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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003286
Title: Wound healing property of coconut milk on human dermal fibroblast
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the wound healing property of coconut milk on human dermal fibroblast. Objective: wound healing is a process in which the skin and the tissue under it repair themselves after injury coconut milk has such property. Materials and Methods: Maintenance of cell lines: L929 cell line was procured from the National Centre for Cell Science, Pune and maintained in the cell culture medium. Cell viability assay: Cell viability assay of coconut milk against INJURED L292 cell lines was performed by 3-(4, 5dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay where allantoin was used as positive control. Results: From the experiment following result was drawn. It was evident that coconut milk increased the cell viability percentage in injured L929 cell line as compared to the standard drug allantoin. Conclusions: Coconut milk is a favorite dish taken by the Indian population. The study confirms the wound healing property possessed by it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003262
Title: Xerostomia: A current update for practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Pallikaranai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Xerostomia is a subjective feeling of oral dryness, which should be defined by the objective measurement of saliva flow rate. Saliva plays an important protective role in the oral environment, and reductions in saliva quantity are known to increase the risk of oral diseases. Importantly, xerostomia or the perception of a dry mouth is now being recognized as an important risk factor for dental diseases. Furthermore, the subjective sensation of a dry mouth is a debilitating condition in itself that impacts on the quality of life of sufferers. With approximately 1 in 5 people reporting some form of dry mouth and an increasing prevalence in the elderly, it is important for clinicians to have a thorough understanding of this problem. The aim of this paper is to review some of literature relating to xerostomia to provide an evidence-based update for clinicians.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003263
Title: Correlation between hormonal level and depression in subjects with polycystic ovarian syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. MGR Educational and Research Institute, Deemed to be University, ACS Medical College and Hospital Campus, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the correlation between hormonal level and depression in subjects with the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Background: PCOS is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. It is one of the leading causes of poor fertility. PCOS is also associated with high levels of depression, which impact the quality of life and limit self-efficacy, there is a need to determine the correlation between hormonal imbalance and levels of depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) among PCOS sufferers. Methodology: This is a quasi-experimental study and the study setting was at Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. M. G. R. Educational and Research Institute. 30 subjects with PCOS showing features according to the Rotterdam’s criteria were recruited for the study. The correlation between hormonal levels and DAS was studied. Outcome measures used were DAS Scale and free testosterone levels. Participants were excluded if they had a diagnosis other than PCOS. Results: DAS had the strongest correlation with Free Testosterone hormone at P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The present study concluded that there is a strong correlation between the hormonal level and depression in subjects with PCOS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003264
Title: Polycystic ovarian syndrome - Interventions for the emerging public health challenge: A scoping review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. MGR Educational and Research Institute, Deemed to be University, Maduravoyal, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,
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Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous, multisystem endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is a common female endocrine disorder of prevalence ranging from 2.2% to 26% worldwide and 9.13% in Indian adolescents. This draws attention to the issue of early diagnosis in adolescent girls. Aim: This was a scoping review of the literature to study the various physiotherapy interventions currently adopted for the management of the condition in patient with PCOS. Methodology: A literature research was conducted with the following databases, PubMed, Cochrane Library, PEDro, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases, until April 2018. The articles included consisted of experimental studies, cohort studies, and review on PCOS. Results: PCOS is a major public health challenge and a silent non-communicable disease. Various physiotherapy interventions are used, and more randomized controlled trial is required to confirm these effects in a patient with PCOS. Conclusion: Awareness, early diagnosis, and management strategies which include diet, exercise intervention, and lifestyle modification help to reduce secondary complications associated with PCOS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003265
Title: Antioxidative stress potentials of Caesalpinia bonducella in cardiac tissue of nicotine-induced experimental rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Phytochemical-based antioxidants have been shown to have cardioprotective effects through reducing or reversing cellular damage. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of Caesalpinia bonducella leaf extract in cardiac tissue of nicotine-induced experimental rats. Experimental Design: Adult male Wistar rats were used and divided as Group I: Control; Group II: Nicotine-induced rats; Group III: Nicotine-induced rats treated with C. bonducella leaf extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, orally for 30 days); and Group IV: Control rats treated with C. bonducella (500 mg/kg body weight/day, orally for 30 days). At the end of the treatment, animals were subjected to analyze oxidative stress parameters such as lipid peroxides, hydrogen peroxides (H2 O2 ), hydroxyl radicals (*OH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Results: In nicotine-induced rats, cardiac marker enzyme LDH level was found to be significantly increased. Similarly, reactive oxygen species such as H2 O2 and *OH levels were also found to be raised compared to control. However, C. bonducella leaf ethanolic extract could effectively normalize the abnormal levels of these oxidative stress parameters altered by nicotine toxicity. This preliminary study concludes that C. bonducella has cardiac protective effect. Hence, it can be concluded that C. bonducella may serve as one of the therapeutic options for the management of cardiovascular diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003266
Title: Free radical scavenging potentials of Triphala: A medicinal herb used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Pallikaranai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Triphala is a commonly used Indian Ayurvedic formula made of the dried powder of three different fruits: Hence, its name: Tri (Three) and phala (Fruit). Amla (Emblica officinalis), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), and Bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica) are mixed in equal parts to make a proper Triphala. Aim: The study was designed to assess the effects of Triphala churna on the free radical scavenging activities such as hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide (NO) radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities in vitro. Results: The Triphala churna showed potent free radical scavenging activity in concentration-dependent manner. It exhibited potent H2 O2 scavenging property, and the IC50 was found to be 0.06 Mcg/ml, and for the standard drug, Vitamin C was 0.06 Mcg/ml. NO scavenging property of Triphala was found to be 0.06 Mcg/ml and for Vitamin C 0.09 Mcg/ml and superoxide anion of Vitamin C was found to be 0.053 Mcg/ml and 0.053 Mcg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that Triphala as a whole is to be expected to be more effective due to the combined activity of the individual components. Hence, it is concluded that Triphala may provide effective complementary or alternative treatment regimens for patients with suffering from health ailments.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003267
Title: Efficacy of self-designed positive expiratory pressure device on lung function in geriatric population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Cardiorespiratory Physiotherapy, School of Physiotherapy, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Aged population will be predicted to increase larger than the younger in 2050. Elderly people have more lung issues due to the aging associated with the other environmental factors. Many devices were used to improve lung compliance and thereby enhance the physical function. In this study, we designed the cost-effective and easily available positive expiratory pressure (PEP) device and implemented to the geriatric population to evaluate the lung compliance and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Aim of the Study: The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of self-designed bottle PEP device on lung function in geriatric population. Methods: Using random sampling method, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 subjects were selected for the study and they were made to undergo the training protocol using a resistance breathing in self-designed PEP device. The PEFR of lung is measured using peak flow meter as the outcome tool. Pre-test PEFR is measured with peak flow meter, and then, clients were instructed to undergo training protocol for 4 weeks every alternative days and post-test values are measured using peak flow meter. Results: The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. This study showed statistically significant improvement in the lung function (PEFR) in geriatric population (P < 0.001). Conclusion: From this study, the resistance breathing training using self-designed bottle PEP device in geriatric population statistically shown to improve lung function.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003268
