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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003423
Title: Cytotoxic effect of Aloe vera and neem herbal formulation- assisted silver nanoparticles
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nanobiomedicina Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxic effects of Aloe vera and neem herbal formulation using silver nanoparticles. Introduction: The changing lifestyle as well as the food habits has resulted in the introduction of numerous diseases in the past few decades. Moreover, by the passing day, we are becoming more aware about the drug resistance that is developed in most of the disease-causing pathogens. In this scenario, bringing more herbal medicines into the market is the only way to improve the situation. Moreover, neem and A. vera already being proven about its antioxidant as well as many other medicinal properties were taken to check the cytotoxic effects along with the help of silver nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: In this study we have collected Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using an herbal formulation. Finally the cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles investigated using brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: The silver nanoparticles can be synthesized using herbal formulation using A. vera and A. indica. Conclusion: The silver nanoparticles synthesized using herbal formulation of A. vera and A. indica have cytotoxic effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003430
Title: In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of isolated fraction one from Plectranthus amboinicus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Velappanchavadi, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Postprandial hyperglycemia is a prime characteristic of diabetes mellitus and has been a focus in the therapy for diabetes. The α‑amylase and α‑glucosidase inhibitors offer an effective technique to lower levels of postprandial hyperglycemia by means of control of starch breakdown. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro α‑amylase and α‑glucosidase inhibitory activity of isolated fraction one from the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of P. amboinicus leaves was subjected to thin‑ layer and column chromatography. Fractions were eluted with hexane and ethyl acetate in the ratio of 8:2. The isolated fraction one was subjected to α‑amylase and α‑glucosidase inhibition assays. Results: Different concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 µg/ml) of isolated fraction one and acarbose were subjected individually to α‑amylase and α‑glucosidase inhibitory assay and their absorbance was measured at 540 and 405 nm using a colorimeter. Isolated fraction one showed appreciable α‑amylase and α‑glucosidase inhibitory potential in a dose‑dependent manner. The maximum percentage of inhibition was observed (75.68 ± 0.97) in alpha‑amylase and (67.35 ± 1.10) in alpha‑glucosidase enzymes at a concentration of 500 µg/ml of isolated fraction one. The standard drug acarbose was shown the maximum percentage of inhibition in alpha‑amylase (8179% ± 0.48%) and (79.88 ± 0.33) in alpha‑glucosidase at a concentration of 500 μg/ml. Conclusion: The results produced by isolated fraction one were comparable to that of acarbose – an antidiabetic drug. These results indicated that isolated fraction one exerted potent inhibitory effects against α‑amylase and α‑glucosidase which can be considered as a potential candidate for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further, the structure of the compound will be determined later based on the spectral data.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003391
Title: Pigment-producing bacteria in periodontal disease
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobic rods are found on mucosal surfaces as indigenous flora. With mucosal damage due to disease, trauma, or surgery, these organisms may invade tissues and set up infection. Pigmented anaerobes are found in all types of infections including such serious infections as bacteremia, endocarditis, intracranial abscess, necrotizing pneumonia, and necrotizing fasciitis, generally as part of a mixed infecting flora, and they play a key role in experimental mixed infections. They dominate or are prominent in infections involving organisms originating in the oropharynx, such as central nervous system, head and neck, dental, and pleuropulmonary infections. Therapy of infections involving pigmented anaerobes includes surgery plus antimicrobial agents; a significant percentage of strains produce β-lactamase. Much remains to be done to determine the relative importance of the various taxa of black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes and the different virulence factors produced by them.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003392
Title: Topical medications for orofacial neuropathic pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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There is an ever-increasing number of medications that can be used to help patients with neuropathic-based oral and perioral pain problems. Advancements in the delivery of medications include the development of vehicles (Pluronic lecithin organogel) that can penetrate the mucosa and cutaneous tissues, carrying active medication to the affected site.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003393
Title: Prevalence of dental caries in fluorinated school children in Dharmapuri district aged 12–18 years
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental fluorosis develops due to excess fluoride intake >1 ppm. Fluoride is used to prevent dental caries as fluoride combines with calcium to form calcium fluorapatite crystals which resist acid dissolvent. However, dental caries is found among the patients who are having dental fluorosis. The present research aims to study the prevalence of dental caries among individuals who are having dental fluorosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 school children who are exposed to fluoride drinking water in endemic areas of Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu, India. All children were examined for dental caries using Dean’s fluorosis index and decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Results: The study establishes that in Group 1 among 17 children with questionable dental fluorosis 9 (52.9%) have dental caries. In Group II among 22 children with very mild dental fluorosis 10 (45.4%) have dental caries. In Group III among 27 children with mild dental fluorosis 17 (62.9%) have dental caries. In Group IV among 38 children with moderate dental fluorosis 29 (76.3%) have dental caries. In Group V among 36 children with severe dental fluorosis 30 (83.3%) have dental caries. Conclusion: The research concludes that dental caries is present in fluorosis teeth may be due to hypocalcification of fluorosis tooth due to the incorporation of calcium.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003394
Title: A randomized study of 4% articaine versus 2% lignocaine for surgical removal of the third molar
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Lignocaine was first introduced in 1918 whereas articaine entered clinical use in 1976 as a unique local anesthetic which contains an ester and a thiophene group. Hence, the clinical trial has been designed to analyze the efficacy and safety of 4% articaine HCl with 2% lignocaine HCl in mandibular block anesthesia. Materials and Methods: The study includes 50 patients undergoing surgical removal of the impacted mandibular third molar in the age group of 18–30 years. 25 patients received 4% articaine HCl with 1:10000 epinephrine and another 25 received 2% lignocaine HCl with 1:10000 epinephrine. Time of infection, the onset of anesthesia, the volume of anesthesia infected and duration of anesthesia were recorded. Efficacy was determined using the VAS (Visual Analog Scale). Results: Results were the mean time of onset of anesthesia 3.16 ± 0.26 min in 4% articaine group and 3.20 ± 0.22 min in 2% lignocaine group. Articaine group experienced a significant prolonged period of anesthesia and duration of action (280–352 min), respectively, as compared to those who had received lignocaine which has 230–198 min, respectively. There was no difference in pain experience in two groups. Conclusion: Nearly 4% articaine more potent and has a longer duration of action and better post-operative analgesia when compared to 2% lignocaine and could be considered as an alternative to lignocaine in clinical practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003395
Title: Wound closure activity of Emblica officinalis extract in comparison with methylsulfonylmethane
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Wounds are the result of injuries to the skin that causes disturbances or problems to other soft tissues. Healing of a wound is a complex and lengthy process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. Various plant products have been used in wound healing since premodern era. It has been found that herbal extracts help in blood clotting, fight against infections, and help in accelerating wound healing process. Emblica officinalis, also known as Indian gooseberry or amla, is a deciduous tree of the family Phyllanthaceae. Here, in this study, the effect of oral and topical application of E. officinalis extract on excision

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003396
Title: Evaluation of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in breast cancer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Breast cancer is one among the most pervasive cancer of women and has a major role in death rate in relation to cancer. Due to breast cancer, there is about 60% mortality in the developing countries. The current study aimed to establish the association of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) level in breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Patients were selected from those attending the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and divided into two groups as follows: Group I consists of normal healthy individuals and Group II consists of known breast cancer patients. Each group contains 30 participants. Individuals with the age group of 30–60 years, females with regular menstrual cycle were included in the study. Individuals with endocrine disorder or irregular menstrual cycle or polycystic ovary syndrome were excluded from this study. Results: All the data were analyzed using the SPSS package. Paired sample t-test analysis was done to find out significant differences between the two groups. All the tests were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. Conclusion: The present study observed to have a higher serum FSH and LH levels in breast cancer patients. Hence, FSH and LH may have a role on breast cancer progression. Thus, advance studies are required to establish the accurate mechanism at the molecular level.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00003397
Title: Preliminary phytochemical screening of Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract – A Siddha drug
