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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003115
Title: Awareness of oral manifestations of the systemic disorders among clinicians
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Editorial
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: To assess awareness among clinicians about oral manifestations of systemic diseases and infectious diseases in patients being treated in Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 dental clinicians in Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals were given a questionnaire (available from the authors) and asked to answer 23 questions based on 23 systemic disorders and their manifestations. The results were analysed and the knowledge of the clinicians were assessed based on the answers provided. Results: The results showed that more than 40% of the clinicians had awareness about the oral manifestations of various systemic diseases. Most of the clinicians were aware about the diseases like diabetes, vitamin deficiencies and less awareness was seen for gastrointestinal disorders like ulcerative colitis. Discussion and Conclusion: The dental practitioner provides an important role in screening the oral mucosa and not just the regular dental routine checkup. Early detection of conditions such as diabetes or iron deficiency anemia has been expected to result in better outcome for patients. This questionnaire-based study of the level of awareness of the oral manifestations of systemic disorders has helped us to assess the clinician’s understanding and diagnostic ability with respect to oral symptoms that serve to detect an underlying systemic disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003109
Title: Occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus - An enlightenment to dental professional
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Avoiding occupational blood exposures is the primary way to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in health-care settings. However, hepatitis B immunization and post-exposure management are integral components of a complete program to prevent infection following blood-borne pathogen exposure and are important elements of workplace safety. As we dentists are exposed to blood and body fluids such as saliva routinely in our dental practice, it is of utmost importance to have a sound knowledge on post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) if at all we get in contact with blood of a patient who may be a known or unknown case of HIV or HBV. This article will enlighten you with what to do and what not after getting exposed to patient’s fluids even by a needlestick injury and the NACO guidelines of PEP

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003048
Title: Cone-beam computed tomography and its applications in dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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It has been more than a century since William Conrad Roentgen first discovered the X-ray. Radiology has transformed itself from scientific curiosity to a medical and dental necessity. The evolution of radiographs from periapical to extraoral imaging, and cephalometric, and panoramic radiography has heralded major progress in dental radiology, providing clinicians with a single comprehensive image of the jaws and maxillofacial structures. Even though radiograph is useful in certain ways, it has its own pros and cons. Exposure to X-ray beam radiation for prolonged period can result in the development of cancer and other adverse effects. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an advanced medical imaging technique that generates three-dimensional (3-D) image at a lower cost and absorbed dose compared to that of conventional CT. This technique is based on a cone-shaped X-ray beam centered on a two-dimensional (2-D) detector that performs one rotation around the object, producing a series of 2-D images. These images are reconstructed in 3-D using a modification of the original cone- beam algorithm developed by Kamp et al., in 1984. Interest in CBCT from all fields of dentistry has been unprecedented, as the results of a 3D visualization provided improved interpretation, diagnosis, and treatment planning. It also showed a tremendous impact in dental implant treatment planning, giving the arch and ridge configuration, and location of the nerve and maxillary sinus before the surgery, thereby decreasing surgical uncertainty. Many innovative software programs are useful in making customized surgical guides, virtual models, and laser-generated resins for treatment planning. This article describes CBCT generations, advantages, disadvantages, and the various applications of CBCT in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003049
Title: Cone beam computed tomography in pediatric dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The high prevalence and increase in the number of children receiving dental treatment are very high. For many years, two-dimensional (2D) modalities such as periapical radiographs, cephalometric, and panoramic radiographs were used for diagnosis and treatment planning in dentistry. This 2D representation left some difficulties in diagnosis and treatment planning in dentistry. Thus, evolution toward 3D modalities was desired. This 3D technology has been used popularly in all fields of dentistry, but its application in pediatric dentistry has remained unexplored. In this article, we attempt to discuss the applications of cone beam computed tomography among pediatric patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003050
Title: Dentists attitude towards amalgam restoration and its safety measures - KAP survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental amalgam which is not a tooth-colored restorative material has been used for many years in the treatment of dental cavities and it is still used in case of deep cavities, due to its excellent mechanical properties and durability. Dental amalgam is a combination of alloy particles and mercury that contains about 50% of mercury in the elemental form. Mercury is a toxic heavy metal, especially the vapor and organic mercury compounds are both neurotoxin and nephrotoxic. Long- term exposure to mercury vapor may increase the risk of mercury poisoning. It is important to know the safety measures of amalgam to protect both the patient and the dentist from mercury poisoning. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study which was conducted between November and December 2016 to determine the dentists’ attitude toward amalgam restoration and its safety measures. The study consists of 132 dentists which included general practitioners and specialists working in clinics. A questionnaire with 15 questions was made on amalgam restoration and its safety measures and a survey was conducted among dentists between September and October 2017. Results: From the present study, 52% of the general practitioners and 90% of the specialists were aware about the safety measures of amalgam restoration. Conclusion: From the present study, it is important to know the safety measures of amalgam to protect both the patient and the dentist from mercury poisoning.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003051
Title: Virtual screening approaches towards the discovery of multi-target drug for Zika virus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Karunya Nagar, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Zika virus is a mosquito transmitted viral infection that has posed a global health emergency due to the complications associated with it. Objective: The current study aims to propose Naphthalenesulfonic acid derivatives as inhibitors to Zika viral proteins (NS5 Methyltransferase, NS3 Helicase and NS2B-NS3 Protease). Materials and Methods: Pharmacophore models were developed in which the best hypothesis generated correlation coefficient R2 =0.9733 and then virtual screening was performed. Prediction models were developed based on the parameters like docking score, binding free energy, eMBRAcE solvation model, ADME properties and molecular descriptors to develop QSAR models. Validation was done to establish the predictiveness of the models. Finally, a combined consensus model was built, it is observed that the correlation coefficient (R2 ) for test set is 0.87 and for the training set is 0.83. Conclusion: The significant R2 and q2 values between pIC50 and Predicted pIC50 and the low values of RMSE shows good statistical fit based on the above approach these prediction models are an efficient tool for generating potent and specific inhibitors for Zika virus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003052