Title: Correlation of Staheli’s foot index and central distance measurement for classifying normal and flat-arched foot posture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Foot posture varies in all age groups which may be due to foot alignment, aging, and muscle activity. The prevalence may be due to changes with age, gender, obesity, foot length, and the presence of other problems. In clinical practice, flat foot may be evaluated using clinical evaluation, radiological method, and footprint analysis method. Footprint analysis using a pedograph is a swift and cost-effective compare to other methods. Aim of the Study: This study aims to calculate the flat foot using central distance measurement and compared with Staheli’s foot index value to classify the normal and flat-arched foot posture in the young population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design with random sampling allocation from a population of college-going undergraduate final year students from our institution. The sample was randomly selected, after being stratified by age and gender, and a total of 94 subjects with sample size were included in this study, respectively. To study the footprint by pedograph, central distance measurement and the Staheli’s arch index were used separately from each participant. Results: After the data analysis shows that the normal right foot Staheli’s index with mean ± standard deviation (SD) is 0.586 ± 0.18 and central distance measurement is 3.70 ± 0.76, and the correlation of these two variables shows a negative correlation with r = −0.313. Similarly, normal left foot Staheli’s index and central distance variables mean ± SD are 0.614 ± 0.20 and 3.60 ± 0.72, respectively, negative correlation with r = −0.238. Participants with right sided mild flat foot of Staheli’s index and central distance measurement variables mean ± SD values are 1.18 ± 0.04 and 1.37 ± 0.37 respectively and shows stronger negative correlation of r = −0.948. Participants with left sided severe flat foot of Staheli’s index and central distance measurement variables mean ± SD values are 1.99 ± 0.32 and 0.58 ± 0.13 respectively with negative correlation of r = −0.357. Conclusion: The central distance measurement methods show easier and cost-effective method after compared with Staheli’s foot index value. Further, research is required to determine whether the central distance measurement variable provides the best reliable methods of measuring the foot arches in larger samples with varying ages.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003269
Title: Attitude of Indian parents toward behavior management techniques used in pediatric dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, 162 Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Behavior management is a comprehensive continuous methodology targeted to build relationship between child, parent, and doctor, aimed at eliminating fear and anxiety and ultimately building trust. An integral aspect of child dental care is to provide parents with previous information of behavior management techniques (BMTs). This delivery of information provides a mechanism by which parents can participate in treatment decisions with full understanding of factors related to their child’s proposed dental care and helps in reducing situational parental anxiety. Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine the parental attitudes toward BMTs currently used in pediatric dentistry. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the parental acceptance toward different BMTs used during dental treatment. Materials and Methods: The study involved selection of 50 parents who accompanied their children of age 3–6 years to Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals for their child’s first dental visit. Video depicting the BMTs was shown to the parents. Parents were asked to determine the acceptability of each management technique using a questionnaire. Results: Tell-show-do, positive reinforcement, and distraction were highly approved. Voice control, parent separation, and non-verbal communication were moderately approved. The hand-over-mouth, nitrous oxide sedation, conscious sedation, and general anesthesia were least approved. Conclusion: Most parents preferred the non-pharmacological techniques to pharmacological techniques of behavior management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003270
Title: Neuroprotective efficacy of withaferin a on aging mediated oxidative stress in striatum and Substantia nigra of wistar albino rat
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation:
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Background: The oxidative stress plays a crucial role in aging mediated patho-biology of neuro-degeneration and its associated behavioral impairment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Withaferin-A (WA) on aging induced oxidative stress in striatum (ST) and substantia nigra (SN) of aged rat brain. Materials and Methods: Animals were randomly separated into group I – young (3 months), group II – aged (24 months), group III – aged rat supplemented with WA (50mg/kg b.w once in a day for 30 days), and group IV – young rat supplemented with WA (50mg/kg b.w). After 30 days, through cervical dislocation, animals were sacrificed and the striatum and substantia nigra (mid brain) were dissected out from brain. Brain tissues were subjected to the estimation of enzymic antioxidants, levels of free radical production and apoptotic analyses (active caspase-3 and DAPI staining). Results: The data demonstrated reduced motor activity (p<0.001), increased Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p<0.001), reduced enzymic antioxidant defense system (p<0.001), increased active caspase-3 activity (p<0.001) and increased apoptotic nuclear morphology (p<0.001) in aged ST and SN compared to young, which was significantly reversed by the supplementation of WA. Conclusion: The evidence from the present data emphasizes that WA bears beneficial property in the protection of striatal and nigral neuron from aging mediated oxidative stress and its associated apoptosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003271
Title: Effects of drugs in mouthwash on the smoking-induced dental implant failure: A review literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The main aim of the article is to have a broader idea about the ill effects of smoking toward the prognosis of the dental implant and to know the consequences which will be very much useful to explain the smoking patients about their habit-based implant failure. This article also deals with effects of drugs in the mouth wash that are preventing the periodontal disease sequelae caused by smoking. Conclusion: On reviewing, smoking population are more vulnerable to the failure of implants than the non-smoking population, and interestingly, immediate fixture placement among the smoking population yielded a better result when compared to the late fixture placement to the same. Moreover, drugs in the mouth wash play a vital role in preventing habit-based implant failure to an extent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003272
Title: Vitamin E and C protects the liver from diclofenac‑induced histopathological changes and oxidative damage in experimental animals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study was done to show the changes in the liver following diclofenac treatment and to study the hepatoprotective effects of Vitamin E and C in diclofenac treated rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into four groups each six rats. Group-1: Control rats (n = 6), Group-2: Rats (n = 6) treated with diclofenac at dose of 50 mg/kg IM for 7 days, Group-3: Rats (n = 6) treated with Vitamin C at dose of 200 mg/kg orally followed by diclofenac at 50 mg/kg IM 2 h later for 7 days, and Group 4: Rats (n = 6) treated with Vitamin E at dose of 200 IU/kg orally followed by diclofenac at 50 mg/kg IM 2 h later for 7 days. Later it was analyzed with standard biomarkers, and it was histologically interpreted. Results: the results showed that there was an rapid increase in the levels of liver function test in diclofenac treated group, which was significantly decreased after pretreatment with vitamin E than vitamin c. The liver acinus showed centriacinar necrosis of hepatocytes after 7 days of diclofenac treatment, which was prevented by administration of Vitamin E and C. Discussion: Drug-induced liver injury possesses a major clinical problem and has become a leading cause of acute liver failure and transplantation. Overstressed liver compromises its detoxification role which may expose it to a variety of diseases and disorders. Diclofenac sodium is a phenylacetic acid derivative, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, dental pain, spondyloarthritis, acute migraine, gout attacks, and pain management in gall and renal stones. Although the exact mechanism by with diclofenac injuries liver is not understood, some studies explain the toxicity by affecting cytochrome P 450 leading to the production of active metabolites. Conclusion: hepatoprotective effects of Vitamin E were better compared to Vitamin C following treatment with NSAID. Hence, it may be necessary to administer Vitamin E in patients treated with diclofenac.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003273
