health education among adolescents and their mothers about menstrual disorders and to mitigate their effects on the social and academic lives of these adolescents should be made.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004734
Title: Evaluation of pulmonary function test in coffee workers among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Coffee processing causes organic dust exposure which may lead to the development of respiratory symptoms. Primary coffee processing or coffee curing is done in coffee-growing countries; it involves mechanical cleaning of debris from parchment coffee, hulling, grading green coffee beans, and packing. Secondary coffee processing involves polishing, roasting, and grinding and these processes are mainly done in importing countries. Dust from coffee-processing activities is reported to consist of large and small particles of husks, microorganisms and fungi, and endotoxin. This study assesses the lung function of coffee workers who are exposed to these dusts. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects were selected and divided into two groups. Thirty normal people taken as control group and the 30 coffee workers taken as study group and the pulmonary function tests were recorded as per standard procedure using spirometer. The parameters used to assess the lung function in the study are forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow, and FEV1/FVC. Results: The mean of FVC was observed to be 1.98, FEV1 was 1.32, and FEV1/FVC was 66% and P < 0.05, and it is statistically significant when compared with the control group. Conclusion: In the study, it was seen that ventilatory function of coffee industry workers was lower when compared to controlled group.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004735
Title: Comparative study on the heart rate, pulse rate, and blood pressure among men and women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The aim of this study is to compare the heart rate, pulse rate and blood pressure among both men and women. Materials and Methods: Twenty males and 20 females were taken and the blood pressure and pulse rate for both were recorded and the data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: The standard deviation and P value for blood pressure is 23.4462 and 0.35. The standard deviation and P value for pulse rate is 14.3643 and 0.39.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004737
Title: Tissue distribution of potential antidiabetic agent C7070
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015, Russia
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Background: C7070 is a novel imidazoline receptors agonist for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: The study was included 12 male Wistar rats. The C7070 concentration was determined by high- performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. The measurement range was from 0.02 μg to 3876.00 μg in 1 ml of plasma or 1 g. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a 150 mm × 3.0 mm column of Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 with a particle size of 3.0 μm (Agilent Technologies, USA). To obtain stable results for all analytical cycles, a protective membrane of Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 (Agilent Technologies, USA) measuring 12.5 mm ×3.0 mm with a particle size of 5.0 μm at 40°C was used. Ballast proteins in test solutions were precipitated with acetonitrile followed by extraction of the analyte with ultrasound. Results and Discussion: The drug is well distributed into organs. The greatest content of C7070 was observed in the tissues of the small intestine. The smallest content of C7070 was observed in muscle tissue and brain. The parameters obtained can be useful for clinical application and further studies of preparations C7070 on its basis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004854
Title: Study of nasal carriers of ESKAPE pathogens among healthcare workers from intensive care unit
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India (Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Introduction: Over the past few decades, antimicrobial resistance is one of the most important health concerns. Along with the problem of nosocomial infections, the presence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in communities and hospitals has been increased. High frequencies of multidrug-resistant bacteria have been grouped under the acronym ESKAPE: Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. The ESKAPE pathogens are responsible for the majority of nosocomial infections and capable of “escaping” the biocidal action of antimicrobial agents.Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 2 months in the Department of Microbiology, in Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Science, Pondicherry. Nasal swabs were collected from health workers from intensive care unit (ICU). Then, these swabs were sent to the laboratory for culture and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on Mueller-Hinton agar. Results: A total of 50 healthcare workers who work in different parts of the hospital were studied. Of 50 healthcare workers, 35 (70%) were female and 15 (30%) were male. Healthcare workers carry K. pneumoniae 6 (12%), S. aureus 8 (16%), 3 (6%) K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus 5 (10%). Conclusion: If we understand how the ICU workers act as a carrier of pathogens, we can implement new methods for preventing it. Treatment of nosocomial infections can be challenging due to the high level of antibiotic resistance of nosocomial pathogens and the frequent immune suppression of the host. We will use this knowledge gathered on both microbial factors and host responses to develop novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or fight nosocomial infections.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004855