Title: Satisfaction levels among pedodontic postgraduates for postgraduates program - a review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedododntics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Pediatric dentistry has emerged as one of the most dynamic and diverse profession over the years. Pedodontic specialty education programs are emerging as a highly promising option among the graduates in dentistry due to the wide gamut of subjects covered in the same. Pediatric dentists enjoy a wealth of getting their hands on almost everything as far as clinical practice is concerned. Little information exists, however, on the extent to which they are trained appropriately for such broad clinical skills. There is always a direct relationship between the interest in learning and the subsequent performance. Literature shows that the students who enjoy their experience of school perform better academically. Hence, realizing the importance of personal satisfaction levels, interests and their potential outcome, the present study aims to probe the choice factors, program expectations, and future aspirations of the pedodontic postgraduates. Thus, by assessing the choice factors and program expectations of the students, this study will help the PG program to be bettered in such a way that it offers increased satisfaction among students who aspire it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003053
Title: Chewing gum practice among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Oral health is an essential component of general health and overall well-being of an individual. Oral cavity and its surrounding structures that are free of any diseases are indicative of good oral health. Chewing gum increases salivary flow, raises the pH of plaque and saliva, reduces oral malodor, and is effective for stain removal. Sugar-free gums are simple, inexpensive, and are readily available. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the chewing gum practice among dental students. Materials and Methods: The study group comprises 100 individuals in the age group of 17–26 from both genders. A questionnaire is pertaining to chewing gum practice among dental students. The age and gender are noted along with the type of chewing gums used, frequency and duration are also taken into account. Results: It was found that 50% of population used sugar free and other used non-sugar-free chewing gums, and the frequency was found to be 20% of people used once a day, 40% used twice, and 40% used more than thrice a day with duration of 20% of the people chewed for 2 min, 40% for 2–5 min, 20% for 5–10 min, and 20% for >10 min. Conclusion: The practice of chewing gum among dental students is moderately prevalent and no preference was observed between sugar-free and non-sugar-free chewing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003054
Title: The effectiveness of chewing gum in oral hygiene aid
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Chewing gum may serve as an effective oral hygiene device when brushing may not be possible. Sugar-free gums are simple, inexpensive and are readily available. It increases salivary flow, raises the pH of plaque and saliva, reduces oral malodor, and is effective for stain removal. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of chewing gum in oral hygiene aid. Materials and Methods: The study group consists of 10 patients. Their oral health status is estimated by recording the debris and calculus index to determine the oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S). The patient is then asked to chew chewing gum for 5 min. The OHI-S is recorded again. The two results are compared. Results: Mean OHI score before and after intervention with sugarcane is 2.41 (+/−0.285) and 0.760 (+/−0.184), respectively. A paired t-test was used to analyze statistically significant differences at 5% significance. The t-test revealed a statistically significant reduction in OHI following sugarcane chewing (T = 19.19, DF= 9, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: This study shows that chewing gum is very effective in reducing plaque and debris.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003055
Title: Markers in oropharyngeal cancer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body when cancer starts to proliferate inside the body. The classic tumor marker is a protein that can be found in the blood in higher than normal levels when a certain type of cancer starts to kick in, but not all tumor markers are like that. Some types of markers are found in urine or other body fluids, and others are found in tumors and other tissue. They may be made by the cancer cells themselves, or by the body in response to cancer or other conditions. Most tumor markers are proteins, but some newer markers are made up of genes or other substances. There are many different tumor markers. Some are directly linked to only one type of cancer, while others can be found in other types of cancer. A perfect tumor marker would be one that could be used as a cancer screening blood test for all people suffering with cancer. It would tell doctors the type of cancer, how much cancer spread is present, and which treatment would work best when put forth to the patients. At present, there are no tumor marker tests that work like this. If a cancer is already widespread when it is found, tumor markers can help to figure out what is the reason behind it. None of the tumor markers are considered accurate until today and so several researches are going on to find a tumor marker which is most sensitive and reliable.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003056
Title: Knowledge and practice of waste disposal management in dental clinics in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of private dental practitioners on health-care waste. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was designed and distributed to 120 practicing dentists, who are private practitioners in Chennai. The survey form was composed of 11 questions framed based on knowledge, attitude, and those regarding the practice of dentists in relation to dental health-care waste management. Chi-square test was used for analyzing the factors influencing waste management protocols. Results: A total of 120 questionnaires were distributed among private practitioners of Chennai, of which 33% were male and 87% were female. Most of the respondents were BDS graduates working both in private and corporate sectors. Among the respondents, 54% were practicing for the past 5 years, 28% were practicing for the past 6–10 years, 14% were practicing for the past 11–15 years, and only 4% were practicing for 16–20 years. Conclusion: Although most dentists were aware of the hazardous effect of improper disposal of dental waste, majority of them practiced improper waste disposal. There is a need to restrain the practitioners on the importance and newer technologies of proper waste disposal.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003057
Title: Prevalence of different nasal orifice morphology in female patient with skeletal Class I malocclusion
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deviated nasal morphology in female patient with skeletal Class I malocclusion. Introduction: Asymmetries of the face, dentition, and jaws are usually due to the growth disturbances and are common occurrences in the general population. They are often recognized and treated by orthodontists. Many believe that the nasal orifice is symmetrical between the right and left side, but it is not true, so the current study is to determine the difference in nasal orifice between the right and left side in female patient reporting to Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. Materials and Methods: The sample selection consists of only adult female patients with skeletal Class I malocclusion from 18 to 35 years old. Exclusion criteria were determined by the absence of previous history of fracture in the face region, syndromes, and craniofacial anomalies. Full facial view, standardized photographs were taken to evaluate the difference between the shape of the right and left nasal orifice. Results: The reason of the study is to determine whether differences nasal orifice is seen in female patient with skeletal Class 1 before orthognathic surgery. Conclusion: The conclusion of the study is differences, nasal orifice between the right and left side is seen in female patient with skeletal Class 1 malocclusion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003058