Title: Dental implants induced maxillary sinusitis with oral and topical drug influence: A review literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, BIHER, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This review article aimed at finding the consequences of the dental implant associated with maxillary sinusitis and how to prevent from the occurrence of the maxillary sinusitis due loading of the dental implants in close proximity to the maxillary sinus. Conclusion: On reviewing, it is evident that the technique of the dental implant placement along with the accuracy is more important so that the occurrence of maxillary sinusitis iatrogenically during fixture loading can be best avoided. Drugs influence on removing the symptoms of sinusitis plays a significant role.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003274
Title: Patient maintanance in dental implants aided by drugs: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental implants are, without a doubt, the state-of-the-art in tooth replacement. Adding to it comes the possibility of implant complications and even failure. Pertaining to this, maintenance must be overtaken by the patient too, out of the clinic, and it is the practitioner’s duty to equip the patient, by all means, to take care of the implant unit and support long-term success rate. The drugs that are prescribed preoperatively and postoperatively play a vital role in the success of receiving dental implants in the edentulous mouth by the patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003275
Title: Dental implants – clinical protocol with drug intervention: A review literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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This article outlines the clinical procedures involved in the osseointegration of dental implants. Success of the osseointegration of dental implants can be achieved by following the treatment protocol precisely.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003276
Title: Use of alloplastic material in the extraction socket for implant placement - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharat University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Post-extraction ridge preservation using bone graft substitutes is a conservative technique to maintain the width of the alveolar ridge. Placement of an implant after tooth extraction becomes more common in implant dentistry nowadays. Aim: The aim of the study is to fill the whole socket with alloplast material, thus prevent the resorption of alveolar ridge, and aid in better placement of implant and fixed prosthesis for good stability of the region and normal function of the prosthesis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003277
Title: Use of tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite followed by dental implant - A systemic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Placement of implant into the extraction socket after tooth extraction is becoming more common in dentistry nowadays. Placement of an implant using tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) offers several advantages. The present review focuses on the clinical outcome of implant placement along with HA and TCP in 10 clinical cases. Aim: The study focuses on the success rates, stability of the implants, and amount of new bone formation in fresh extraction sockets augmented with HA and TCP grafts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003278
Title: Incidence of trismus following inferior alveolar nerve block given by undergraduate students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: This study aims to assess the opinion of dental students and interns about the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among final years and interns in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. A questionnaire containing two sections was formulated; the 1st section included questions of age, gender, and academic year, while the 2nd section included 10 questions related to IANB. Conclusion: It was concluded that IANB was the most frequently used technique during various surgical and endodontic procedures. About 52.9% of the interns and 42.7% of dental students had rarely faced IANB failure in clinics. Both the students and interns were aware of other alternative techniques, such as Gow–Gates and Akinosi techniques of mandibular block anesthesia although they did not practice these techniques much in their day-to-day practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003279
Title: Application of platelet-rich fibrin in oral and maxillofacial surgery - A short review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, 162 Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tami
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The process of healing underwent by hard and soft tissues is mediated by a wide range of intracellular as well as extracellular events that are maintained by the help of protein signals. It has been well known that platelets are responsible for the healing process through the formation of a blood clot and release of many growth factors that promote and maintain the process of wound healing. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a fibrin network in which mediators such as cytokines, essential growth factors, and cells are embedded and released after a certain period of time and serves as resorbable membrane. PRF is considered to be a healing biomaterial. Platelet concentrates have been used to improve healing of surgical wounds. The reason for the review was to discuss various new developments and practical applications of PRF in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003280
Title: Local anesthetics - A review on toxicity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, 162 Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tami
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Local anesthetics have an impressive history of efficacy and safety in medical and dental practice. They are routinely used, and the adverse effects are comparatively less frequent that providers may overlook many of their pharmacotherapeutic principles. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the essential aspects of local anesthetics and the toxic components of the same. Local anesthetic intoxication is a rare but catastrophic occurrence. This review also focuses on arriving at a protocol in handling toxicity crisis in dental practice

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003281
Title: Analysis of intrarenal arterial pattern of anterior division of renal artery in kidney donors using 64-slice computed tomography angiography
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Medical College Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The kidneys receive their most cranial branches and these are said to be permanent renal arteries. The permanent mesonephric arteries other than renal arteries are inferior phrenic, gonadal, and middle suprarenal arteries. Due to the continuous changing blood supply during the ascend of kidney, there is a high incidence of variations. In its course, renal artery divides into anterior and posterior division. Considering the division pattern, a common variant is when the main renal artery divides before it reaches the renal hilum. Aim: The aim of the present study is to analyze the different type of origin of the anterior division of renal artery in kidney donors. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 99 computed tomography (CT) angiogram images were analyzed in workstation. The study group was drawn from kidney donors who approached the scan center had no diseases related to kidney. Results: In the 99 donors (198 kidneys) of the present study, the anterior divisions of the renal artery show that Type 1 is more frequent in the right side (46 kidneys) than left (34 kidneys). On the right side, Type 1 is more frequent in female (51%). On the left side, type 1 is more frequent in female (37.7%). Conclusion: The CT angiographic study of renal arterial pattern is considered important for potential renal donors before renal transplantation and intrarenal surgeries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003282
Title: A critical review on food protein derived antihypertensive peptides
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Protein hydrolysates prepared from food sources are known to contain potent biologically active peptides. Bioactive peptides are highly used to treat a number of health related diseases. Antihypertensive activity is the most studied till date, with bioactive peptides derived from food protein reported to have an edge over synthetic drugs. Food protein-derived peptides with specific sequences inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme-I (ACE-I), the major target for controlling elevated blood pressure levels. Mostly, the peptides with competitive inhibitor mode would inhibit the ACE-I effectively than non- competitive and uncompetitive modes. The emerging technologies in drug discovery studies, facilitates the drug development process easier, even though the technologies provide a better platform for drug discovery, the more precise clinical and control measures are needed for effective release, and functioning at target sites of food-derived bioactive peptides in the human gastrointestinal system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003283
Title: Assessment of ramus notch depth in different skeletal malocclusion
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Mandibles which demonstrate backward and downward rotation during growth have been found to experience apposition beneath the gonial angle together with excessive resorption under the symphysis. Subjects with deep antegonial and ramal notching were reported to have disturbed condylar growth and have shown that the mandibular growth potential is diminished in subjects with pronounced antegonial and ramal notching. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess ramus notch depth (RN) in relationship with skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 60 pretreatment digital lateral cephalometric radiographs having skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III pattern and aged between 14 and 35 years. Results: There were no significant differences in the ramal notch depth between skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III. Conclusions: The RN is not affected by sagittal jaws relationship. The increased RN may be one of the signs of the long face syndrome without open bite. Deep ramus notch is associated with the mandibular retrusion or backward position of the ramus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003284
