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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003512
Title: Choice of toothpaste among undergraduate dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping one’s mouth clean and free from diseases and other problems (e.g., bad breath). It is one of the most important and necessary aspects to maintain good health. This hygiene is maintained by regular brushing of the teeth (dental hygiene). Toothpaste or gel dentifrice is a paste which is used with the toothbrush to clean the teeth. It helps in removing the food accumulated in the teeth. Hence, brushing with toothpaste suppresses bad breath and maintains oral hygiene. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the choice of toothpaste among undergraduate (UG) dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was administered through an online survey. The survey was spread among 100 UG dental students to study and determine the factors which influence them to make a purchase of the toothpaste and use it on a daily basis. Results: The present study revealed that a majority of UG dental students use Colgate toothpaste. Cleansing property and long-lasting freshness are the qualities of the toothpaste which attracts the dental students. Television (advertisement) is considered to be a very strong factor influencing their choice. Conclusion: A dentist is an oral health-care professional who can teach you how to properly take care of your teeth and gums on a daily basis. This study is important because it reveals the choice of toothpaste among the dental students who are very conscious of their dental hygiene, and thus, the study has a motive to help people in making an appropriate choice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003513
Title: Lupeol supplementation attenuates overexpression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein in hepatocytes: An experimental study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Lupeol, a natural herbal drug, is abundant in edible vegetables, fruits, and also medicinal plants. It has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in experimental mice model. Despite the effect of lupeol on sterol regulatory element, binding protein (SREBP-1c) in hepatocytes is not known. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the effects of lupeol on SREBP-1c protein expression in liver tissue of type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Lupeol was administered orally to type 2 diabetic rats (25 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized and the liver from control and experimental animals was dissected out and used for the protein expression of SREBP-1c. Results: In type 2 diabetic animals, the protein expression of SREBP-1c was found to be elevated in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats when compared with control. The lupeol administration to diabetic rats reduced the SREBP-1c protein expression due to its antioxidant potentials. Conclusion: Our present finding indicates that the antidiabetic activity of lupeol in the liver is mediated through the attenuation of SREBP-1c protein.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003514
Title: Effect of beta-sitosterol on glycogen metabolic enzyme in high-fat fed diabetic model
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by insufficient insulin secretion or resistance to insulin secretion or resistance to insulin action or both. Management of DM with natural antioxidants grabs great interest of research due to its beneficiary effects. Hence, in our study, we focused to study beta-sitosterol (BS), a plant sterol found in the wheat germ, Ce, flax seeds, peanuts, soybean, and variety of medicinal plants. It has antidiabetic, hypolipedemic, anticancer, antiarthritic, and hypoprotective role. In the present study, we elucidated the effects of BS on key enzymes of carbohydrates metabolism, which has been not yet studied clearly. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to study the effects of BS on glycogen metabolic enzymes in hepatic tissue of type 2 diabetic rats by spectrometry analysis. Methodology: BS was administered orally to type-2 diabetic rats (25 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 30 days. After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized and liver from control and experimental rats dissected out and the used for the studied. Results: There was a marked decrease observed in the levels of glycogen metabolic enzymes such as glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen synthase, and glycogen concentration in the liver of the type-2 diabetic rats. However, BS treatment efficiently increased the level of antioxidant enzymes compared to diabetic group. Metformin showed a similar pattern to that of BS. Conclusion: The present finding concluded that the BS regulates glycogen metabolic enzymes in the liver, and hence, it can be used for the management of type -2 diabetes as a natural compound.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003515
Title: Effect of lupeol on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in type-2 diabetic adult male Wistar rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Lupeol is a pharmacologically active triterpenoid found in mango and variety of medicinal plants including Acacia visco and Abronia villosa. It is also found in dandelion coffee. Many scientific studies have shown that lupeol possesses many beneficial pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antihyperglycemic activity. Biomarkers for oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins are also supporting the concept of increased oxidative stress in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we elucidated the antioxidant potential of lupeol by analyzing the enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant in the liver of high-fat diet and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the effects of lupeol on enzymic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and non-enzymic antioxidant (Vitamin C) in the liver of high-fat diet and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic adult male rats. Methodology: Lupeol was administered orally to type-2 diabetic rats (25 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 30 days. After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized and liver from control and experimental rats dissected out and the used for the studied. Results: There was a marked decrease observed in the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and Vitamin C) in the liver of the type-2 diabetic rats. However, lupeol treatment efficiently increased the level of antioxidant enzymes compared to diabetic group. Metformin showed a similar pattern to that of lupeol. Conclusion: The present finding concluded that the lupeol regulates antioxidant enzymes, and hence, it can be used for the management of type-2 diabetes as a natural compound.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003516
Title: Prevalence and awareness of health risks about passive smoking among Chennai population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called secondhand smoke (SHS), by persons other than the intended “active” smoker. It occurs when tobacco smoke permeates any environment, causing its inhalation by people within that environment. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 100 Chennai populations. The questionnaire was distributed through the Google Forms. It contains about side effects of smoking. Results were collected from Google Forms and discussed. Results: The surveys proved that passive smoking is not only more prominent in adults but it also prominent to both children and obstetrics patients; this showed that the people are not aware. The participants are very well aware that passive smoking is spread through smell. They are also aware that the duration of exposure increases the intensity of passive smoking. Conclusion: From the survey by the response of the participants, it is clear that the participants are now aware what passive smoking is but are not aware of its side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003517
Title: Shelf life of a refrigerated FNAC(Fine needle aspiration cytology) specimen
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Technical and Medical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) procedures may be used for rapid, cost effective, and apt diagnosis with reduced patient morbidity. Anatomical sites most commonly obtained from are breast, thyroid, lymph nodes, and deep soft tissue lesions. The FNAC specimen is usually refrigerated; in case, we need an additional smear or need to use additional stains for diagnosis. The tendency to refrigerate an FNAC specimen after smearing is quite usual, but it is important to know how long an FNAC will provide useful information if refrigerated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a refrigerated FNAC specimen. Materials and Methods: Five FNAC specimens were collected. They were smeared on alternative days till the 15th day. The smears were immediately fixed in alcohol. They were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin protocol and mounted. The slides were viewed and scored by two observers. The scoring was based on the quality of information provided by the smear on the basis of cellular content, nuclear details, cytoplasmic details, uniformity of spread, and background effect on the diagnosis. Results: There was no significant change in the quality of information produced by the slides smeared on the 15th day, but there was evidence of clumping of cells after a week due to increased viscosity of the FNAC specimen. After a period of 1 month, there was microbial overload of the specimen. Conclusion: The FNAC specimens can be refrigerated for a period of 2 weeks to provide quality information, further which shows clumping of cells and microbial contamination.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003518
Title: Awareness about the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of X-rays among undergraduate dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: It is a well-established fact that ionizing radiation such as X-rays causes damage to the cell and its DNA resulting in cellular death. Hence, by outlining the harmful effects of radiation on the human body, it is possible to create awareness among dental students about unnecessary exposure of their patients to dental X-rays. This survey aims at assessing the awareness about genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of X-rays among undergraduate dental students. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 undergraduate dental students studying in a private institution in Chennai were questioned through an online questionnaire about the choice of X-rays, exposure time for various radiographs, importance of effective dose, pregnancy and X-rays, and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) recommendations. Results: From the data obtained, it is seen that 51% of participants took X-rays when it is absolutely necessary which is considered to be the ideal protocol for diagnosis and 25% took X-rays for every patient. 40% of students were aware of the ALARA concept and implemented it in everyday practice, whereas 34% of students were aware but did not practice it clinically. This shows a discrepancy between theoretical knowledge and practical application which needs more focus. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that dental training for undergraduate students should aim at enhancing the concepts of limited radiation exposure, exposure during pregnancy, radiation protection, concept of ALARA, and the AERB recommendations. There still exists an imbalance between the knowledge and practical application of the same in day to day practice. Thus, it is seen that implementation of theoretical knowledge in clinical practice is needed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003519
Title: Alizarin red S – A procedure for staining bones
