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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003659
Title: Effects of lupeol on insulin receptor substrate-2 and its phosphorylation in the liver of high-fat diet and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Lupeol is a triterpenoid, is found in vegetables such as white cabbage, pepper, cucumber, and tomato, in fruits such as olive, fig, mango, strawberry, and red grapes, and in medicinal plants. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the effects of lupeol on insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) and its phosphorylation (IRS-2Ser636 ) protein expression in liver tissue of Type-2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Lupeol was administered orally to Type-2 diabetic rats (25 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 30 days. After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized and liver from control and experimental animals was dissected out and used for the protein expression of IRS-2 and p-IRS-2Ser636 . Results: In Type-2 diabetic animals, the protein expression of IRS-2 significantly reduced. Conversely, tyrosine phosphorylation IRS-2 (IRS- 2Tyr636 ) was elevated in high-fat diet-induced Type-2 diabetic rats when compared with control. The lupeol administration to diabetic rats significantly restored the altered levels of IRS-2 proteins in the liver. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present findings that lupeol regulates insulin signaling molecules (IRS-2) as a result of increase in insulin sensitivity in Type- 2 diabetic rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003652
Title: Lupeol regulates glucose transporter-4 and AS160 in adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Lupeol, a natural herbal drug, is abundant in edible vegetables, fruits, and also in medicinal plants. There are reports showing that lupeol can reduce hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in experimental mice model. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the effect of lupeol on glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 and AS160 protein expression in adipose tissue of high-fat diet and sucrose-induced Type-2 diabetic (T2D) rats. Materials and Methods: Lupeol was administered orally to T2D rats (25 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 30 days. After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized and liver from control and experimental animals was dissected out and used for the protein expression of GLUT-4 and AS160 in adipose tissue. Results: Lupeol treatment increased GLUT-4 protein level in the T2D animals. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present findings that lupeol has antihyperglycemic activity through the regulation of insulin signaling molecules (GLUT-4 and AS160). Hence, lupeol can be used as one of the therapeutic agents for the management of T2D.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003647
Title: Antibacterial activity of ayurvedic preparations on selected human pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The use of herbal medicine is increasing with the increase in the development of drug resistance among bacterial population. Herbal medicines are safe with no side effects and have significant action against bacteria and other microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains used are multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas, Enterococci, and Staphylococci and they are obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and maintained in nutrient agar slope at 4°C. Moreover, extracts are taken from plant leaf powder. Results: The investigation of the antibacterial activity of ayurvedic preparations on Pseudomonas, Enterococci, and Staphylococci was done by agar well diffusion method. Mean zones of inhibition of different concentrations were measured and compared with the control. Conclusion: Based on the results recorded in the present findings, it concluded that ayurvedic extracts have potential antimicrobial agent on human oral pathogenic microorganisms, and hence, the herbal drug may serve as one of the potential antimicrobial agents. Further studies on isolation of active principles from the plant are needed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003690
Title: Effect of music on the academic improvement among the students of South Indian population
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, SEGI University, Kota Damansara, Malaysia
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Aim: The article is concerned with musical art-therapeutic technologies of intellectual and creative development of children with disabilities, behavior and communication disorder, language dysfunction, and mental retardation. Materials and Methods: Modern music therapy is based on the ability of music to control the emotional sphere, the reduction of which results in the wearing of immunity. Musical work differs in the emotional figurative content but normalizes biochemical process by influencing the human body through emotions. Results: There were around 54.7% of male and 45.3% of females where questioned; it was clearly shown that music has played a major role for students. Music helps the students in there study. Where, on the other hand, the children’s like melodious song for their studies, but in adulthood, rock music plays a major role in their diverting studies. Conclusion: Among the questioned individual 65, where 40 of them are more interesting to hear the music while studying. It is clear from the finding that music has an effective effect on relieving stress. Thus, we conclude that music plays a major role in academic improvements.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003689
Title: Physiological changes and associated behaviors due to aging
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, SEGI University, Kota Damansara, Malaysia
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Introduction: Physiological changes occur with aging in all organ systems. The cardiac output decreases, blood pressure increases, and arteriosclerosis develops. Lean body mass declines with age and this is primarily due to loss and atrophy of muscle cell. Aging-associated disease includes arteriosclerosis, arthritis, cancer, cataract, osteoporosis, hypertension, and Alzheimer’s disease. Physiological changes associated with normal aging are mirrored during periods of immobility, such as prolonged hospital bed rest, or after a fractured limb or a fall. Materials and Methods: The sample size for this study is about 100 participants and a set of questionnaire is being created by the use of SurveyPlanet software, and at the end of the survey, all the data were compiled for statistical analysis to note the significant changes. Results: There is a significant relation between physiological changes and aging (P < 0.005). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that it is proved that there are some physiological changes occur in human and that result in change in behavior due to aging.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003634
Title: Techniques of imaging used in implant dentistry – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental implants are becoming extremely popular and are accepted worldwide as they not only replace lost teeth but also they do not interfere with oral function or speech and enhance the self-esteem of patients. Implants improve the quality of life for patients as they resemble natural teeth and are esthetically appeasing. The key to successful implant placement is an effective pre-operative assessment. Proper pre-surgical imaging and treatment planning make the placement of implant relatively easy and predictable. This article aims at providing a comprehensive review of the various imaging techniques in implant dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003635
Title: Various prosthetic treatment options for ectodermal dysplasia patients – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a group of symptoms, which affects mostly all parts of the body. Despite some of the syndromes having different genetic causes, the symptoms are sometimes very similar. Diagnosis is mainly by clinical observation often with the help of family medical history so that it can be verified whether transmission is autosomal dominant or recessive. Worldwide, around 7000 people have been diagnosed with an ED condition. Some ED conditions are only present in single-family units and derive from very recent mutations. ED can occur in almost all races but is much more common in Caucasians than any other race. In this article, the causes, symptoms, and various forms of treatment are reviewed from various research articles and are summarized below.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003636
Title: Awareness on management strategies to treat hyposalivation among dental professionals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Saliva a prime component of oral cavity essential for the good health of the oral cavity and general systemic health. The oral environment dictates the oral function as in communication, eating, clearing the oral cavity, and swallowing. The hydration of the oral cavity is maintained by saliva by its sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous regulation. While the stimulated state is present for only a few hours in relation to masticatory or gustatory stimulation with upregulation of saliva by parasympathetic stimulation, the resting state has the highest impact on teeth, reduces infection, and promotes healing and maintenance of oral mucosa. Aim: The aim of the study was to understand and assess the knowledge about management of hyposalivation in patients among dentists. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The study population comprised undergraduate dental students from all the years (1st year, 2nd year, 3rd year, final year, and interns), staff members and private dental practitioners. A detailed questionnaire containing questions pertaining to the demographic status along with questions related to the knowledge of the participant about the management of hyposalivation in was structured. The questionnaire was distributed to the participants and the answers were registered. The results were obtained after statistical analysis and interpreted. Results: When participants were asked, if they were aware of diagnosing hyposalivation only 131 were aware and only 123 were aware of the medications causing hyposalivation. Only 40 were confident in diagnosing the underlying pathology causing hyposalivation. Only 164 were aware of sialogogues. Only 34 have advised sialogram and only 24 knew to interpret a sialogram. Only 81 knew other alternative methods to induce salivation. Only 174 participants were aware of salivary substitutes. Only 38 were aware of flavored chewing gums to stimulate salivary secretion. Only 136 were aware of saliva stimulating devices. Conclusion: The awareness about hyposalivation management among dentists is rather less and needs to improve.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003637