Title: Factors affecting polymerization of resin
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of the review is to help clinicians improve their polymerization process for resin-based composites. Polymerization depends on various factors such as activation source, composition of materials, temperature, filler, shade, and their reaction with oxygen. Knowledge of polymerization is essential to improve the clinical outcome and to alter and manipulate the resin to bring out the best clinical results. The failure of resin in most cases is due to inadequate polymerization leading to decreased strength and physical properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003285
Title: Cytotoxic activity of zingiberene on human gingival fibroblast cell lines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The main objective of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic activity of zingiberene (ZBN) on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cell lines. ZBN is a monocyclic compound that is the main component of ginger oil (Zingiber officinale), from which it gets its name. It is a compound that is used as a key ingredient of multiple oral cavity products such as toothpaste and mouthwash. It is utilized as a disease and infection resistant material and so is used to treat many oral cavity related problems. The condition in which the gingiva undergoes inflammation, swelling, and redness due to any infection or disease, is called as “Gingivitis.” In the case of gingivitis, the HGF, present in the gingiva, proliferate at a high rate which leads to the inflammation of the gums. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to quantify cell viability in response to ZBN. The results of MTT analysis showed that ZBN significantly decreased the viability of HGF cells, at higher concentrations compared to control value. However, a higher concentration of ZBN applications caused significant decreases of active cells as similar to that of positive control NaOCl when compared to HGF untreated control.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003287
Title: Action of interleukin-1 on fibroblasts
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Interleukins (IL) are a type of cytokine first thought to be expressed by leukocytes alone but have later been found to be produced by many other body cells. They play essential roles in the activation and differentiation of immune cells, as well as proliferation, maturation, migration, and adhesion. They also have pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. The primary function of IL is, therefore, to modulate growth, differentiation, and activation during inflammatory and immune responses. Fibroblasts have been studied extensively for their contribution to connective tissue destruction in diseases where the metabolism of extracellular matrix components plays an essential part in their pathogenesis. A considerable dissolution, especially of collagen fibrils, is a well-known characteristic of the periodontal ligament and the gingival connective tissue in microbial-induced periodontal disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003288
Title: Blood pressure and the pulse rate among the staffs and the students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Blood pressure is related to heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation. Hypertension is one of the major problems which leads to cardiovascular disease. Hence, the current study aimed to create awareness and to know whether staffs or students have more heart rate and blood pressure. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Students with the age of 18–22 years were included and the staffs with the age of 30–40 were also included in this study. A total of 60 participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consists of 30 students and Group 2 consists of 30 staffs. Those having asthma and cardiac problem were excluded from this study. Results: The systole of the students and the staffs was 121.3 ± 12.06 and 122 ± 15.53, respectively, and they were non-significant. The diastole of the students and the staffs was 83 ± 15.63 and 85 ± 12.69, respectively, and they were also non-significant. The heart rate of the students and the staffs was 88±12.73 and 82±8.95 and found significant. Conclusion: Blood pressure is more or less similar among both students and staffs and only variation seen in heart rate. This study may be helpful for them to maintain their heart rate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003289
Title: Lateral orbital access osteotomy - A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Dental Surgery, Government Peripheral Hospital, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Retrobulbar tumors of the orbit pose a great surgical challenge due to their complex inaccessible location. Access osteotomy is the key to access these deep-seated tumors. This case article describes a case of retrobulbar cavernous hemangioma of orbit excised through a lateral orbitotomy approach and emphasizes the need for multidisciplinary approach in the management of these inaccessible lesions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003290
Title: A review on Forsus appliance on skeletal Class II management
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India
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Forsus appliance is the most widely used rigid fixed functional appliance. It is used along with conventional fixed appliance and cannot be removed by the patient. Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device is very effective in correction of class II malocclusion by bringing about a combination of skeletal and dentoalveolar modifications. This appliance can lead mandibular growth and favourable dentoalveolar changes in patients at or before the peak phase of pubertal growth. On the other hand, mostly dental changes are encountered for the patients at post-pubertal period.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003291
Title: Management of dental caries in patients with dentinogenesis imperfecta
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, 162, Poonamalle High Road, Chennai–600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Dentinogenesis imperfecta, also known as hereditary opalescent dentin, is a dentin development disorder with autosomal dominant transmission that affects both the primary and permanent dentition. It is characterized by severe attrition of teeth which can be accelerated by the presence of dental caries. Dental caries in teeth affected by dentinogenesis imperfecta should be restored to decrease the breakdown and should aim at restoring the aesthetics and function. Restorations should be done frequently as the risk of restorations to wear off is higher. The restorative procedure should be aimed at covering the entire coronal part of the teeth and also to avoid any cervical fracture. Bleaching can be done to lighten the colour of discoloured teeth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003292
Title: Caesalpinia bonducella facilitates antioxidant enzymes in the brain of nicotine-induced rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Chennai–600 078, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Antioxidant enzymes have been reported to have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects through reducing or reversing cellular damage and by reducing the progression of neuronal cell loss. The present study was designed to assess the effects of Caesalpinia bonducella leaf ethanolic extract on antioxidant enzymes in brain of nicotine-induced rats. Experimental Design: Adult male Wistar rats were used and divided into four groups. Group I: Control; Group II: Nicotine-induced rats; Group III: Nicotine-induced rats treated with C. bonducella leaf extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, orally for 30 days); and Group IV: Control rats treated with C. bonducella (500 mg/kg body weight/day, orally for 30 days). At the end of the treatment, animals were subjected to antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). Results: Nicotine-induced rats showed decrease in the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR. However, oral effective dose of C. bonducella leaf extract (500 mg/kg b.wt) for 30 days increased the antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present findings that C. bonducella exhibit neuroprotective role through restoration antioxidant enzymes in the brain tissue of nicotine-induced rats. Hence, C. bonducella has neuroprotective role which can be used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003293
Title: A comparative study of ultrasound therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in reducing pain for temporomandibular joint disorder