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study is to know about the skeletal framework of fish by staining the bones using Alizarin red S. This stain is widely used to evaluate the staining bones in cell culture, for dyeing textile fabrics. It became the first natural dye to be made synthetically. Alizarin red is the main constituents for the manufacture of the madder lake pigment. Materials and Methods: The chemicals required for the procedure are Formaldehyde solution, 50% potassium hydroxide (KOH), 1% Alizarin red S, Glycerol and Distilled water. The fish were killed and dipped in water with neutral formalin. Then, it was washed to remove all sludge. The scales were removed and immersed in solution containing 1% of Alizarin red S and 50% of KOH and left undisturbed. Results: This result in the staining of bones in pinkish-violet color which helps to know about the skeletal framework. Conclusion: This in vitro study helps to know about the skeletal framework of fish through the stain Alizarin red S. Thus, the staining of bones helps in disease detection and deposition of calcium.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003520
Title: A knowledge, attitude, and practice survey among endodontic postgraduate students toward regenerative endodontic procedures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The purpose of this survey was to assess the knowledge and opinion toward regenerative endodontic procedures among the endodontic postgraduate students of western part of India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 15 questions was formulated and circulated through electronic media among endodontic postgraduate students of the western part of India. These questions were based on their knowledge and opinion regarding the usage of regenerative endodontic procedures. Results: This survey revealed that more than two-thirds (87.40%) of the respondents had knowledge about regenerative procedures in endodontics. Most of the respondents (85.2%) felt that this treatment strategy should be incorporated into dentistry. However, the results indicated that one-third (33.3%) of the respondents were practicing regenerative therapy. Conclusion: The results reflected that though the postgraduate students were well versed with the regenerative endodontic procedures and were optimistic of implementing it, a need for additional training was felt.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003521
Title: Evaluation of blood pressure and pulse rate on before and after extraction of the tooth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The chance of dental extraction contributing as a risk factor for difference in blood pressure (BP) remains unknown. The rationale of this study was to assess the changes in the BP of the patient in pre- and post-extraction of the tooth. The aim of this study is to measure the BP before and after extraction. Materials and Methods: The study is conducted among 45 healthy individuals. People having respiratory and cardiac disease were excluded from this study. BP was measured using an electronic BP monitor before and after extraction of the tooth. Results will be discussed with statistics. Results and Discussion: According to the results obtained, systolic BP and diastolic BP are higher before extraction and become low after extraction. However, in the case of pulse rate, pulse rate is low before extraction and becomes high after extraction. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in blood pressure and pulse rate pre- and post-extraction of teeth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003522
Title: In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of isolated fraction 2 from Plectranthus amboinicus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: α-amylase and α-glycosidase are enzymes that play a vital in digesting carbohydrate into glucose which, in turn, prevents the rise of postprandial blood sugar in type 2 diabetes. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of isolated fraction 1 from the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of P. amboinicus leaves was subjected to thin-layer and column chromatography. Fractions were eluted with hexane and ethyl acetate in the ratio of 8:2. The isolated fraction 2 was subjected to α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assays. Results: Different concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 µg/ml) of isolated fraction 2 and acarbose were subjected individually to α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay and their absorbance was measured at 540 and 405 nm using a colorimeter. Isolated fraction 2 showed appreciable α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum percentage of inhibition was observed (78.15 ± 1.46) in alpha-amylase and 70.29 ± 0.66 in alpha-glucosidase enzymes at a concentration of 500 µg/ml of isolated fraction 2. The standard drug acarbose was shown maximum percentage of inhibition in alpha-amylase 81.78 ± 0.48% and 79.88 ± 0.33 in alpha-glucosidase at a concentration of 500 μg/ml. The results produced by isolated fraction 2 were comparable to that of acarbose – an antidiabetic drug. Conclusion: These results indicated that isolated fraction 2 exerted potent inhibitory effects against α-amylase and α-glucosidase which can be considered as a potential candidate for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further, the structure of the compound will be determined later based on the spectral data.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003523
Title: Role of honey on epidermal growth factor protein by immunohistochemistry in fibroblast cells
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Honey is a natural product that possess great antimicrobial, nutritive, and medicinal properties.Flavonoids and polyphenols are the main bioactive molecules seen in honey. Honey is capable of stimulating the monocytes to release tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and honey also reduces the “reactive intermediate release” and thus limits the tissue damage by activating macrophages during wound healing. Materials and Methods: Role of honey on epidermal growth factor protein was studied using immunohistochemistry technique on fibroblast cells. Result: This study proves the role of honey in improving the wound healing process.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003524
Title: Effects of beta-sitosterol on inflammatory cytokines in high-fat diet-fed type-2 diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: β-sitosterol is a naturally occurring plant sterol, ubiquitously found in many plants. It has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in experimental mice model. Despite the effect of β-sitosterol on inflammatory cytokines in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed type-2 diabetic rats is not known. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the effects of beta-sitosterol on inflammatory cytokines in HFD-fed type-2 diabetic rats. Methodology: β-sitosterol was administered orally to type-2 diabetic rats (20 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 30 days. After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized and liver from control and experimental animals was dissected out and the concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1 in serum sample of diabetes rats was determined by the use of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: In type-2 diabetic animals, the TNF-α and IL-1c were found to be elevated in HFD-induced type-2 diabetic rats when compared with control. The β-sitosterol treatment significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α and IL-1 in type-2 diabetic rats. Conclusion: Our present finding indicates that the antidiabetic activity of β-sitosterol on inflammatory cytokines in HFD-fed type-2 diabetic rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003525
Title: Remedial effects of β-sitosterol in high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in experimental rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: β-sitosterol is a naturally occurring plant sterol, ubiquitously found in many plants. It has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in experimental mice model. Despite the effect of β-sitosterol on oxidative stress in high-fat diet (HFD) fed type-2 diabetic rats is not known. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the remedial effects of β-sitosterol in HFD-induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Methodology: Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain 150–180 days old with 180–200 g body weight were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each: Group I – normal rats; Group II – type 2 diabetic rats; Group III – type 2 diabetic rat treated with β-sitosterol (20 mg/kg b.wt/day), orally for 30 days; Group IV – type 2 diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg, b.wt/day orally for 30 days). After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized and the liver from control and experimental animals was immediately dissected and used for the further study. Results: In type 2 diabetic animals, compared to control, the hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), hydroxyl radical (OH*), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the liver of diabetic rats were significantly raised. β-sitosterol notably brought down the rise in H2 O2 , OH*, and LPO. Conclusion: Our present finding indicates that the antidiabetic activity of β-sitosterol on oxidative stress in HFD fed type-2 diabetic rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003526
Title: Estimation of salivary superoxide dismutase levels in chronic periodontitis patients with or without coronary heart disease
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Chronic periodontitis (CP) is an infectious disease which is caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which settles in the subgingival biofilm and leads to the destruction of the soft and hard tissues around the teeth. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the levels of salivary superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in CP level. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on subjects reporting to the Department of Periodontology at a Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, SIMATS, Chennai, India. A sample of 15 was determined as the minimum in each group to estimate and to calculate for the statistical analysis. Results: Lower levels of antioxidants in diseased states of CP and coronary heart disease (CHD) point toward the conclusion that the disease process is a result of a balance tipped in favor of the oxidants, with failure of antioxidants to balance the oxidant levels. Conclusion: It is concluded that SOD levels in the saliva are proportionately decreased in CP with CHD and hence salivary SOD levels can be a biomarker for the CP+CHD as a non-invasive method.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003527
Title: Effects of β-sitosterol on serum, adiponectin, and leptin levels in high-fat diet and fructose-induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: β-sitosterol is a naturally occurring plant sterol, ubiquitously found in many plants. It has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in experimental mice model. Despite, the effect of β-sitosterol on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in high-fat diet (HFD) and fructose-induced diabetic rats is not known. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the effects of beta-sitosterol on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in HFD and fructose-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: β-sitosterol was administered orally to Type-2 diabetic rats (20 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 30 days. After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized and the liver from control and experimental animals was dissected out, and the concentration of adiponectin and leptin in serum sample of diabetes rats was determined by the use of a commercial ELISA Kit. Results: In Type-2 diabetic animals, decrease in the level of adiponectin and a concomitant increase in the leptin levels were observed in Type-2 diabetic experimental rats, whereas β-sitosterol treatment significantly restored the altered levels in type- 2 diabetic experimental rats. Conclusion: Our present finding indicates that β-sitosterol plays a significant role in the regulation of circulating adiponectin and leptin levels in HFD and fructose-induced Type-2 diabetic rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003528
Title: Effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Morinda citrifolia and irrigants against Streptococcus mutans biofilm
