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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003186
Title: Advances in the management of myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome - A short review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of this article is to survey the present patterns in administration of myofascial pain. The objective is to look at the assortment of treatment for myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Myofascial pain disorder (MPS) is characterized as pain that starts from myofascial trigger focuses in skeletal muscle. Basic etiologies of myofascial pain dysfunction might be from immediate or aberrant injury, spine pathology, presentation to total and tedious strain, postural brokenness, and physical deconditioning of transcutaneous electrical nerve incitement which diminishes the strong movement consequently wipes out the basic reason for sickness and giving an authoritative treatment to the patient with myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Hence, the fitting assessment and administration of myofascial pain is more critical. The motivation behind this survey is to give the clinician a complete and breakthrough comprehension of the present medications and current treatment for MPS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003172
Title: Presumed effects of Vitamin D during pregnancy on maternal and child outcomes
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Health and Medical Sciences, Khawarizmi International College, Abu Dhabi 25669, United Arab Emirates
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Aim: Vitamin D has traditionally been viewed as a fundamental hormone in the regulation of phosphorus and calcium and bone metabolism. Recently, the discovery of a new world of extraskeletal and particularly immune modulator effects renewed the interest of research on Vitamin D in this light. Materials and Methods: Vitamin D status appears to be relevant to health at all ages, and even in prenatal life. In fact, maternal Vitamin D levels in pregnancy may have an impact on its course and on the health of fetus, newborn, and even child in a longer term. Results and Discussion: Since Vitamin D deficiency is commonly observed in pregnant women around the world, there is growing interest in the definition of Vitamin D health benefits and supplementation during pregnancy. In the present experiment, we are concentrating on Vitamin D during pregnancy on maternal and child Conclusion: In the present experiment, we had determined the role of Vitamin D and it is a role in the growth of the fetus and the child outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003171
Title: Comparison outcomes of improved urinary function in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia using two open prostatectomy surgery and transurethral resection of the prostate
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Urology, Faculty Member, Pregnancy Health Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
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Background and Aim: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common urological disease in old men. This study was conducted with the aim of comparing outcomes of improved urinary function in patients with BPH using two open prostatectomy surgery and transurethral resection of the prostate. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 in Ali Ebne Abitaleb Hospital affiliated to Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Data were gathered by International Prostate Symptoms Score questionnaire and analyzed by the SPSS software version 22.0. Results: In this study, 100 patients were evaluated. Their mean age was 68.7 ± 6.0 years. The mean scores of each section of the urinary symptoms were not different between the two groups. Conclusion: In overall, this study showed that the way of surgery has no effect on urinary symptoms in BPH.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003182
Title: Dimensional changes of self-cure acrylic when subjected to alcohol, listerine, and chlorhexidine
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to observe the dimensional changes of self-cure acrylic when subjected to alcohol, Listerine, and chlorhexidine. Objective: The objective of the research is to know the changes that can occur in denture given to patients who use the above-mentioned solutions regularly. Background: The resin does not require an external agent for polymerization, and hence it is known as a self-cure. The basis of self-cure is that it is strong and durable. It is one of the most commonly used materials in prosthodontics. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 cubes of acrylic processed with self-cure are immersed in alcohol, Listerine, and chlorhexidine and left for 12 h. Dimensions of the cube ps are measured before and after immersing in the solutions. Reason: This research is done for better success rates and patient acceptability for prosthodontics treatments. Conclusion: The study shows that there are changes in the blocks when subjected to these liquids.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003166
Title: Attitudes, practices, and perceived barriers in tobacco cessation counseling among dentists of Chennai
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the attitudes and practices of dentists from Chennai with respect to their roles in tobacco cessation counseling and to identify the barriers. Method of Investigation: Survey design was used to conduct the study. Multistage sampling method was adapted to select the participants. In Stage 1, cluster sampling was used to select the practicing dentist in Chennai city. In Stage 2, simple random sampling was used to select a subset of dentist covering Chennai city. A total of 250 dentists of Chennai city were selected for the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was given to them and the responses were recorded. The questionnaire comprised demographic details and 13-item questionnaire related to attitudes, practices, and barriers among dentists for tobacco cessation counseling. Results: A total of 200 questionnaires were returned with the response rate of 80%. Of 200 respondents, 160 (80%) were male dentists and 40 (20%) were female dentists. Age of dentists varied from 25 to 48 years, with the mean age of 34.2 ± 7.3 years. Most of the dentists strongly believed that it is their responsibility to educate the patients regarding tobacco cessation counseling. The lack of proper training was found to be the major barrier for tobacco cessation counseling among dentist. Conclusion: Dentist has a positive attitude for tobacco cessation counseling, but lack of proper training is a significant barrier for their failure. Hence, dentists should be given proper orientation and training toward tobacco cessation counseling during their curriculum.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003167