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in reducing pain for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Background: The signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder involve the masticator muscles, TMJ. Patients suffering from temporomandibular joint disorder frequently have pain in the region of the temporal mandibular joint, joint clicking or crepitus, and restricted jaw movements. The etiology of temporal mandibular disorder is little understood but has been associated with several factors including malocclusion, trauma, emotional stress, and par functional habits (clenching and bruxism). Methodology: The study is a comparative study with the study set up at the outpatient physiotherapy department of ACS Medical College and Hospital. 30 subjects were randomly selected with the duration of 30 days in 10 sessions and with inclusion criteria of patient in both sexes of the age group of 20–40 years, and the individual presented with signs and symptoms of pain on masticator muscles and exclusion criteria with recent TMJ dislocation, hairy surface, and radiculopathy or other neurological deficits. Procedure: A total of 30 subjects with the inclusion criteria are selected and the study is explained to them before starting the procedure, the patients are said not to take any analgesic drugs or have any other form of therapy. Then, the subjects are randomly divided into two groups and visual analog scale (VAS) score of pain taken for each group before treatment, Group A: Received TENS for the duration of 15 min and Group B: Received continuous mode ultrasound at 3 MHz of the duration of 5 min. Then, after 4 weeks of treatment, the VAS score of pain is again taken. Results: There is a significant difference among the mean values of the VAS scorings of Group A and Group B (P > 0.1). The mean of Group B was greater than that of Group A. Conclusion: This study conclude that ultrasound therapy is more effective in reducing pain in temporomandibular joint disorder than TENS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003294
Title: Foramen ovale - A short review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, 162, Poonamalle High Road, Chennai – 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Foramen ovale is situated posterolateral to the upper end of the posterior border of lateral pterygoid plate of greater wing of sphenoid bone. The foramen transmits the mandibular nerve, the accessory meningeal artery, the lesser petrosal nerve, an emissary vein connecting the cavernous sinus with the pterygoid plexus of veins, and anterior trunk of the middle meningeal vein (occasionally). It serves as an important landmark for neurosurgeons in certain procedures as to gain access to trigeminal nerve. The anatomical variations in foramen ovale could be explained by developmental reasons. The purpose of this review is to describe in detail about normal anatomical and morphological variations in foramen ovale.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003295
Title: Awareness about oral cancer among tobacco users visiting a private dental hospital in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Counselling Psychology, University of Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge about oral cancer among tobacco users attending a private dental hospital in India. Background: Oral cancer is on rise due to increased consumption of tobacco products in India. Hence, the present study aimed to assess the awareness about oral cancers among tobacco users visiting a dental hospital in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: Interviewer administered questionnaire was prepared and distributed to 549 patients >20 years of age. In the first section, information regarding the demographic details such as age, gender, occupation, level of education, habits, and monthly income was gathered. It also included age of initiation of habit, number of years of the habit, amount spent, and reason for initiation of the habit, attempts to withdraw from the habit. The second section included Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence, and finally, readiness to quit the habit was evaluated. Results: Of 549 participants in this questionnaire survey, 59% have very low dependence and only 47.5% were highly ready to quit tobacco use. Conclusion: Government must monitor the implementation of tobacco control laws. Heavy smokers should be treated with nicotine replacement therapy based on their dependence level. Self-help programs can be introduced for helping them to quit the habit.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003296
Title: Angiolipoma of the cheek - A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of  Dental Surgery, Government Peripheral Hospital, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Lipomas are benign tumors of fatty tissue origin. Angiolipoma is an histological subtype of lipoma with prominent vascular component and accounts for 6–17% of all lipomas. They are classified clinically into infiltrating and non-infiltrating types and hence treated accordingly. This article briefs about a case of non-infiltrating angiolipoma of cheek treated by conservative surgical excision.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003297
Title: Knowledge and awareness of oral cancer among dental patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness among dental patients regarding knowledge of signs and symptoms of oral cancer and the risk factors associated with it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 patients visiting the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The instrument of the study was a set of 24 self-structured closed-ended questionnaire which was written in English and then translated into regional language (Tamil). Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test were done using IBM SPSS version 24.0 to analyze the results statistically. Results: Out of 300 participants, 64.6% had heard about oral cancer, 22.6% have not heard about of oral cancer, and the remaining 12.6% were unaware of what is oral cancer. 61.6% of the participants had low knowledge about oral cancer, 27% had average or medium knowledge of oral cancer, and only 11.3% had high knowledge. Respondents who are over 40 years of age were found to have a higher level of knowledge and awareness of oral cancer compared to those who were <40 years of age. No significant difference was observed between the gender, levels of education of the patient and their knowledge level. Conclusion: The knowledge about the early signs and symptoms and the risk factors of oral cancer among the study population was very low. The positive results were that 81.3% of the population correctly identified tobacco is a risk factor for oral cancer and 71% of the population responded that oral cancer screening should be mandatory.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003298
Title: Tobacco: An overview
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Pallikaranai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of our review is to have a complete description of tobacco right from its origin, prevalence, composition, health hazards, and preventive measures. Tobacco is a well-known etiology for causing precancerous and cancerous diseases, which kills nearly 7 million people worldwide every year. In this review, we would like to brief the patterns and prevalence of tobacco use, forms and composition of tobacco use, health hazards of tobacco use, and tobacco control and preventive measures. As a dentist, we play a pivotal role in educating smokers and help them to withdraw their habits. It is essential for all the dentist to undergo a mandatory tobacco cessation training program to motivate the tobacco users to abstain themselves from their habits and to help the community as a whole in reducing the global disease burden. Tobacco causes addiction, cancer of the lung, larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, kidney, urinary bladder and cervix, and myeloid leukemia. The oral effects of tobacco include discolorations of teeth and restorations, c/hairy tongue, reduced ability to taste and smell, smokers’ melanosis, smokers’ palate, dental caries, oral candidosis, increased failure rates for dental implants, periodontal disease, smokers’ white patch/leukoplakia, and oral cancer

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003299
Title: Relationship between the hand discomfort with the dimensions of hand and touch screen mobiles
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Hand and Ergonomics, School of Physiotherapy, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: With the development of communication technology, mobile phone seems to become an important personal device that everyone have. Texting is the most widely used mobile data service, with 74% of all mobile phone users worldwide being active users of it. Aim of the Study: This study aims to find the relationship between hand discomfort and dimensions of mobile phone and hand. Methods: A total of 150 college-going girls in the age group of 18–24 years were taken for this study by simple convenient sampling. A subjective questionnaire was used to collect details about mobile model name, years of usage, total hours of usage per day, and type of activity predominantly done using the touch screen mobile. After selecting the participants with the criteria’s, Cornell hand discomfort questionnaire was given to them who were having hand discomfort. Results: The result was analyzed using Pearson correlation between Cornell score and ratio of hand length and diagonal length and ratio of diagonal length and thumb length. There is a significant negative correlation between Cornell score and the ratio of hand length and mobile length (r = −0.225), and moderate positive correlation between Cornell score and the ratio of diagonal length and thumb length (r = 0.534). Conclusion: We concluded that the dimensions of touch screen mobile and hand are not major contributing factor in causing hand discomfort.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003300
Title: Assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes patients by Biothesiometer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the presence of diabetic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes patients. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of diabetic neuropathy by detecting vibration perception threshold by an instrument called Biothesiometer. Materials and Methods: Our study conducted with 150 type 2 diabetes patients in outpatient diabetic center, after getting ethics permission from the institutional ethics committee. Demographic parameters were analyzed by Microsoft Excel. Patients were analyzed for the vibration perception threshold using Biothesiometer. The results were documented as Grades I (normal), II (mild), III (moderate), and IV (severe). Results: Our study consists of a total of 150 diabetes patients, male and female were found to be 54% and 46%. The mean age of patient was 54.85 and duration of diabetes was 10.05 years. VPT score Grade I (Normal) 68.67% was documented in our study. A total of Grades II, III, and IV were 15.33%, 8%, and 8%. Gender-wise categorization results from male (35.8%) and female (26.44%) were affected. Age-wise categorization, male patients (35.8%) were more affected than women (26.08%). A total of 19.14% of Grades II, III, and IV were found in the age group of <50 years and a total of 36.88% of mild, moderate, and severe were found in the age group of >50 years. Conclusion: The result of our study concluded that diabetic neuropathy increases with increase in age and duration of diabetes. Vibration perception threshold detection was useful method to identify patients affected from diabetic neuropathy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003301