Title: Lumbar epidural steroid in discogenic low backache
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedics, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India (Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Objective: Low backache is the most common pain disorder seen in the orthopedic outpatient department caused due to inflammation with attributed neurotoxicity of many agents, including phospholipase A2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Epidural injections for managing discogenic low backache for patients in whom conservative management does not bring about good relief are being widely practiced all over the world. Materials and Methodology: This study included patients who came to our outpatient department with low backache, was diagnosed to have a discogenic cause, and did not respond well to conservative management for 3–6 weeks. Results: A total of 70 patients were a part of this study, of which 52 reported very good relief, eight had fair outcomes, and five had poor outcomes, of which three opted to go for surgery within 3 months of the procedure. Conclusion: Lumbar epidural steroid injection is a superb minimally invasive technique for managing discogenic low backache temporarily. This certainly cannot be the treatment of choice for all low backache causes. Hence, spine muscle strengthening exercise along with epidural injection has holistic approach in managing the neck problem.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004859
Title: Progressive macular hypomelanosis – A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India (Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Progressive macular hypomelanosis was first employed by Guillet et al., in 1988, to describe characteristic hypopigmentation within mixed racial population in French Caribbean. Progressive macular hypomelanosis is characterized by ill-defined asymptomatic non-scaly hypopigmented macules of varying sizes on trunk and proximal extremities. It rarely extends to the head-and-neck region. There is no itching or pain or inflammation before the onset of lesion. Progressive macular hypomelanosis is more common in tropical countries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004861
Title: McArdle disease
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric Nursing, Sree Balaji College of Nursing, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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McArdle sickness is an uncommon muscle issue. In this ailment, the muscle cells cannot separate a mind boggling sugar called glycogen. It is a piece of a gathering of sicknesses called glycogen stockpiling maladies. Another name for McArdle ailment is glycogen stockpiling malady glycogen storage disease (GSD) 5 or GSD V. McArdle sickness is an acquired illness. It results from the mutation or deficiency of muscle phosphorylase. As a rule, an individual with McArdle ailment needs two duplicates of a transformed quality. This is latent inheritance. McArdle infection causes muscle side effects. For the most part, it can make it difficult for you to practice without getting to be drained. You may find this does not occur with delicate strolling. In any case, you may experience difficulty with strenuous exercise for in excess of a couple of minutes. You may see that after a concise rest you feel an “unexpected burst of energy” that gives you a chance to practice once more. While the side effects regularly show up in youth, McArdle malady is uncommon. A few people with the condition do not get the determination until some other time in adulthood.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004889
Title: Estimation of nickel and chromium in two mediums of artificial saliva having fixed orthodontic appliance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of nickel and chromium released from fixed orthodontic appliance in two different artificial saliva media (normal pH salivary media and oxidizing salivary media) and to estimate the weight loss of the fixed appliance. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was performed using a classic batch procedure by immersion of the samples in two artificial salivary media: (a) In normal salivary media and (b) in oxidizing salivary media. A classic bath consists of (a) 4 molar bands, (b) 20 brackets, and (c) 2, 0.016 NiTi upper and lower archwires. Two beakers were taken with 200 ml of artificial saliva, respectively. In 1 beaker, 2 ml of 5% hydrogen peroxide was added to achieve oxidizing media. Dry weight of the batch was tested at the start of the treatment. Nickel and chromium content was tested in the artificial saliva before the start of the treatment using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The batches were then immersed into the saliva in the beakers. Applying Arrhenius equation, the salivary media were heated up to 60°C so as to accelerate the rate of reaction and was maintained for 8 h. At the end of the treatment, nickel and chromium were estimated using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The batches were dried, and the dry weight was again checked to estimate the weight loss. Results: In this study, it is noticed that nickel is not released in detectable amount. However, chromium release is noticed in both the salivary mediums after heat treatment and is high in the oxidizing media as compared to the normal media, indicating that an oxidizing media have an effect and favor the release of chromium. Chromium is found to be slightly more than the daily dietary allowance but is within the therapeutic level.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004895
Title: Antibacterial activities of actinomycetes isolated from rhizosphere Diospyros celebica Bakh. in Lore Lindu National Park, Indonesia
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Doctoral Program in Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia.