Title: Variceal bleeding in alcoholic liver cirrhosis - A short review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Portal hypertension is a condition where the hepatic venous pressure gradient is >5 mmHg. Increased pressure within the portal circulation, usually as a result of alcoholic cirrhosis, leads to shunt formation between portal venous system and systemic venous system. This results in the formation of varices, most commonly situated at the gastroesophageal junction. Identification of these varices by endoscopy is mandatory as untreated varices may rupture and can cause massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulting in hemorrhagic shock and even death. Patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and portal hypertension are at increased risk of gastroesophageal varices and hence detection of the same is very important. This review will focus on the clarification of the existing literature regarding variceal bleeding in ALDs. It also clarifies the treatment required.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003168
Title: Drug calculation skills in nursing students of Zahedan University of medical sciences
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Nursing Management, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
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Background: Accurate drug calculation is a critical skill for nurses for the proper administration of medications. However, in many studies, drug calculation ability of nursing students has been raised as a problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of drug calculation skill in nursing students. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 115 nursing students were selected. To collect data, a questionnaire consisted of three parts was applied: Demographic information, students’ views about their interest and ability in drug calculation, and 10 questions about drug calculation. After data collection, they were analyzed by t-test and ANOVA using SPSS software version 21. Results: According to the majority of students, performing drug calculation was easy (65.2%) and they liked it (54.8%), and the majority of students (47.8%) evaluated their mastery over drug calculation as average. 16 students (13.9%) correctly answered all questions and 63 students (54.7%) correctly answered 80% of questions. Mean score of students was 74.26 ± 18.82. Conclusion: Although drug calculation is a necessary skill for nurses, a few numbers of subjects correctly answered all questions. It denotes need and importance of control and reminding drug calculations in training nursing students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003169
Title: The role of health beliefs in breast self-examination behavior in female health workers in Guilan Province
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
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Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Iran and the world, and it is the second leading cause of death from cancer in women, which can be cured if diagnosed early. Monthly breast self-examination (BSE) can increase women’s awareness of their natural breast condition and screening tests. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive power of the health belief model (HBM) in performing BSE female health workers of Guilan province. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional analytical study, 496 female health workers were selected randomly in Guilan province in 2018. The tool used was self-administered questionnaire included demographic characteristics, knowledge, behavior, and HBM constructs (Champion, National Standardized Questionnaire). Data were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 21) based on Spearman correlation test and multiple logistic regression. Results: The mean age of female health workers was 40.8 ± 7.7 years. Only 10.5% of female were done the BSEs (with knowledge of procedure and at the right time) in a desirable way. In the logistic regression analysis, knowledge, perceived barriers, and health motivation were predictive of desirable BSE behavior. Conclusion: The desirable BSE of female health workers in Guilan province was very low, while this group could have a significant effect on women’s health behaviors in rural communities as role model. Planning and implementation of educational interventions based on knowledge and predictive constructs of desirable behavior are recommended.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003170
Title: Predictive factors of behavioral intention in aids prevention in nursing and midwifery students at guilan university of medical sciences
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Research Center of Health and Environment, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
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Introduction: Iran has been recognized as one of the most dangerous countries in the world for AIDS, and that the only effective way for fighting, is health education to a high-risk population and vulnerable groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive factors of behavioral intention in AIDS prevention based on the Theory of Planned Behavior among nursing and midwifery students. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive correlational study, a total of 104 nursing and midwifery students at Guilan University of Medical Sciences participated in the study. Sampling was done using census method. The instrument for data collection was “AIDS Prevention Planned Behavior Scale.” The scale consists of three parts of demographic information section, the “theory of planned behavior” constructs including attitudes toward behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention, and AIDS prevention behavior. Validity and reliability of the scale were examined and confirmed. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21. Results: Linear regression analysis showed that in total, 54% of the variance in the behavioral intention of AIDS prevention in nursing and midwifery students could be predicted by the constructs of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms. Conclusion: Given the high predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms in behavioral control, it is recommended that educational interventions based on “theory of planned behavior” be focused on these two constructs in the area of AIDS prevention behaviors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003173