Title: Caries status among fishing community in Chennai – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai – 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices on oral hygiene status, dietary habits, and caries among fishing community in Kokilamedu, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, and also to assess the presence of caries among fishermen. Materials and Methods: A dental camp was organized at Kokilamedu village (near Mahabalipuram). A thorough examination of oral cavity was done and the caries status was assessed using decayed, filled, and missing tooth index. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to assess their knowledge on oral care, dietary, and lifestyle habits and to check whether they are in any way associated with their caries status. Results: Among the 65 participants examined (40 males and 25 females), 44 participants (67.69%) were diagnosed with caries. The prevalence of dental caries was more among the subjects belonging to age groups 21–40 years and below 20 years. Their main source of diet was found to be seafood and meat. 65% of the study population were found to crave for sweets and consumed more sweets. Not even a single person, in the study population, had the knowledge about fluoride and its role in preventing caries. Conclusion: From this study, it has been found that there is a high prevalence of caries among the fishing community and this can be correlated with their diet, which mainly includes seafood and sweets. Awareness has to be created about fluoride and its role in preventing caries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003302
Title: A review on benefits and toxicity of orlistat therapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Orlistat is an antiobesity drug, used for long-term treatment of weight loss in obese adults with a reduced calorie, low-fat diet, and exercise program. Recently, many studies are suggesting that more than the weight reduction, orlistat therapy confers with many other therapeutic benefits in diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, Polycystic Ovary syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver, and breast cancer. Simultaneously, there are studies that are reporting the toxicity such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and gastrointestinal side effects. It is important to consider the toxicity profile of the drug while prescribing orlistat, particularly in geriatrics, renal and liver disease patients. Furthermore, studies should be conducted to find the long-term side effects and other benefits of orlistat therapy

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003303
Title: Vitamin C as a therapeutic healing agent
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, PH Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India
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Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid, L-ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, and the antiscorbutic vitamin. Chemically, it is called L-xyloascorbic acid and L-threo-hex-2-uronic acid g-lactone. The very highest concentrations of Vitamin C are found in the adrenal and pituitary gland. High levels are also found in liver, leukocytes, brain, kidney, and pancreas. Most of the Vitamin C is found in liver and skeletal muscle due to their relative size to the rest of the body. Ascorbic acid is one of the important water-soluble vitamins. It is essential for collagen, carnitine, and neurotransmitters biosynthesis. Most plants and animals synthesize ascorbic acid for their own requirement. However, humans cannot synthesize ascorbic acid due to lack of an enzyme gulonolactone oxidase. Hence, ascorbic acid has to be supplemented mainly through fruits, vegetables, and tablets. Vitamin C is literally amazing in the wide variety of function it performs in healing the body and maintaining body health. Many health benefits have been attributed to ascorbic acid such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anticarcinogenic, immunomodulator, and prevent cold. The best-characterized function is the synthesis of collagen connective tissue protein at the level of hydroxylation of the prolyl and lysyl residues of procollagen. Vitamin C also plays important roles in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, carnitine, conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, tyrosine degradation, and metal ion metabolism. This vitamin also may enhance iron bioavailability. The role of ascorbic acid as a biological reducing agent may be linked to its prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003304
Title: Awareness of screen dependency disorder among information technology professionals – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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SDD is nothing but screen-related addictive behavior.SDD is closely related with internet addiction disorder, internet gaming disorder, some kind of social network site addiction, and many other internet addictions.Person who suffer from SDD tend to experience a variety of symptoms.The aim of this study is to determine the awareness of SDD among IT professionals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003305
Title: Assessing the level of knowledge regarding tonsillitis and its prevention among mothers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamalle High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils which is typically of rapid onset. It is a type of pharyngitis. Symptoms of tonsillitis include sore throat, fever, enlargement of tonsils, and trouble swallowing. Causes of tonsillitis are viral and bacterial infections. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the awareness of tonsillitis among mothers. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted among 100 mothers, the questionnaire comprising of 20 questions covering all aspects of tonsillitis such as its prevention, duration, awareness, and treatment. The survey was winded up after 2 weeks. At the end of the survey, all the data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: The results show that most of the mothers are aware about tonsillitis. Conclusion: The present study, thus, concluded that majority of the mother aware about tonsillitis and its clinical outcome occurred in children. This kind of awareness might reach an individual’s easily and cause awareness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003306
Title: Morphometric analysis of opticochiasmatic apparatus in South Indian human dry skulls
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to analyze the morphometry of opticochiasmatic apparatus in South Indian dry skulls. Introduction: Opticochiasmatic apparatus includes clinoid processes, sulcus chiasmaticus, hypophyseal fossa, and optic canal. Anatomically and clinically, this area is considered as very important and highly complicated area to approach in surgical conditions due to close association of anatomical structures such as optic and its vessels, hypophysis cerebri with infundibulum, cavernous sinuses. Materials and Methods: The study used dry skulls of South Indian populations and Vernier caliper for measurement. Results: According to the present study, the mean value of interanterior clinoid process and interposterior clinoid process is 18.25 mm and 12.53 mm. The mean of distances between anterior and posterior clinoid process on the right and left side is 13.41 mm and 13.55 mm, respectively. The mean of distance of the oblique axis between the right anterior clinoid and left posterior clinoid processes is 16.83 mm and for the distance of the oblique axis between the left anterior clinoid and right posterior clinoid process is 18.14 mm. The mean for the diameter of hypophyseal fossa and optic canal of the right and left side is 12.4 mm, 4.36 mm, and 4.31 mm, respectively. For the sulcus chiasmaticus is 14.92 mm. Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that the morphometric knowledge of opticochiasmatic apparatus is of utmost important in anthropological studies and operative surgeries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003307
Title: Awareness on eating disorder among young women - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of eating disorder among young women. Introduction: Eating disorder is a broad spectrum has both binge eating (Bulimia nervosa) and less eating (Anorexia nervosa), binge eating disorder due to various factors. The factors such as genetic predisposition, hormonal imbalance, fear of weight gaining, etc are the reasons for causing eating disorder. Especially, the conditions like anorexia nervosa are more likely seen in women than man. Materials and Methods: The present study conducted a survey among 100 young women. A questionnaire was prepared and circulated through an online link created with survey planet. The results were collected and analyzed. Results: The most important reason of eating disorder is due to lack of maintenance of healthy body weight, an obsessive fear of gaining weight or refusal to do so, and an unrealistic perception, or non-recognition of the seriousness, of current low body weight. Conclusion: The present study has concluded that based on the results obtained from the survey is the prevalence of eating related disorders were increased in young women due to various reasons and this is to be corrected through various creating awareness programs and clinical measures. The main reason for the eating disorder among women is worrying about their health conscious and body image and size. This kind of survey may be helpful for society to know better about this kind of disorders and it can reach easily to people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003308