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Aim: The purpose of this research was to isolate, assay, and identify actinomycetes associated with the rhizosphere of ebony plants that produce antibacterial compounds against human pathogens. Materials and Methods: The research included the isolation of actinomycetes using selective Starch Casein Agar (SCA) medium and an assay of the activity of actinomycetes against human pathogenic bacteria – Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), and Vibrio cholerae. The potential isolates of actinomycetes were identified based on 16S rDNA sequence similarity. Results: Seventeen isolates of actinomycetes in the ebony plant rhizosphere were found to produce antibacterial compounds against human pathogens. Among the 17 isolates of actinomycetes, the E512 isolate had the highest activity of extracellular antibacterial compounds that inhibit the growth of V. cholerae, EPEC, MRSA, and S. aureus, with an inhibition zone diameter of 18.55 ± 0.46 mm, 18.73 ± 1.02 mm, 19.81 ± 0.47 mm, and 20.06 ± 0.75 mm, respectively. The E512 isolate had 99% similarity of 16S rDNA sequence with Streptomyces globisporus KCTC 9026. Conclusion: This E512 isolate from the ebony plants’ rhizosphere can be developed as antibiotic-producing actinomycetes, which contribute to human health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005137
Title: Knowledge and awareness of neurological disorders among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The central nervous system and oral cavity have a close anatomical location. Recognition of the orofacial manifestations of neurological diseases is in direct relation with the responsibilities of a dentist. Behavior management is a major challenge that affects the quality of dental treatment. Seizures, fear, and anxiety are commonly associated chairside difficulties and behavior management difficulties, in achieving a successful dental treatment for patients with neurological disorders. Materials and Methods: The study was carried among 100 dental students in Saveetha Dental College. Each student was asked to independently complete a survey comprising 10 questions constructed to assess the students on their knowledge and awareness of neurological disorders. Results: The extent of how much dental students and dental practitioners know about neurological disorders and to know how to treat a patient with neurological disorder progressively increases from undergraduates to dental practitioners. This can be attributed to increased awareness, knowledge, and experience into clinical practice and in-depth knowledge of various recent advancements in dealing with a patient with neurological disorders. Conclusion: The students did seem to be aware of neurological disorders, its oral manifestations but seem to lack a clinical perspective, and fault to effectively treat a patient with neurological disorder.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005138
Title: Awareness of anemia among dental undergraduate students: A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and awareness regarding anemia among dental undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: A crosssectional study was conducted during the academic year of January 2019 among the dental students of Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 100 dental undergraduate students were involved in the study, including both males and females. All students in the study voluntarily completed a questionnaire consisting of twenty closeended questions which were designed to assess their basic knowledge and awareness regarding anemia. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics, and results were obtained. Results: Only 54.2% of the respondents reported having information about anemia and 78% considered themselves not enough informed, a fact observed through the low percentage of right answers in a knowledge test. Conclusion: Most dental students have poor knowledge regarding anemia and its causes, prevention, and management. Educational interventions should be implemented among undergraduate students through awareness programs to increase their knowledge and awareness of identifying anemic patients entering their hospital for treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005400
Title: Phytochemical characterization and antioxidant properties of Punica granatum peel extract
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae. As intact arils or juice, pomegranates are used in baking, cooking, juice blends, meal garnishes, smoothies, and alcoholic beverages such as cocktails and wine. In India’s ancient Ayurveda system of traditional medicine, the pomegranate is frequently described as an ingredient in remedies. Materials and Methods: The peel from the fruit was removed carefully by knife and allowed to dry. The dried material was properly ground into powder and kept in refrigerator for further analysis. The peel powder was loaded into Soxhlet extractor and subjected to extraction with methanol. After extraction, the solvent was distilled off and the extracts were concentrated on water bath to a dry residue and kept in a desiccator. Phytochemical screening: Phytochemical screening of P. granatum peel ethanolic extracts was assessed by standard method. Results: 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity: In the present study, P. granatum peel ethanolic extract showed a significant increased the DPPH radical scavenging activity. However, the maximum inhibition was observed at 500 μg/ml equal to that of Vitamin C, a standard drug used in this study. As like DPPH radical scavenging activity, the extract showed a significant increased the nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity. However, the maximum inhibition was observed at 500 μg/ml equal to that of Vitamin C, a standard drug used in this study. Conclusions: The in vitro studies on DPPH and NO radical scavenging study showed P. granatum peel extract has a strong dose-dependent free radical scavenging ability may be due to the presence of phytochemicals such as saponins terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and alkaloids could have contributed for such antioxidant potentials. Hence, the present findings indicate that P. granatum may be used as potential antioxidant which may help for the treatment of various diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004677
Title: Counseling adolescents