Title: Evaluation of compressive strength between Cention N and high copper amalgam - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to compare and evaluate the compressive strength of Cention N and high copper amalgam using a universal Instron testing machine. Background: For years, amalgam has been used successfully within their indications as filling materials; nonetheless, there is a considerable demand for an alternative filling material due to its color and mercury as one of its components. Cention N an alkasite group of material has been developed as an alternative to amalgam. Tooth color, inexpensive and high flexural strength and refer to a new category of filling material. Conclusion: There is no statistically significant difference between Cention-N and amalgam on the evaluation of compressive strength. The alkasite Cention N, thus, redefines the basic filling, combining bulk placement and durability in a dual-curing, esthetic product.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003174
Title: Antimicrobial activity of a novel sonic agitation device
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of 5.2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOcl) with sonic agitation devices. Materials and Methods: The protocol for the present study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee. 32 adult patients aged between 18 and 60 years, requiring root canal therapy in anterior and premolar teeth with non-vital pulp were selected for this study. The teeth with vital pulp, periapical cyst, calcified canals, and immature apices were excluded from the study. These teeth were analyzed by pre-operative radiographs and electric pulp test for monitoring their pulpal and periapical status. A detailed medical and dental history was taken. Patients were explained about the procedure, and written consent was taken before treatment. 20 permanent teeth were randomly divided into groups corresponding to the disinfection protocol. Local anesthesia (Lox 2%, Neon Laboratories Ltd., India) was administered, and isolation was done with rubber dam. The tooth and surrounding area were disinfected by swabbing with 5% iodine tincture. The root canal was accessed with size 10 K-file (Mani, Inc., Tochigi, Japan). Then, initial pretreatment root canal culture sample was taken with presterilized paper points. Two paper points were placed in the canal for 60 s and then transferred into two separate presterilized tubes of 2 ml brain heart infusion broth (marked as aerobic and anaerobic sample). This was designated as the first sample (S1). These tubes were transferred in 10 min for culturing under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The working length was determined using electronic apex locator (Root ZX mini, JMorita Corp.) which was kept 0.5 mm short of the apex. This was confirmed by radiograph. Cleaning and shaping was done using conventional step-back technique. Master apical size was kept three sizes larger than the initial binding instrument. 5 ml of sterile water was used for irrigation during cleaning and shaping. Final sample (S2) was taken after agitating the sodium hypochlorite. Group 1 was agitated with EndoActivator, Group 2 was agitated with Waterpik Power Flosser, and Group 3 - positive control was not subjected to any agitation. Results: Canals agitated with EndoActivator and Waterpik Power Flosser showed antibacterial action against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003175
Title: Effects of probiotics consumption on salivary pH and Streptococcus mutans counts
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health dentistry , Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Probiotics play an important role in pathogenesis in oral cavity and also improve in gastrointestinal health problems. Antimicrobial methods which control dental caries that includes probiotic agents play an important role in establishing caries control in children from moderate to high risk for developing dental caries. Aim: This study aims to analyze and compare the usage of probiotic products and its effect on salivary pH and Streptococcus mutans. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effect of short-term consumption on probiotic curd and normal curd. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 10 human volunteers who are caries free, examination period is done for 20 days. It is examined as two periods, that is, before probiotic and after probiotic, it is also tested using pH strips to denote saliva pH before and after consumption of probiotic curd. Mutans agar was used to enumerate colonies. Method - dilute the saliva to 1:20 dilution. 1 ml of saline with 50 μl saliva then transfer to 10 μl to mutans agar and incubate at 370C and count. Reason: Probiotic agents are believed to play a role in dental caries. A shift of pH range will determine the risk of inhibition of the growth of S. mutans counts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003176
Title: Epigenetics and cancer
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Dr. Ambedkar College, Deekshabhoomi, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