Category: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study was to screen the phytochemicals present in the Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract- a siddha formulated drug used for various ailments. Materials and Methods: S. anacardium nut milk extract was subjected to screening of various plant constituents. Results: S. anacardium nut milk extract contains alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, phenols, triterpenoids, and phytosterols. Conclusion: These phytochemicals may be responsible for curing various diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003398
Title: Hepatoregenerative effects of honey essence of paliasa on the liver of rat induced with carbon tetrachloride
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Faculty of Pharmacy, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km. 10, Tamalanrea Indah, Tamalanrea, Makassar, 90245, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia
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Background: Paliasa (Kleinhovia hospita L.) and honey have widely been used to cure hepatitis. This study aimed to determine the effects of honey essence of paliasa (HEP) as a hepatoregenerator. Materials and Methods: Bees were given an additional feed of mixed syrup and paliasa stew with a respective concentration of 0% (HEP-A), 20% (HEP -B), 40% (HEP -C), and 60% (HEP-D), with a ratio of 3:2. 32 rats divided into eight groups were given CCl4 intraperitoneally with a dose of 1 ml/kg of body weight. After 24 h, every group was given the respective treatment of HEP-A, HEP-B, HEP-C, HEP-D, and honey (X) from market, paliasa stew, mixture of the same amount of honey solution (X) as paliasa stew, and distilled water orally at a dose of 1 g/kg of body weight. 1 day after treatment, blood was taken from the rats and serum was separated for serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase tests, while the livers of rats were taken for histopathological examination. Results: The results of the research showed that 2-week treatment with HEP had an ability as hepatoregenerator. HEP produced by bees fed a mixture of syrup and stew of paliasa leaves 20% 3: 2 (HEP-B) was able to return the hepatocyte cell structure of the rats induced with carbon tetrachloride to normal. Conclusion: The HEP has better hepatoregenerative effects than paliasa, honey from the market, and mixtures of paliasa and honey.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003399
Title: The correlation of plasma concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid with tactile sensory sensitivity and short sensory profile score in autistic Indonesian children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Laboratory of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Jalan Veteran Malang, East Java, Indonesia
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Aim: This research was aimed to prove whether there is any relationship between plasma concentration of gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA) and tactile sensory sensitivity and the short sensory profile (SSP) score in autistic Indonesian children. Methods: The participants of this research were 68 autistic children. The blood plasma of all participants was taken to determine the plasma concentration of GABA. The sensory sensitivity was examined using a touch assessment test and SSP questionnaire. All data were analyzed using a Chi-square test. Results: The results showed that autistic children had plasma GABA concentrations of >0.409 µmol/L generally. However, there was no correlation shown between plasma concentration of GABA and tactile sensory sensitivity and SSP score in this research generally. Conclusion: This study can be concluded that there was a correlation between plasma concentration of GABA and tactile sensory.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003400
Title: Upregulation of alpha-1 receptor gene expression in benign prostate hyperplasia patients receiving long-term alpha-blocker therapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia
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Background: Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common degenerative disease in elderly men, with the alpha-1 blocker as the primary treatment. Long-term use of alpha-1 blocker, however, commonly leads to upregulation of alpha receptors and reduces the efficacy of treatment. Aim: This study aimed to find mRNA expression markers of upregulation and prostate contractility in BPH patients with a history of long-term alpha-1 blocker therapy. Methods: Prostate chips were obtained from 30 BPH patients with either no history of tamsulosin therapy, a history of tamsulosin 0.4 mg treatment therapy for 1 month and a history of tamsulosin 0.4 mg treatment therapy for >6 months with a histopathology result showing BPH. Organ bath instruments were used to measure isometric contractions of prostate smooth muscle, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the number of adrenergic-α1 receptors. Results: Tamsulosin 0.4 mg therapy for 1 month decreased prostate smooth muscle contractility and significantly decreased mRNA expression compared to the group with no therapy. Tamsulosin 0.4 mg therapy for >6 months significantly increased mRNA expression and prostate smooth muscle contractility compared to the group with tamsulosin 0.4 mg therapy for 1 month. There were no significant differences in mRNA expression and prostate contractility in a group with 6 months of tamsulosin therapy compared to the group without tamsulosin therapy. Conclusion: Tamsulosin 0.4 mg therapy for >6 months led to upregulation marked by significantly increased in mRNA expression and prostate smooth muscle contractility.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003401
Title: The effect of long-term treatment with an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist on contractility of smooth muscle, mRNA, calcium level, and protein kinase C alpha enzyme of prostate in men with beni
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, Indonesia
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Aim: Find upregulation markers (i.e., mRNA expression, protein kinase C [PKC]-alpha enzyme level, prostate calcium level, and prostate contractility) in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with a history of long-term alpha-1 blocker (tamsulosin) therapy. Materials and Methods: Samples were taken from prostate chips in 30 BPH patients, which were divided into three groups: Without therapy, history of tamsulosin 0.4 mg therapy for 1 month, and >6 months, respectively. This study used organ baths to measure the prostate smooth muscle isometrical contractility and real-time polymerase chain reaction to count the number of mRNA α1-adrenergic receptors. Calcium levels were measured using confocal laser scanning; PKC-alpha enzymes were measured using ELISA. Results: Tamsulosin 0.4 mg therapy for 1 month decrease mRNA expression, PKC-alpha enzyme, prostate calcium level, and prostate contractility (significant in mRNA expression and PKC-alpha enzyme) compared to no therapy. Meanwhile, usage of tamsulosin 0.4 for >6 months significantly increased mRNA expression, PKC-alpha enzyme, prostate calcium level, and prostate contractility compared to therapy with tamsulosin 0.4 mg for a month. There were no significant differences in mRNA expression, PKC-alpha enzyme, prostate calcium level, and prostate contractility in the group using tamsulosin therapy for >6 months compared to the group without therapy. Conclusions: Tamsulosin 0.4 mg therapy for >6 months cause upregulation, shown by significant increases in mRNA expression, PKC-alpha enzyme, prostate calcium level, and prostate contractility.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003402
Title: Characteristics and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin fraction in red dragon fruit peels (Hylocereus polyrhizus) extract
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia
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Background: Dragon fruit has been reported for its high antiradical activities with the presence of phenolic compounds. Some significant characteristics of plant pigment are betacyanin, anthocyanins, and other flavonoids. This study aimed to determine the anthocyanin components, antioxidant activity, and Total phenolic content (TPC) of anthocyanin from the extract of red dragon fruit peels. Materials and Methods: The research was used methanol extraction, followed by other analyses, and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) to obtain the fractionated components. Anthocyanins were analyzed with a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) instrument to obtain cyanidin, malvidin, and delphinidin. Total phenolic content of anthocyanin was measured with Folin-Ciocaltau. Results: Antioxidant activity revealed 56.68% (crude extract), 36.91% (F3), and 36.24% (F9). This study used TLC followed by column chromatography for better separation of phenolics. Among the three samples, the highest radical scavenging activity demonstrated by lethal concentration50 was the crude extract, followed by F3 and F9. The LC-MS assay identified the single types of phenolic compounds such as cyaniding (31.63%), malvidin (7.37%), and delphinidin (7.53%). Conclusions: Red dragon fruit peel extract (Hylocereus polyrhizus) containing phytochemical compounds is an effective antioxidant from natural plant sources, with anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammation properties, and may help with other degenerative disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003403
Title: Association of angiopoietin-2 level and vascular endothelial growth factor level with dengue infection severity in children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia.
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Aim: This study aimed to determine the association of angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level with dengue infection severity in children. Methods: This study was observational method with cross-sectional study in 108 infected dengue children in M. Djamil Hospital, Padang. Level of ANGPT-2 and VEGF was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Human ANGPT-2 and VEGF ELISA Kit, Ray Biotech. Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive and comparative analyses. Results: The results showed an increase in ANGPT-2 levels according to the severity of the disease in pediatric patients with dengue infection, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). While VEGF levels did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusion: Angiopoietin-2 plays a significant role in plasma leakage in patients with dengue virus infection. Levels of angiopoietin-2 significantly increased along with the severity of the disease. The increasing of VEGF has no association with the severity of dengue virus infection.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003404
Title: Assessment of the outer membrane protein profile of Vibrio parahaemolyticus using the sodium dodecyl sulfate‑polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: iology Education Programe, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Pattimura University, Indonesia.