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Adolescent counseling is a sensitive and skillful task needing knowledge and practical training in various theories approaches to the process. Pediatricians as primary mental health caretakers should take the responsibility toward shaping the attitudes, emotional health, and responsible behavior of teenagers. Adolescent mental health is a neglected topic in India in spite of exponential rise in risk-taking behaviors among teens. Adolescent counseling spreads over important areas of teen’s life, including life skills, scholastics, prevention of substance abuse, safety, sexual abuse, responsible sexual behaviors, career guidance, and premarital issues. Ethics and adolescent-friendly approach are all that is needed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004678
Title: Rat-bite fever in children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Rat-bite fever (RBF), a multisystem zoonosis, in children. RBF is caused by Gram-negative organisms: Streptobacillus moniliformis or, less commonly, Spirillum minus. The affected school-aged girls with a history of rat exposure who presented with a multisystem illness consisting of fever, petechial and purpuric rashes, arthralgia, and polyarthritis. Those affected persons were subjected and responded to antibiotic treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004681
Title: An unusual presentation of cytomegalovirus infection
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the largest virus infecting humans. It is an enveloped virus with icosahedral symmetry containing a large genome of double-stranded DNA. As in other members of the herpes virus family, it can establish latent infection after acute infection resolution. Risk of reactivation is higher in immunocompromised patients (those under chemotherapy, transplant recipients, those on long-term corticosteroid therapy, HIV-infected patients, and the elderly), for whom CMV is recognized as an important pathogen. However, severe trauma, sepsis, shock, burns, cirrhosis, and other critic conditions can reactivate CMV in non-immunocompromised patients. Although CMV infection in immunocompetent hosts is generally asymptomatic or presenting as a viral or mononucleosis-like syndrome, gastrointestinal, neurological, hematological, skin, cardiac or ocular CMV disease can also occur, mostly as reactivation. In these cases, it can cause severe organ damage, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. We present a rare case of an immunocompetent patient with CMV gastritis (biopsy-proven), a manifestation of an acute CMV infection.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004685
Title: Spinocerebellar Ataxia in a 56-year-old male patient – A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a rare form of cerebellar ataxia which is progressive with multiple genetic causes and variability in phenotypic expressions. It is a complex group of disease with both genetic and environmental causes. A positive family history suggests a genetic cause. SCA causes the degeneration of cerebellum also sometimes spinal cord and brainstem and hence the name “SCA.” Cerebellar degeneration causes a wide range of muscular weakness and motor deficits. Here, we present a 56-year-old male with adult-onset SCA and cerebellar atrophy having cognitive dysfunction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004686
Title: Rokitansky syndrome in a 30-year-old female – A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chrompet, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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According to the Indian Society of Assisted Reproduction, infertility in India accounts to about to 10%–14% in the population. One of the major causes of infertility is uterine anomaly. Uterine anomalies may be congenital or acquired and typically present with pelvic pain, menstrual abnormalities, infertility, and pregnancy wastage. Nearly 57% of uterine anomaly-possessing females are reproductive, so most of the cases go undetectable. Descented below is a case discussion of Mayer–Rokitansky–Kuster–Hausen syndrome in a 30-year-old female.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004736
Title: Magnetic resonance imaging of multicystic encephalomalacia in infant – A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India (Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Multicystic encephalomalacia is a rare subtype of encephalomalacia commonly seen in pediatric age group with hypoxic- ischemic encephalopathy. Since it has poor prognosis, it is essential to make early diagnosis. Radiological imaging plays an important role in diagnosis. We present a case report of multicystic encephalomalacia in term infant evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004853
Title: A rare case report of a pregnant woman with acute on chronic calcific pancreatitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of General Surgery, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India (Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Acute on chronic pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of the pancreas in a previously injured pancreas. The incidence of acute pancreatitis is estimated to be 5–80/100,000 of the general population and the incidence of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy varies and is approximately 1 in 1000–1 in 10,000 births. This report presents a case of a 26-year-old G3P1 L1A1/previous cesarean section who presented at 36 weeks’ gestation with acute abdominal pain radiating to back. She had underwent pancreatic surgery 6 years ago for calculi. Records were not available. She was diagnosed as acute on chronic pancreatitis with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. She underwent elective repeat lower segment cesarean section with bilateral tubal ligation and delivered a healthy male baby. Even though the maternal mortality is nil in the modern era, the fetal mortality is 4.7% and this case supports the prior opinion that when properly managed acute pancreatitis in pregnancy does not carry a dismal prognosis as in the past.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004856
Title: Herpes zoster with nevus spilus/speckled lentiginous nevi – A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India (Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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A 55-year-old female who is a known case of diabetes presented with complaints of fever followed by rash and blisters over the left side of trunk associated with pain and itching. She developed blisters 2 days after the fever. The pain was severe, continuous, and radiating in nature. She is a diabetic on treatment for the past 10 years no relevant family history, no history of allergy, and no history of surgery. Examination showed multiple grouped vesicles of size (2 cm × 2 cm) on an erythematous base along T8 dermatome on the left side. The surrounding area was tender on palpation.