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The activation of oncogenes and/or the deactivation of tumor suppression genes involve uncontrolled cell growth which leads to the development of cancer. Downregulation of cell adhesion receptors necessary for tissue-specific, cell-cell attachment, as well as upregulation of receptors that enhance cell motility, is required for metastasis. These characteristics can be modified by epigenetic changes including histone modifications, DNA methylation, and DNA hydroxymethylation. Signaling pathways that regulate apoptosis and autophagy, as well as microRNA, include targets for these epigenetic changes. Predisposed normal cells change to cancer progenitor cells that, after growing, experience an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Epigenetic medication seems to enhance the action of traditional medicine, usually by demethylating and reexpressing tumor suppressor genes to inhibit tumorigenesis. Adopting epigenetic alteration as a brand new hallmark of cancer could be a logical and necessary step that may additionally encourage the event of novel epigenetic biomarkers and therapeutics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003177
Title: Prevalence of midline diastema in school children in Chennai - A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, 162 Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, Ind
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Objective: Midline diastema most commonly occurs in children during mixed dentition. Midline diastema always creates an unpleasant appearance and interferes with speech depending on its width. If it continues even after the ugly duckling stage, then the effective treatment is required to correct the diastema. The study is carried out to assess the prevalence of midline diastema in school children of age group from 15 to 19 years old in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in 400 school children of 15–18 years in various schools of Chennai 15–18 years old, after providing prior information. Measurements were recorded by measuring the gap between two central incisors for maxilla and mandible. Results: Of the 400 school children who were screened, only 39 of them presented with midline diastema. Hence, the incidence of maxillary midline diastema in this population is 9%. The prevalence type had no gender difference. Conclusion: The present study showed that midline diastema is a rare dental anomaly in Chennai population which shows increased awareness of the dental anomaly and early treatments obtained for it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003178
Title: A survey on knowledge, attitude, and practice about endodontic mishaps and its management among practicing dentists
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Endodontic treatment includes procedures that were framed to maintain the health of pulp tissue and periapical portion of the tooth. If the pulp is diseased or injured, the treatment is done to preserve the normal radicular tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice about endodontic mishaps and its management among practicing dentists. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 15 multiple choice questions was prepared based on etiology, prevention, and management of endodontic mishaps using online software. This study was conducted online which included 100 participants who were general practitioners and specialists working in clinics. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: The result shows that only 59% of surveyed dentists are aware of etiology, 58.8% were aware of prevention, and 51.6% aware of the management of endodontic mishaps that occurring during procedure. Conclusion: Dentists, being members of health-care profession, should know about endodontic mishaps and its management which may occur during procedure. Only 56.4% are aware of endodontic mishaps and its management according to the study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003179
Title: Gingival crevicular fluid level of interleukin 1 in chronic periodontitis with diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim is to review the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) level of interleukin 1 (IL-1) in chronic periodontitis with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes and periodontal illnesses show a bidirectional relationship focused on an improved provocative reaction that shows both locally and fundamentally. Periodontitis may occur in patients with and without Type 2 diabetes. GCF is an exudate that can be collected from the sulcus or periodontal pocket. Different pro-inflammatory cytokines are communicated in the GCF of diabetic patients with PD. It may be hypothesized that the GCF cytokine profile in patients with periodontitis with poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes may differ from the GCF cytokine profile in medically healthy individuals with periodontitis. IL-1β is a potent stimulator of bone resorption and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal destruction. From various studies, it was found that GCF IL-1 levels were elevated and also it was found to be a potential biomarker in patients with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003180
Title: Effect of chebulagic acid on apoptotic regulators in prostate cancer cell line - PC-3
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Central Research Laboratory, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most typical cancer and also the sixth leading reason behind cancer death among men worldwide with associate degree calculable recorded amount of 1.1 million cases and 307,000 deaths in 2012. Chebulagic acid (CA), a benzopyran tannin, is one of the major bioactive compounds present in the fruits of Terminalia chebula. Aim: The present study was aimed at assessing the effects of CA on proapoptotic (Bax) and antiapoptotic protein molecules such as B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-extra large (Bcl-xl) in PC-3 cell line. Materials and Methods: Antiproliferative potential of CA was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. PC-3 cells were treated with different concentration of CA (1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 µM). Pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins were done by western blotting methods. PC-3 cells were treated with the treatment of CA resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of the growth of PC-3 cells. This was associated with increased levels of proapoptotic protein (Bax) and the reduced levels of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Conclusion: The present findings clearly suggest that CA induces apoptosis by the regulating intrinsic pathways which could be very useful for the treatment of PCa.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003181