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Aims: The bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes gastroenteritis in humans after the consumption of raw seafood. Therefore, a rapid detection system that can identify the presence of V. parahaemolyticus accurately is necessary. One potential detection system under development is based on antibodies. This study aimed to map the outer membrane protein profile of V. parahaemolyticus. Methods and Results: These outer membrane proteins (OMP) may be antigenic and can be used to produce antibodies. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method was used to map the outer membrane protein profile of V. parahaemolyticus. The results of the analysis using SDS-PAGE to assess the OMP of V. parahaemolyticus show that the molecular weight (MW) of the major polypeptide band was in the range of 10–100 kDa. Overall, there were 31 bands observed, of which 11 were major bands with MW of 72, 67, 58, 44, 42, 40, 38, 37, and 10 kDa. Conclusion, Significance, and Impact of Study: The identified proteins have antigenic properties and can be used to produce antibodies for a rapid detection system (rapid test) to detect the presence of V. parahaemolyticus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003405
Title: Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera and Marrubium vulgare leaf aqueous extracts in BALB/c mice infected with Salmonella typhimurium
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia
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Aim: The current study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera and Marrubium vulgare leaf aqueous extracts as single and as a combination in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice. The immunomodulatory effect was evaluated as the curing agent (in mice infected with S. typhimurium) and as protective agent (in mice infected with S. typhimurium at the end of treatment period). Methods: A total of 50 female BALB/c mice, aged 7–9 weeks, were divided into 10 groups: Positive control (C+), normal mice (C−), protective groups (P1, P2, and P3), and cure groups (P4, P5, P6, P7, and P8). Different concentrations (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight [BW]) of each plant extract were used as single and a combination for 14 days. At the end of the treatment period, all mice were sectioned and mice splenocytes were isolated. Immunomodulatory markers were checked using flow cytometry which include CD4+ CD8+ , CD4+ CD62L+ , CD8+ CD62L+ , CD8+ interleukin (IL)-17+ , and CD8+ interferon-gamma (IFN)-γ+ . Results: The results showed that M. oleifera leaf aqueous extract had potential immunomodulatory effects as protective and curing agent. The single treatment of M. oleifera as curing agent (P4) leading to a significant decrease in the double positive (DP) (CD4+ CD8+ ) T cells activation and production of IL-17 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, the level of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was increased significantly (P < 0.05) after the single treatment with M. oleifera as protective agent (P1). Combination treatment of M. oleifera and M. vulgare as cure agent also showed immunomodulatory effect in the level of DP T cells. Whereas protective treatment with the combined extracts increase the level of IL-17 and IFN-γ produced by CD8 especially at the moderate dose (P7, 500 mg/kg BW). In addition, the level of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells also increased at the high dose of M. oleifera and M. vulgare combination when it used as protective agent. However, the immunomodulatory effects were higher during single treatment with M. oleifera. Conclusion: These results suggest that single treatment with M. oleifera extract is more effective than combination treatments with M. vulgare in S. typhimurium-infected mice. Protective treatment with M. oleifera and M. vulgare aqueous extracts was more effective than cure treatments. Dosage with low concentration of combined extracts showed high immunomodulatory activity than those dosages with moderate and high concentration. These findings have proven that M. oleifera and M. vulgare will be a very good material for future herbal medicine

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003407
Title: Plasma resistin and vaspin levels in obese people: Correlations with aging
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry-Biomolecular, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Jalan Veteran Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia
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Backgrounds: Resistin and visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) are adipocytokines that have a relationship with obesity. This study was designed to examine the plasma resistin and vaspin level change during aging in obese Indonesian people. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study. A total of 60 healthy volunteers aged 20–69 years were enrolled and divided into five groups (20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and 60–69 years). Body mass index and waist circumference were measured to determine obesity. Plasma resistin and vaspin levels were measured using ELISA. Results: Plasma resistin and vaspin levels increased with aging. Mean resistin levels (ng/mL) were 33.1 ± 9.8, 78.0 ± 8.7, 107.7 ± 11.6, and 93.2 ± 9.2 in the age groups of 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and 60–69 years, respectively. Mean vaspin levels (ng/mL) were 64.6 ± 3.7, 88.6 ± 3.8, 94.1 ± 4.2, 92.6 ± 4.8, and 88.1 ± 8.1 for the above age groups. Pearson correlation analysis showed that resistin and vaspin were positively associated with age. The coefficient correlation of resistin was 0.442 (P = 0.001), higher than vaspin (r = 0.360, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Plasma resistin and vaspin levels increased with aging in obese Indonesian people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003408
Title: Effects of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves from West Nusa Tenggara on malondialdehyde level and histological placental labyrinth zone of pregnant Rattus norvegicus exposed to cigarette
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pharmacology, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, Indonesia
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Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera varietas West Nusa Tenggara leaves on malondialdehyde (MDA) level and histological placental labyrinth zone of pregnant Rattus norvegicus exposed to cigarette smoke. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study with post-test only control group design. Twenty pregnant R. norvegicus were randomly divided into five groups, namely negative control (−), positive control (+), and treatment of ethanolic extract of M. oleifera of 25 mg/kg BB/day (P1), 50 mg/kg BB/day (P2), and 100 mg/ kg BB/day (P3). Results: This study showed an ethanolic extract of M. oleifera which showed significant effects on MDA level (P < 0.05). There was no significant effect of ethanolic extract of M. oleifera in various dose on placental labyrinth zone (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of M. oleifera decreased MDA level with optimal dose 25 mg/kg BB/day, but no significant effect on placental labyrinth zone of pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke at 14 days of pregnancy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003409
Title: Relation analysis between triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the serum of melasma patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Dermatology-Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University, West Sumatera, Indonesia
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Background: Melasma is a condition of hypomelanosis related to triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Methods: The analysis was conducted by taking those hormones from the serum of melasma patients. This cross- sectional study comprised 45 melasma patients aged 45–64 years. The measurements conducted were melisma area and severity index and the stress levels. Stress levels were determined by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale questionnaire. Furthermore, T3 and TSH levels in patient serum were investigated. Results: About three-quarters of the patients (34 patients) showed a malar pattern of melasma. Furthermore, around half of the patients (23 patients) were diagnosed as experiencing normal stress, while 40% (18 patients) were diagnosed with moderate–severe stress levels. An average level of T3 serum was 1.15 ± 0.25 in stressed patient and 1.11 ± 0.29 in normal patient. An average level of TSH serum was 1.73 ± 1.25 in stressed patient and 1.72 ± 1.05 in normal patient. Conclusion: The levels of both T3 and TSH in stressed patients were considerably higher than in normal patients. However, this difference was not statistically significant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003410
Title: An in silico approach toward wheatgrass extract-induced apoptosis of human acute myeloid leukemia cells
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Muhammadiyah University of Malang, Malang, Indonesia
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Background: Extracts of wheatgrass (Cyperus rotundus L.) have the potential to be developed as anti-leukemia agents. Aim: This study was aimed to identify and evaluate the potential of the active compounds in C. rotundus in inducing apoptosis in the treatment of leukemia. Methods: This study was conducted in several stages: Identification active compounds of C. rotundus by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis, human intestine absorption, prediction of activity spectra for substance, and pathway analysis. Results: The result of the study showed that wheatgrass has nine active compounds and 24 compounds capable of performing apoptosis processes (probability activity >0.7). All the compounds can be absorbed by human intestine (HIA >0.9). Pathway analysis showed that the active compounds quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin possessed synergy in inducing apoptosis. The main pathway affected is the mechanism of the inhibition of cytochrome proteins and the activation of caspase 3 as the apoptotic executor. Conclusion: Thus, extract of C. rotundus has a high potential in inducing apoptosis through cytochrome inhibition and caspase induction, and this is a good candidate for further laboratory testing for the treatment of leukemia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003411
Title: Effect of refined coconut oil intake on blood glucose, cholesterol, and leukocyte count of rats (Rattus norvegicus)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia,