Title: Ceramic dental implants: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The most advanced methodology to replace a failed natural organ with an artificial, high-functioning prostheses that replicate the same function that of the failed organ into a living organism is called an implant. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, with properties such as toughness, strength, corrosion, wear, and fracture resistance. The design principles of the implant should be compatible with the physical properties of the material. It is very difficult to combine all these properties in only one material. However, in due course of time and technology dental implant materials and procedure has been improved to meet the future generation. Now the dentists, mechanical engineers, and dental technicians and various others have looked beyond the usual mechanism of dental implants with titanium and tried to create a breakthrough by introducing ceramic implants into the field of dental implantology. The aim of this study is to understand the alternative dental implants material such as ceramic dental implants, compare them with titanium dental implants, and provide information osseointegration and mechanical strength. Ceramic dental implants have the potential to become alternative dental implants to titanium dental implants, but they are not yet in clinical use. It does need in vivo and in vitro successful experiments before going into commercials.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003638
Title: The perception of youth on physical activity to relieve stress
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: It is very rare to see someone who have not deal with stress. Stress is an inevitable part of life. Sometimes, stress can be a part of challenges which makes you who you are now. However, prolonged stress may give negative impacts such as mental health problems and depression. It is very essential to manage stress to bring about the best of your life. The aim of this study is to assess the stress factors and physical activity as one of the stress managements among youth. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was chosen and a survey was conducted consisting of sociodemographic and stress management relevant questions. This survey was distributed to all student with various year and courses of study. The data were collected and statistical analysis was done. Results: A total of 286 participants were willing to participate in this study. Top three stress factors among youth were study/education with the highest percentage of 73.1% followed by financial problems with 48.6% and friends with 33.9%. Most of them considered sleeping as one of their methods to overcome stress with the highest percentage of 72.7%, followed by listening to music with 65%, talk to family or friends with 58.4%, and doing physical activity or exercise with 44.8%. In terms of physical activity that has been practice, jogging or exercise placed in the highest rank with 61.9%, cleaning up the room/house came second with 56.3% followed by walking leisurely with 53.5%. Most of them believed that physical activity helps them to be energetic throughout the day with 92%. Considerably quite a large number of participants had fallen sick due to stress with 43.3%. Conclusion: The youth are able to overcome their stress by doing physical activity and exercise. It is important to create time for ourselves and do activity that helps in releasing a happy hormone like endorphins. However, different people might have a different perception on how they relieve stress. Last but not least, a healthy body keeps a healthy mind.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003639
Title: Analysis of masticatory function among normal individuals versus denture wearers using a two-color chewing gum
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to analyze the masticatory function among normal individuals versus denture wearers using a two- color chewing gum. Introduction: The reintroduction of form and function is of utmost importance when it comes to the replacement of missing teeth. Ill-fitting denture has been known to cause number of problems related to patient comfort, chewing efficiency (functionality), and bone resorption in the long run. Hence, it becomes important to analyze chewing efficiency at the time of denture insertion and in the following years of its use to recognize any underlying cause. One method of testing functionality is by the chewing efficiency test, using a two-color chewing gum, and assessing its homogeneity in terms of color at the end of mastication. Materials and Methods: A two-color chewing gum was used to assess the chewing efficiency. Time taken for complete homogeneity of the chewing gum was recorded along with the number of chewing cycles required to achieve this homogeneity. Results: The average time taken by individuals without prosthesis was found to be 41 s. The average time taken by individuals with prosthesis was found to be 1 min and 50 s. Conclusion: This study shows that there is a significant difference in masticatory function between individuals without prosthesis and those with prosthesis. Hence, with further research and standardization of this test, the chewing efficiency can be assessed for patient with temporomandibular joint disorder and orthodontic and prosthodontic diagnosis in a clinical setting.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003640
Title: Aloe vera on skin
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of the review is to give an insight into the role of Aloe vera on skin and its therapeutic properties. A. vera is a succulent plant species of the genus Aloe. An evergreen perennial, it originates from the Arabian Peninsula but grows wild in tropical climates around the world and is cultivated for agricultural and medicinal uses. A. vera, sometimes described as a “wonder plant,” is a short-stemmed shrub. The leaves of A. vera are succulent, erect, and form a dense rosette. Many uses are made of the gel obtained from the plant’s leaves. This topic will review the classification and brief description of A. vera on skin and its therapeutic properties

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003641
Title: Altered taste perception among complete denture wearers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The sense organs for taste are the taste buds. Tate receptors found within taste buds are located not only on the surface of tongue but also on palate, pharynx, epiglottis, uvula, and the beginning of the esophagus. Clinical experiences suggest that wearing denture might affect the taste because it prevents regular contact between the palatal receptor sites and taste samples. Aim: The objective of the study is to determine the taste perception among patients wearing complete denture by a questionnaire survey on sensing taste such as sweet, salt, sour, and bitter. Objective: The sense organs for taste are the taste buds. Tate receptors found within taste buds are located not only on the surface of tongue but also on palate, pharynx, epiglottis, uvula and the beginning of the esophagus. Clinical experiences suggest that wearing denture might affect the taste because it prevents regular contact between the palatal receptor sites and taste samples. Results: The results inferred from the study were that the presence of complete denture leads to decreased taste perception among the participants to an average of 66%, which was more among 3-month participants than the 6-month group which may be due to adaptation among the later. Conclusion: The presence of complete denture leads to decreased taste perception.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003642
Title: A survey on phobia - An anxiety disorder
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A fear is a sort of nervousness issue characterized by an industrious and exorbitant dread of an article or circumstance. The influenced individual may encounter a wide range of side effects. Fear can be partitioned into explicit fears such as social fear and agoraphobia. To understand a person’s fear to a particular object or situation and the consequences faced in daily life due to their phobia. It is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted among 50 South Indian population. A questionnaire was prepared about main reason and cause behind the phobia. This will be distributed through SurveyPlanet. The data were collected and analyzed with statistics. Results: From the result, it can be statistically analyzed that most of the people aged between 18 and 25 have the fear toward insects and most have no fear. From the statistics, the phobia affects their daily life by not wanting to face fear, so they keep away even from familiar places. The best treatment for phobia is that of confronting the fear to family and friends. Conclusions: We can conclude that phobia is an anxiety disorder that is experienced by every individual to any particular thing. However, from the statistics, fear can be easily overcome by sharing with family and friends than by medications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003643
Title: Assessment of clinical skills of students in fixed partial denture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is analyze the confidence level of the students regarding the steps toward fabrication of fixed partial dentures. Background: Fixed partial dentures are dental prosthesis that are listen, screwed, or mechanically attached or securely retained to the natural teeth. Many fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have been used to replace missing teeth. Preparation of the fixed partial denture varies with the preference and comfort level of the dentist. With each step toward fabrication of fixed partial denture, there are certain challenges which are faced by the students. Materials and Methods: A survey was constructed using 12 structured closed-ended questions and was distributed among the 3rd year, 4th year, and interns of Saveetha Dental College. The students were asked regarding the confidence level regarding the steps in the fabrication of FPDs. Results: A total of 43 females and 57 males were selected. Each question was rated with a scale of 0–10. A mean score was obtained for each of the question. The mean score for each question was found to be >5. The highest scoring was for the cementation of FPD, following that was it is the evaluating the marginal fit during metal try-in. Both of these procedures were scored >8. The procedure that has gotten the least scoring in preservation of pulp was 6.0 and gingival attachment scored 6.70. An average score of 6.45 was scored for protecting the adjacent teeth from iatrogenic damage. The remaining procedures students score about 7. Conclusion: Overall confidence level of the students is above average; however, the reinforcement should be done to ensure that the students will be confident in fabricating FPDs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003644