Title: Questionnaire of parental perception of general anesthesia in pediatric dentistry
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the parental perception on general anesthesia (GA) in pediatric dentistry. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the parental awareness through a self-awareness questionnaire. Materials and Methods: The parental perception on GA for children with mixed dentition was assessed through a self- administered questionnaire which was distributed among 100 parents whose children were as old as 1–5 years. Results: After the analyses of the questionnaire, it was seen that more than half of the respondents were aware of GA for children during dental treatment. The respondents were equally divided when questioned on the safety aspect of GA. Majority of parents preferred conscious sedation over GA. Conclusion: Although most of the parents would agree for their child to undergo GA, almost half the group of parents would prefer other methods or means, and this is due to their fear and lack of knowledge on GA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003183
Title: Socio-behavioral factors and oral hygiene practices among school children - A descriptive study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The incidence of dental caries is about 73% among the school children in India and this can be attributed to socio-behavior factors such as dietary habits, improper brushing techniques, socioeconomic status, and oral hygiene practices. Proper oral hygiene maintenance and dietary habits can improve the oral health. However, the awareness about the oral hygiene practices should be improved. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the socio-behavioral factors and oral hygiene practices among school children. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among a private school. 100 children were included in the study. It was a questionnaire-based study containing 12 closed questions regarding socio-behavioral factors and oral hygiene practices. The data were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics. Result: Based on the Kuppuswamy grading scale 76% of them belong to middle-class family. 93% of them used toothbrush for cleaning their teeth, 50% of the children brush twice daily, the frequency of changing the toothbrush once in 3 months was found in 59% of the children. 67% of the children had the habit of visiting the dentist only during a toothache, and 20% of them on parents advise. Conclusion: Majority of children were using a toothbrush for brushing, but many of them were not brushing at night times. Many of them were still having the habit of visiting dentist only during toothache. Hence, oral hygiene instructions should be given to them.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003184
Title: The role of gingival gelatinases and salivary collagenases in the periodontal conditions
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Central Research Laboratory, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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This review focuses specifically on gingival gelatinases and salivary collagenases which are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their role in the periodontal conditions. A group of enzymes capable of degrading almost all extracellular matrix proteins, MMPs, contribute to both normal and pathological tissue remodeling. The expression of different MMPs has been reported in different stages of periodontal conditions. MMPs have been identified in pulpal and periapical inflammation and are strongly correlated with periodontal diseases since they are the major players in collagen breakdown during periodontal tissue destruction. The use of MMP inhibitors could help the prevention and treatment of many MMP-related oral diseases. This review summarizes the basic knowledge on periodontal diseases and the role of MMPs for the development of periodontal diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003185
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness about epilepsy among dental students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to analyze the knowledge, attitude, and awareness about epilepsy among dental students. Materials and Methods: This study was designed as a prospective questionnaire-based survey. A questionnaire enquiringly about the knowledge and awareness regarding epilepsy and its management was conducted among students of the 3rd year and final years (those who undergo clinical practice) in Saveetha Dental College. A total of 100 students were selected and an online link was given and their responses were obtained online. The questions had a set of options and the participants have to choose one. Results: Thus, the knowledge and attitude about epilepsy among dental students were evaluated and it was less than adequate and a few people had negative attitude toward epileptic patients. Conclusion: Organizing seminars and additional classes about epilepsy and the management of emergency conditions would help dentist to gain more knowledge about the disease and that would change their attitude toward epileptic patients. This can also have an impact on the patients’ psychological health and a positive influence in their access to dental clinics and to maintain good oral health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003187
Title: Estrogen deficiency during menopause and its management: A current update
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Pallikaranai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Different phases of a woman’s life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Sex hormones strongly influence body fat distribution and adipocyte differentiation. Estrogens and testosterone differentially affect adipocyte physiology, but the importance of estrogens in the development of metabolic diseases during menopause is disputed. Estrogens and estrogens receptor regulate various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism. Disturbances of this metabolic signal lead to the development of metabolic syndrome and a higher cardiovascular risk in woman. The absence of estrogens is a clue factor in the onset of cardiovascular disease during the menopausal period, which is characterized by lipid profile variations and predominant abdominal fat accumulation. However, influence of the absence of these hormones and its relationship to higher obesity in women during menopause is not clear. This systematic review discusses of the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors in adipocyte differentiation and its various effects and brief discussion on its management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003188