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Morinda citrifolia is a fruit-bearing tree in the coffee family, Rubiaceae. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used as carriers for delivering various payloads to specific targets. AgNPs showed more inhibitory actions against human pathogens than crude plant extract; this shows the antimicrobial value against pathogenic diseases. Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the antimicrobial activity of M. citrifolia coated AgNPs against Streptococcus mutans species. Materials and Methods: S. mutans biofilm formation: S. mutans UA159 was cultured in brain heart infusion medium in a favorable condition to form a biofilm and they were cultured aerobically at 37°C for 2 days for colony-forming unit counting. Minimum inhibitory concentration of M. citrifolia extract was examined against S. mutans. Inhibition potential of the extract on preformed biofilm was analyzed. Results: The AgNPs coated with M. citrifolia extract showed the greatest inhibition effect at high concentration. The inhibitory activity increases with increase in concentration of the extract. Conclusion: The AgNPs had a comparatively good inhibitory power, even though ciprofloxacin had higher inhibition, M. citrifolia coated NPs can be used because they are naturally synthesized and does not have any side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003529
Title: Effects of yoga on health status and physical fitness an ecological approach – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Yoga has been the subject of research in the past few decades for therapeutic purposes for modern epidemic diseases like mental stress, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Individual studies report beneficial effect of yoga in these conditions, indicating that it can be used as nonpharmaceutical measure or complement to drug therapy for treatment of these conditions. However, these studies have used only yoga asana, pranayama, and/ or short periods of meditation for therapeutic purposes. General perception about yoga is also the same, which is not correct. Yoga in fact means union of individual consciousness with the supreme consciousness. It involves eight rungs or limbs of yoga, which include yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi. Intense practice of these leads to self-realization, which is the primary goal of yoga. An analytical look at the rungs and the goal of yoga shows that it is a holistic way of life leading to a state of complete physical, social, mental, and spiritual well-being and harmony with nature. This is in contrast to purely economic and material developmental goal of modern civilization, which has brought social unrest and ecological devastation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003530
Title: Stress-related eating behavior in adults with obesity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Stress eating or emotional eating is nothing but consuming food in response to any sorts of emotion, particularly when one is not hungry. The level of stress hormone called cortisol goes up while we are stressed, due to this reason, the insulin level rises and our blood sugar drops down so that we crave for sugary and fatty foods. Aim: The aim of the study is to access the prevalence of the stress-related eating behavior among obese adults as a major aspect. Objective: This study is to explore whether stress causes the abnormal eating behavioral habit among the young obese adults or not. Materials and Methods: Compulsive Eating Scale and the Stressful Situations Questionnaire were given to 43 males and 101 females participants of the age groups of 18–35 years and 36–55 years. Each participant was advised to fill the survey questionnaire honestly. The next step was to collect the survey for statistical analysis for the overall population. Results: The results show that about 66% of the population has abnormal eating behavior only due to stress. Conclusion: Thus, the results significantly imply that abnormal eating behavior is mostly prevalent only due to stress in obese adults.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003531
Title: Prevalence of respiratory disease among urban population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of respiratory disease among urban population. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess the occurrence of respiratory disease among urban population. Materials and Methods: The participants choosed for this study is from urban population and the participants were selected randomly and finally all the data were compiled for statistical analysis. Results: At the end of the survey, all data were collected properly and analyzed statistically. Conclusions: In urban population due to increased level of traffic and vehicle emission, their lifestyles are at a bigger risk of respiratory complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003532
Title: Comparative study on the impact of cardiovascular disease prevalence among males and females
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is a class of disease that has heart and group of blood vessels involved. Cardiovascular disease is a disease that has heart and group of blood vessels involved. Other disease includes stroke and heart failure which is caused by the increase of high blood pressure (BP), smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity and poor diet. Materials and Methods: A sample of size of 100 was collected among males and females under the age category of 18–65 years. The questions were prepared regarding the topic and developed with the help of SurveyPlanet software. The results were compiled for statistical analyses. Results: There was a significant increase in the peak flow rate (P < 0.005) in which it was found that women are more prone to cardiovascular disease than males. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that obesity, lack of exercise, and other hormonal changes lead to cardiovascular disease in females.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003533
Title: Effect of aerobics on women among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Aerobic exercise contributes to optimum health and quality of life. Lifestyles can be changed to improve health and fitness and produces beneficial changes in body and mind. Many physiological changes are determined. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 100 women. This study was carried out through questionnaire and it consists of 15questions. It mainly deals about the knowledge and awareness of aerobics. The questionnaire was circulated through SurveyPlanet. The data were collected and analyzed by statistics. Results: On the survey, it is found that aerobic exercise plays an important role in the life of women which strengthen the bones, heart, and lungs. However, women are not doing this exercise regularly due to paucity of time and less awareness about this exercise. It is very advisable for women to do the aerobic exercises regularly to maintain their body in healthy condition. Conclusion: Finally, we conclude that doing aerobic exercise is good for health of the women. Hence, we have to allot time to do the exercise for controlling blood pressure, sugar, and cardiac disease and to have a disease-free life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003534
Title: Antibiotics resistance patterns among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from different clinical samples
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Al-Farabi University College, Baghdad, Iraq
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Background: Enterobacteriaceae members can cause a wide range of infections such as urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infection, soft tissue infections, wound infections, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Antibiotics resistance patterns and multiple antibiotics resistance (MAR) index are a good tool for health risk assessment which identifies if isolates are from a region of high or low antibiotic use. Materials and Methods: A total of 227 Gram-negative, oxidase negative bacilli with different lactose fermentation ability were isolated from different clinical samples (211 urine, 10 stool, 4 sputum, and 2 wounds). Results: The results revealed that 184 (81.1%) of isolates while non-lactose fermenter consist of 43 (18.94%). Antibiotics resistance for 10 antibiotics (of 8 classes) was performed according to the CLSI 2016 and the results revealed that 170 (74.88%), 107 (47.13%), 105 (46.25%), 93 (40.96%), 69 (30.39%), 67 (29.51%), 67 (29.51%), 60 (26.43%), 57 (25.11%), and 34 (14.97%) for cefotaxime, aztreonam, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, levofloxacin, gentamycin, and chloramphenicol, respectively. Antibiotics resistance patterns may include multidrug resistance (MDR), extensive-drug resistance (XDR), and pan-drug resistance (PDR). The results revealed that 119 (52.43%) were MDR while the rest 108 (47.57%) were non-MDR. None of the isolates be XDR or PDR. MAR index can be used as assessment tools to show the antibiotics usage volume in a specific region. The MDR isolates show low-risk MAR index (0.3–0.5) in 67 (56.30%) of MDR isolates while 52 (43.7%) of MDR isolates show high-risk MAR index (0.6–0.9). The dominant coresistance among MDR isolates is β-lactam/aminoglycosides/fluoroquinolones/tetracyclines which compile about 56 (47%). Conclusion: The current study concludes high frequency of MDR and high MAR index with coresistance of three big antibiotics classes members β-lactam, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones among Enterobacteriaceae.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003535
Title: Study of some biochemical, hematological parameters, insulin resistance, and clinical markers for β-thalassemia patients in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Governorate
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathological Analysis Techniques, Al-Zahraw University College, Karbala, Iraq
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Background: Thalassemia is considered as an inherited autosomal recessive blood disease synthesis rate of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin (Hb) is reduced due to genetic defect. This reduction leads to form abnormal Hb which, in turn, causes the anemia, and this considers as the main characteristic symptoms of thalassemia. Materials and Methods: The number of patients with thalassemia that included in this study was 60 participants. The range of patient’s age was between 5 and 12 years. These participants were diagnosed as thalassemic patients in thalassemia central at “Al-Zahra’a Teaching Hospital” in Najaf Governorate-Iraq. All these patients had β-thalassemia major as recorded to exclude elevated ferritin. These patients had treated blood transfusion and had a negative serum, C-reactive protein (CRP) was determined by the selection of 30 healthy children as a control group. Serum iron (S. iron) and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) were diagnosed in spectrophotometrically. Results: Thalassemic patients showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in all iron indices in comparison with the control group except TIBC were decreased significant (P < 0.05). Insulin resistance (IR) is high by four methods that include determination quantitative insulin check index (QUIKI), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), fasting insulin (FI), and McAuley (McA). IR found in 17 (28.3%), 27 (45%), 38 (63.3%), and 40 (66.7%) out of the 60 beta-thalassemia by FI, McA, QUICKi, and HOMA, respectively. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationships between insulin, interleukin-8 (IL-8), CRP, ferritin, S. iron, TIBC, body mass index levels, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) with IR results also show that the mean value of serum insulin was significantly high (P < 0.05) in beta-thalassemia patients group. Also Serum IL-8 mean value was high in beta-thalassemia patients group. Conclusions: The current study concludes significant elevations in serum insulin, ferritin, S. iron, and HbA1C with a nonsignificant decline CRP in β-thalassemia and NIDDM patients in comparison with normal subjects due to metabolic effect of β-thalassemia and diabetes itself.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00003536
Title: Production and properties of biosurfactant from the local isolation of Candida spp.