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Background: Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) of virgin coconut oil can be used as antimicrobial properties. The combination of MCFAs can act as a highly powerful defense against diseases. Aim: This study aims to investigate the effect of refined mandar oil (RMO) intake on plasma glucose level after high glucose induction as well as the immune response in rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemic progression was induced in male albino Wistar rats by feeding them 21% w/v of glucose. The body weight, fasting and direct blood glucose level, 2h-pp blood glucose, and blood total cholesterol level were recorded for 30 days. The total white blood cell (WBC) count was calculated by an improved Neubauer counting chamber, and the differential count was performed by peripheral blood smear examination. Results: The blood glucose levels were increased significantly 30 and 120 min after high glucose feeding; however, the RMO diet restricted the elevation of blood glucose in comparison with the high glucose-fed control group without interfering with the total cholesterol level of rats. Conclusion: The present study showed that RMO might be beneficial in boosting the immune system by increasing WBC count, notably neutrophil percentage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003412
Title: Effect of different endometriosis implant origin on the expression of estrogen receptor-α, estrogen receptor-β, and progesterone receptor in mice model of endometriosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Jalan Veteran Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia
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Purpose: The main objectives of this study were to reveal the different expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-β, and progesterone receptor (PR) in mice model of endometriosis receiving endometrial implants derived from three different origins. Materials and Methods: Female mice (Mus musculus) 32 individuals were injected with 0.2 cc cyclosporin A for each mouse. Mice were divided into three groups with 10 replicates per treatment. As much as, 0.1 ml supernatant of each endometriosis origin was injected into the peritoneal cavities of mice. On day 15, mice were sacrificed and dissected. Expression of ER-α, ER-β, and PR had been examined by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows 19.0. Results: The results of the study, based on immunoreactive score (IRS), demonstrated that mice group which had been injected with adenomyosis tissue (Group C) had the highest average of IRS and had the strongest expression of ER-α, ER-β, and PR on immunohistochemistry staining. Conclusion: Mice model at Group C has greater ER-α, ER-β, and PR expression than mice at Group A and Group B. The injection of supernatant derived from adenomyosis (Group C) to be the best model to develop mice model of endometriosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003413
Title: Body mass index, heart rate, and blood pressure among sleep-deprived people
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Body mass index (BMI), heart rate, and blood pressure should be monitored regularly for maintaining a peaceful and healthy life. Thus, this research is done to show the effects of sleep on blood pressure, heart rate, and BMI. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 60 participants. They were divided into two groups. Group 1 consists of normal healthy individuals and Group 2 consists of sleep-deprived individuals. Electronic sphygmomanometer was used to measure the blood pressure and heart rate, BMI using the formula (kg/m2 ). Results: BMI, systole, and diastole of normal people are higher than that of sleep-deprived people and the heart rate of sleep deprived is higher than that of normal people. Conclusion: The BMI and blood pressure of both groups of people correlate with each other and heart rate of sleep- deprived people are higher than that of normal people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003414
Title: Comparative study on the effect of intense exercise and yoga on memory
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: There are mental benefits of yoga such as stress reduction, body awareness, better sleep, improve self-confidence, and relaxation. The primary aim of this study was to assess and analyze the impact of short-term practice of intense yoga and regular exercise on the components of human cognition, namely working memory and attentional control. The secondary aim was to compare the effects of these interventions on human cognitive power. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 healthy students were recruited and are assigned at random to intense superbrain yoga and aerobic exercise groups. In this study, students were divided into two groups, each comprised of 15 students. They were all highly motivated individuals, and informed consent was obtained from them after the experiment to be conducted was explained in detail. The students with following criteria were included in the study: (i) Male, (ii) female, and (iii) age 18–21 years. Results: The responses of all students of each of the respective groups are compared to the results of the previously conducted trial before the practise of yoga and exercise. Hence, the results are compared based on the reaction time of every individual before and after practice of their respective physical activity. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that superbrain yoga has a positive impact on both attentional control and working memory function. When compared to aerobic exercise, the effects are more pronounced on working memory and visual reaction time. Considering the positive benefits of regularly practising superbrain yoga on improving cognition, this regimen can be integrated into the physical education system of school-going pre-adolescents and adolescents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003415
Title: Physiological effects of marathon in females
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Extreme activities enable physiological mechanisms to be most fully involved. A marathon race is a prime example of an extreme activity. The marathon race is a long-distance race, finished by running, strolling, or a run/walk technique. Marathon running has evolved as one of the world’s popular running experiences. It is particularly interesting because a moderate load, typical for it, lasts for hours, which enables multiple physiological measurements to be carried out. Materials and Methods: This was a poll-based examination. A questionnaire with 10 questions was distributed among 50 female marathon runners mainly deals about the knowledge on physiological impacts on marathon practice. Data were collected and analyzed by statistics. Results: From the information, unmistakably, there is a good knowledge on the physiological effects of marathon among the female athletes, yet they are not very well knowledgeable in some areas. Conclusion: The measurable results of this survey indicated that most of individuals are aware of the physiological changes that occur in their body during marathon run.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003416
Title: Effect of raw ginger and ginger oil on pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Ginger is a potent antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, antitumorigenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral agent. The increasing awareness in both medical community and among public has led to the use of unconventional and alternative treatment modalities by patients. The main aim of this study is to prove the efficacy of raw ginger and ginger oil on different kinds of pain. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out among 30 people with different pains such as arthritis, back pain, tennis elbow, migraine, and joint pain. 30 people were divided into two groups. Group A consists of 15 people consuming raw ginger and Group B consists of 15 people consuming drops of ginger oil. A pain scale is used to measure the pain before and after the usage of raw ginger and ginger oil for a month. Results: About 86% of the pain has been cured by the use of raw ginger within 30 days and 100% of the pain has been cured by the use of ginger oil. Conclusion: A 1-month period of therapy with doses of ginger oil and raw ginger consumed in this study showed all the effects of ginger extract. Ginger oil was found to be more effective in a shorter span of time than raw ginger.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003417
Title: A survey on cancer risk among vegetarians and non-vegetarians
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The rates of the risk of cancer differ with difference in place, climate, habits such as smoking and drinking, lifestyle, etc. The changes we see with time, around us are proof that certain elements of lifestyle or environment largely affect the rate of common cancers. When case–control studies were performed, consumption of fruits and vegetables was linked with reduced rates of cancer risks. Excess energy intake when compared to the required amounts can elevate the risks of human cancer. However, increased input of vegetables and fruits into the body has been indirectly proportional to the levels of cancer risks in people. Change in dietary patterns might be able to judge the risk of cancer in a person. Materials and Methods: A survey-based questionnaire with a set of 10 questions was prepared and distributed among the participants. Results: Reheating of food, consumption of red meat, etc., have increased the risks of cancer. The risk of various cancers was directly proportional to the consumption of red meat, carbonated beverages, etc. Conclusion: Among the group of participants, non-vegetarians had more chances of getting cancer than vegetarians.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003418
Title: Comparative study of the effect of lavender and rosemary oil in relieving pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Pain is defined as highly unpleasant physical sensation. Lavender oil is an anti-inflammatory that relieves pain around joints. It is helpful to calm and relax. Rosemary oil has the ability to ease pain and inflammation. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of lavender and rosemary oil on joint pain. Materials and Methods: Sample size was 30. Those who are suffering from joint pain were included in the study. They were divided into two groups. Pain was measured using scale. Pain scale was noted before and after applying oils. Duration of the study was 30 days. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: About 60% of people in Group 1 and only 40% in Group 2 were fully recovered from pain. None in Group 1 falls in severe pain, but 12% of people in Group 2 fall in severe pain at the end of the study. Conclusion: Hence, from this study, lavender oil has a very good effective role on pain than rosemary oil.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003419
Title: Measurement of blood pressure and pulse rate in three different types of music