Title: Oral manifestations of viral diseases
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, 162, PH Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
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The oral cavity is affected by various viral disease manifestations, and it is frequently encountered with viral infections. Clinical diagnosis of these manifestations is important and may be confusing due to their similar presentation. Members of the human herpesvirus and human papillomavirus families cause the most common primary viral infections of the oral cavity. Human papillomavirus infections have received particular attention in recent years, as high-risk strains have been linked to some cases of oral cancer. Many other viruses can also affect the oral cavity; they can either occur as systemic or localized manifestations. Different viruses and their oral manifestations are discussed below.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003189
Title: Oral submucous fibrosis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, 162, PH Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
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Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic, complex potentially malignant disorder. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction. It is characterized by inflammation and a progressive fibrosis of the lamina propria and deeper connective tissues. The etiology is multifactorial tobacco, areca nut chewing, consumption of chilies, genetics, and nutritional deficiency. There is a burning sensation followed by blisters, stomatitis, stiffness of tissues, and difficulty in mouth opening. This review attempts to give a comprehensive outline of the classification, clinical and histopathological features, etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of OSMF.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003190
Title: Human saliva and its role in oral and systemic health
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Consultant Periodontist and Implantologist, PhD Research Scholar, Sree Balaji Dental College And Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Pallikaranai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Saliva is a unique fluid and interest in it as a diagnostic medium has advanced exponentially in the past 10 years. Advances in the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid have been tremendously affected by current technological developments. As a consequence, these advances in technology have helped to move saliva beyond measuring oral health characteristics to where it now may be used to measure essential features of overall health. This review paper sums up various researches that have been conducted on human saliva and its composition with physiological aspects. It mainly highlights the composition, physiology, and role of saliva as a diagnostic fluid in oral and systemic health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003191
Title: Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in type 2 diabetic patients in Chennai, India
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study is aimed to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among type 2 diabetic patients in Chennai, India. Methods: The study group comprised of 100 type 2 diabetic patients (n = 100), aged between 21 and 80 years attending the outpatient department of Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, during a 6-month period. This was a cross- sectional observational study that comprised of a thorough clinical evaluation and diagnostic tests followed by recording of the oral mucosal lesions that were commonly observed in the above population. Results: Of the 100 patients, 56 (56%) were females and 34 (34%) were males. All the patients were among 21–80 years of age. 86 (86%) type 2 diabetic patients were found with associated oral mucosal lesions. The most common oral lesions being denture stomatitis (34%), angular cheilitis (21%), and gingival hyperplasia (20%) followed by other oral mucosal lesions. Conclusion: The above study concludes that patients with type 2 diabetes present with higher prevalence of oral lesions when compared with non-diabetics which implies the need for the dental surgeon to have a knowledge of the common oral mucosal lesions that may help to diagnose diabetes mellitus in patients who are unaware of their diabetic status and provide early treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003192
Title: Assessing the compliance with cigarettes and other tobacco products act 2003 in Chennai: An observational study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In India, tobacco is consumed widely and in multiple forms such as chewing tobacco, cigarettes, and beedis. Tobacco use is especially problematic among Indian youth. According to Global Youth Tobacco Survey reports, 14% of students currently use some form of tobacco. The COTPA ACT (2003) add relevant rules to control the tobacco menace. Aim: This study aims to ensure the compliance with the section of COTPA 2003 regarding the sale of tobacco products around school in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 schools in Chennai were selected by simple random sampling and were observed. 150-yard radius around each school was canvassed to ensure that all shops within 100-yard radius were observed. The study was completed by visiting and observing 100-yard radius of each and every selected school. Results: Of 120 schools observed, nearly 52% (63) of schools had shop selling tobacco products within 100 m radius. Conclusion: This study shows that COTPA 2003 is not being implemented to its fullest extent in Chennai. There is widespread violation with respect to the sale of tobacco products around 100 m radius of school.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003193