Title: In vitro cytotoxic activity of Asparagus racemosus on ovarian carcinoma cell lines (SKOV-3) by 3-(4, 5dimethythiazol2-yl) -2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Natural products have been used since ancient times for the treatment of many diseases. Biodiversity and traditional medical knowledge had provided useful lead compounds for cancer chemotherapy. In the Indian medicine system, Asparagus racemosus, commonly called Shatavari has been used as a nutritive tonic, general female reproductive tonic, fertility tonic, treatment for sexual debility, and as an aphrodisiac. Aim: The aim of the present study is to study the in vitro cytotoxic effect of A. racemosus extracts on SKOV3 cells line (HTB77) using 3-(4, 5dimethythiazol2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Materials and Methods: SKOV3 cells line (HTB77) commercially purchased from the American Type Culture Collection were cultured in McCoy’s 5A modified medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (heat inactivated, 10%) and penicillin-streptomycin (1%) at 37°C in 5% CO. MTT colorimetric assay that measures the reduction of yellow MTT by mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase is used to check the viability of the cells. Result: It was observed that the extract showed promising anticancer activity toward the selected cancer cell line on dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: A. racemosus contains a rich source of steroidal saponins which are important secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity. Furthermore, research should be directed toward the isolation of bioactive compounds from these plants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003645
Title: Effect of orange on constipation patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Orange is a rich source of fiber. It helps in digestion. Constipation is a condition of digestive system where hard feces are difficult to eliminate. The main aim of the study is to find the effect of orange on constipation patients. Materials and Methods: Sample sizes of about 30 subjects suffering from constipation were included in this study. Oranges were asked to take regularly in the early morning for 30 days. 15 days interval, bowl movement was noted. Results: The symptoms which were before consuming orange such as hard stool and blood discharge have been reduced after consuming orange. This shows the effect of orange on constipation. Discussion: Orange helps in digestion and it is a good source for weight loss. Orange is low-fat nutrient-rich food. The main symptom of constipation was severe before consumption. After consumption, the symptoms were progressively reduced. Conclusion: Orange has a very good effect on constipation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003646
Title: In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Trichosanthes cucumerina fruits
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluvate the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of Trichosanthes cucumerina fruits. Introduction: T. cucumerina (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is reported to show properties such as antidiabetic, antihelmintic, antifebrile, gastroprotective, and antioxidant effects. Inflammation is an adaptive response to harmful stimuli. However it plays major role in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of T. cucumerina (TCE) was assessed by human red blood cell membrane stabilization and inhibition of albumin denaturation. Discussion: The TCE fruits inhibited the hypotonicity-induced red blood cell membrane lysis and albumin denaturation, which are the measures of anti-inflammatory activity, in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: TCE has potent anti-inflammatory activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003648
Title: Correlation between heavy menstruation and weight gain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Although, according to nature’s rule, every woman during childbearing years should menstruate, each woman has a unique cycle. While some women effortlessly complete each menstrual cycle, other women have to painfully bear problems related to premenstrual syndrome, weight gain and heavy bleeding that put a negative light on their life. Here is how weight gain is correlated to heavy periods. Materials and Methods: This study is carried out by preparing a questionnaire of about 15 questions and surveying 100 women on the basis of food cravings, sleeping habits, work type, age, physical activities, stress, and medication. Results: All the data were compiled for statistical analysis for denoting the significant changes. Results show the most significant outcomes of gaining overweight

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003649
Title: Oral hygiene among people with intellectual disabilities
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The aim of the study was to understand the impact of oral hygiene among people with intellectual disabilities. Prevalence of untreated dental caries which is higher among the people with intellectual disabilities, especially those living in non-institutional settings. It feels little bit difficult to understand and help them through their difficulties to maintain oral hygiene more effectively. Materials and Methods: About 50 disability children are selected from a special school of spastic society, Tharamani. All the data are collected and observed for the final evaluation of statistics. Results: There is a severe difference in the normal generation and people with intellectual disabilities. People with intellectual disabilities are more prone to dental caries than people without intellectual disabilities. Conclusion: People should show more initiative and concern toward people suffering from intellectual disabilities and provide proper treatment to maintain dental hygiene.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003650
Title: Eye complications in children due to excessive use of electronic gadgets
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Twenty-first century is a period of equipment, and every now and then, more state-of-the-art electronic devices are brought into the market. The relative time spent on personal computer (PC) and diverse gadgets has extended rapidly consistently. Sweeping use of electronic gadgets causes many health and mental issues. The main aim of this study is to find the prevailing eye complication among children due to excessive usage of electronic gadgets. Materials and Methods: The survey was taken among 100 children by distributing questionnaires, and their daily habit of using electronic gadgets and the effects caused physically and mentally were observed. Results: It has been known for some time that exposure to blue light, which is emitted in abundant amounts by electronics such as televisions and smartphones, can tell your body to stop generating melatonin. Melatonin is the chemical that tells your body that it is time to sleep. Hence, less secretion of melatonin hormone leads to lack of sleep which is the main cause for dark circles in children at this early age. Conclusion: From our survey, we found that children are more prone to use mobile phone per day than any other electronic gadgets. Children who use smartphones for a longer period of time are exposed to eye damage. The blue light exposure may lead to macular degeneration and a point may come where the eye cannot see real colors properly. This condition can be treated and prevented with regular screen breaks and exercises. Children are advised to wear protective glasses, reduce brightness of the electronic devices, and avoid small screen phones.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003651
Title: In vitro study on the antidiabetic effect on jasmine oil
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the in vitro antidiabetic activity of jasmine oil. Introduction: Jasmine is a genus of shrubs in Oleaceae family. Jasmine oil is used as an essential oil, and it is reported to have antimicrobial, antidepressant, and stimulatory properties. Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is a group of metabolic disorders in which there is an elevated blood sugar level over a prolonged period. Materials and Methods: Jasmine oil was purchased from the market commercially and its in vitro antidiabetic activity was studied using inhibition of alpha-amylase activity and glucose uptake assay. Results and Discussion: Jasmine oil inhibited the activity of alpha-amylase in a dose-dependent manner. It also showed enhanced glucose uptake in rat L6 myogenic cells. These two activities will cause a decrease in the blood glucose level, which is essential in the treatment of diabetes. Conclusion: Jasmine oil showed in vitro antidiabetic activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003653
Title: Comparative study on the effects of blood pressure changes during menstrual cycle
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Blood pressure (BP) is not constant throughout the day, on different days in a month and on different times of a cyclical event like menstrual cycle. Variation in BP during different phases of menstrual cycle can also be attributed to the effect of female sex hormones on cardiovascular function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variation in BP during different phases of menstrual cycle and whether these changes an warrant an increase or decrease in the dose of antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive women of reproductive age group. To conclude, cardiovascular homeostatic mechanisms are strong enough to correct the subtle BP changes brought about by the action of ovarian hormones on the cardiovascular system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003654
Title: A study on the effectiveness of knowledge and acquisition for students using innovative teaching methods
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: It is known to us that good teaching methods improve students’ standards. The aim is to study how new innovative teaching methods help in students improvement. Materials and Methods: About 40 students were involved in this study. These students were selected based on their age. Age limit was 18–21 years. The data collection questionnaire was developed after reviewing different relevant literature. The questionnaire involves about 10 questions mainly based on knowledge about new innovative teaching methods and awareness on new innovative teaching methods available. Results: It was clear that most of the students who belong to age limit of 18–21 years were aware of new innovative teaching methods in which 90% of the students believe in new innovative teaching method. Of that 90%, only 60% were able to avail new innovative teaching methods in their schools and college. About 54% of the students were not able to afford for new innovative teaching methods. Conclusion: It was noted that the knowledge about new innovative teaching methods on students was high, but still these methods were not available to all due to the lack of technological improvement and lack of civilization. Citizens of each country should help their students get access to new innovative teaching methods for their countries’ improvements as “students are the backbone of future generation.”