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Basra University, Basra, Iraq
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Background: This study aimed to produce biosurfactants from a local isolate of Candida yeast and evaluate the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum biosurfactant production conditions (including pH, temperature, fermentation time, shaker-incubator speed, and inoculum volume) were also investigated. The biosurfactants were produced from two yeast isolates, namely, Candida albicans and Candida lipolytica. Material and Methods :The ability of isolates to produce biosurfactant was based on the estimation of emulsification activity, emulsification index, surface tension, oil displacement, and critical micelle concentration (CMC). Results: Results showed that the biosurfactant yield was 9 g/l, the surface tension decreased from 71 to 28 mN/m, and the CMC concentration was 1.4%. Emulsification activity depended on the determination of production capability. The quantitative and qualitative screening outputs of isolation demonstrated that the maximum activity on the wavelength of 540 nm using sunflower oil was 1.65 and that the best effect of environmental and nutritional factors on biosurfactant production was recorded by C. lipolytica. The model condition of production was investigated by evaluating the emulsification activity for the cell-free culture medium, which contained 1% glucose as a carbon source. Furthermore, its recorded activity was 2.251. A total of 2% urea was used as a nitrogen source with an activity of 2.141 and pH 4 in (2.185) activity and temperature 30°C with 2.285 as activity and 2.241 as activity for a period 72 h in shaking incubator under 180 rpm with activity (2.017) and inoculum volume 1% with activity (2.301) effectiveness was measured at 540 nm. Conclusions: This study concludes that the C. lipolytica isolate has a high capacity for biosurfactant production. The modification of growth medium reflects a positive effect on biosurfactant production, especially when monosaccharide and urea are used as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003537
Title: Antibacterial activity of metabolites isolated from local soil Actinomycetes spp.
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq
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Background: Microbial diseases have increased in recent years and have become a threat to public health. The most threatening threat to the world is the resistance of microbes to drugs. The study aims to isolate some Actinomycetes that produce antimicrobial metabolites from different soil. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples of different soils were randomly collected from different parts of Hilla city and studied soils properties (pH, temperature, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and relative humidity). Actinomycetes were isolated using serial dilution and plated on the International Streptomyces Project type-2 media medium. A total of 33 Actinomycetes strains were isolated and studied their morphology and cross streaked against various human microbial pathogens. Results: Only 13 isolates showed high antibacterial against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria through primary screening. Secondary metabolic products were extracted from extracellular and intracellular and tested for its activity against pathogenic bacteria using the well diffusion method. The diameters of the inhibition zone were measured for extracellular and intracellular extracts. The diameters of the inhibition zone ranged from 13 to 33 against Gram-positive bacteria and 6.3–39.2 mm against Gram-negative bacteria for extracellular extracts and ranged from 18 to 30.5 mm against Gram-positive bacteria using intracellular extracts and from 9.5 to 32.3 mm against Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion: The current study concludes the antibacterial activity of Actinomycetes metabolites with different spectrum and inhibition zone like those resulted from carbapenems.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003538
Title: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles as antibacterial agents against some pathogenic bacteria
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Research Center, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq
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Background: Today, many of studies have been done to investigate the efficacy of antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs) against the pathogens as drug resistance bacteria and metal NPs have been reported with antimicrobial properties. Materials and Methods: In the present study, titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) NPs with 35 nm size were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared then investigates their antibacterial activity, antibiofilm formation, and invasion against various pathogenic bacteria from Gram-positive Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, and Serratia marcescens. Antimicrobial activity of TiO2 NPs was examined by disk diffusion assay using dilutions of 500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25 µg/ml also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of each isolate is determined. Results: TiO2 NPs show powerful broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against tested bacteria with increase in inhibition zone diameter that is directly proportional with the increase in NP concentration that even exceeded the activity of selected antibiotics. The MIC of TiO2 NPs ranged from 125 μg/ml to 31.25 μg/ml and the MBC ranged from 125 μg/ml to 500 μg/ml. The metal NPs highly inhibited bacterial biofilm growth and invasion, other studies show that TiO2 NPs strongly attached to the bacterial cells that contributed to their inhibitory effect on bacterial biofilm growth formation and invasion. We showed that bacterial biofilm growth was reduced at MIC concentrations of TiO2 NPs compared with another test without the NPs. Conclusion: NPs with a suitable concentration are reduced the biofilm growth significantly. It is highly recommended using TiO2 NPs as an economic alternative antibacterial and antibiofilm agent, especially in treating ectopic infections without taking the risk of developing resistant bacterial strains as with antibiotics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003539
Title: Effects of apple cider vinegar on diabetic and obese patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is made from fermented apple juice, it is used for reducing cholesterol, regulating blood pressure, sore throats, to get rid of toxins, arthritis, osteoporosis, stimulate thinking and so on. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of ACV among diabetic and obese individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 diabetic patients (mean 140.6 + 2.13 mg/dl; range 105–156 mg/dl) of age group of 45–57 years and 10 obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 27.4 + 0.33 kg/m2 ; range 25–31.2 kg/m2 ) of age group of 18–59 years were made to drink 20 ml ACV in 200 ml water every day before bed. This was continued for 30 days regularly. The fasting blood glucose level of each patient was measured using glucometer before the experiment was conducted in case of diabetic patients. BMI of the patient was used as a parameter to note the weight change before and after consumption of ACV. Results: The BMI of before and after consumption of ACV was 27.4 ± 0.33 and 26.9 ± 0.32, we can observe the significant decrease in BMI. The diabetic patient had a decrease in blood glucose level from 140.6 ± 2.13 to 121.9 ± 2.28. The result was proved significant with P < 0.05.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003540
Title: Acceptance of various behavior management techniques by parents
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Dentist plays a unique role in the treatments plan for the pediatric patient. Without a proper behavior management technique (BMT), there would not be a successful treatment outcome. The reason for this study is to evaluate the various accepted BMTs by parents so that when such BMT s are performed on kids, parents should not get offended. Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze the various accepted BMTs by parents. Materials and Methods: The study is carried out by preparing a questionnaire containing 12 questions which are to be circulated among randomly selected parent group population using an online survey tool – survey planet. 100 questionnaires were filled. The questionnaire was used to analyze the various accepted BMTs by parents. General awareness about the type of BMT was also analyzed among parent group population. Results: This study gives us data that most parents accept Tell-Show-Do (TSD) technique followed by pharmacological techniques such as sedation and general anesthesia. Invasive techniques such as hand over mouth exercise, papoose board, and voice control were the least preferable ones. Conclusion: From this study, we can conclude that there is a drastic change in acceptance of various BMTs by parents for the past few decades. At present, the trend of moving into the pharmacological technique of behavior management is showing growth in acceptability among parents. Most of the parents do not prefer any kind of invasive BMTs such as voice control, papoose board, hand over mouth, and apart from these many parents readily accepted for TSD technique as this technique is parent and patient-friendly.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003541
Title: Bone grafts, substitutes, and various ridge augmentation procedures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Bone resorption is a natural phenomenon and can occur due to old age, loss of teeth, prolonged denture wear, and as a result of systemic conditions. For the replacement of teeth by fabrication of prosthesis or the use of implants, a minimum amount of bone density is required. Bone grafting is a method by which bone-deficient areas are built up, with the use of different materials, such as autografts, allografts, alloplasts, and xenografts. Over recent times, the use of frozen bone matrix formulations and synthetic ceramics has been used in greater frequency. This article discusses the use of human bone material (allografts), synthetic materials (alloplasts), and blood components as successful grafting materials. Their use has shown an effective amount of bone formation and proliferation in the defective sites and proves to be a beneficial choice in bringing back lost bone.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003542
Title: Awareness on various restraints in perceiving orthodontic treatment among the adolescent age group