Title: Hepatoprotective and curative effects of methanol extract of Funtumia africana Leaves against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria
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Background: The persistent use of Funtumia africana leaves extract in the management of hepatitis and other hepatic disorders by traditional medicine practitioners has necessitated scientific evaluation to ascertain its hepatoprotective activities. Aim of the study: This study investigated hepatoprotective and curative effects of the methanol extract of Funtumia leaves against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: A total of 42 rats distributed into seven groups of six rats each were used in this study with Group 1 as the normal control that received olive only while Groups 2–7 served as test groups that were CCl4 -induced intraperitoneally and treated orally with silymarin and the methanol extract, respectively. This study was carried using standard methods. Results: CCl 4 induction caused significant (P < 0.05) increase in liver marker enzyme activities in the rats relative to the normal control. Furthermore, the CCl 4 -induced rats showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), and direct bilirubin and significant (P < 0.05) increase in total bilirubin concentrations relative to the normal control which together with the liver marker enzymes indicated liver injury and impaired liver functions. Groups treated with silymarin and the extract, respectively, showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in liver marker enzyme activities and total bilirubin concentrations, and significant (P < 0.05) increase in TP, ALB, and direct bilirubin concentrations relative to the negative control which indicated improved liver integrity and function. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that methanol extract of F. africana leaves possessed hepatoprotective and curative activities and could be used for the management of hepatic disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003194
Title: Evidence-based dentistry: From knowledge to practice
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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We live in an era of evolution. Conventionally, clinical decisions in dentistry have been based on the experience of the dentist. If a given treatment seemed to work, it was utilized again; if the results were disappointing, the procedure was deserted. Evaluating clinical treatment in this fashion is difficult because it is hard to know which factors are important for success and which ones contribute to failure. This lead to a new model called evidence-based dental care. A great effort and research are currently being directed at developing an evidence-based approach. This paper aims to give an overview of the evolution and importance of evidence-based dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00003195
Title: Study of berries - A short review
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Berry is a common edible fruit. The main or the most important components of the berries are composed antioxidants, phytochemicals, flavonoids, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamins (mainly Vitamin C), and minerals. These components of the berries are commonly used for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and known to be of major benefit to the human health. In addition to antioxidants, berries are “juicy foods,” which means they contain mostly water, and they smell delicious. Vitamin C is a strong antioxidant found in berries. Eating Vitamin C - rich berries will contribute to radiant skin and healthy hair and may reduce the risk of arthritis, cataracts, and macular degeneration. Some people with IBS experience discomfort after eating berries. However, In this review, we are going to do a study of the berries - strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, gooseberry, and hawthorn

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003196
Title: Total flavonoids and anthocyanins content of pigmented rice
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Postharvest Technology, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Labtek XI, SITH Building, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia
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Pigmented rice/glutinous rice consisting of black rice (BR) (Oryza sativa), black glutinous rice (BGR) (O. sativa Var. glutinosa), and brown rice (RR) (Oryza nivara) is currently becoming the popular ingredients because it is a food as carbohydrate source that has functional properties. Pigmented rice naturally contains one or more compounds that are considered to have physiological functions that are beneficial to health, especially as antioxidants, such as polyphenols and anthocyanin pigments. In West Java, there are several local varieties of BR, glutinous BR, and RR which have the potential to be developed as a functional food. The objective of this study was to determine total flavonoids and total anthocyanins, as well as the antioxidant activity of local variety of BR, BGR, and RR. Rice samples were evaluated for color intensity, the yield of extract, total flavonoids, total anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity used kinetic assays of diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The result showed that the increase in the color intensity was increase the number of total flavonoids, total anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity. BR and BGR have total flavonoids content 18.68 mg 100 g−1 and 15.45 mg 100 g−1 , respectively. The total anthocyanin content of BR and BGR was 39.61 mg 100 g−1 and 28.63 mg 100 g−1 , respectively. Based on IC50 values, BR contains the bioactive compounds that are classified as strong antioxidants. Local variety of BR and BGR has potential to be an alternative of functional food.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00003197
Title: Determination of quality standards parameters of kemangi (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves extract from three locations
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