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Music is the best described as the drug for the spirit as well as to the physique. The heartbeat and blood pressure (BP) recorded while listening to fast music was approximately 120–130 beats/min and 140/90. Moreover, in case of slow music, it was approximately 55–65 beats/min and 90/60, respectively. Materials and Methods: The sample size of this study is about 30 healthy individuals. Three different types of music are used for this study include melody, exciting, and arbitrary type. Participants were asked to listen each music separately and measure BP and heart rate. For a music interval, 10 min relaxation has been given and follows the other type of music and measurements will be noted. Results: The mean values of pulse rate, systole, and diastole were not significantly reduced from resting state when compared between before and after listening to slow and arbitrary music. However, the fast beat showed the increased mean (±standard deviation) values of pulse rate, systole, and diastole which have a significant effect on individual. Conclusions: Listening to slow beat music can benefit the health of an individual by modulating the cardiovascular rhythms, whereas fast beat music is ineffective and often dangerous. Thus, listening to slow music not only makes as happy but also have a significant result on our body

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003420
Title: Prevalence of wormian bones in dried adult human skulls of South Indian population – An osteomorphometric study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to understand the recurrence of wormian bones. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. The skull was segregated into male and female by the differentiating features. The skulls were analyzed for the presence of wormian bone. Results: The wormian bone was present only in eight skulls of 33 skulls in male and was present only in five skulls of 32 skulls in female. The prevalence of wormian bone was very less in South Indian population. Conclusion: The prevalence of wormian bone is very less in South Indian population. It is only 19%.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003421
Title: Effect of cervical vertebrae 2, 3, and 4 on dental alignment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cervical vertebrae 2, 3, and 4 on dental alignment. Materials and Methods: For this study, 100 cephalograms were analyzed to identify the maturation of cervical vertebrae (C1-C7). The analysis comprised morphological changes in the cervical vertebrae. The sample size was taken as 100 and cephalograms were collected at random from dental clinics in Chennai for the study. Results and Discussion: The results obtained from the study were carefully assessed. The six stages were identified with their characteristic morphological changes among 100 cephalograms. Each maturational change was observed right from Stage 1 to Stage 6. Conclusion: Hence, from this study, we can conclude that the cervical vertebrae are reliable indicators for planning of orthodontic treatments. The growth stage can be identified and suitable dental treatment can be given to avoid malocclusions in the future. The cervical vertebrae maturation is a widely used tool all over the world.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003422
Title: Cytotoxicity of acrylic-based resin compounds and clove oil in a human gingival fibroblast cell line
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Cytotoxicity is the ability of being toxic to cells.Gingival fibroblast is the most profusely found cell in periodontal ligament. Acrylic based compounds are widely being used in dentistry which is used for the fabrication of denture base. Monomers formed during the polymerization of acrylic resin which are in contact with the prosthetic and orthodontic devices often cause allergic reactions in the patient’s mouth. Clove oil is widely being used in Ayurvedic medicine. The aim of the study is to estimate the cytotoxic effects of acrylic-based resin compounds and that of clove oil in the human gingival fibroblast cell line.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003424
Title: Quantitative analysis of indices of the Sternum for sexual dimorphism
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The human sternum is a long, flat elongated bone that forms the middle of the anterior to the thoracic cavity. The correct determination of the sex is a critical requirement for medicolegal cases. It is based on the morphological and morphometrical features. Aim: This study aims to analyze and study the morphometry of indices of the sternum for sexual dimorphism. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried on 40 (20 males and 20 females) dry human sternums. The sternal indices were measured using the Vernier caliper. The study adopted t-test for two independent means for statistical analysis with P = 0.05 (95%). Conclusion: The present study concluded that length and breadth of the sternum shows a significant increase in males compared to females, this might add knowledge in the field of operative surgery (sternotomy), forensic sciences, etc.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003425
Title: Prevalence of caries, teeth misalignment, and malocclusion due to feeding bottle practices
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The purpose of the study is to relate caries, misalignment, and malocclusion of the teeth due to feeding bottle practices. The muscular activities of the lips, cheeks, and tongue are important factors which guide occlusal development, alignment, and crowding of teeth. Hence, the practice of bottle-feeding can affect the orofacial development. Materials and Methods: An online survey was done by circulating a questionnaire to 108 parents which included questions to assess the details of the child’s consuming, oral hygiene habits, and history of the child’s oral health. Results: Based on the outcome of present study, the prevalence of improper alignment is 37% in children between 3 and 5 years of age group, 27.8% of children had gap between teeth, and 49.5% of children had been affected by caries more than once. Conclusion: The present study concluded that children with habit of bottle feeding might increase the prevalence of caries, misalignment, and malocclusion of the teeth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003426
Title: Anatomy and clinical significance of clivus and its neighboring structures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The main aim of this study is to analysis the distance of pharyngeal tubercle with respect to foramen lacerum, foramen ovale, foramen magnum, jugular foramen, and hypoglossal canal. Introduction: The pharyngeal tubercle is an important anatomical landmark where the pharyngeal raphe is attached, and it is important to know that the structure associated with craniocervical junction and associated structures of it. Materials and Methods: About 40 human South Indian dry skulls were randomly taken from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College. The landmarks of interest were measured using Vernier caliper. Results: From this study, it was observed that average distance between the pharyngeal tubercle and foramen lacerum was found to be 12.81 mm in the right side and 12.56 mm in the left side; distance between the pharyngeal tubercle and foramen ovale is found to be 26.66 mm in the right side and 27.15 mm in the left side; distance between the pharyngeal tubercle and foramen ovale shows that on the right side, it was 23.12 mm and left side, it was 22.77 mm; distance between the pharyngeal tubercle and foramen magnum is found to be 28.56 mm; distance between the pharyngeal tubercle and foramen jugular is found to be 23.12 mm in the right side and 22.77 mm on the left side. The distance between pharyngeal tubercle with the right and left hypoglossal canal is 18.92 mm and 18.98 mm. Conclusion: The present study has elaborately studied the distance of pharyngeal tubercle with respect to foramen lacerum, ovale, magnum, and jugular, respectively. Thus, the study has concluded that the morphometrical studies of bone and associated structures are very much needed for anthropological, anatomical, and surgical aspects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003427
Title: Effect of lupeol on glucose transporter 2 and insulin receptor on high-fat-fed Type 2 diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Lupeol is pharmacologically active triterpenoid. It is also known as Fagarasterol and lupenol. It occurs in the skin of lupin seeds as well as in the latex of fig trees and of rubber plants and was also found in many edible fruits and vegetables. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the effect of lupeol on glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and insulin receptor (IR) on high-fat-fed Type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, experimental animals were divided into four groups each consisting of five animals: Group 1: Normal control, Group 2: Diabetic rats (Type 2), Group 3: Diabetic rats treated with standard with lupeol at the dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day/orally for 30 days, and Group 4: Type 2 diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg b.wt/day orally for 30 days). At the day of 30, the animals will be anesthetized by sodium thiopentone. Liver tissue was dissected out from control and treated animals and used for the assessment of protein expression analysis. Results: A significant decrease in IR was observed in Type 2 diabetic animals when compared to control rats. Conversely, GLUT2 protein expression was found to be increased in Type 2 diabetic rats. Oral administration of lupeol for 30 days significantly restored the altered levels of the insulin signaling molecules in the liver of Type 2 diabetic rats. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present findings that lupeol has antidiabetic activity through the controlling insulin signaling molecules such as IR and GLUT2 protein expression in hepatocytes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003428
Title: Lip prints – A study of its uniqueness, prevalence, and gender significance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim is to study the different patterns and uniqueness of the lip prints in relation to gender significance. Objective: The present study is to analyze the different patterns, uniqueness in different individual on the basis of lip prints. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 50 individuals of Saveetha Dental College, in 25 females and 25 males in the age of 15–20 were included in the study. The lip prints were taken on the individuals without having any lesions on their lips and who are sensitive to the lipstick are excluded in this study. The prints were analyzed and data were expressed as graph bar. Results: The present study has observed that patterns of lip prints were differ between individuals to individual. Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that the studying various patterns of lips (cheiloscopy) add a knowledge in the field of forensic science and it could be the best tool to be incorporate along with other crime investigating tools.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003429
Title: Lupeol supplementation to high-fat diet-fed type-2 diabetic rats alleviates hepatic lipid profiles