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003655
Title: Position and symmetry of mental foramen: A radiographic study in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Mental foramen is one of the two foramina located on the anterior surface of the mandible. It transmits the terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The anatomical variation in the position of mental foramen is different for different procedures. The mental foramen location was determined by drawing imaginary lines parallel with long access of lower premolars and mesial root of the first molar on the same side. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 Orthopantomogram (OPG) were taken, and the position of the mental foramen was noted. The criteria considered were situated (1) anterior to the premolar, (2) in line with the first premolar, (3) between the first and second premolar, (4) in line with the second premolar, (5) between the second premolar and first molar, and (6) in line with the first molar. Results and Discussions: We can determine the position and symmetry of the mental foramen. The blue color represents the mental foramen on the right side, and orange color represents the mental foramen on the left side. The number of OPGs considered is 100 in number. The age group of the people who were analyzed for the position of mental foramen is 14–70 years of age. Conclusion: In most of the cases, it was found in line with the second premolar, next in between two premolars, and then rarest in case of its presence anterior to first premolar.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003656
Title: Gram-positive microorganisms in periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The microbial etiology of periodontal disease has been the focus of researchers for a long time. The hunt for the pathogens of the periodontal diseases is underway for more than 100 years and endless up today. Despite the increasing knowledge about oral microbiota, we are not able to implicate any one particular organism that can be considered as a candidate pathogen. In fact, the term “candidate pathogen” has lost its steam with a myriad of microorganisms being incriminated from time to time. Many studies, the bacterial etiology of periodontitis has used either culture-based or targeted deoxyribonucleic acid approaches and so it is likely that pathogens remain unidentified. The arrival of 16S cloning and sequencing has facilitated identification of several uncultivable bacteria in the oral cavity. Periodontal diseases have been traditionally associated with anaerobic Gram-negative microbiota. However, improvements in sampling handling and culture media have revealed that Gram-positive anaerobes belonging to the genus Eubacterium can make up around half of microbiota in advance disease. The present review highlights some Gram-positive microorganisms known bacteria associated with periodontal destruction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003657
Title: Asthma control test among textile workers in Kongu Nadu region – Tamil Nadu
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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Objectives: Respiratory disorder is one of the major health threats to textile workers as they are highly exposed to garment dust for persistently. Therefore, the garment factory workers are engaged in the textile industry shows highly significant morbidity of bronchial airway obstruction than among those who are not working in textile industries. Materials and Methods: A clinical investigation of the disease knowledge and adherence among garment unit in a 600 bedded hospital revealed that factory employers are complained of respiratory challenges include tightness of the chest cavity, continues cough, and breathing difficulties. The main of this observational study was access to the pervasiveness of bronchial symptoms and asthmagens concertation in garment industries. The obtained report was compared with the different follow-ups. All workers are responded the asthma control test questionnaire. Results: The textile workers (n = 346, including male 588 and female758). The training level was underneath the optional dimension in 47% of patients and middle school 32%; 56% of patients were fat, and 20% of patients had mild persistent, 19% had mid intermittent, 28% of patients had moderate persistent, and 33% had severe persistent and extreme steady asthma. 31%, of patients, had family atopy; 15% of Kongu Nadu garment workers had cotton dust allergies. Conclusion: Knowledge of asthma was low in older patients and regular asthma care was to a great extent lacking. These discoveries propose that asthma instruction projects ought to be produced for more seasoned grown-ups in view of their instruction level and clinical asthma qualities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003658
Title: Effects of aerobics on health status and physical fitness: An ecological approach – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Aerobic exercise is a physical exercise that is performed when the body is fully supplied with oxygen. In the process of exercise, the inhaled oxygen equals the demanded oxygen of the human body to achieve the physiological equilibrium. There are a number of exercises which come under the category aerobic exercises. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of aerobics on health status and physical fitness among people who do aerobics every day. Objective: This study is to evaluate whether aerobics has significant effects on health. Materials and Methods: A self- prepared questionnaire was given to aerobic practitioners which comprises of 15 questions with multiple choice answers covering all aspects of aerobics and their ability of action, type, duration of practice and benefits. The survey was winded up after 2 weeks. At the end of the survey, all the data were collected and compiled for statistical study. Results: The results show that most of the people are found that aerobics is useful. Conclusion: The knowledge of aerobics and its benefits is adequate among people. It is recommended that all people practice aerobics and live a happy healthy life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003660
Title: Randomized controlled trials: Gold standard of evidence
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered as one of the most powerful tools for performing experimental research. It is a form of experiment in which subjects are allocated at random to receive one of the several interventions. These experiments are commonly used in testing the safety and efficacy of any therapeutic or health-care procedures. This study aims to give a brief introduction to the major concepts and approaches involved in designing and conducting an RCT.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003661
Title: Comparative evaluation of microbial contamination of neem infused toothbrush with regular toothbrush in periodontitis patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of the current study is to compare the microbial contamination in tooth brush head between bristle tuft in plastic brush head with nylon bristles, bamboo brush head with nylon bristles, and plastic head brush with neem infused bristles in patients with periodontitis. To analyse which type of tooth brush is least contaminated after brushing. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed with periodontitis whose average pocket depth of 5-7 mm were selected, complete scaling and oral hygiene instructions were given. Three types of brushes namely conventional plastic, neem infused and bamboo headed brushed were used for the study. Patients were randomly asked to select either of these three brushes by lot method. Patients were educated on brushing technique and were asked to use the brush for one week. The brushes were then collected back for microbial investigations. Under aseptic condition the bristles of these tooth brushes were trimmed using scissors. Streak of deposits was taken using sterile swabs and inoculated at room temprature into brain heart infusion broth for 24 hours. The growth from the broth was inoculated at room temperature into the prepared Brain Heart Infusion agar plates using inoculation loop. After inoculation, agar plates were kept in incubator at 370c for 24 hour and it is allowed for the growth of the micro organisms. The agar plates were colected from the incubator and observed for colony forming units. The agar plate with the colony forming units were divided into 4 quadrants. Colonies in each quadrant were counted and recorded. Results: The brush heads of all the three types of brushes compared in this study showed confluent amount of bacterial growth. Conclusions: Brush head holds more microorganisms and serve as a reservoir for microorganisms Tooth brushes must be disinfected and must be stored in dry places to avoid further contamination.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003662
Title: Knowledge and attitude toward mouthwashes and their uses among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Plaque is the primary factor responsible for dental diseases such as dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Dentist plays a major role in maintenance of good oral hygiene, their opinion over the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding prescribing mouthwashes as agents of plaque control agents is of greater value and significance. Aims and Objectives of the Study: The aim of this study was to know the knowledge and attitude of dental students toward prescribing mouthwashes. The main objective of the study is to establish dentist’s knowledge about mouthwashes and their short-term and long-term side effects, their attitude toward the use of mouthwashes as plaque control agents, and their use in the treatment of various dental conditions. Materials and Methods: The subjects of the study were selected from various fields who are in the 2nd year until the final year of their undergraduation and the 1st –3rd year of their postgraduation. An online questionnaire was prepared and was uploaded that the questionnaire was shared in various social media platforms which are widely used by younger generation people. The questionnaire consists of 20 questions. The response format had choices from which the subject can choose one response as their answer. The subjects were asked to respond to each question and complete the questionnaires. Results: In this study,85%of the doctors prescribe mouthwashes mostly listerine for gingivitis and halitosis because of its effectiveness in inhibition of plaque formation. 60% think that mouthwashes are safe to use but cannot be used regularly because they may cause dryness of mouth and leave stains and may lead to oral cancer. 50% think using mouthwashes can improve oral health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003663