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: There is a need for orthodontic treatment in the adolescent age group as almost all the individuals need orthodontic treatment to correct there occlusion. This study is carried out to evaluate the attitude of patients toward various restraints in perceiving orthodontic treatment among adolescent age group and also to have an idea on awareness about orthodontic treatment among the adolescent age group. Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze various restraints in perceiving orthodontic treatment among the adolescent age group. Materials and Methods: The study is carried out by preparing a questionnaire containing 13 questions which are to be circulated among randomly selected adolescent age group population using an online survey tool – survey planet. 100 questionnaires were filled. The questionnaire was used to analyze the various restraints in perceiving orthodontic treatment. General awareness about orthodontic treatment was also analyzed among adolescent age group population. Results: Nearly 73% adolescent population stated 2 years duration of treatment is major restraint in perceiving orthodontic treatment, 78% of population stated cost as restraint in perceiving orthodontic treatment, and 78% population did not undergo orthodontic treatment as they did not want their esthetics to be compromised for 2 years duration. Most of them also stated that they did not perceive orthodontic treatment as they could not reach the specialist; hence, it was also known that there is less number of specialist in the population. Conclusion: The main restraint encountered or faced by an adolescent individual in perceiving orthodontic treatment is the financial crisis which is not met due to the high cost of the treatment, following which long duration of treatment also serves as a restraint in perceiving orthodontic treatment. Other restraints in perceiving orthodontic treatment include undergoing extraction for treatment, dietary changes for the next 2 years, the unesthetic appearance of the orthodontic appliance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003543
Title: Awareness on the management of periodontally compromised abutments in fixed partial denture – A cross-sectional survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Periodontal health is a prerequisite of successful comprehensive dentistry. To achieve the long-term therapeutic targets of comfort, good function, treatment predictability, longevity, and ease of restorative and maintenance care, active periodontal infection must be treated and controlled before the initiation of restorative dentistry. Periodontal treatment is undertaken to ensure the establishment of stable gingival margins before tooth preparation. Non-inflamed, healthy tissues are less likely to change as a result of subgingival restorative treatment or post-restoration periodontal care. Hence, certain measures should be taken for periodontally compromised abutments in fixed partial denture (FPD). Aim: The aim of the study was to create awareness on the management of periodontally compromised abutments in FPD. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire with 15 questions will be prepared and circulated among 100 undergraduates, postgraduates and practitioners from Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. Level of confidence and awareness was rated according to the interns and practitioners knowledge and the capacity. Data collection and analysis will be done based on frequencies and percentage values using SPSS software. Results: Nearly 32% of participants say that prognosis of FPD in periodontally compromised abutments is compromised, 26% of participants say fair, 25% of participants say poor, and 16% of participants say good prognosis. 42% of participants answered that bone grafting can be done in periodontally compromised abutments, 13% of them does not practice bone grafting and 41% of them were not sure about it. Conclusion: In the present study, the awareness rate on the management of periodontally compromised abutments in FPD among 100 undergraduates, postgraduates, and practitioners was moderate, hence to improve more knowledge and awareness certain awareness programs, dental education programs should be undertaken.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003544
Title: Choice of suture material and management of surgical wounds
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Suturing is a crucial part of any oral surgical procedure. Sutures are of two types – absorbable and nonabsorbable. The main aim of the present study is to perform a knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental students based on the choice of suture material and the technique for the management of surgical wounds. Aim: The objective of the study was to perform a knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental students based on the choice of suture material and the technique for the management of surgical wounds. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 100 dental practitioners who perform surgical procedures was considered as participants. A questionnaire comprises 10 questions on the incidence, technique, and management of suture materials and surgical wounds. The subjects were made to fill the questionnaire through an online portal. The recordings were made individually by the investigator and results were analyzed. All the data were arranged in a tabulated form and analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The results inferred from the study show that 74% of dental practitioners opted for resorbable sutures and 29% have experienced complications post-treatment such as stitch abscess. 44% of the participants feel they are aware of the resorption time of sutures. Conclusion: From the study, we can conclude that there is sufficient knowledge among the dental practitioners regarding the suturing technique and type of sutures for the management of surgical wounds.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003545
Title: Antibacterial activity of Caralluma fimbriata against enteric pathogens – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: Caralluma fimbriata is a certain species of the Caralluma genus that appears to have historical usage as a famine food, appetite suppressant, and thirst quencher when the vegetables are boiled and salted. C. fimbriata appears to require up to a month or so to work for appetite suppression. Enteric pathogens refer to any microorganism or substances that are capable of producing disease in the small intestine. Enteric bacterial pathogens mainly cause diarrhea and gastroenteritis. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity is determined by the disk diffusion method by adopting in vitro standard protocols. Plant material: C. fimbriata ethanolic extract is obtained from Green Chem Herbal Extracts and Formulations, Bengaluru. Conclusion: The study reveals that C. fimbriata is a potential candidate for the treatment of diarrhea caused by enteric pathogens food spoilage and is often caused by the growth of many pathogenic bacterial strains. Prevention of food spoilage in the food industry and food stuff is mainly based on the application of chemical preservatives. The plant extracts which proved to be potentially effective and can be used as natural alternative preventives to control food poisoning diseases and preserve foodstuff avoiding health hazards of chemically antimicrobial agent applications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003546
Title: Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Ocimum basilicum – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. They play an important role in inhibition and radical scavenging, thus providing protection against diseases. A great number of medicinal plants contain chemical compounds which possess antioxidant activities. Natural antioxidants are mainly phenolic compounds that may exist in all parts of the plants. Antioxidant potential of the ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum was studied using different in vitro free radical scavenging models such as 2, 2 Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide. The DPPH results have been compared with the standard ascorbic acid. The extract showed good dose- dependent free radical scavenging property in both the models used in this study. Materials and Methods: The free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract of O. basilicum was determined using DPPH using ultraviolet-spectrometry at 517 nm. The DPPH solution was prepared in 95% methanol. Conclusion: In vitro, antioxidant effects of O. basilicum were tested using DPPH and catalase method. The extract O. basilicum expressed the strongest antioxidant activity. The extracts of O. basilicum leaves showed good free radical scavenging activity. The broad range of antioxidant activity of this extract indicates the potential of the plant as a source of natural antioxidants with potential application to reduce oxidative stress and consequent health benefits. The plant may thus be exploited in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The study, therefore, not only reveals the spices as accessible reservoirs of natural antioxidants to be utilizes nutritionally and pharmaceutically but also very importantly, provides good scientific justification for increased domestication of these plants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003547
Title: Awareness about side effects of corticosteroids among dental students – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Corticosteroids are substances that are naturally produced in our body. They are produced by the adrenal glands and regulate our immune system and the salt-water balance and water in our system and help to reduce inflammation. Corticosteroids include two main classes which are glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Glucocorticoids such as cortisol affect carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism and have anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, antiproliferative, and vasoconstrictive effects. Mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone are primarily involved in the regulation of electrolyte and water balance by modulating ion transport in the epithelial cells of the renal tubules of the kidney. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the awareness of dental students about the harmful effects of corticosteroids. Methodology: A structured, self-assessed online questionnaire eliciting information regarding side effects of corticosteroids was prepared and circulated among the students in Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. The data collected were tabulated and assessed. Results: Nearly 81% of respondents knew about corticosteroids whereas 19% were not aware of the applications of steroids in dentistry. 72% said they were aware of the adverse effects of this drug while 28% said they were not aware of the side effects of corticosteroids. Conclusion: The present study shows that the majority of the students were aware of what corticosteroids are and their adverse effects and can use this knowledge in their future practices.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003548
Title: Awareness of stereolithography among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge about stereolithography (SLA) and its applications among dental students. Introduction: Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer-aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer-aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the 1st time, a prototype in health care. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called SLA were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Vienna. Materials and Methods: This study included 112 subjects. A questionnaire containing six questions was framed and survey was conducted using “SURVERYPLANET.” Results were obtained and tabulated. Results: The obtained results showed that only 24% of dental students were aware of SLA and its applications. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is not enough awareness about SLA and its uses among dental students and that it should be used more frequently considering its advantages.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003549
Title: Awareness on acupuncture in the management of orofacial pain among dentists