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Lupeol, a natural herbal drug is abundant in edible vegetables, fruits, and also in medicinal plants. It has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia and hyper insulinemia in experimental mice model. Despite, the effect of lupeol supplementation to high-fat diet-fed type-2 diabetic rats alleviates hepatic lipid profiles is not known. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the effects of lupeol on hepatic lipid profiles expression in liver tissue of type-2 diabetic rats. Methodology: Lupeol was administered orally to type-2 diabetic rats (25 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized, and liver from control and experimental animals were dissected out and used for the hepatic lipid profiles. Results: Diabetic rats showed a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and free fatty acids, but a significant decrease in high-density lipoproteins cholesterol level, whereas lupeol treatment reversed the same effectively Conclusion: Our present finding indicates that the antidiabetic activity of lupeol in the liver is mediated through the alleviates hepatic lipid profiles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003431
Title: Cytotoxicity of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba leaves on oral cancer cells
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cancer can affect any part of the body as a group of disease caused by loss of cell cycle control. It is associated with abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth. Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, L. Taub., also known as cluster bean, is an annual drought- tolerant legume crop belonging to the family Leguminosae. The search for a new anticancer drug derived from natural products is increasing. Aim: To study the cytotoxicity of C. tetragonoloba leaves on oral cancer cells lines. Materials and methods: Aqueous extract of C. tetragonoloba leaves was prepared (CTE). Cytotoxicity of was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2- GL)-2, 5-diphenhydramine tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on KB cell lines. Results and Discussion: The results showed that CTE possessed cytotoxicity in KB cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The present study revealed the cytotoxicity of C. tetragonoloba leaves which might be due to its anticancer effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003432
Title: Lupeol normalizes high-fat diet-induced alternations in the Akt levels in the quadriceps muscle of type 2 diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India
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Background: Lupeol is a pharmacologically active triterpenoid found in mango and also in variety of medicinal plants including Acacia visco and Abronia villosa. It is also found in dandelion coffee. Many scientific studies have shown that lupeol possesses many beneficial pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antihyperglycemic activity. Biomarkers for oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins are also supporting the concept of increased oxidative stress in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we elucidated the antioxidant potential of lupeol by analyzing the enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant in the liver of high-fat diet- and sucrose-induced Type-2 diabetic rats. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the effects of lupeol on Akt and its phosphorylation in the quadriceps muscle of high-fat diet- and sucrose-induced Type-2 diabetic adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Lupeol was administered orally to Type-2 diabetic rats (25 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 30 days. After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized and liver from control and experimental rats dissected out and the used for the studied. Results: There was a marked decrease observed in the levels of Akt and its phosphorylation (p-Akt Ser473 ) in the quadriceps muscle of the type-2 diabetic rats. However, lupeol treatment efficiently increased the level of Akt protein compared to diabetic group. Metformin showed a similar pattern to that of lupeol. Conclusion: The present finding concludes that the lupeol regulates insulin-mediated Akt signaling in gracilis muscle. Therefore, the plant-derived triterpenoid may be used as antidiabetic phytocompound for the type-2 diabetic management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003433
Title: Hepatoprotective effect of lupeol is mediated through gluconeogenic enzymes: An experimental study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to the aspect of lupeol on gluconeogenic enzymes such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6- phosphatase in the liver of type-2 diabetic male rats. Experimental Design: In the present study, healthy adult male albino rats were used and divided four groups each consisting of six animals. The oral effective dose of lupeol (2 , orally for 30 days) was administrated to high-fat diet-I plus type 2 diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period, liver tissues from the control and experimental group were dissected out and used for the assessment of gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase using standard method of spectrophotometric analysis, the data will be subjected to one-way analysis of variance using computer-based software (GraphPad Prism, resin 5). The significance will be considered at the level of P < 0.05. Results: Diabetic rats showed a significant increase in the levels of gluconeogenic enzymes such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver. However, lupeol administration to type-2 diabetic rats significantly reduced the altered levels of the enzymes equal to that of the standard drug metformin. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present findings that lupeol regulates glucose homeostasis in liver through the controlling of the gluconeogenic enzymes as a result of increase in the insulin sensitivity, and hence, lupeol has protective role in hepatocytes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003434
Title: Effect of lupeol on insulin receptor substrate-1 and AKt expression in adipose tissue of type-2 diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Lupeol a natural herbal drug is abundant in edible vegetables, fruits, and also in medicinal plants. Adipose tissue is the primary site of storage for excess energy as triglycerides. Hence, the present study was conducted or the beneficial role of lupeol on insulin signaling molecules in adipose tissue of high-fat diet and sucrose-induced type 2 diabetic experimental rats. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the effect of lupeol on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and AKt expression in adipose tissue of type-2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, experimental animals were divided into four groups each consisting of five animals: Group1: Normal control, Group 2: Diabetic rates (type2), Group 3: Diabetes rates treated with standard with lupeol at the dose of 25 mg/kg b. wt/day/orally for 30 days, and Group 4: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg, b. wt/day orally for 30 days). At the day of 30, the animals will be anesthetised by sodium thiopentone, adipose tissue was dissected out from control and treated animals and asked for protein isolation and will be used for the further studies. Results: A significant decrease in IRS-1 mRNA expression in adipose tissue was observed in type-2 diabetic animals, whereas lupeol treatment increased IRS-1 mRNA level in the type-2 diabetic animals. A significant decrease in Akt mRNA levels in adipose tissue was observed in type-2 diabetic animals, whereas lupeol treatment increased Akt protein level in the type-2 diabetic animals as that of the standard drug metformin. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present findings that lupeol has antidiabetic activity through the regulation of insulin signaling molecules such as IRS-1 and Akt mRNA expression in adipose tissue.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003435
Title: Studies on antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia bonducella seed ethanolic extract on selected human oral pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Herbs have attracted attention as a potential natural health-care approach that focuses on protecting and restoring the health. Caesalpinia bonducella is an Indian herb reported in Ayurveda, the ancient medicine system of India. This plant have extensive uses in folk medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases such as pneumonia and filarial infections. Objective: This study was aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of C. bonducella seed in the oral pathogens of human. Materials and Methods: C. bonducella leaf ethanolic extract was used to identify the antibacterial activity. Then, the C. bonducella extract was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide to get 1 mg/ml concentration. After 50–200 ml volume of the C. bonducella leaf extract was loaded on to a sterile disc containing human oral pathogens respectively. Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the minimized inhibitory concentration. The antibacterial activity of C. bonducella was studied. After 24 h incubation, the plate was observed and the zone was measured for the calculation of minimum inhibitory concentration of the drug. The data were compared with respective pathogens. Result: In this study, C. bonducella leaf ethanolic extract dose-dependently increased the bacterial growth inhibition. However, 100% inhibition was observed against Enterococcus faecalis than the standard drug ciprofloxacin. Finally, the extract showed a potential antibacterial activity. Conclusion: The use of herbal medicine is increasing with an increase in the development of drug resistance among bacterial population. Herbal medicines are safe with no side effects and have significant action against bacteria and other microorganisms. Based on the results recorded in the present findings, it is concluded that C. bonducella has a potential antimicrobial agent on human oral pathogenic microorganisms, and hence, the herbal drug may serve as one of the potential antimicrobial agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003436
Title: Assessment of salivary toxic thiocyanate level in smokers with or without leukoplakia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Leukoplakia which is also a form of cancer is now becoming deadly if not treated properly. This is more manifested in smokers, or in a way, we can say that smoking is one causative reason for leukoplakia. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the level of salivary thiocyanate (SCN) with or without leukoplakia. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on subjects who are habitual to smoking with or without leukoplakia reporting to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology at Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, SIMATS, Chennai, India. A sample size of 20 was taken for the study and biochemical tests were done and the results obtained were statistically analyzed. Results: The level of SCN is observed higher among smokers with leukoplakia than smokers without leukoplakia. Conclusion: This study shows that the patients who have high levels of cigarette intake induced leukoplakia have higher the chances of getting oral carcinoma and, hence, measuring SCN levels as non-invasive method to identify a biomarker for leukoplakia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003437