Title: Management of osteoradionecrosis of oral cavity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The treatment of head and neck cancer remains a challenge. Despite advances in surgical reconstructive techniques, most patients will require adjuvant therapy in the form of radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy to improve locoregional control. The short- and long-term side effects of radiotherapy can be difficult to treat. The initial effects of radiotherapy to the oral tissues such as mucositis and loss of taste are troublesome but short-lived resolving within a few weeks. Xerostomia may be more persistent but can be managed with supportive therapy such as sialogogues and artificial saliva. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is the long-term and most serious side effect of radiotherapy. ORN develops as irradiation diminishes the bone’s ability to withstand trauma and avoid infection, and it can be facilitated by poor nutrition and hygiene. ORN usually occurs in the mandible and causes chronic pain and surface ulcerations. All patients who require extraction of teeth in a previously irradiated field should be considered at risk of developing ORN.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003059
Title: Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of 3% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, and 5% grape seed extract against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of different irrigants such as 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, and 5% grape seed extract against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Background: Debridement and disinfection of the root canal system is a critical step in endodontic treatment. Most of the irrigants presently used in the endodontic treatment can have an impact on the microbes surviving in the biofilm, but none of them are able to do all of the required tasks. Researches are going on its full swing to produce an endodontic irrigant having ideal properties; for many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years, humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative and inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigants 3% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: The irrigation solution was divided into three groups: Group I - 3% sodium hypochlorite, Group II - 2% chlorhexidine, and Group III - 5% grape seed extract. The zones of inhibition of growth were recorded against E. faecalis and C. albicans. Strains of these microorganisms were isolated and were subcultured. Disc diffusion was done for the primary evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility, in which microorganisms were incubated in agar plates, following which 50 µL of each irrigant was added in sterile disc and placed on the plates. The plates were incubated and zone of inhibition around each disc was measured. Results: About 5% grape seed extract showed zones of inhibition, suggesting that they had antimicrobial properties. 5% grape seed extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 2% chlorhexidine. Henceforth, research should be directed toward the use as an irrigant in root canal treatment. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that 5% grape seed extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of grape seed extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal irrigant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003060
Title: High GSK3β expression in Pkd1 cells
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Babalmoadhum 14026, Baghdad, Iraq
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Background: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disease characterized by renal cysts and progressive decline in renal function. At the molecular level, PKD thought to be caused by defective primary cilia structure and/or function. Renal cells showed increased proliferation profile leading to progressively enlarged cysts. Primary cilia, as the mechanosensory organelles sensitize fluid flow and trigger intracellular events. Regulation of cell proliferation is one of the cellular functions regulated by ciliary signaling. GSK3β, a protein kinase that play a vital role in cell proliferation. Methods: In this study, analysis of the GSK3β and p-GSK3β protein expression by western blot in renal mouse Pkd1 cells was performed as a prospected pathogenic pathway of renal cyst. Results: Data revealed that GSK3β expression in Pkd1 cells significantly higher than wild type cells proposing a high proliferative state of cell. In the same manner, p-GSK3β, the inactive form, showed to be significantly low in Pkd1 cells compared to wild type renal cells. Conclusion: Pkd1 cells showed high GSK3β and low p-GSK3β protein expression, implying a high proliferative profile of cells and suggest a mechanism for renal cyst expansion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00003061
Title: Colorimetric method for ascorbic acid analysis in fruit and processed products of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr) var. Madu Subang
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
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Ascorbic acid is widely found in fruits, including pineapple (Ananas comosus (L) Merr). Fruits are rotten easily after harvested, so preservations are required. Pineapple fruits were processed into chips, jam, syrup, and dodol so can be stored in a long time. This study was aimed to analyze the ascorbic acid in fruit and processed products of pineapple var. MaduSubang which collected from Subang district, West Java, Indonesia. Colorimetric method was used based on the ability of ascorbic acid to reduce methylene blue color. Ascorbic acid content was 0.229 ± 0.005 mg/g in fruits, 0.057 ± 0.005 mg/g in chips, 0.076 ± 0.004 mg/g in jam, 0.086 ± 0.005 mg/g in syrup, and 0.0004 ± 0.00005 mg/g in dodol. Ascorbic acid content in processed products was decreased by 75.2% in chips, 66.9% in jam, 66.1% in syrup, and 99.8% in dodol. Reduction in ascorbic acid content depends on the type of food processing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003062
Title: Fluid flow generates delayed calcium current in renal epithelial cells in vitro
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Babalmoadhum 14026, Baghdad, Iraq
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Background: Primary cilium is the mechanosensor of the cell protruding from the apical side of almost all cells in the body. Primary cilia paly crucial role in regulating various cellular functions, while dysfunctional cilia play an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases collectively known as ciliopathy. Due it cilium central role, it is vital to study what signal it generate to coordinate these events. Methods: In this experiment, renal epithelial cells used to study the signaling events of primary cilia. Genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) was used for a precise measurement of calcium ion concentration in real time experiment. In this technique, a single cell live imaging method was utilized with a lateral view of the cell. Results: Data revealed that fluid flowing over the cells leads to cilium bending and generates calcium ion peak in the cytoplasm. The calcium ion concentration begin to start after 0.54 second and peak concentration reported in 0.85 seconds after flow start. Depleting the medium and the flowing fluid from calcium by EGTA abolishes calcium peak. Conclusion: Renal epithelia cells respond to fluid flow by generating delayed calcium current and is dependent on extracellular calcium entry to cell.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00003063
Title: Assessment of fluoride concentration in Palar River in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, India
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Back ground: River Palar is one of the most contaminated rivers of India due to various industries. Aim:To study the fluoride concentration in the Pallar river. Four river water samples were collected during the pre-monsoon season spanning over June 2015. Methodology: Fluoride levels were analyzed by standardized analytical method by the Chief Water Analyst, State Level Water Testing Laboratory, Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board, Government of Tamil Nadu, Chennai (ISO 9001–2000 - Certified). Result: In the present study, fluoride contents in all samples ranged between 0.18 and 0.22 mg/l, which are less than the optimum range of 1.5 mg/l, as recommended by the WHO.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003064