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Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the parameters of the quality standard of kemangi (basil, Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves originating from three regions of Indonesia. Materials and Methods: The research method included collecting basil from three regions, namely Bandung, Cianjur, and Solo. The basil sample was then extracted using the maceration method followed by the phytochemical screening test. Determination of extract quality standardization parameters in accordance with the reference book parameters of Indonesian extract quality standards which included determination of moisture content, determination of ash content, determination of water-soluble ash content, determination of acid insoluble ash content, specific gravity, determination of water-soluble extractive content, and determination of ethanol soluble extractive content. Determination of essential oil contents using the thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Results: The standardization parameter value of Bandung basil leaf extract was 9.5%, 4.68%, 82.86%, 1.47%, 0.82, 4.33%, and 64.33%, Cianjur basil leaf extract was 9.83%, 7.78%, 93.37%, 2.08%, 0.85, 22.33%, and 53.00%, and Solo basil leaf extract was 13.67%, 9.98%, 92.59%, 5.95%, 0.87, 41.67%, and 49.67%. Phytochemical screening of basil leaf extract showed that the metabolites contained were flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and saponins. The essential oil content found in basil leaves was 0.132%. GC-MS results in the three samples showed the linalool content in Bandung basil leaf extract was 2.62%, Cianjur 19.85%, and Solo 27.80%. Conclusion: It was found that there were differences in the quality standard parameters of each basil including the content of secondary metabolites and essential oils. Each region has a different standard of quality which cannot be generalized which was thought to be caused by differences in soil nutrient origin of plants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003198
Title: Prevalence of gingival recession in smokers and non-smokers - A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Gingival recession is associated with oral exposure of the root surface due to a displacement of the gingival margin apical to the cementoenamel junction. Recession defects are one of the most common findings in periodontal problems affecting individuals of almost all ages to some degree. Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for periodontitis that affects the prevalence, extent, and severity of disease. The aim of this study is to assess whether smoking has an impact on gingival recession. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven smokers and 21 non-smokers who reported to outpatient were examined and their periodontal status is estimated using a pro forma containing patient details, their chief complaint, smoking habits, loss of attachment, and probing depth with a column for patient consent. Results: According to data analysis, smokers group had a mean gingival recession of 25%, whereas non-smokers had 13%. P = 0.009 was obtained by unpaired independent sample t-test and it shows that the results obtained in this study were statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on the results found in this study, we conclude that smoking has its own effects on periodontium. However, further, researches should be conducted to establish the harmful effects of smoking on gingiva, thereby enhancing tobacco cessation to prevent further complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003199
Title: Comparison of perception of smile by orthodontists and general dental practitioners - A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: In the past, cephalometric-based diagnosis and treatment planning were considered to be the gold standard in orthodontic treatment and the outcome was to achieve ideal occlusion. At present, individuals opting for orthodontic treatment desire enhancing facial esthetics and a beautiful smile. Smile perception differs widely among professionals in dentistry. The general dental practitioner first attends individuals seeking orthodontic treatment, and his/her perception of smile may be different from that of an orthodontist. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the perception of smile by orthodontists and general dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: In this questionnaire study, 100 questionnaires were distributed among 50 orthodontists and 50 general dental practitioners. Their responses were obtained, data analyzed, and results evaluated. Results: This study showed that the mean scores given by orthodontists are lesser than that of the general dental practitioners. The factors that had an impact on smile by non-orthodontists include crowding of lower anterior and diastema of 3–4 mm. Among orthodontists, the various factors that had an impact include diastema, midline deviation, and reverse smile arc. Conclusion: Different parameters have impact on the smile perception. Diastema smile and reverse smile were regarded as unattractive and received the lowest score in this survey. The presence of midline shift was not considered unesthetic by non-orthodontists.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00003236
Title: Aconitine poisoning and its effects on various systems - A review
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aconitine is a major bioactive alkaloid which is extracted from monkshood (Aconitum napellus), a plant getting its name for its blue- to purple-colored flowers, that resembles a Monk’s hood.   Aconitine belongs to the Aconitum genus of Ranunculaceae family and is frequently employed in herbal medicines for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antirheumatic, and cardiotonic actions. Other names of Aconitine are aconite, monkshood, women’s bane, devil’s helmet, queen of poisons, and blue rocket. It has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Although it has pharmacological values, it can also induce severe arrhythmia and neurotoxicity. This kind of poisoning is called as aconite poisoning.   Aconitine poisoning accidents caused by misuse of herb, suicide, or homicide have been reported in recent years as one cause for fatal death. This study reveals more on the herb and its toxic nature. Along with the above, the review also aims to provide some convincing evidence for forensic experts to identify the unexplained death with postmortem examination since it cannot be detected through clinical and pathological studies.