Title: Comparison of salivary beta-defensin-2 levels in chronic periodontitis with or without diabetes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Chronic periodontitis (CP) is a common disease of an oral cavity consisting of chronic inflammation of the tissues. Patients with diabetes have increased incidence and severity of periodontal disease has been shown in earlier studies. Objective: The objective of this study was to study and compare the salivary levels of human beta-defensin (HBDF) protein concentration of healthy patients and people with gingivitis and CP. The different protein concentrations are not related to the frequency of periodontal pathogens, and it has a higher impact on salivary HBD-2 levels than bacteria. Materials and Methods: A total of 89 patients are enrolled in this study in which 31 periodontally healthy, 31 with CP with diabetes, and 27 with chronic diabetes. The HBD-2 ELISA kit will be obtained from bioarray technologies. The salivary BDF-2 will be quantified and evaluated using statistical analysis in one-way ANOVA. Results: The salivary HBD-2 protein concentration is higher in patients with CP compared with patients with diabetes. The salivary BDF-2 levels are higher in diabetic’s patients with periodontitis than patients with non-diabetic periodontitis patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003438
Title: A study on the antimicrobial activity of some herbal drugs used in Unani system of medicine on selected human pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The use of herbal medicine is increasing with the increase in the development of drug resistance among the bacterial population. Herbal medicines are safe with no side effects and have significant action against bacteria and other microorganisms. Study the antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus and Operculina turpethum on select human pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains used are multidrug-resistant of E. faecalis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa that are obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and maintained in nutrient agar slope at 4°C. Moreover, extracts ate taken from plant leaf powder. Results: The investigation of antibacterial activity of ayurvedic preparations on E. faecalis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa was done by agar well diffusion method. Mean zones of inhibition of different concentrations were measured and compared with the control. Conclusion: Based on the results recorded in the present findings, in it concluded that Unani system of medicine has a potential antimicrobial agent on human pathogenic microorganisms and hence the herbal drug may serve as one of the potential antimicrobial agents. Further studies on isolation of active principles from the plant are needed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003439
Title: An in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Siddha polyherbal preparations on selected human pathogenic microorganisms
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Key concept of Siddha is harmony with nature and the universe. The Siddha plays a major role in curing many diseases. It does not have any side effects, but its curing time is prolonged. The Siddha polyherbal used in this study is a combination of four plants such as Asparagus racemosus, Syzygium aromaticum, Emblica officinalis, and Tinospora cordifolia. These herbs are found in India, Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, The Himalayas, and Africa. These herbs cure many of the diseases. Objective: The objective was to study the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Siddha polyherbal on selected human pathogens. Materials and Methods: To check the antioxidants and antimicrobial properties of Siddha polyherbal drugs, the polyherbal powder was extracted with 45% ethanol by Soxhlet apparatus at 45°C. After 24 h of incubation period, the plates were observed and the inhibition zone was recorded. Results: The investigation of antibacterial activity of Siddha polyherbal extracts against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa was done by agar well diffusion method. The inhibition zone is maximum in larger area in all the three bacteria. There is no control used in this study. The Siddha medicines show the slow effect, but there are no side effects. Mean zone of the inhibition of different concentrations is measured. Conclusion: Based on the results recorded in the present findings, it is concluded that Siddha polyherbal preparation has a potential antimicrobial agent on human oral pathogenic microorganisms, and hence, the herbal drug may serve as one of the potential antimicrobial agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003440
Title: In vitro cytotoxicity studies of silver nanoparticles with activated folic acid on cancer cell lines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Folate is a water-soluble vitamin that appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of several disorders in humans. The expanding role of folate nutrition in health and disease has major public health implications. Nanotechnology offers a wealth of tools to treat cancer bypassing biological barriers to deliver therapeutic agents directly. In this study, the anticancer activity of AgNPs with activated FA was studied against KB oral cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The FA modified silver NPs (AgNPs) were obtained by chemical activation. Procured KB cells were cultured in Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 culture medium, with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), L–glutamine, 1% penicillin (100 U/ml), and streptomycin (100 μg/ml) at 37°C in a humidified CO2 (5%) chamber and 95% air. The cytotocity assay was performed using standard protocol and compared with the standard drug. Results: The effect of test samples on cell growth inhibition was assessed as percent cell viability, where vehicle-treated cells were taken as 100% viable. There was a decrease in the percentage of cell viability with the increase in the concentration of FA-AgNps (0.2–1.0 mmole/L). Conclusion: As the concentration of the test sample was increased, the KB cells showed a significant decrease in cell viability.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003441
Title: Impacts on yoga asana practice on physical and mental health in females
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Yoga is an ancient Indian exercise practice that enhances health and improves longevity. The health effects of yoga make it a unique option as an exercise regime. Yoga uses formalized “asanas,” physical positions that improve strength, flexibility, and balance with accompanying breathing patterns that help to reduce stress, oxygenate tissues, and stimulate circulation. Materials and Methods: This was a poll based examination. A questionnaire was circled among 100 female yoga PR actioners, and their mindfulness on yoga and its physiological and mental benefits were seen. Results were acquired utilizing appropriate measurable strategies. Results: From the information, unmistakably there is good knowledge of the benefits of yoga on physical and mental health among the practitioners, yet they are not very well knowledgeable in some areas. Conclusion: The measurable results of this survey indicated that most of the individuals have the impacts of yoga on their daily life and they are leading a healthy and happy life than before in dealing with the physical and mental stress.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003442
Title: Antimicrobial activity of garlic extract on oral pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: In the ancient time, many naturally occurring plants played an important role, in discovery in many therapeutic agents. It has been shown to have a beneficial role such as therapeutic uses which include beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and antibiotic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. Garlic has major part. Garlic is also known as Allium sativum Linn. Human oral cavity has >500 species of bacteria of dental plague. Despite the garlic extract has been shown to have antimicrobial property, its effects of selected on human oral pathogens are yet to be identified. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to estimate the antimicrobial activity of garlic extraction on oral pathogens on Enterococci and Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: Garlic extract will be proceeded from the local market and used for the present investigation. The extract will be mixed with distilled water 1 mg/ml concentration. Then, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 ml volume of extract will be loaded on agar well diffusion method to sterile discs with respective organisms of oral pathogens. Then, the antibacterial activity will be studied separately. After 24 h incubation period, the plates will be observed and inhibition zone was recorded as minimal inhibitory concentration. Results: The investigation of antibacterial activity of garlic extract Gram-positive bacteria such as against Entrococci and S. mutans was done by agar well diffusion method. Mean zones of inhibition of different concentrations were measured and compared with the control. In this study, garlic extract dose dependently increased the bacterial growth inhibition. However, 100% inhibition was observed against Entrococci and S. mutans than the standard drug ciprofloxacin. Finally, the extract showed a potential antibacterial activity. Conclusion: Based on the results recorded in the present findings, it was concluded that garlic extract has a potential antimicrobial agent on human oral pathogenic microorganisms, and hence, the herbal drug may serve as one of the potential antimicrobial agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003443
Title: Determination of height using femur length in adult population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the height of the individuals using femur length. Introduction: The femur being the longest bone in our body can be used to estimate the stature of the person. Materials and Methods: The femur length of 50 people (25 male and 25 female) was measured using non-stretchable tape to measure the distance between the greater trochanter as palpated and lateral condyle of the femur. Discussion: This study showed the correlation between the femur length and height of the individual. The femur length in male is greater than in female. The previous studies have proved that the height of an individual is 4 times the femur length of the individual. The length of the right and left femur may vary slightly in some people. P value is statistically significant. Conclusion: This study proved that the femur length is proportional to the height. Therefore, a taller individual may have a longer femur while a dwarfer individual may have a shorter femur.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003444