Title: Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder and experience among dental practitioners in Chennai - A cross-sectional survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal symptoms among dentists in Chennai and also its impact in their daily activities. Materials and Methods: The survey instrument was a self-administrated questionnaire, which was responded by 130 dentists in Saveetha Dental Hospital, Chennai, India. The following aspects were investigated age, gender, working hours per day, years of practice, pain symptoms during the past 12 months, and its interference in the daily work during the past 12 months. Questions also included the data on operating posture of the dentists, clock position, and practice of regular exercise daily. Results: The results showed 89% of the dentist reported at least one musculoskeletal complaint in the past 12 months. The mean age of the study population was 30.4 years. The most prevalent sites with symptoms reported during the past 12 months were the neck (67%), shoulders (58%), and lower back (51%).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003066
Title: Reasons for smoking and its dependence among young population in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to identify the reasons of smoking and its dependence among young current smokers in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chennai among young current smokers. A questionnaire was set and interviewed them to gather information about the reasons and the dependence level using the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (smoking). Results: Among 300 smokers, 39% reported that relaxation was the major reason to initiate smoking habit. The second most common reason was that they were influenced by their friends. When the dependence level was estimated, 40% of the study subjects showed very high dependence level, whereas 24% of smokers were very low dependence. Conclusion: There is felt the need for smoking cessation programs and necessity for school-based smoking prevention programs for very young smokers and psychological and behavioral intervention should be done as the first-line treatment for those who want to quit smoking.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003067
Title: A questionnaire study on the knowledge, attitude, and the practice of pharmacovigilance among medical interns in a tertiary care hospital, Kanchipuram
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and the practice (KAP) of the medical interns working in a tertiary care center toward pharmacovigilance and the adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting. Materials and Methods: Medical interns working in Meenakshi Medical College were selected randomly and KAP questionnaire was used to collect the data before and after an educational intervention. Results: A total of 53 medical interns were involved in pre-KAP and post-KAP survey questionnaire. The overall scores observed between pre-test and post-test were found to be statistically significant proving the effectiveness of educational intervention and improving the knowledge of pharmacovigilance among medical interns. Conclusion: This study proves that KAP of pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting in routine practice can be improved by proper orientation and medical interventions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00003068
Title: Design, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of zaltoprofen solid dispersion as a hollow-type rectal suppository
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
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Aim: The present study aims to improve the poor water solubility of zaltoprofen which is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with a potent analgesic effect using solid dispersion then formulate it as a hollow type suppository to be more convenient for geriatric patients. Materials and Method: Zaltoprofen solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation technique in different zaltoprofen: Soluplus® ratios. Results: Among the formulations tested, zaltoprofen solid dispersion preparation using 1:5 (zaltoprofen: Soluplus®) ratio showed the highest solubility and selected for further investigation. Solid dispersion characterization was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction study (XRD) and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). DSC and XRD analysis showed a complete transformation of zaltoprofen in the solid dispersion from a crystalline state to amorphous state. The selected zaltoprofen solid dispersion was further incorporated into hollow type suppositories using witepsol H 35 as a suppositories base. The hollow type suppositories were evaluated for hardness test (breaking strength), melting time, softening time and in vitro drug dissolution rate. Formula F8 containing zaltoprofen solid dispersion in the whole of hollow type suppository showed the shortest and significantly the highest dissolution rate profile (100% within 15 min) compared to other hollow type suppository formulas prepared that contain zaltoprofen powder in its whole. Conclusion: It is concluded that the development of zaltoprofen solid dispersions using Soluplus® as hollow-type suppositories could be used as a promising approach for improving the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003069
Title: Antibacterial effect of Andrographis paniculata against oral microbes - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim of the Study: The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial effect of nilavembu extract in dental plaque samples. Methodololgy: This study was carried out in the Saveetha Dental College Outpatient, Department of Periodontics and Microbiology Laboratory. The plaque sample was collected using the curette and transported into the tryptic soy broth, then inoculated into 100%, 200%, and 400% nilavembu extract in the nutrient agar medium. Plaque sample was also placed in the nutrient agar medium without nilavembu extract by streaking method. Then, it was cultured for 48 h, and the bacterial count was noted. Results: The study shows that the bacterial growth was reduced by the use of nilavembu extract. Bacterial count without using nilavembu extract was higher than that of medium with nilavembu extract. Conclusion: Nilavembu has the ability to reduce the bacterial growth. Nilavembu can be used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing for the treatment of periodontal diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003070
Title: Hygienic dogma: How we killed our child’s immunity - Retrospective Review Study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Physiotherapy, MAHER University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Evidence is growing that our indoor-based, ultra-clean lifestyles square measure dangerous for our health and will be fuelling issues such as childhood diabetes, asthma, depression, and poor concentration, and of times falling sick. In an exceedingly verge to stay our self-clean we have a tendency to distract our self from the friendly organisms that might facilitate us in many ways. Without exposure to dirt and germs early in life, the system does not find out how to regulate its reaction to everyday invaders such as dirt and spore. This could result in it this - firing later in life resulting in numerous sicknesses. Apart from this, the mode of delivery conjointly determines the immunity as of this study duct delivery has been drastically reduced putt the kids below nature for immunity. This retrospective study invades into this core space and finds out the prevailing hygienic dogmas that have result in the poor immunity level of this age generation kids. Moreover, conjointly this study tries to seek out the right methodology of maintaining hygiene while not dislodging the helpful organisms. Methods: A detailed electronic search was made with the key terms and the studies were limited to no more than 10 years, the results were synthesized and the conclusion drawn. Results and Conclusions: The results showed that there square measure ton of hygienic dogmas within the name of hygienic hypothesis and heaps of awareness has to be enforced to forestall the first onset of medical specialty immunity issues.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003071