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study thus aims at understanding the knowledge among dentists regarding the use of acupuncture therapy in the management of orofacial pain. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The study population comprised undergraduate dental students from all the years (1st year, 2nd year, 3rd year, final year, and interns), staff members and private dental practitioners. A detailed questionnaire containing questions pertaining to the demographic status along with questions related to the knowledge of the participant about the use of acupuncture in orofacial pain management was structured. The questionnaire was distributed to the participants and the answers were registered. The results were obtained after statistical analysis and interpreted. Results: Out of 350 only 90 participants were aware of the mechanism of acupuncture. Only 40 were aware of its use in acute and chronic pain management. Only 28 were aware of its use in neurological pain management and only 49 were aware of its use in TMD pain management. 34 participants felt that acupuncture has side effects and 40 only knew that the pain relief was permanent. 306 participants wanted to undergo training in acupuncture. 29 knew that acupuncture causes selective anesthesia in the region of pain. Moreover, 51 were willing to refer their patients with orofacial pain for acupuncture therapy. Conclusion: Awareness about the use of acupuncture in the management of orofacial pain has to be improved and dentists should be trained on those grounds to help manage orofacial pain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003550
Title: Awareness on functional orthodontic treatment among dental students in Chennai city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Functional appliances are used for growth modification procedures that are aimed at intercepting and treating jaw discrepancies. Certain studies reveal that there is a lack of knowledge among dental students on functional orthodontic therapy. This study aims to assess the awareness on functional orthodontic therapy among dental students in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey among 50 dental students pursuing final year and internship in Chennai city. 15 questions eliciting information about the knowledge about awareness on functional orthodontic treatment were framed. The responses obtained from the participants were compiled, processed further, and analyzed. Various studies were referred to gain more knowledge to improvise the study. Results: On analyzing the results and comparing with recent similar studies, knowledge about awareness on functional orthodontic treatment is inadequate among dental students. Conclusion: This study concludes that the knowledge about awareness on functional orthodontic treatment among dental students in Chennai city is inadequate. Hence, vigorous dental awareness programs or lectures should be arranged to address this concern.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003551
Title: Awareness of diagnosis and management of oral pemphigoid lesions
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the awareness of diagnosis and management of oral pemphigoid lesions. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Saveetha Dental College, Velappanchavadi, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. A total of 50 medical students of both genders (15 males and 35 females), who had finished their 1st and 2nd year clinical courses participated in this study. The 3rd year, final year students and interns who had been exposed to oral pathology and oral medicine classes were selected. The questionnaire comprising 10 points relating to the vesiculobullous lesion, types of pemphigoid lesions, diagnostic techniques used, and management of oral pemphigoid lesions was provided to all the students. The students will be explained about the questionnaire and asked to respond fearlessly. The questionnaire will be collected back from students and results will be analyzed. Results: In the present study, the students were aware of the term vesiculobullous lesions, the types of oral pemphigoid lesions, and the signs and symptoms of the disease. They were also aware of the diagnostic techniques used. However, they were not confident in choosing the best diagnostic techniques for evaluation of the disease. Most of the students answered that the best techniques for diagnosing oral pemphigoid lesions as indirect immunofluorescence which is only the confirmatory test. The students were aware that the corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of the disease. The students were not confident enough to diagnose and treat such patients. Conclusion: Oral pemphigoid lesions, being a potentially fatal disease, require early diagnosis as well as early treatment to prevent future complications. Hence, there is a need to increase the awareness of students in diagnosing and treating the oral pemphigoid lesions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003552
Title: Awareness of incidence and management of nerve injuries during implant treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Nerve injury is one of the most serious complications in implant dentistry. This nerve injury can occur during local anesthesia, implant osteotomy, or implant placement. This study discusses the cause of nerve injury and its diagnosis, prevention, and management during implant treatment. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine the incidence and management of nerve injuries during implant treatment. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 100 dental practitioners who perform implant procedure was considered as participants. A questionnaire comprising 16 questions on the incidence and management of nerve injuries and the recordings were made individually by the investigator and results were analyzed. Results: The results inferred from the study show that nerve injuries during implant treatment have been experienced by 25% of dental practitioners and the patients have experienced complications post-treatment. 42% of the participants feel that they do not have enough knowledge about the incidence and management of nerve injuries. Conclusion: Nerve injuries during implant treatment are not rare and there is not enough awareness among practitioners, so awareness programs and workshops must be conducted in this field.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003553
Title: Cardiovascular risk of epinephrine use in hypertensive dental patient
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Epinephrine is widely used as an additive in local anesthetics (typically in concentrations of 1:100,000) to improve the depth and duration of the anesthesia, as well as to reduce bleeding in the operative field. Epinephrine counteracts the anesthetic’s localized vasodilator effects in subcutaneous and submucosal vessels, thereby reducing the risk of anesthetic toxicity by decreasing the rate of systemic absorption from the site of injection. Epinephrine is also impregnated in the cotton cord that is inserted into the sulcus between a tooth and the surrounding gingiva, as a gingival retraction cord improving access for tooth preparation and allowing dental impression material to more readily flow into the sulcus to record details of teeth prepared for crowns. The epinephrine likewise tightens the blood supply to contiguous tissue, in this manner allowing the impression to be secured without contamination by bleeding. Hypertension affects nearly 50 million people in the United States and underlies most cardiovascular disease; its diagnosis and control should be of concerned to all health-care providers. Many people have undetected hypertension, and current levels of detection and control need to be improved. Clinical implications: All health-care providers, including dentists and members of the dental team, need to be involved in the detection and management of this important public health problem. The dentist can play an important role in the detection and management of hypertension.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003554
Title: Comparative evaluation of rapid prototyping and computer-aided milling in prosthodontics – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The evolution of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture and rapid m-shift prototyping technologies has led to a dramatic paradigm shift in all disciplines of dentistry, especially in the fields of prosthodontics and restorative dentistry. The integration of these systems with advances in biomaterials, such as zirconia high strength ceramics, has led to an overhaul in prosthodontic patient education and health care. This article aims at reviewing the advantages, disadvantages of the use of rapid prototyping and computer-aided milling in prosthodontics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003555
Title: Considerations of general anesthetics in pediatric dentistry – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Pediatric patients present unique anatomic, physiologic, and pharmacologic considerations for the management of anesthesia in the presence of diseases that occur exclusively or with increased frequency in this age group. Neonates generally up to 28 days of age and infants comprise the age group, in which differences from adults are most marked. Neonates are more likely to experience adverse perioperative cardiopulmonary events. Pediatric patients deserve special considerations during administration of general anesthesia with respect to anatomic, physiologic, and pharmacologic differences from adults.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003556
Title: Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of root canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors in Chennai population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the root canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors using cone- beam computed tomography (CBCT) in Chennai population based on Vertucci classification. Methods and Materials: The study was conducted on 40 CBCT scans of bilateral mandibular sides of patients of both sexes and ranging in the age of 18–49 years. The CBCT was collected from the Department of Oral Radiology, Saveetha Dental College. The inclusion criteria of this present study were included in the study: (i) No obvious dental caries, (ii) fully formed root canal apices without resorption or calcification, (iii) absence of root canal fillings, posts, and crown restoration, (iv) CBCT images of good quality, and (v) CBCT images which included the desired area of interest. The teeth involved were investigated for the number of roots, number of root canal per tooth, and root canal pattern (Vertucci 1984). Results: All the permanent mandibular incisors have a single root. Majority of the incisors had single canal. The prevalence of the second canal was found in 7.5% of mandibular central incisors and 13.7% mandibular lateral incisors. According to gender, 12.1% of mandibular incisors of males and 9.9% of mandibular incisors of females had second canal. Vertucci Type I (55.2%) was the most commonly seen root canal configuration in central incisors, followed by Type III (28.4%), Type V (9%), Type IV (4.5%), and Type II (3%). In case of lateral incisors, the most common was Type I (57.5%), followed by Type III (22.5%), Type IV (8.8%), Type V (6.3%), and Type II (5%). Conclusion: Vertucci Type I was the most common configuration in the mandibular incisors of Chennai population. Type II was the least common configuration. Incidence of two canals is higher in males than females and higher in mandibular lateral incisors than in mandibular central incisors. Proper attention should be given to the detection of a second canal during root canal treatment. CBCT provides an excellent imaging modality for the detection of different canal configurations of mandibular incisors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003557