Title: Awareness on usage of monosodium glutamate among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Glutamate is a non-essential amino acid that is found in practically the majority of the food we take in every day. Monosodium glutamate (normally called MSG) is a subsidiary of this amino acid. MSG is generally used to season sustenance, particularly in the Asian and American population. This study expects to consider the awareness on usage of MSG among college students in Chennai and therefore pinpoint the awareness and side effects experienced (assuming any) of an MSG-rich eating regimen. Materials and Methods: This was a poll based examination. A questionnaire was circled among 100 college students from the age of 18 ahead which included inquiries in regards to their mindfulness about what MSG was, their genuine beliefs on it and regardless of whether they confronted any reactions in the wake of expending it. Results were acquired utilizing appropriate measurable strategies and in this manner the impacts of MSG (assuming any). Results: From the information, unmistakably there is an intense absence of mindfulness about MSG, yet a pervasive negative conclusion that gives it terrible notoriety despite the fact that it has been logically turned out to be sheltered. Conclusion: The measurable results of this survey indicated the way that most of the individuals were not influenced by MSG-rich dinners; however, there is overlying terrible notoriety about the concoction despite the fact that it is sheltered and tried. The most generally confronted impacts were nausea and headaches.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003664
Title: Awareness of selfie addiction among teenagers: A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to analyze and evaluate the awareness about selfie addiction among teenagers. Introduction: “Selfitis” is described as the obsessive taking of selfies and has been considered as a psychological disorder. The condition, sometimes even leads to deaths and can lead to body dysmorphic disorder. Selfitis is observed in various stages as borderline, acute, and chronic. The prevalence of this condition is alarming. Materials and Methods: About 100 teenagers were selected randomly and were evaluated using an online-based questionnaire comprising 15 questions. The questions were multiple choice questions and the results were evaluated. Results: This study is done to evaluate the awareness prevalent among the teenagers regarding the condition “selfitis,” its symptoms, the effects, and the various risks involved. Conclusion: From this study, it is evident that the teenagers are aware of the condition and there is sufficient awareness of the effects such as selfie deaths; furthermore, awareness should be spread among the teenagers regarding the various self-esteem issues that will aid in the holistic functioning of the society as mentally healthy individuals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003665
Title: Awareness of respiratory diseases among college students – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this survey is to find out the knowledge and awareness of respiratory illness among college students. Objective: The objective of this survey is to find out the knowledge and awareness of respiratory illness among college students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey to be conducted among college students. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared to assess the awareness of respiratory illness among college students. The questionnaire was administered through an online survey planet link. The data were statistically analyzed and interpreted. Results: The knowledge of the population on the various respiratory illnesses was about 70.5%. Only 29.5% of the population remained unaware. When questioned in particular on the various diseases they had, knowledge about asthma had the highest rate of awareness of 20%, followed by wheezing 17%, bronchitis 16%, tuberculosis 15%, coughing 14%, pneumonia 10%, and laryngitis 7%. Conclusion: The study shows the high level of awareness and exposure. It also highlights the causes and the prevalence of the diseases in the various households. Health-care professionals, community leaders, policymakers, government agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and the public must all work together to develop and provide effective health-care delivery strategies for the people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003666
Title: Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles from Plectranthus amboinicus extract and its antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Materials and Methods: Silver nanoparticles were prepared with Plectranthus amboinicus extract by boiling the leaves of P. amboinicus with silver nitrate. The stable silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–spectrum, which shaved shift peak at 425 nm. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles was investigated against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus by disc diffusion method compared with standard drug. Results: Silver nanoparticles with Plectranthus amboinicus extract were prepared, which was evidenced by UV absorption spectra.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003667
Title: Oral cancer and smokeless tobacco – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Smokeless tobacco or unburned tobacco refers to the use of tobacco products in a way other than smoking. The most common tobacco products include chewing tobacco, naswar, gutka, snus, snuff, and topical tobacco paste. This method of consumption of tobacco has been widely used over the past 10 years by different cultures of the world, as a safer alternative to smoking. However, studies show that the additive use of smokeless tobacco can also lead to oral leukoplakia, gingival recession and plays a contributory role in the development of cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and peptic ulcers. The most harmful compounds in smokeless tobacco are tobacco-specific nitrosamines and their levels are directly related to the risk of cancer. This review focuses on the health risks involved with the use of smokeless tobacco and also the compounds that could promote carcinogenesis in long-term smokeless tobacco users.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003668
Title: An in vitro study on the antidiabetic effect on red sea weed (Ceramium rubrum)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Phytochemicals of marine weeds are extensively explored and were found to possess various biochemical properties.Numerous marine items that are utilized for the treatment of diabetes all through the world and there is an expanding request from patients to utilize the normal items. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract of marine red seaweed was tested for its α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003669
Title: Morphometric study of the infraorbital foramen in local anesthesia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The infraorbital foramen (IOF) is located on the maxillary bone inferior to the infraorbital margin which transmits infraorbital nerve and vessels thereby supplies the skin and mucous membrane of the midface, such as the lower eyelid, cheek, lateral aspect of the nose, upper lip, and the labial gum. The IOF is an important landmark in anesthetic and surgical interventions of the midface region. It varies according to the location, shape, and size. The study of the IOF is significant in local anesthesia procedures in maxillofacial surgeries and consequently in protection against procedural neurovascular injuries. Materials and Methods: The present study has adopted 50 dry human skulls of unknown sex of South Indian populations in the department of anatomy. Results: The total of 50 dry skulls was examined. An IOF was present both the sides of the skull. The present study has observed single IOF in almost all the skulls; meanwhile, bilateral oval shape foramina are present in one skull. The shape of the IOF was oval (38.6% in the right side and 36.3% in the left side) and circular in outline (13.6% in the right side and 17.0% in the left side). The opening of the IOF was directed medially downward in 48.6%, medially in 43.3%, and downward in 8.1% of the skulls observed. The mean distances between the IOF and IOM were 0.9704 mm on the right side and 1.0004 mm on the left side. The transverse diameter was 0.4978 mm on the right side and 0.5632 mm on the left side. Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that the morphometrical knowledge of infraorbital foramen is very much needed for safe nerve block and surgical procedures of the face to avoid complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003670
Title: Prevalence of heart disease among non-vegetarian individuals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Heart disease or cardiovascular disease involves the cardiac tissue and its blood vessels associated with it, especially involvement of coronary arteries. In case of atherosclerotic lesions, the coronary artery get occluded followed by myocardial infarction occurs. The non-vegetarians have a higher risk of heart diseases comparatively to the vegetarians might be due to high blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Material and Method: A survey was conducted among 100 non- vegetarian people of age around 30-50 years old. A questionnaire was given to them to collect information about their food practice and their health conditions. Discussion: People who often eat non-veg often are more prone to get heart disease. Due to high cholesterol accumulation in blood capillary this results in atherosclerosis. Conlusion: From the present study it is strongly concluded that people those who are taking high cholesterol substance such as non-vegetarian substances are highly prone to get heart disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00003671
Title: Advances in lactic acid production as medicinally valuable biochemical from lignocellulosic waste material: A brief review
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, School of Agriculture and Biosciences, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Due to the presence of both hydroxyl group and carboxyl group, lactic acid can participate in wide variety of chemical reaction. As a result, it is used in diverse industrial applications. Among all, it is having major application in pharmaceutical and drug manufacturing industries. Still now, fermentative production route of lactic acid is mostly preferred with comparison to chemical synthesis route and expensive food grade materials, pure substrates have been mainly encouraged for such production. Hence, there is a chance to improve the lactic acid production and reduce the manufacturing cost by selecting a waste material. Among different types of wastes, agricultural and municipal lignocellulosic waste materials have bigger prospect due to the presence of high amount of carbohydrate, lesser requirement of pre-treatment specifically to separate heavy metals. However, still, there is a need to improve the quality of lactic acid specifically for medical grade and reduce its production cost by selecting integrated processes, intensified downstream processing techniques.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003672