Title: Complications of diabetes mellitus: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and complications that include microvascular disease of the eye and kidney and a variety of clinical neuropathies. DM, also known as simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. These high blood sugar levels produce the symptoms of repeated urination, increased hunger, and increased thirst. Untreated diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma. Serious long- term complications include heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes. Metabolic abnormalities in carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins result from the important role of insulin as an anabolic hormone. Low levels of insulin to achieve adequate response and/or insulin resistance of target tissues, mainly skeletal muscles, adipose tissue, and to a lesser extent, liver, at the level of insulin receptors, signal transduction system, and/or effector enzymes or genes are responsible for these metabolic abnormalities. The severity of symptoms is due to the type and duration of diabetes. Some of the diabetes patients are asymptomatic, especially those with type 2 diabetes during the early years of the disease. Others with marked hyperglycemia, especially in children with absolute insulin deficiency, may suffer from polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, and blurred vision. Uncontrolled diabetes may lead to stupor, coma, and if not treated death, due to ketoacidosis or rarely from non-ketotic hyperosmolar syndrome. Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These range from autoimmune destruction of the beta-cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency to the abnormalities that end in resistance to insulin action. The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue responses to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of the hormone action. Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality is the primary cause of hyperglycemia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003072
Title: Medicinal uses of banana (Musa paradisiaca)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Plantain or edible banana is one of the most important commercial fruits of the tropics. It is a cheap and energy-rich delicacy relished by both rich and poor alike. Its biological name is Musa paradisiaca. It belongs to the family Musaceae. It is known since antiquity, banana occupies an important place among Indian fruits and finds diverse uses in food, medicine, religious rituals, customs, and festivals. It forms the staple food for man villagers and tribals of eastern and southern India. Banana is one the most popular and common fruits. All parts of banana plant have medical application. Banana has many beneficial effects. The fruit has mild laxative property, helps to maintain cardiovascular health, protection against strokes, protection from ulcers; it also helps to reduce water retention, also preferred for anemic patients as it is highly rich in iron. Banana possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antiulcerogenic properties. It is also rich in vitamins, as well as minerals and it also well-known edible fruit and foodstuff. The flower of this plant is used to treat ulcers, dysentery, and bronchitis and cooked flowers are good food for diabetics. The astringent ashes of the unripe banana peel and leaves are used in the treatment of dysentery and diarrhea and also for the treatment of malignant ulcers. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information about medicinal uses of banana (M. paradisiaca) in our day-to-day life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003073
Title: Application of antibacterial suture materials in oral and maxillofacial surgery
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Suture materials used for treating wounds were originally natural materials such as animal tendons and cotton fibers. Usage of these materials often resulted in severe infections. Sterilization reduced these complications significantly. However, sutures are still foreign materials, which tend to attract bacteria.   Antibacterial sutures composed of polyglactin 910 (Vicryl® Plus Antibacterial suture), polyglecaprone 25 (Monocryl® Plus Antibacterial suture), and polydioxanone suture (PDS® Plus Antibacterial suture) which is coated with triclosan have also been developed. It is well known that sutures play an effective and critical part in case of surgeries and trauma management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003074
Title: Therapeutic effects of methanolic extract of Funtumia africana leaves on antioxidants and hematological indices of carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria
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Background: There is increasing use of Funtumia africana leaves extract in the management of hepatic disorders without full knowledge of its effects on other biochemical and hematological functions. Aims: This study investigated the therapeutic effects of methanolic extract of F. africana leaves on antioxidants and hematological indices of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )- induced Wistar albino rats. 18 male albino mice were used for the acute toxicity study while 35 Wistar albino rats were used for antioxidants and hematological studies. The rats were divided into 7 groups of 5 rats each with Group 1 as the normal control that received olive only while Group 2–7 served as test groups. The CCl4 was induced intraperitoneally, and treatments were done orally. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using standard analytical procedures. Results: The results of the antioxidant study showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in glutathione-peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in Group 2 that had CCl4 induction but not treated when compared with the normal control. Treatment with the extract caused significant (P < 0.05) increase in activities of these antioxidant enzymes relative to the normal control. In addition, CCl4 induction caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all hematological parameters relative to normal control which were significantly (P < 0.05) restored with the administration of the extract, which could be attributed to blood boosting and replenishing properties of the extract. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the extract possess dose-dependent antioxidant activity comparable to silymarin that could effectively ameliorate oxidative stress and prevent associated adverse health consequences.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003075
Title: Insomnia - A general review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Insomnia is a commonly occurring sleep disorder among young adults worldwide, creating increasing demand of pharmacological treatment for this disease. Current views of the problem not only focus on the disturbed sleep pattern but also on the daytime consequences. Thus, a proper recognition of the reasons of sleep disorder helps in proper diagnosis and aids in suggesting a non-pharmacological or pharmacological approach for the same. Treatment should ideally begin with non-pharmacological therapy, addressing sleep hygiene issues and exercise. Various areas of concern include the routine use of over-the-counter drugs containing antihistamines, which should be discouraged, and consumption of alcohol which has the potential for abuse and should not be used as a sleep aid. This review focuses on all aspects of insomnia as well as its treatment modalities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003076
Title: Orthodontic extraction frequencies in the 21st century: Demographic and diagnostic factors affecting the likelihood of extraction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to report contemporary orthodontic extraction frequencies at Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences and to investigate what patient-related factors might influence the likelihood of extraction. Materials and Methods: The records of 805 consecutive patients treated at the Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences of Chennai from July 2015 to December 2017 were analyzed. Logistic regression, adjusting for all recorded patient risk factors for extraction, was used to examine both the changes in extraction frequencies over time and the influence of individual patient factors on the odds of extraction. Results: The overall extraction rate and the first four premolar extractions were the highest in 2016. Extractions were significantly more likely as maxillary and mandibular crowding increased (Odds ratio [OR], 0.85; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.73–0.98; OR, 0.77; 95% CI. 0.70–0.85). Conclusion: Extractions were just as likely to be associated with crowding and with Class I and Class II dental and skeletal problems.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003077
Title: Public awareness on diabetes mellitus on oral health and general health