Title: Diabetes mellitus: Dental consideration
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequently encountered pathologies by dentists as a result of its high prevalence worldwide. It is diagnosed by obtaining a fasting plasma glucose levels of 126 mg/dl or higher or glycosylated hemoglobin of 6.5% or higher. Diabetes (especially, if it is uncontrolled) is associated with a greater risk of periodontal disease, which is the most frequent complication. Other commonly reported manifestations are sialadenosis, xerostomia, and burning mouth syndrome. Dental caries, oral lichen planus, and candidosis, based on recent studies, are not significantly higher incidence in these patients. For dental treatment, the type of diabetes suffered, the treatment given for the disease, and the glycemic control status (using the glycosylated hemoglobin test) should be known. Patients should receive short early morning appointments to reduce stress and anxiety. The dentist has to be aware of the possible occurrence of an acute complication (hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia). Furthermore, these patients suffer from delayed wound healing and major susceptibility to infections.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003558
Title: Dentinal hypersensitivity – A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim/Background: Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a common finding with different prevalence rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of DH and associated risk factors and to study the prevalence of DH and related risk factors in common population of India. Objective: In contrast to the well-established caries epidemiology, data on dentin hypersensitivity seem to be scarce and contradictory. This questionnaire deals with dentin hypersensitivity and assesses its prevalence, distribution, and potential changes. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 subjects reporting dentine sensitivity were included in the study comprising 85 males and 115 females. Questionnaire regarding data such as gender, age, educational level were collected to assess the prevalence of DH in Chennai. The relationship between DH and social class which determined by the occupation status was examined. Results: Our study showed prevalence as 55% and it was more common among males. Similarly, smokers and those who use hard toothbrush had more cases of DH. Most aggravating factors were cold water (92%) and sweet foods (34.4%), whereas only 19.8% of the patients had it while brushing. Conclusion: Most commonly affected teeth were mandibular incisors. The other factors related to DH were the socioeconomic status, lower education level, and access to dental care. The periodontal factors related to hypersensitivity were gingival recession and poor oral hygiene.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003559
Title: Effectiveness of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in the management of post-extraction pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors in the management of post-extraction pain. Background: Dental pain is associated with fear and avoidance of dental treatment by many people. Extractions being one of the most common procedures in dentistry are associated with varying degrees of pre-operative and post-operative pain. Analgesics are medications that are used to alleviate pain. The analgesics are basically nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which have many subclasses such as salicylates, mefenamic acid, COX-1 and 2 inhibitors, preferential COX-2 inhibitors, and selective COX- 2 inhibitors. Their mechanism of action varies and also the adverse effects. Results: The Mann–Whitney U-test revealed that there existed no significant difference in the effectiveness between non-selective NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors in the management of post-extraction pain as P = 0.556 which is greater than 0.05. Conclusion: This study inferred equal effectiveness between COX-2 inhibitors and NSAIDs. However, COX-2 inhibitors induce lesser side effects and hence can be preferred in suitable clinical conditions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003560
Title: Effectiveness of tranexamic acid and hemocoagulase for bleeding management in dental extraction patients – A pilot study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to compare the effectiveness of tranexamic acid and hemocoagulase (Botroclot) bleeding management in dental extraction patients. Background: Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that blocks lysine-binding sites on plasminogen, thereby reducing the local degradation of fibrin by plasmin. It works to stabilize and to inhibit the degradation of existing clots, and it is widely used to limit bleeding in clinical practice. Hemocoagulase reduces the bleeding time and promotes wound healing by promoting the growth of capillaries in wound space. Methodology: A total of 10 periodontally compromised patients requiring bilateral extraction were selected. Post-extraction, bleeding cessation was estimated by placing tranexamic acid soaked gauze on the extraction socket. After a week, the patients were recalled for extraction on contralateral side, bleeding cessation was estimated by placing hemocoagulase soaked gauze on the extraction socket. The bleeding time was noted and bleeding scores were estimated in both hemostatic agent patients. Results: Bleeding from extraction sockets was successfully ceased by compression of socket with the topical hemostatic agents soaked in gauze. There was no significant difference between tranexamic acid and hemocoagulase (P = 0.7) observed in bleeding management post-dental extraction. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between tranexamic acid and hemocoagulase in bleeding management; hence, both hemostatic agents are equally effective in the management of bleeding post-extraction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003561
Title: Effects of audio-visual aids on convincing patients for dental treatment – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the different types of audio-visual aids available and their effects on convincing patients for dental treatment. There are various factors that may influence the behavior of a reluctant patient toward dental treatment. It is very important for a dentist to understand the theories behind such behavior and develop ways to overcome this condition. Unlike the existing educational materials, audio-visual aids provide a comprehensive, self-directed, and evidence-based approach to the promotion of oral health. This study provides information on the various form of audio-visual aids such as DVD-video containing evidence-based information about oral health care and prevention-based on the provided guidelines as means of helping patients to understand the whole concept of dental treatment and its importance on the overall health of an individual. The audio-visual aid is an effective tool in providing anticipatory guidance for the convincing patient for dental procedures. Audio and audio-visual distraction techniques provided an effective reduction in dental anxiety.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003562
Title: Factors contributing to peri-implantitis – A practitioner’s perspective
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: With increasing awareness about dental health, choosing dental prosthesis for replacement of missing teeth is but common even among the rural population. Dental implants among dental prosthesis are presently on the rise. Implant supported prosthesis is a lot comfortable and hence successful in patients requiring oral rehabilitation. The ongoing research in material science has made it even more possible for dental implants at a very affordable cost as well. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the dental practitioner point of view of the patient-related risk factor for peri-implantitis in patients receiving endosseous dental implants. Background: Failure of dental implants is a major concern in spite of its large success rates. Chronic alcoholism, smoking, poor oral hygiene, and other systemic disturbances interfere with the cellular and molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for bone growth and osseointegration around the prosthesis. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 general d practitioners in private practice and those attached to colleges. The information with regard to the anatomical site, age, gender, and occupation were assessed. The data were extracted. Result: A total of 200 general dental surgeons participated in the study. The results of the study were as follows: 182 participants felt age was an important criterion and 180 dentists felt that gender does play a role in the longevity of implants. About the association with anatomical locations, maxilla was acceptable for 25 only, whereas 175 were comfortable with the mandible, 193 accepted that the systemic health issues can jeopardize the prognosis, 181 dentists agreed that diabetes can affect the prognosis. Similarly, 163 dentists felt that blood pressure can affect the prognosis. Only 156 dentists agreed that smoking could result in poor prognosis. As for alcoholism, 138 dentists opined to affect prognosis, whereas 52 dentists did not agree. That poor oral hygiene affect prognosis was agreed by 172 dentists, still, 28 others disagreed, and parafunctional habits affect implant prognosis was agreed by 123, while 77 others differed. Conclusion: Considering all the patient-related risk factors can affect the prognosis of dental implants, more awareness of risk factors. Moreover, maintenance of implants is necessary among practitioners.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003563
Title: Flavonoids used in the treatment of malignancy – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of the review is to give an insight into the role of flavonoids in the treatment of malignancy. Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites. Chemically, flavonoids have the general structure of a 15-carbon skeleton, which consists of two phenyl rings (A and B) and heterocyclic ring (C). This carbon structure can be abbreviated C6-C3-C6. Other promising anticancer agents include flavopiridol, roscovitine, combretastatin A-4, betulinic acid, and silvestrol. From this list, one can well imagine the predominance of polyphenols, flavonoids and their synthetic analogs in the treatment of ovarian, breast, cervical, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The role of flavonoids also includes the inhibition of activation of pro-carcinogens, inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells, selective death of cancer cells by apoptosis, inhibition of metastasis and angiogenesis, activation of the immune response against cancer cells, and modulation of the inflammatory cascade.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003564
Title: Knowledge among dental students about post-extraction complications and management