Title: Influence of zingiberene on the biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim is to study the antimicrobial effect of zingiberene species biofilms and the biocompatibility of this modified dental material. Materials and Methods: Streptococcus mutans UA159 were cultured in brain heart infusion with the condition of 37°C anaerobically (5% CO2 , 90% N2 , and 5% H2 ). The final inoculum for biofilm formation was composed of bacteria (10,000,000 colony-forming unit/ml each) in 2 ml medium with 50 mM piperazine-1,4-bisethane sulfonic acid and 0.2% sucrose in 24-well plates with specimens placed at 37°C aerobically for 72 h, and the media were changed every 24 h. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration of zingiberene was found to be 1 mg/mL, where it exhibits 20% inhibition as compared to the moisture control vancomycin. Conclusion: Zingiberene exhibited an antimicrobial activity in biofilm formation analyzed using S. mutans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003673
Title: Role of Terminalia bellirica extract on uropathogens in diabetes condition
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Terminalia bellirica extract on uropathogens in diabetes condition Materials and Methods: The dried fruits of T. bellirica were extracted by maceration in acetone for 24 h and filtered. Isolation of uropathogens (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) was followed by pour plate methods on HiCrome urinary tract infection (UTI) agar. Antibiotic resistance in UTI isolate was determined by disk diffusion method with commercially available antibiotics disc. The lowest concentration of extract dilution showing that no visible growth was recorded as the minimum inhibitory concentration value. Results: The extract exhibits zone of inhibition against both E. coli and E. faecalis in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the standard drug chloramphenicol.. Conclusion: Diabetes is a condition when the patient suffers from urinary tract infection. From this study, it was extend T. bellirica extract exhibited a patient antimicrobial achieve against uropathogens.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003674
Title: In vitro evaluation of biological activity (anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, and antidiabetic) of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from ethanolic extract of Chromolaena odorata, Caesalpinia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Central Research Laboratory, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Madhuravoyal, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background and Purpose: The scope of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro biological potential of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNps) from Chromolaena odorata, Caesalpinia coriaria bark and leaves. We investigated the effect of green synthesized AgNps from C. odorata, C. coriaria bark and leaves by studying anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. Methods: In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by albumin denaturation assay and membrane stabilization assay at different concentration of AgNps. Similarly, antidiabetic activity was also studied by assessing glucose uptake by yeast cells at different concentration (100–1000 ug/ml) of AgNps. Results: Based on the current finding the bioactivity of AgNps shows significant result from 15–72% membrane stabilization by decreasing hypotonicity induced lysis of erythrocyte membrane. Alteration of albumin denaturation shows that the maximum inhibition was found to be 74.35% at 1000 µg/ml concentration. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity, the results obtained express that as the concentration of AgNps increases 100–1000 µg/ml the percentage of glucose uptake by the yeast cells also increases from 30 to 91%. Conclusion: Green synthesized AgNps from Chromolaena odorata, C. coriaria (Bark) and (Leaves) possess significant activity as anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic and anti diabetic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003675
Title: Effect of beta-sitosterol on glucose oxidation in liver of type-2 diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Central Research Laboratory, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Beta-sitosterol which is one of the most common sterols found in plants and some vegetable oils. However, the effect of β-sitosterol on glucose uptake and oxidation in liver is not known. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the effects of beta-sitosterol on 14 C-glucose oxidation and 14 C-2-deoxyglucose uptake in hepatocytes in high-fat diet and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: β-sitosterol was administered orally to type-2 diabetic rats (20 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 30 days. After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized and liver from control and experimental animals was dissected out and the glucose uptake and oxidation in the liver were analyzed using scintillation counter (β-counter). Results: In type-2 diabetic animals, the 14 C-glucose oxidation and 14 C-2-deoxyglucose were found to be decreased due to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. The β-sitosterol treatment (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly raised the glucose uptake and oxidation in the liver of type-2 diabetic rats as a result of increased insulin sensitivity mediated increase in insulin-signaling molecules. Conclusion: Our present finding indicates that the antidiabetic activity of β-sitosterol regulates glucose homeostasis through the regulation of glucose uptake and oxidation as a result of increase in the insulin sensitivity in liver of type-2 diabetic rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003676
Title: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles of Andrographis echiodies fruit extract – Antimicrobial property, characterization, and stability
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study is to investigate the urease inhibitory activities of silver nanoparticles of Andrographis fruit extract against urinary tract isolate, E.Coli. Materials and Methods: (1) Preparation of extract, (2) synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Andrographisechiodies fruit extract, (3) determination of anti microbial resistance, (4) antimicrobial activity of anrographisechiodies fruit extract-coated silver nanoparticles against urinary tract infection isolate and (5) Andrographis echiodies extract-coated silver nanoparticles impregnated discs were prepared and the anti microbial activity was analyzed by disc diffusion technique. Results: Silver nanoparticles coated with Andrographis echiodies fruit extract showed maximum effect of anti microbial activity against E.Coil in the 5th disc silver nanoparticles (AgNPs [40 µg]) and minimum effect in the 2nd disc (AgNPs [10 µg]). Conclusion: The potency of silver nanoparticles coated with Andrographis echiodies has significant anti microbial activity against E.Coil.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003677
Title: Awareness of alternative medicine for diabetes among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes is a condition that impairs the body’s ability to process blood glucose, otherwise known as blood sugar. There are mainly three different types of diabetes; they are Type 1, Type 2, and gestational diabetes. Less common types of diabetes include monogenic diabetes and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. Diabetes is a growing challenge in India with estimated 9% of diabetic population in the age group of 20 and 70 years. Aim: The aim of the study was to understand the alternative medications used for diabetic people among South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A survey was taken by preparing a questionnaire comprising questions in relation to the context and was circulated among diabetic individuals through an e-portal “SurveyPlanet.” The survey was taken up by 100 people. Results and Discussion: The people were well aware about the benefits of alternative medications. Around 48% of people were following a specific ayurvedic diet prescribed their doctors. 65% of people preferred alternative medicine over allopathy. Conclusion: Majority of the people are still skeptical about taking alternative medicine as a remedy for diabetes. Awareness may be required for bringing out the positive effects of alternative medicines for diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003678
Title: Antistress activity of methanolic extract of Ficus benghalensis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Stress is a pattern of physiological reaction that prepares an organism for action. It varies from person to person. Prolonged stress is a potent contributor to psychosocial and physical pathological conditions in humans.For the relief and prevention of stress, a wide variety of medications can be used. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of Ficus benghalensis was prepared. Methanolic extract was tested for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity against SHSY5Y cells lines. Results: The acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of methanolic extract of Ficus benghalensis was measured. IC50 value was found to be 228.3 (µg/ml).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003679
Title: In vitro hepatoprotective activity of ursolic acid against CCL4 -induced damage in hepatocytes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Liver is one of the largest and the most vital organs in the human body. It helps in maintenance, performance, and regulating homeostasis of the body properly. The liver is basically involvedwith the entire biochemical pathway to growth, fight against disease, nutrient supply to the organs, and energy production and reproduction. Toxin chemicals like that of CCl 4 , drughabits, and alcohols damage the liver to a larger extent and this leads to various liver ailments such as hepatitis and alcoholic liver diseases.These conditions of liver damage can only be cured by hepatoprotective agents. Materials and Methods: HepG2 cells were incubated and treated with the toxic agent (1%) CCl 4 in 0.05% DMSO) for 3 h. To this treated hepatocytes , hepatoprotective activity of urosolic acid was assessed by MTT assay. Results: Pretreatment with the urosolic acid markedly reversed hepatotoxicity caused by the CCl 4 .