Title: Comparison of antibacterial activity of green tea and black tea: An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: To determine the effect of extracts of green tea and black tea on the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Objectives: To assess the anti-microbial activity of green tea on Streptococcus mutans.To assess the anti-microbial activity of black tea on Streptococcus mutans. To compare the Anti-microbial effect of these extracts with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Method: Ethanol(100% w/v) and Methanol( 100% w/v) were used to prepare the crude organic extracts of the tea. Distilled water was used to prepare the aqueous extracts with concentrations of 100%. The strains of streptococcus mutans were taken. Mutans media was used. The diameter of the zones of inhibited growth was measured to the nearest whole millimeter. Result: Zone of inhibition is found to be 12 mm in aqueous extract of black tea and 20 mm for green tea, while the zone of inhibition of chlorhexidine is 22mm. The results of the present study strongly suggest that certain components of tea exert a significant anticariogenic effect by virtue of their inhibitory activity against streptococcus mutans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003445
Title: Prevalence of anemia among polycystic ovarian syndrome girls of Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal syndrome which is caused due to disturbances in the hypothalamus and the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. It is associated with hyperandrogenism. Anemia is a blood disorder, where the amount of healthy hemoglobin (Hb) is less or there is faulty Hb being produced. It can be caused due to various reasons such as heavy blood loss. It leads to reduction in oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. This survey was conducted to check the prevalence of anemia among girls suffering from PCOS. This study will help us to understand if anemia and PCOS are related. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted using SurveyPlanet to collect information from UG students from Saveetha Dental College. The survey included questions such as the regularity of the menstrual cycle, height, and weight. The data were collected from the survey and analyzed. Results: About 42% of the having PCOS and 51% were affected with anemia. 44% of them having heavy menstrual bleeding and so 52% were consuming iron supplements to overcome anemia. 56% were shown improvement in Hb level after taking iron supplements. 31% were felt Hb level reduced after they were diagnosed with PCOS. Conclusion: PCOS is becoming a common issue among girls and women of the reproductive age. Early diagnosis and quick intervention can reduce the side effects of the syndrome.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003447
Title: Choice of different types of drinking water and its impact on the people in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or use for other purposes. Drinking water is a major source for intake of necessary elements into the human body. That is why it is important to consume the right type of drinking water that is suitable for us. It plays an important role in facilitating vital functions of the human body. The aim of this study was to find out the choices of drinking water among people of Chennai and its impact on their health. Materials and Methods: This study was done by conducting a survey. The survey was taken by circulating a questionnaire. The sample size was randomly taken as 100. This included 100 people that reside in Chennai. The questionnaire consisted of 11 questions. Results: The average amount of water consumed per day by the people of Chennai is 2–3 L. The people of Chennai majorly prefer consuming filtered water. Most of the people are unsure if the water they drink is pure or not. Conclusion: Not many people have reported waterborne diseases. Hence, we can safely say that filtered water is safe for consumption in Chennai.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003448
Title: Estimation of McRae line, McGregor line, and Chamberlain line in South Indian dry skull
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Craniovertebral junction is an important anatomical landmark, where basio-occiput, atlas, and axis were articulated; these skeletal structures were supported by ligaments and muscles. Wholly these structures enclose medulla oblongata, lower cranial nerves, etc. Among cephalometric measurements, McRae, McGregor, and Chamberlain lines were used to analyze craniovertebral junction for identifying malalignment of body structure. Materials and Methods: The present study has used 50 South Indian human dry skull at the Anatomy Department in Saveetha Dental College randomly. The measurements were taken using Vernier caliper. Results: The present study shows that the mean length of the McRae line is 34.72 ± 2.4 mm, the mean length of McGregor line is 77.85 ± 3.9 mm, and the mean length of Chamberlain line is 75.52 ± 4.3 mm. Conclusion: The present study has measured McRae, McGregor, and Chamberlain lines involved in assessing craniovertebral junction. Thus, the present study has concluded that bony measurements of such above-mentioned lines were very important along with radiological measurements in clinical practices.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003449
Title: Prevalence of infertility among smoking men – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Smoking has been connected to a horde of antagonistic well-being results, including cardiovascular malady, respiratory sickness, and malignancy of the lungs, bladder, cervix, throat, kidney, pancreas, and stomach. Smoking is a notable hazard factor of regenerative well-being. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted through 100 smoking men. The questionnaire includes smoking habit, period of smoking, and awareness of the effects of smoking habit in sperm functions. Results: From the survey, we found that 59.4% of the male populace smokes, 31.1% were smoking for over 6 years, and 61.3% of the smoking men are unaware that smoking causes infertility. Conclusion: From the survey, we conclude that awareness toward smoking habits and its effects on infertility should be created among smoking population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003450
Title: Determination of sex in South Indian population based on morphometric measures of mandible – Bigonial width and Bicondylar width
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Short Note
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Determination of sex from an unknown human bone is an important role in forensic and anthropology field. The mandible is the largest and hardest facial bone that resists postmortem damage and forms an important source of information about sexual dimorphism. Aim: This study aims to determine the sex of unknown human adult mandibles of South Indian population using parameters on mandible – bigonial width and bicondylar width. Materials and Methods: The material used for the study contained 100 human South Indian mandibles of known sex obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Dental Faculty, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. The bones collected were free from any pathological lesions or fractures. Mandibular measurements were taken using Vernier caliper. All measurements were taken in millimeters and all the values were read out to two decimal places. Results: The present study on South Indian population revealed that the bigonial width of male gonium varied from 95.48 mm to 105.72 mm, whereas for female, it varied from 85.28 mm to 94.38 mm. Bicondylar width of male gonium varied from 100.86 mm to 110.57 mm, whereas for female, it varied from 91.34 mm to 100.21 mm. Conclusion: Determination of sex from skeletal remains has high importance in forensic and anthropology field. The present study has helped us to determine the sex of unknown remains using metrical parameters such as bigonial width and bicondylar width of mandible, which serve as an easy and reliable source for sexual dimorphism

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003451
Title: Periodontal disease diagnosis and treatment pattern by pediatric dentists
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals,Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Studies,Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Periodontitis is ideally considered as one of the most ubiquitous diseases and is identified by bone and connective tissue destruction as a consequence of periodontal pathogens affecting the host response, leading to an inflammatory reaction. The main aim of this study was to determine the pediatric dentist’s familiarity and effective treatments of periodontal disease in children. Materials and Methods: A closed-ended questionnaire was given to 100 pediatric dentists working in private clinics and in an institution. The questionnaire was handed out in person to each of the practicing pedodontist and their responses were analyzed and tabulated accordingly. Results: From the data obtained, it was noted that majority of the pediatric dentists were not only acquainted with the various gingival and periodontal diseases occurring in children but also familiar with the various treatment measures available to control the severity of such diseases in younger adults. Conclusion: There are hardly any studies regarding the knowledge and awareness of pediatric dentists toward the several gingival and periodontal diseases affecting the children. However, this research will help to discern the above-discussed complication.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003456
Title: Efficacy of hydroxyapatite and platelet-rich plasma in bone regeneration after surgical removal of mandibular third molars
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji dental college and hospital, pallikaranai, chennai-100.
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Purpose: This study was to evaluate the efficacy of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in bone regeneration after the surgical removal of mandibular third molar with the help of radiographs (OPG or IOPA) and its comparison with control side. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients, both male and female aged between 18 and 35 years, who had bilateral mandibular impacted third molars, were randomly selected for this study. The extraction socket of the study side was packed with HA granules and PRP and that of control side was sutured without HA and PRP. The bone density of both extraction sockets was evaluated radiographically using gray level histogram and compared periodically on immediate post-operative day, 1st and 3rd months postoperatively, and post-operative sequelae of both the control side and study side in terms of pain and edema or any other adverse reactions were also evaluated. Results: Data suggest confirmation of early bone formation and maturation radiographically in the study side as compared to the control side. The percentage of facial swelling was numerically higher on the control side as compared to the study side. Pain was also evaluated with visual analog scale and it was found that the severity of pain was lesser in the study side than the control side. Conclusion: This study recorded a definitive advancement in the wound healing, rise in bone density, which signifies and highlights the application of HA granules and PRP, absolutely as a valid method in promoting and stimulating bone regeneration.