Title: Rapid screening of addiction-associated drug among long-term prisoners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Iraq
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Background: Narcotic substance use and addiction are most important worldwide problems.It is a compulsive, out-of- control drug use, despite negative consequences, and which results in withdrawal upon termination of drug use. Addiction has great effects on the individual, and the accumulative outcome on humanity are astounding. The study aims to investigate the frequency of common 12 narcotic drugs using DOA-12 panel. Materials and Methods: A total of 194 urine samples are collected from 194 male (mean age±SD, 32.216±10.552) from Baghdad, Babylon, AlMuthana and Dhi QarGovernorates. The samples are collected from addicted males, residential at police station due to addiction, under permission and control of police officer. Urine were collected and directly immerse the multidrug device according to instruction of producer. Results: The results reveal high record of suspected addiction. Theyarein Babylon, 101 (52.06%), Baghdad 43(22.16%), Al-Muthana 28(14.43%) and Dhi Qar22(11.34%). The results showed that, the positive addiction is 49(25%) for seven types of drugs. Concerning the highly prevalence of narcotic drug, the results revealed that amphetamine (AMP) compile 36(73.48%) , 5(10.20%) for benzodiazepines (BZD), 3(6.12%),tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), 2(4.08%) phencyclidine (PCP) and 1(2.04%) for Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Buprenorphine (BUP) and methamphetamine (METH). AMP is common in all provinces except Dhi Qar while THC and BUP are recorded only in Dhi Qar. BZD abuse is in all provinces except Al-Muthana, TCA is only found in Babylon and Baghdad, PCP and METH appear only in Babylon. Conclusions: The current study conclude the age group (mean+SD) of drug addiction is the same among the different geographical regions and the amphetamine is hugely used among Babylon addicted people (commercially called CRYSTAL).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00003309
Title: Polymerase chain reaction-based meat species discrimination
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Hilla, Iraq
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Background: Meat adulteration is a common industrial falsification practice worldwide. The problem with meat adulteration may be falsification is crime itself, healthcare related like food-allergy and associated with religious believes problem like those of Muslims and Christian. PCR-base assays considered the gold standard for highly sensitive, cheap and accurate assay over the another techniques. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is preferable over nuclear DNA (nDNA) due to that is it only maternally disseminated and so it is more stable and there is no or low recombination. One of the most commonly used mtDNA genes in species discrimination were 16s rDNA and NADH dehydrogenase genes. Materials and Methods: The study includes designing species specific-primer pairs and 20 blood sample (10 blood samples from cow and 10 blood samples from donkey) and 18 cow-donkey mixed blood samples were submitted to extract mtDNA. Monoplex and multiplex PCR were performed for cow and donkey mtDNA and mixed mtDNA respectively. Results: The results revealed that the 16s rDNA primer pair is specific for only cow and NADH dehydrogenase 4 gene is specific only for donkey and the monoplex PCR were positive for all cow (879 bp for 16s rDNA amplicon) and positive for all donkey (573 bp for NADH dehydrogenase 4 amplicon). The multiplex PCR results were positive for all 18 mixed samples (879 bp and 573 bp for 16s rDNA amplicon and NADH dehydrogenase 4 amplicon respectively). The results of sequencing confirm the results of PCR. Conclusions: The current study conclude the usefulness of designed species specific-primer pair in discrimination of meat authenticity even at 10% of mixed samples.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003310
Title: Awareness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among school students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to check the awareness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among school students. Introduction: CPR is an emergency procedure that usually involves chest compressions as well as artificial ventilation to restore the intact brain function, after which blood circulation and normal respiration in a person is retained, during an emergency such as cardiac arrest. It is usually done when the person is having abnormal breathing or no breathing. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted among the school students of age groups 15–7 years. The survey was conducted to check the knowledge on CPR. The questionnaire was prepared and sent to the participants through the online link of survey planet and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: The survey is aimed at creating awareness on CPR among the participants. CPR serves as the foundation of advanced life support. CPR consists of the use of chest compressions and artificial ventilation to maintain the circulatory flow and oxygenation during cardiac arrest. The preparation, techniques, and the post-procedures of CPR are made clear, and through the survey, awareness is thereby created among the school students. Conclusion: CPR is one of the most important life-saving techniques and hence an updated knowledge is useful. Hence, this survey has created awareness on CPR among the South Indian population through the extensive questionnaire based on the procedures and techniques of CPR.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003311
Title: Awareness of orthodontic treatment among law college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to survey the awareness of orthodontic treatment among law college students. Objective: The objective of this study is to survey the law college students about their awareness of orthodontic treatment. Introduction: In several nations, massive numbers of young aged teams square measure unaware concerning the causes, prevalence, and hindrance of most oral diseases. One in every of the foremost common dental issues besides tooth decay, odontology, and animal tissue diseases, is upset. Upset is often outlined as associate occlusion with malrelationship between the arches in any of the planes or anomalies in tooth position on the far side the conventional limits square measure thought-about one in every of the foremost common oral diseases. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 200 law college students studying at Saveetha Law College in Chennai. A questionnaire was prepared consisting of 10 questions, and it was distributed to each of them, and they were evaluated individually. The results of the study were calculated statistically analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Results: The overall results of the study indicated that not >85% of the law college students are aware of the orthodontic treatment and their outcomes in changing their esthetic appearance. Conclusion: Majority of the topics within the study were aware of the term orthodontics. Close to regarding share of the topics took treatment in their young cohort; however, still, a lot of awareness needs to be generated among adult patients relating to the treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003312
Title: Recent advancements in archwires – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The main aim of this review is to provide a detail description about the new advancements in orthodontic archwires and their unique characteristic features. Orthodontic treatment is one of the oldest treatments which has undergone a drastic transformation in the past few decades. Although patients cooperate better, they present a different set of challenges for the orthodontists. Metallic archwires are considered to be less esthetically appealing. It became the primary concern for most of the patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Due to increased demand for esthetic wire, there were many advancements and modifications in conventional archwires. Recent advances in orthodontic wire alloys were resulted in a varied array of wires that exhibit a wide spectrum of properties. This review complies vary advancements in archwires. This review is done to update the current knowledge and literature about the recent advancement in archwires which serves as a tool for further research studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003313
Title: Root resorption following orthodontic treatment – A short review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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All permanent teeth may show microscopic amounts of root resorption that is clinically insignificant and radiographically undetected. Root resorption is a condition associated with either a physiologic or a pathologic process resulting in a loss of dentin, cementum, and/or bone. Permanent teeth have the potential to clinically undergo significant external root resorption when affected by several stimuli. Root resorption is considered as one of the complications which can be caused due to orthodontic treatment. However, there is a lot of ambiguity regarding how much resorption is actually taking place. Various studies for the last 40–50 years which have given various contradictory statements on root resorption. Some of them have gone to 2–5% of resorption have been reported. There are many reasons which have been given for root resorption happening right from tooth movement and the amount of force applied. This article is a review of various aspects of root resorption following orthodontic treatment. This study aims at the various aspects of root resorption following orthodontic treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003314