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This survey is done to evaluate the public awareness toward diabetes mellitus and its oral and general health complications it can cause. Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic lifelong condition that affects our body’s ability to use the energy found in food. It is one of the most common diseases found extensively in a population. The diabetes mellitus is increasing its prevalence even in the younger populations. Diabetes mellitus is mainly due to the impairment of the insulin mechanism. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional survey where a questionnaire consisting of 10 were distributed to 100 individuals of varying age group and the results were evaluated. The survey was carried out using a self-administered, anonymous, 29 items, structured, hand, and mail-delivered questionnaire. Results: This study is done to evaluate the public awareness about the various general and oral health manifestations of diabetes mellitus, and it was concluded that there is increased awareness about the disease. Conclusion: Majority of the public population are aware of the disease diabetes mellitus and its complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00003078
Title: Preparation, pharmaceutical application, and evaluation of time-controlled drug delivery system
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Iraq
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In the field of modified-release dosage form, a growing interesting in time-controlled delivery system is developed, which refers to drugs liberation following a programmable lag phase from administration time. Pharmaceutical research is always on inventing drug delivery systems which is based on patient compliance enhancement by producing the required therapeutic effect, reducing drug side effect, and dosing frequency. For treatment of some diseases such as asthma and migraine, modified release such as time-controlled delivery is preferred because it delivers the drug at required time and amount according to body circadian rhythm.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003079
Title: Correlation of salivary nitric oxide and stress levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - A biochemical study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontist and Oral Implantologist, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: The past millennium has witnessed tremendous research regarding attempts to enhance our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas, is a noxious chemical in the atmosphere but in small controlled concentrations in the body, acts as a physiological and pathophysiological mediator and plays an important role in biological systems. It is known that stress mechanisms contribute to onset, exacerbation, and maintenance of oral inflammatory diseases and it is also known to generate a plethora of free radicals including NO. Hence, this study performed to explore the salivary NO levels and correlate it with chronic periodontitis and the patients stress level. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects who were in the age group of 30–55 years, who participated in this study participated and were divided into two groups: Group I, which includes 20 healthy nonsmoking subjects and Group II, 20 subjects who are non-smokers with chronic periodontitis. The biochemical estimation of NO in the collected saliva was performed using the Griess colorimetric reaction. The measurement of stress levels for all the patients was requested to fill up a stress audit questionnaire by Miller and Smith to measure their stress levels.Statistical Analysis and Results: The statistical comparisons were done under the Griess Reaction. There were statistically significant salivary levels of NO in the group of periodontitis (group II) as compared to those in the healthy controls (group I). The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis through SPSS for windows (version 16.0). The statistical methods applied were descriptive statistics, one- way analysis of variance, Scheffe’s post hoc test, correlation analysis, independent samples t-test, and regression analysis. Conclusion: NO plays an important complex role in the immunoinflammatory process and the remodeling and maintenance of osseous structures. The salivary NO levels which are increased in patients with periodontitis and the positive correlation of salivary NO levels with the patients stress levels in this present study indicated NO being a potent modulator of inflammatory disease processes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003080
Title: The potential antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activity of Zingiber zerumbet ethanolic extracts and Channa striata powder on albino Wistar mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Jl. A. Yani Tromol Pos I, Pabelan, Kartasura, Surakarta 57102, Indonesia.
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Aim: The aim of this research to evaluate the activities of Zingiber zerumbet ethanolic extract (ZZEE) and Channa striata powder (CSP) used an animal model, albino Wistar mice, induced by alloxan; meanwhile, anti-inflammatory activity was induced using carrageenan to produce paw edema. Materials and Methods: The study used a post-test design with five treatment groups, each of which consisted of five mice. The groups for anti-inflammation study were negative control, positive control, 150 mg/kgBW dose of CSP, 150 mg/kgBW dose of ZZEE, and 150 mg/kgBW dose of the combination of CSP-ZZEE. The treatment groups of antidiabetic study were as negative control, positive control, 300 kg/kgBW dose of ZZEE, 300 mg/kgBW dose of CSP, and 300 mg/kgBW dose of the combination of ZZEE and CSP. Results: The results showed the percentage inhibition of the paw edema of ZZEE, CSP, combination of ZZEE-CSP, and positive control groups at 40.01 ± 7.19, 35.25 ± 8.48, 36.56 ± 7.22, and 36.10 ± 2.89%, respectively, whereas the percentage of decreasing capability of blood sugar level of ZZEE, CSP, combination of ZZE-CSP, and positive control successively was at 61.09 ± 16.20, 33.78 ± 26.67, 69.59 ± 13.53, and 74.72 ± 9.90%. Conclusions: There was a synergistic effect on anti-diabetes activity of ZZEE and CSP. Meanwhile in anti-inflammation study did not perform synergistic effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003081
Title: Ozone therapy in dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen which is being used in the treatment of different diseases for more than ten decades. It is highly valued as it possesses various properties such as antimicrobial, antihypoxic, analgesic, and immune stimulating on biological systems. The mechanisms of action supported with case reports and scientific studies allowed using it in different fields of medicine. Further studies are necessary to standardize indications and treatment protocols of ozone as a medical agent. Scientific support for ozone therapy presents a potential for an atraumatic, biologically based treatment for condition encountered in dental practice. This review summarizes different modalities of ozone application in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003082
Title: Platelet-rich fibrin in dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Platelet concentrates were originally used for the treatment and prevention of hemorrhage due to severe thrombopenia, which is often caused by medullar aplasia, acute leukemia, or significant blood loss during long-lasting surgery. The standard platelet concentrate for transfusion has been named platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), first described by Choukroun et al., is a new second generation of platelet concentrate. Choukroun et al. were one of the pioneers for using PRF protocol in oral and maxillofacial surgery to improve bone healing, especially in implant dentistry. PRF is a fibrin matrix with platelets, cytokines, growth factors, and trapped cells that may be released after a certain time. Simplified processing technique without any complex handling makes it superior to PRP. PRF can be used to promote wound healing, bone regeneration, graft stabilization, wound sealing, and hemostasis. Since the fibrin matrix is better organized, it is able to more efficiently direct stem cell migration and the healing program. PRF is considered to be a healing biomaterial, and presently, many studies have shown success in its application in various disciplines of dentistry

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003083