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Extraction of teeth is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by dental surgeons. To perform extractions with minimal trauma to the surrounding tissues, it is necessary to have extensive training, skill, and experience. With an untrained or inexperienced dental surgeon, the incidence of complications post-extraction is high. This article aims at assessing the knowledge about post-extraction complications and its management among dental students in a city. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey among 50 dental students pursuing final year and internship in Chennai city. 10 questions eliciting information about the knowledge of post-extraction complications and management were framed. The responses obtained from the participants were compiled, processed further and analyzed. Various studies were referred to gain more knowledge to improvise the study. Results: On analyzing the results and comparing with recent similar studies, the dental students are aware of post-extraction complications and its management so as to ease their practices and pave more comfort for the patient. Conclusion: This study concludes that the knowledge about post-extraction complications and its management among dental students in a city is adequate. Dental awareness programs or lectures if arranged to address this concern may give additional knowledge and aid in treatment planning.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003565
Title: Knowledge and awareness of undergraduates about Ludwig’s angina
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this survey is to assess the knowledge and awareness of undergraduates about Ludwig’s angina. Background: Ludwig’s angina has long been a fearful infective condition. The infection itself can be fatal and can cause damage to the body. Recently, the occurrence of this infection has regressed drastically to the point of it being zero to none. Due to that reason, medical professionals are only theoretically equipped with the management and knowledge about Ludwig’s angina. Ergo, this study is mainly done to assess the knowledge and awareness of undergraduates about Ludwig’s angina. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire of 10 questions was drafted and put up on a surveying website called SurveyMonkey. The link to the questionnaire was then distributed to as many as 100 undergraduate students. The results were then obtained through the website and were then tabulated accordingly. Results: The results concluded that the undergraduate students did, in fact, have concrete knowledge and understanding about Ludwig’s angina. Conclusion: It can be concluded that majority of the undergraduates are aware of the medical aspect of Ludwig’s angina and can assess the infection clinically as well as theoretically.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003566
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness about Gow-Gates technique among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and awareness about Gow-Gates technique among dental students. Introduction: The most commonly used technique for mandibular anesthesia is inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). However, the failure reported for IANB remains high. Gow-Gates technique is used as a primary local anesthetic technique or as an adjuvant after failure of IANB. It provides sensory anesthesia to virtually the entire distribution of V3. Materials and Methods: Gow-Gates technique also called as true mandibular nerve block technique as it provides sensory anesthesia to virtually the entire distribution of V3. A questionnaire consisting of questions about Gow-Gates technique, its prevalence and success rate were given to dental students who practice in clinics. Their answer was obtained, evaluated, and compared. Results: Thus, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and awareness about Gow- Gates technique among dental students. Only about 60% of the respondents had adequate knowledge about the technique. Furthermore, they were not aware of the advantages, the technique offers over other techniques and the complications and their management. Conclusion: Their knowledge about Gow-Gates technique is less than adequate. Proper training, extra classes, conferences, and workshops should be conducted to provide them adequate knowledge which would eventually change their negative attitude toward the technique.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003567
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice on dental caries among tuberculosis patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Tuberculosis is an unending granulomatous illness caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is transmitted principally through the respiratory tract through inhalation of airborne beads containing the bacillus. Tuberculosis patients are treated regularly by dental clinicians for carious lesions. However, the number of individuals seeking dental treatment appears to be very low. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the awareness of dental caries in tuberculosis patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in Chennai among randomly selected patients suffering from tuberculosis using a questionnaire. The question was related to knowledge and awareness of dental caries. A total of 20 closed- ended questions were included in the study. Results: It was found that the tuberculosis patients knew that oral hygiene was important to general health (67%) but was unable to follow optimal oral hygiene practices (toothbrushing – 21% and rinsing between meals – 17%). The reason for such poor maintenance and practice could be due to low education levels, low levels of awareness of oral hygiene practices, low economic status of the participants, and the presence of a more severe condition in tuberculosis. Conclusion: There was a general lack of knowledge on methods of oral health maintenance even though the participants acknowledged that oral health was vital to general well-being. Routine dental camps should be conducted with clinicians demonstrating oral hygiene practices and performing checkups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003568
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness among dental practitioners regarding disinfection of impression materials
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge, attitude, and awareness among dentists regarding disinfection of elastomeric impression materials. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 12 questions were distributed to 100 participants, which includes undergraduates and dentists at Saveetha Dental College. The sample size of this questionnaire-based study was 100 people. The questionnaire gathered information on respondent’s knowledge regarding the various disinfection and sterilization procedures used to disinfect dental impressions. The participants were asked whether they disinfect impressions that were made and if so, what methods were used (washing with tap water, brushing away the debris, etc.). Concerning the dental technicians as well, these clinicians were ascertained if a form of communication was established between them and the technicians regarding any blood borne virus carriers and a detailed description of the disinfectants that were used. Results: A vast majority of them agree that the main importance of disinfecting is to prevent cross contamination (80%, n = 80). The majority of the participants said that the most preferred method of disinfecting using chemical disinfectants is by spraying onto the surface (70%, n = 70) while some believe that immersing the impression is much more preferred (30%, n = 30). Conclusion: Dental impressions can act as a vehicle for transmission of various microorganisms, playing an important role in cross infection. Selection of the type of disinfectant for impressions is very important as it can induce various physical and chemical changes in the accuracy as well as detail. Streptococcus is the most prevalent bacteria present in dental impressions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003569
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness on oral hygiene practice among patients wearing fixed partial denture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Patient with fixed partial dentures (FPDs) requires regular, lifelong professional maintenance providing repeated oral hygiene interventions and reinstructions regarding maintaining proper oral hygiene around fixed prosthesis. A detailed explanation of the importance of post cementation instructions and proper/daily practice of dental aids (such as floss, special end-tufted, and interdental brushes) will improve and maintain the healthy condition of the alveolar mucosa. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 15 questions was prepared to obtain information about knowledge, attitude, and awareness on oral hygiene practices toward FPDs. A total of 50 patients wearing FPDs were chosen as participants. Results: About 80% of patients do not use any special cleaning aids to clean the prosthesis. Only 10% of patients use special cleaning aids to clean the prosthesis. 60% of patients reported the need for prosthesis is the function. 75% of patients are satisfied with their prosthesis. Conclusion: Highly significantly number of patients did not use any form of interdental aids to clean their fixed prosthesis. The main reason for not using any dental aids was a lack of post-fixed prosthodontics instructions and not been informed by the dentist.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003570
Title: Types of lasers and its applications in dentistry – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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LASER refers to light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. The public is made aware of this by various media, and the word “laser” has power due to patients lookup for the doctors who offer advanced technology. Dentists and their staffs can successfully integrate the use of lasers into the everyday practice of dentistry. The pride and excitement of being on the cutting edge of dentistry and financial incentives make it more possible than ever to implement the use of lasers. “Clinical competence in any area of dentistry appears to require a combination of education and clinical experience.” This article features topics of laser science, tissue interaction, types, and uses of lasers in dentistry that provides the foundation for the many applications of the use of lasers in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003571
Title: Retraction systems in fixed partial denture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Gingival retraction is the deflection of marginal gingiva away from the tooth to create sufficient lateral and vertical space between the margins of the tooth preparation and the gingival tissue to allow the injection of adequate bulk of impression material into the expanded crevice. The aim of this review is to analyze the importance of conventional and modern gingival retraction systems in fixed partial denture and to emphasize the importance of gingival retraction for appropriate impression of the deflection of marginal gingiva away from the tooth. The final impression for fixed partial denture fabrication must correctly record the prepared cervical finish line to enable adequate marginal integrity for the restoration. Therefore, proper gingival retraction method is necessary for obtaining an accurate impression for the fabrication of fixed partial denture, particularly when the finish line is equigingival or subgingival.