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003680
Title: Awareness on bleeding disorders among medical professionals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Coagulopathy (additionally called a bleeding disorder) is a condition in which the blood’s capacity to coagulate (form clots) is weakened. The typical clotting procedure relies on the interaction of different proteins in the blood. Coagulopathy might be brought about by decreased levels or nonappearance of blood-thickening proteins, known as clotting factors or coagulation factors. Materials and Methods: This was a poll-based examination. A questionnaire was circled among 100 medical college students from the age of 18 years ahead which included inquiries in regard to their mindfulness about what bleeding disorders was, their genuine beliefs on it. Results were acquired utilizing appropriate measurable strategies, and, in this manner, the awareness of bleeding disorders among medical students was analyzed. Results: Bleeding disorders can lead to heavy and prolonged bleeding after an injury. Hence, it is necessary that medical students are highly aware about them. Conclusion: From the survey and the responses received, it is clear that the students are now aware of the bleeding disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003681
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding diet counseling among dental undergraduate students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Human nutrition refers to the provision of essential nutrients necessary to support human life and health. Poor eating habits and lack of nutritional knowledge are important public health issues that have serious health implications, through proper nutritional education for their patient’s dentists play a major role in preventing nutritional-related diseases. Therefore, it is important that dental students and dentist have adequate knowledge on diet and nutrition and practice proper nutrition counseling for their patients. Aim: The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of diet counseling among dental undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: A self-administered structured questionnaire written in English which includes 13 closed-ended questions based on knowledge of the dental students about diet and nutrition counseling were given to 200 participants and the participants were asked to respond to each item in the questionnaire by choosing the most appropriate alternative. Results: (1) Among the 200 participants, 196 participants felt that good nutrition is important for oral hygiene. Four participants felt occasionally. (2) 190 participants agreed that diet counseling should be emphasized in dental curriculum. Disagree was felt by two participants. Four participants felt occasionally. Conclusion: It can be concluded that most of the participating subjects had basic knowledge regarding diet and its importance in oral health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003682
Title: Evaluation of fructose and α-glucosidase and its correlation with human semen parameters for better prognosis of male infertility
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, School of Biosciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Recently, there has been an increasing concern in the determination of fructose concentration and enzyme such as glucosidase, present in human seminal plasma. Objective: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the concentration of fructose and the activity of α-glucosidase in human seminal plasma of different infertile categories, normospermia, and control samples and its correlation with semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Infertile semen samples were collected from the azoospermia (n = 15), oligospermia (n = 31), oligoasthenospermia (n = 28), and asthenospermia (n = 32), normospermia (n = 44), and control (n = 13), who attended the semen analysis at Bangalore Assisted Conception Centre Pvt., Ltd, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Semen analysis was done for all the samples and categorized by the World Health Organization (2010) protocol. Results: Both fructose and glucosidase were found to be much lower in the case of azoospermia when compared to normospermia and control samples. The concentration was very less 4.247 ± 0.3764 in the case of azoospermia, which is 10 times lesser than the control samples. Fructose concentration and glucosidase activity were compared for all the samples included in this study. Correlation between semen parameters and fructose and glucosidase, respectively, was highly significant with P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Not only with respect to the assessment of sex organ such as seminal vesicle dysfunction but also the role of fructose and glucosidase activity is also significant with other seminal parameters to give a varied dimension in male infertility and male reproductive system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003683
Title: Antioxidant activity of catechol derivatives on buccal tumor cell line TR146 in vitro
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant effects of quinine against buccal tumor cell line. Results: TR146 as well as its effect on lipid peroxidation for 24 h. Results showed that the level of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased upon treatment with catechol derivatives I and II at different concentrations (1, 100, 250, 500, and 750 ng) when compared to untreated control TR146 cells. Among the catechol derivatives, catechol derivative I was found to be more effective than the catechol derivative II. The antioxidant enzyme - superoxide dismutase - was decreased significantly upon treatment with catechol derivatives I and II at the above-mentioned concentrations when compared to untreated control TR146 cells. Catechol derivative I showed better effect than the catechol derivative II. Conclusion: This may be due to the reason for positioning the functional group in their structures. The observed result confirms that catechol derivatives were found to possess antilipid peroxidation and antioxidant effect on cancer cells.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003684
Title: Inhibitory potential of chebulagic acid on digestive enzymes in vitro
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The present study was aimed to investigate the α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and lipase inhibitory effects of chebulagic acid in vitro. Varying concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 μg/ml) of chebulagic acid and acarbose were subjected individually to α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, and their absorbance was measured at 540 and 405 nm using a colorimeter. Likewise, the same concentration of chebulagic acid and orlistat was subjected individually to lipase inhibitory assay, and its absorbance was read at 410 nm. Chebulagic acid showed appreciable α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and lipase inhibitory potential in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum percentage of inhibition was observed (68.85 ± 0.28) in α-amylase and (63.35 ± 0.17) in α-glucosidase enzymes at a concentration of 100 μg/ml of chebulagic acid. The standard drug - acarbose - was shown maximum percentage of inhibition in α-amylase (71.46 ± 0.61%) and (69.82 ± 0.66) in α-glucosidase at a concentration of 100 μg/ml. similarly, the highest percentage of inhibition was observed (86.16 ± 0.87) in lipase at a concentration of 100 μg/ml of chebulagic acid. The standard drug orlistat was shown maximum percentage of inhibition (91.61 ± 0.47) at a concentration of 100 μg/ml. The results produced by chebulagic acids were comparable to that of acarbose and orlistat which may be recommended as an oral antidiabetic and antiobese drug.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003685
Title: In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of iridoid glucoside
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Natural products have been used as potential inhibitors against carbohydrate‑hydrolyzing enzymes to treat hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus to minimize the toxicity and side effects of the inhibitors currently used to control hyperglycemia. Alpha‑amylase and α‑glucosidase inhibitors are used to achieve greater control over hyperglycemia in T2D mellitus. Objectives: The present study was indented to investigate the in vitro α‑amylase and α‑glucosidase inhibitory activities of iridoid glucoside isolated from the leaves of Vitex negundo. Results: Different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 μg/ml) of iridoid glucoside and acarbose were subjected individually to α‑amylase and α‑glucosidase inhibitory assay, and their absorbance was measured at 540 and 405 nm using a colorimeter. Iridoid glucoside showed appreciable α‑amylase and α‑glucosidase inhibitory potential in a dose‑dependent manner. The highest α‑amylase (67.22 ± 0.32) and α‑glucosidase (61.82 ± 0.30) inhibitory effects were found at 1000 μg/ml, respectively, and those inhibitory effects were comparable to that of acarbose ‑ used as a reference drug. Conclusion: These results indicated that iridoid glucoside exerted potent inhibitory effects against αamylase and α‑glucosidase which may be recommended as an oral antidiabetic drug.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003686
Title: In vitro hepatoprotective activity of hyaluronic acid-conjugated gold nanoparticles
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai–600 077, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the research is to determine the in vitro hepatoprotective activity of hyaluronic acid-conjugated gold nanoparticles. Background: Hyaluronic acid is a substance that is naturally present in the human body. The liver performs a vital role in metabolism, secretion, storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substances. Oxidative stress and free radicals enhance the severity of hepatic damage, which can be overcome by the antioxidant mechanism. Results: From the research, it was evident that hyaluronic acid conjugated gold nanoparticles exhibit hepatoprotective activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003687
Title: Evaluation of antidiabetic effect of Nerium oleander flowers - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of Nerium oleander flower. Introduction: N. oleander belonging to the family Apocynaceae is used for the treatment of diverse ailments such as cancer, asthma, and diabetes. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder which is the world’s fastest-growing chronic disorder. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of N. oleander flowers (NOME) was prepared. The in vitro antidiabetic effect of NOME was studied using α-amylase inhibition assay and glucose uptake assay. Results: The NOME treatment caused inhibition of α-amylase in a concentration-dependent manner. The α-amylase prevents the breakdown of polysaccharide to glucose. Also the treatment of NOME caused enhanced glucose uptake in rat L6 myogenic cells. Hence, these results revealed the effect of the extract in decreasing the blood glucose level. Conclusion: N. oleander flowers showed potent in vitro antidiabetic activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003688