Title: Intrapulpal anesthesia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of this review is to provide information about newer anesthetic technique, This review is done to update current knowledge about intrapulpal anesthesia. During endodontic treatment, effective anesthesia of any vital pulpal tissue present in the pulp chamber or root canals is important for patient’s cooperation and to maintain the comfort level during treatment. Hence, the deposition of local anesthetic solution directly into the pulp chamber provides effective anesthesia for extirpation, instrumentation, and debridement of pulpal tissues. Profound pulpal anesthesia in endodontics is a doorway to successful root canal treatment. This article emphasizes on various anesthetic strategies which an endodontist can adopt in treating painful pulps

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003315
Title: Oral health attitudes, behavior, and knowledge among 10–15 year-old school children in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A good oral health is the state of mouth free of any disease affecting the oral cavity and its surrounding structures. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess oral health attitudes, behavior, and knowledge among 10–15-year-old school children in Chennai. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 176 10–15-year-old school children in Chennai. A cluster sampling methodology was used. Each school which was selected through simple random sampling was considered a cluster. New clusters were included until the desired sample size was achieved. A closed-ended, a pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the oral health attitudes, behavior, and knowledge among the study subjects. Results: The study was done among school students in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The study comprised 176 school students (96 female and 80 male). About 92% of the study participants were aware that it is necessary to brush the teeth. 51% of the subjects said they know different techniques of brushing teeth. 90% of the subjects were not aware of what halitosis is. 47% of the subjects said that they visit the dentist once a year. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of the surveyed children with regard to oral health was found to be satisfactory. Hence, there is a need for regular oral health education of the children, as well as their parents and school teachers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003317
Title: A knowledge, attitude, and practices survey on periodontal awareness and knowledge among the orthodontic patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aims: The aim of this study was to provide baseline data on periodontal awareness and health knowledge and to assess the patterns of dental attendance behaviors among the patients under orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A 100 questionnaires were distributed among adults undergoing orthodontic treatment to evaluate the knowledge and awareness on periodontal health. Results: A total of 100 questionnaires were completed and statistically analyzed. About one-quarter of adults reported “gum bleeding” on brushing, but more subjects (40.4%) believed that they had periodontal disease. Furthermore, 47% of the participants thought that they had a “rough tooth surface,” 16% had “gum irritation,” and 25% had “bad breath.” The majority of adults incorrectly defined the meaning of dental plaque and did not know its role in the etiology of gingival disease. Conversely, the majority of participants (60.8%) were aware that gingival bleeding on brushing indicated the presence of periodontal disease that can be prevented by brushing and flossing (63.4%), mainly before going to bed (73.9%). The overwhelming majority of subjects (81.4%) were irregular attenders. “Hard to get an appointment” and “no time available” were found to be the common barriers for regular orthodontic attendance. Most people think that orthodontic treatment is the cause for poor oral hygiene. Conclusion: Knowledge and awareness concerning periodontal disease are still poor in Jordan; therefore, more dental health education is needed to improve oral health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003318
Title: Hormonal imbalance due to polycystic ovarian syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The polycystic ovary syndrome is a hormonal disorder caused by an imbalance in the pituitary-hypothalamic-ovarian system that is defined by a symptom of irregular menstrual cycle, testosterone excess, weight gain, acne, hair thinning on the head, increased facial, arm and leg hair, insulin resistance, and sugar cravings.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003319
Title: A review of perioperative corticosteroid use in oral and maxillofacial surgery
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are often recommended to use corticosteroids during and after third molar extraction and other dentoalveolar surgical procedures to reduce postsurgical edema, but recommendations are rarely accompanied by the guidance regarding the type of steroid, dosage, or duration of administration. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the literature was made. The primary predictor variable was CS administration, and the outcome variables were edema, pain, and infection. A meta-analysis was performed. The risk of other side effects was evaluated through a simple review. Results: Recent data suggest that perioperative corticosteroid regimens should be administered in higher doses and for longer durations than recommended in the past and should be started before surgery for optimum benefit. Conclusions: Based on literature review, interim recommendations for the use of corticosteroids are proposed, including dosages and regimens that appear rational for oral, intramuscular, or intravenous corticosteroid administration before and after extractions and other dentoalveolar surgery. These largely empiric recommendations might require adjustment when evidence-based data become available in future studies. There is a great need for well-designed clinical research to further evaluate protocols for corticosteroid use.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003320
Title: Antibiotics and oral contraceptives in dental practices
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Until recently, dentists have been advised to warn women taking the combined oral contraceptive pill of the routine need to use additional contraceptive measures while taking courses of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Recent guidance relating to this issue has changed and dentists may not be aware of this. This paper reminds dentists of the previous guidelines and related evidence on the pharmacokinetics of hormonal contraception.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00003321
Title: DNA translation
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The process of translation can be seen as the decoding of instructions for making proteins, involving messenger RNA in transcription as well as transfer RNA. The genes in DNA encode protein molecules, which are the “workhorses” of the cell, carrying out all the functions necessary for life. For example, enzymes, including those that metabolize nutrients and synthesize new cellular constituents, as well as DNA polymerases and other enzymes that make the copies of DNA during cell division, are all proteins. In the simplest sense, expressing a gene means manufacturing its corresponding protein, and this multilayered process has two major steps.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003322
Title: Ocular anatomy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The eye optics, size, and distribution of ganglion cells in the retina of the gray whale were studied. The hemispheric retina is centered on the quasi-spherical lens which makes it equally possible to create visual images at any part of the retina. Ganglion cell size varied from 14 to 74 m, mostly 20 to 40 m, mean 31 m. Ganglion cells concentrated at two spots of the highest density in the nasal and temporal quadrants, 26–28 mm (65–70) from the optic disk. Mean peak cell densities were 130 and 183 cells/mm2 in the nasal and temporal areas, respectively. With a posterior nodal distance of 23 mm (underwater), this corresponds to 21 and 29 cells/deg2 , which provides retinal resolution of about 13 in the laterocaudal visual field (nasal retinal area) and 11 in the rostral visual field (temporal retinal area).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003359
Title: Incidence of foramen of Huschke in dry human adult skulls
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of foramen of Huschke in dry human adult skulls. Materials and Methods: The study was made on 60 dry human adult skulls that are collected from the Department of Anatomy in Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. The present study is based on direct observation of the dry human adult skulls in the tympanic part of temporal bone for the presence of the foramen. The observation was also made if the foramen is present unilaterally or bilaterally. Estimation of the foramen of Huschke is not been done based on sex difference. Results: The observation of 60 dry adult human skulls showed the presence of foramen of Huschke in just 5% of skulls, which obviously shows that the presence of this foramen is very rare. Of 120 temporal bones, only five of these foramens were observed. Of these 60 skulls, two skulls showed the presence of foramen of Huschke bilaterally. One skull showed the presence of foramen of Hushke unilaterally. The presence of foramen of Huschke with sex difference is not estimated. Conclusion: A knowledge about foramen of Huschke or foramen tympanicum may be useful in treating patients with TMJ herniation.