Title: Basal cell carcinoma - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a local and invasive carcinoma of the epidermoid basal cells. These are mostly caused due to ultraviolet radiation, sun exposure, radiotherapy, etc. They should be identified at the earliest to prevent massive invasion of tissues and for effective treatment. BCC constitutes about 80% of all non-melanoma skin cancers and is most commonly found in head and neck region. BCC is the most common malignancy in people with white skin. Although mortality is considerably less and rarely metastasize, it causes morbidity. They are also at great risk of developing into other malignancies. The incidence of BCC is rapidly increasing and a number of treatment modalities are available. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, BCC can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of BCC treatment involves surgical modalities such as electrodesiccation and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized BCC and offer high 5-year cure rates but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Numerous therapeutic methods established for the treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. The treatment modality utilized is dependent on both the tumor type and the patient. This article reviews about the etiology, clinical features, and treatment modalities of BCC.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003084
Title: Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and health benefits of nutmeg
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Myristica fragrans commonly rich nutmeg is one of the highly prized spices, known since antiquity for its aromatic, aphrodisiac, and curative properties. Nutmeg has many health benefits, studies show that it can help to stop diarrhea (in low dose), detoxify the body, and stimulate the brain, etc., and it has more nutritional effect, rich in energy, dietary fiber and proteins, carbohydrates, and mainly rich in Vitamins A, C, and E. It also contains electrolytes, minerals such as copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and phosphorus and phytonutrients include carotene-B and cryptoxanthin B. It contains antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal and having number of ethnopharmacological properties, these are rich in flesh, seed, and mace of nutmeg. Consuming a huge amount of nutmeg can complicate the body because it is a strong spice should use in small quantities. Consuming too much of nutmeg results in sudden attack, irregular heart palpitations, and vomiting. Nutmeg has enormous amount of benefits, but keep the usage of nutmeg should be in control. Nutmeg is a natural product, people and environment can get more safety and is considered to be less of a risk for resistance development by pathogenic microorganisms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003085
Title: Methods of delivering drugs across blood–brain barrier
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University,Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is made by special tight junctions present between the epithelial cells of the brain tissue. All the tissue is separated by a thin layer of epithelial cells; however, only the brain epithelial cells have these tight junctions which do not allow larger molecules to pass between them. The connection between these glial and endothelial cells is not very well known, but it may reflect an influence of the astrocytes in the formation and the maintenance of the BBB. BBB acts as a gateway system which allows only specific particles to pass through them. Thin molecular weight particles easily pass through the BBB which risks some harmful substances and microbes to pass through them, leading to severe infections and other adverse effects. BBB plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of the brain by protecting it from getting affected by harmful drugs. However, this selective entry of components through BBB posed a threat to treat diseases such as parkinsonism and brain tumor, as the drugs used to treat them are large molecular components which could not pass through BBB and so researchers made these large molecular components into lipophilic substances making it easier to pass through them, thereby playing hide and seek with the BBB. Solid particle entry to the brain is difficult through BBB and so these solid particles are converted to liquid and water for easy transport. These particles are passed to the brain by blood through the BBB. Any damage to this barrier affects the normal functioning of the brain, leading to brain damage and toxicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003086
Title: Desmoplastic ameloblastoma of the oral cavity: A case report and review of literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Ameloblastoma (AM) is a very rare odontogenic tumor of the oral cavity, with different histologic variants. One of the types of AM is desmoplastic AM (DA) which has 4–5% of incidence. Here, we review and reported that DA is the least of the occurrence of all the variants of AM. The uniqueness of this lesion can be further enlightened with respect to its site of occurrence, the radiographic feature, and the histological appearance different from the classical type of AM. This case report focuses on DA that occurred in the maxilla of 35-year-old women and explains about clinical, radiographic findings, histopathologic findings, and treatment plan. The patient is undergoing routine follow-up and is presently free of disease. From this case, the clinicians should remember to consider DA as differential diagnosis, if a patient complaints of swelling in and around the premolar region of maxilla.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003110
Title: Effect and symptoms of lead poisoning on oral health
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Lead was a key component in the medical sciences during its early days. Over the years, the toxic effects of lead have been studied in detail and have been withdrawn from the modern drugs. Lead poisoning has been recognized as a major public health risk, particularly in developing countries. Although various occupational and public health measures have been undertaken to control lead exposure, cases of lead poisoning are still reported. Exposure to lead produces various deleterious effects on the hematopoietic, renal, and reproductive and central nervous system, mainly through increased oxidative stress. During the early stages of evolution of the medical science, a range of metallic compounds was used. However, over the years, this trend has reduced due to the identification of the toxic effects of these substances. Unfortunately, unintentional ingestion of these heavy metals by industrial workers employed in paint, battery industry still remains a major occupational hazard.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003111
Title: Perforation repair during sinus lift - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of the review is to enhance the advances and methods of perforation repair during sinus lift. This review enhances the perforation repair during sinus lift. The maxillary sinus elevation is a standard and predictable surgical procedure to rehabilitate severe vertical bone atrophies in the lateral-posterior areas of the maxilla by placement of osseointegrated implants. The original technique, known as “Loma Linda Pouch,” consists in covering the whole sinus with a collagen membrane simulating the natural membrane, and the graft material is completely covered in its center by folding the membrane on the lateral wall.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003112
Title: Diagnostic advantages of DNA probe
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Editorial
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Chennai
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DNA probes are small segments of DNA which help to detect the presence of a gene of a long DNA sequence, in a biological system. The potential advantages of these DNA probe assays in the diagnosis of infectious diseases include rapid detection and identification of infectious agents, the ability to screen selected specimens using batteries of probes, and the detection of non-viable or difficult-to-culture organisms. These DNA probes are prepared for commercial purposes and are believed to be the most sophisticated and sensitive means to identify genes or specific DNA sequences. DNA probes are helpful for diagnosis of infectious diseases, identification of food contaminants for isolation of genes, and in other microbiological tests. It is believed that these DNA probe assays for a variety of purposes will be cleaner, simpler, faster, and cheaper than the traditional microbiological tests and are also expected to be 100-fold more sensitive.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003113