Title: The comparative study on hemoglobin and BMI among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Many countries like India is facing the major problem of both malnutrition and obesity. Adolescence is considered as a critical period of life which has higher susceptibility of both obesity and anemic. The habits such as skipping breakfast and increase in consumption of high-calorie foods not only cause iron-deficiency anemia but also cause obesity. Materials and Methods: This research was done among 100 dental students to determine their hemoglobin (Hb) levels and respective body mass index (BMI). This helps to find whether the student population has any complications and also establishes their relationship. Results and Discussion: From the above data, the calculated mean of BMI and Hb is expected to be 21.914 and 12.133, respectively. The expected standard deviation of BMI and Hb is 3.863 and 1.922, respectively. Conclusion: There was a significant P value for Hb which is absent in BMI. It is not necessary that anemic person has deficient BMI and vice versa. From the results obtained, there is no positive correlation between the BMI and Hb.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003691
Title: Assessment of intracellular calcium ion levels in neuroblastoma cells on treatment with kaempferol
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The neuroblast is a primitive nerve cell which does not undergo further division as it is a postmitotic cell. After the migration phase, it develops into a neuron. Materials and Methods: Cell culture – SHSY5Y cells were cultured and maintained in a prescribed medium. Cell treatment – the cells were pretreated with different concentrations of kaempferol for 4 h and then incubated with MPP+ for 2 h. Results and Conclusion: The intracellular calcium was significantly decreased at different dose levels, respectively. Kaempferol exhibits the good neuroprotective effect against MPP+-induced toxicity to SHSY5Y cells, but it expresses the significant decrease in MPP+-induced calcium production. Kaempferol was found to be an effective neuroprotective agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003692
Title: Evaluation of the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra as root canal disinfectant - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra as root canal disinfectant. Background: Liquorice is the root of G. glabra from which a sweet flavor can be extracted. A number of pharmaceutical effects of liquorice are known anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticarcinogenic. Glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid compound, accounts for the sweet taste of liquorice root. Liquorice has also shown greater biocompatibility with fibroblasts cells compared to calcium hydroxide, which was severely toxic to the cells. Materials and Methods: In vitro studies were conducted using freshly extracted single-rooted premolars. Using a Gates Glidden drill, root canal was enlarged. Enterococcus faecalis was used as the culture suspension against which the activity of the extract was tested. Conclusion: Liquorice (G. glabra) shows effective bactericidal activity against E. faecalis and can be used as an effective root canal disinfectant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003693
Title: Assessment of prevalence and severity of oral impact on daily performances among pediatric outpatients in a dental college
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Traditional methods of assessment of oral health did not take into account the impact of oral health status on the lives of the people. Oral disorders can have a negative impact on the functional, social, and psychological well-being of a person. Thereby affecting the overall health of an individual. Several measures of oral health-related quality of life have been developed for adults, but very less for children. Therefore, this study aims to test the oral impact on daily performances (OIDP) instrument on the pediatric outpatients in a dental college. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 120 pediatric outpatients in a dental college. A pre-tested interview questionnaire was used as the survey instrument. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed through the OIDP questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were employed for statistical analysis. Results: Around 65 subjects reported at least one impact in the past 3 months with an overall mean OIDP score of 6.9 ± 4.7. The most commonly affected performance was smiling due to mal-aligned of teeth seen at 13.9% followed by eating at 2.4%. The least affected was emotional stability, with 95.5% reporting never having faced it. There was no statistical significance between the perceived problems and daily performances. Conclusion: Tooth pain was the most common perceived problem among the study participants. Smiling followed by eating was mostly affected, and performances such as emotional stability and school were among the least affected observed in this study sample.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003700
Title: Rotary files specific for pediatric dentistry – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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This study aims to review on rotary files specific for pediatric dentistry. Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood which presents significant clinical issues in primary teeth. If dental caries is left untreated at initial stage, it progresses toward pulp which subsequently leads to infection, abscess, and premature tooth loss. There is a continuous evolution in the field of endodontics in pediatric dentistry, resulting in a paradigm shift from using conventional hand files to rotary files for canal preparation in primary teeth. Biomechanical preparation plays an important role on the success of the root canal treatment. On literature search, there are various instrumentation techniques for performing root mechanical preparation in primary teeth. The present article highlights on the use of different rotary file systems for root canal preparation in the primary teeth. The review elaborates on the importance and different types of rotary files used in pediatric dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003704
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice on dental caries status among private security
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Topic: Knowledge awareness and practice on dental caries status among private security persons. Aim: This study aims to assess if the private security person has KAP on dental caries. Introduction: Dental caries is the scientific term for tooth decay or cavities. It is caused by specific types of bacteria. They produce acid that destroys the tooth’s enamel and the layer under it, the dentin. Many different types of bacteria normally live in the human mouth. They build up on the teeth in a sticky film called plaque. This plaque also contains saliva, bits of food, and other natural substances. It forms most easily in certain places. These include cracks, pits, or grooves in the back teeth, between teeth, around dental fillings or bridgework, and near the gum line. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in Chennai among randomly selected private security guards. Questionnaire was then distributed among 70 randomly selected security guards. The question was related to knowledge, awareness of the status of dental caries. A total of 20 questions were asked. Results: It was found that the security guard’s knowledge, awareness, and practice level on dental caries status was 45% as one of the basic reasons was that they had only basic level education. Conclusion: While the oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the security guards. This shows that there was a lack of knowledge regarding the oral health maintenance; therefore, the knowledge on dental caries should be spread through dental camps and health education programs. Furthermore, dental camps can be set up and they can be taught the right way in which the oral hygiene can be maintained, and 6 months later, a follow-up can be done to see if they are practicing well.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003707
Title: Mitochondrial membrane potential of Allicin on MECP-2 deficient cells
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The Mecp2 gene is situated on the X chromosome, and it has about four exons and three introns. The exon1 of the MeCP2 gene has a more transcriptional level when compared to other exons which are located in the brain. Any mutation taking place in the exon1 of the MeCP2 gene leads to decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The aim of the study is to determine the restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of Allicin on MeCp-2 deficient cells. Materials and Methods: MeCp-2 deficient cells were treated with different concentration of allicin. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was determined using the fluorescent probe, JC-1. Results : It was found that Allicin improves the mitochondrial membrane potential on MeCp2 deficient cells with an increase in concentration when compared to positive control donepezil.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003716
Title: Evaluation of waiting period, recall period, and appointment scheduling of outpatients in a dental hospital
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the waiting period, recall period, and appointment scheduling of outpatients in a dental hospital. Background: Appointment scheduling systems are potentially useful tools for enhancing the patient satisfaction. Appointment scheduling system is the first step in health-care provision process in outpatient setting that plays an important role in patient’s view. Patient turnaround time is defined as the length of time from when the patient entered the outpatient clinic to the time, the patient actually leaves the clinic. Waiting period and appointment scheduling play a key role in the outcome of patient satisfaction. Materials and Methods: A closed-ended questionnaire was prepared based on waiting period, recall period, and appointment scheduling of outpatients visiting a dental hospital. The questionnaire was distributed to 200 patients between 20 and 60 years of age. The filled questionnaires were collected and the data were tabulated. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test. Results: From the results obtained, 94% of the patients have visited more than 5 times a dental hospital, around 68% of them were given proper appointment time. Regarding the waiting period, 45% of respondents had a waiting period of 30 min, 32% with 1 h, and 23.5% for more than 1 h. Around 64% were satisfied with their appointment scheduling and treatment planning. Recall period of patients varied, 38% of respondents had 1 month, 36% had 3 months, and 26% had 6 months. Conclusion: From this study, we conclude that waiting period, recall period, and appointment scheduling are some of the factors that were potential to affect the patients visiting a dental hospital.