Title: Awareness of importance of good and proper oral hygiene practices among the parents of young children - A knowledge, attitude, and practice survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Primary teeth play an important role in helping the child bite and chew food and for speech. Teaching the child proper oral care at a young age is an investment in his or her health that will pay lifelong dividends. This should begin at a very young age, and the parents should be aware of the various oral hygiene practices. In this short study, we assess the knowledge and awareness about prenatal counseling and various other oral hygiene practices in children among parents. Aim: The aim was to study the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) about the importance of good and proper oral hygiene practices in children among young parents. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire, in a structured format, was prepared to assess the KAP of oral hygiene practices in children among young parents. This study was conducted in hospitals with child care facilities in rural areas. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding the participant’s knowledge about the association of the parent’s oral hygiene practices to their children, the awareness of various brushing techniques, the frequency of brushing, and their attitude toward regular dental checkups. The results were tabulated, and frequencies and percentages were used to create bar graphs and pie charts. Results: This study showed that the knowledge about the association of maternal oral hygiene and the child’s oral hygiene was 33.33%. 27.78% were aware of antenatal care. Only 11.90% were aware of fluoridated toothpastes and 49% were aware of various preventive measures. 68.25% reported brushing twice daily. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a generalized lack of knowledge about the basics of oral care among the parents and emphasizes the need for more educational and preventive programs for better maintenance of oral hygiene.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003114
Title: Analgesic efficacy of lornoxicam compared to paracetamol in the treatment of post-extraction pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: This study aims to compare the efficacy and rapidity of the action of lornoxicam and paracetamol in the management of post-extractive extraction pain. Background: Pain is a common experience following post-operative dental extractions. Post-operative dental pain may occur due to a non-isotonic solution, adrenaline in the solution, trauma, surgical interference, marked tissue destruction, acute inflammatory conditions, and infections. Many nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) been in practice to manage the dental pain. Paracetamol and lornoxicam are also one of the most commonly used NSAIDs in dental practice. Materials and Methods: Patient seeking dental extraction without any periapical changes in the tooth was included in this study. The study consisted of 30 patients grouped into A and B with 15 in each group. The drug paracetamol and lornoxicam were given to 15 patients in Groups A and B, respectively, along with antibiotic (amoxicillin 500 mg) after extraction of the tooth. The patient was followed up for 3 consecutive days to review on pain. After extraction, patients were asked to score the pain range for 3 consecutive days in the form provided, while they are under the prescribed medications. Higher scores indicate worse, and lower scores indicate better efficacy of drug in post-extraction pain. Results: Patients under lornoxicam had less post-operative dental pain when compared to patient under paracetamol. Hence, lornoxicam proved to an effective analgesic for treating moderate-to-severe pain. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, it has been reported that lornoxicam has better efficiency in managing post-operative extraction pain and this will help the clinicians to treat the patients effectively and reduce their pain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003116
Title: Antimicrobial activity of various natural oils on Enterococcus faecalis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study the antimicrobial activity of various natural oils on Enterococcus faecalis. Background: Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria raises serious concern for the continued efficacy of antimicrobial agents in medicine, agriculture, and industry. With the increase in the prevalence of microbial resistance to conventional antiseptics and antibiotics, attention is now turning to the use of natural antimicrobial compounds. The escalating demand for new antimicrobials has prompted several investigations into the antimicrobial effects of phytochemicals extracted from a range of botanic origins, most of which have been used traditionally for many years. Materials and Methods: The essential oils of neem and tea tree are diluted into aqueous solutions of varying concentrations of 1:5, 1:10, and 1:15 and subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration evaluation. The zones of inhibition were measured and tabulated. Results: It was observed that the antimicrobial efficacy of both the oils increased with their increase in concentration. However, the action of neem was more potent than tea tree oil. Conclusion: This study conducted suggests that the naturally occurring components of the essential oils can be a good alternative for the currently available root canal irrigants that might not guarantee the success of treatment due to their inability to combat E. faecalis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003117
Title: Comparison of the effectiveness of the use of magnetic interintestinal anastomosis with single-barreled and double-barreled stoma for children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Surgical Diseases, International Kazakh-Turkish University, K.A. Yasawi, Turkestan, Republic of Kazakhstan
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This article includes the study of changes in the body of children with single-barreled and double-barreled intestinal stoma with the use of magnetic compressional interintestinal anastomosis and their comparison with each other. The goal of the research was a comparative evaluation of the efficiency of usage magnetic interintestinal anastomosis with single-barreled and double-barreled stoma for children. This research work is based on the analysis of the results of the treatment of 44 children in whom surgical interventions ended with the formation of a single-barreled and double-barreled intestinal enterostomy. Results of treating children with single-barreled enterostomy with the formation of magnetic compressional interintestinal anastomosis attests of a decrease in frequency of post-surgical complications such as hyperemia and skin maceration from 83% to 25%, average weight loss from 18.1% to 9.9%, suture cleavage and wound suppuration from 75% to 45%, quick normalization of laboratory test results, and early stoma liquidation in children with single-barreled enterotomy

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003120
Title: Prevalence of crossbite in primary dentition
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Malocclusion, dental injuries, and dental anomalies in the primary dentition are conditions to take into account when considering the need for oral health care in young children. Occlusion means intercuspation of the upper and lower teeth when the jaws are not moving. Proper occlusion of teeth plays an important role in mastication, deglutition, speech, and respiration. Materials and Methods: This study includes a total population of 1481 children at age 3–6 years from 6 private schools and 5 government schools of Chennai. Examination of occlusion, molar relationship is done and data are recorded. The collected data are evaluated and analyzed. Results: A total of 1481 children from 6 private schools and 5 government schools from Chennai participated in this study. Among this population, 890 are males and 591 are females. Among total population, 67.5% were reported with malocclusion. Among the malocclusions, the following transverse problems were diagnosed: Unilateral posterior crossbite (20%), anterior open bite associated with posterior crossbite (7.79%), bilateral posterior crossbite (6.79%), unilateral posterior crossbite associated with anterior crossbite (7.09%), and full crossbite (5.99%). The mandibular functional deviation was observed in 59% of children with unilateral posterior crossbite. Conclusion: Dentofacial disorders that can cause esthetic and functional problems for the child and affect dentofacial growth and development can be detected during routine dental visits. Parents should be instructed to help their children to prevent the potential development of transverse malocclusions.