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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003816
Title: Antipyretic activity of plantain (Plantago major L.) leaves extract in yeast-induced mice
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, West Java, Indonesia
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Background: Indonesian people use plantain (Plantago major L.) leaves as antipyretics empirically. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the antipyretic activity of the plantain leaf extract. Method: Antipyretic activity test was conducted to Swiss Webster mice, which induced by yeast with paracetamol as a positive control. Results: Phytochemical screening was shown that plantain leaves contain flavonoids, phenols, tannins, steroids, and triterpenoids. Plantain leaf extract (0.35, 0.70, and 1.40 mg/20 BW) had antipyretic activity. Conclusion: The antipyretic activity of the plantain leaf extract was dose-dependent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003770
Title: Cytotoxic evaluation of onion oil on oral cancer cell
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This research work was done to evaluate the anticancer potential of onion oil on oral cancer cell lines. Introduction: Onion (Allium cepa) herbaceous biennial plant belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae is grown for its edible bulb. Onion oil has flavoring properties that could enhance the quality of treated food. It has also been reported to have antioxidant, anti-browning, and antimicrobial properties Oral cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world.The loss of regulation in cell division is the hallmark of all cancers. Materials and Methods: Onion oil was purchased commercially. The cytotoxicity of onion oil was studied by checking the cell viability using 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT assay) in KB cell lines. Results and Discussion: Onion oil decreased the cell viability in KB cell lines. The activity increases with increase in concentration of onion oil revealing its cytotoxicity in a concentration- dependent manner. Conclusion: This study established the potent in vitro cytotoxic effect of onion oil on oral cancer cell lines.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003775
Title: Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy by a plant sterol lupeol: A biochemical analysis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Lupeol is a triterpenoid and is found in vegetables such as white cabbage, pepper, cucumber, and tomato, in fruits such as olive, fig, mango, strawberry, and red grapes, and in medicinal plants such as American ginseng, shea butter plant, Tamarindus indica, Allanblackia monticola, Himatanthus sucuuba, Celastrus paniculatus, Zanthoxylum riedelianum, Leptadenia hastata, Crataeva nurvala, and Bombax ceiba (Saleem, 2009). Lupeol has been shown to exhibit various pharmacological activities under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Objectives: The study aimed to identify attenuation of diabetic nephropathy by a plant sterol lupeol the analysis of biochemical profile. Methodology: In the present study, experimental animals were divided into four groups each consisting of five animals. Group 1: Normal control, Group 2: Diabetic rates (type 2), Group 3: Diabetes rates treated with standard with lupeol at the dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day/orally for 30 days, and Group 4: Type 2 diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg b.wt/day orally for 30 days. At the day of 30, the animals were anesthetized, blood from control and experimental were collected, sera were separated and used for the assessment of kidney function markers, and serum electrolytes were studied. Results: High-fat diet and sucrose-induced type 2 diabetic rats showed a significant increase in the levels of renal function markers (urea and creatinine) and serum electrolyte sodium (Na+) with concomitant decrease in the potassium level (K+). Post-treatment with the plant sterol and β-sitosterol could effectively normalize the renal biochemical profile as that of the control level. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present findings that lupeol has potential nephroprotective effects through by controlling renal biochemical profile.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003757
Title: Stress and health problems among information technology professionals
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Stress is defined as a physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes mental tension and results in a factor of causing disease. The Indian information technology (IT) industry is fast-growing service with stressful work conditions. The aim of this study is to create awareness on the risk factors of stress and importance of stress management programs. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was administered to the IT professionals through survey planet link. Results and Conclusion: The data was statistically analyzed and results were interpreted. More awareness may be needed by the professionals on stress management programs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003758
Title: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. leaves extract as the antifungal agent for oral candidiasis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java 45363, Indonesia
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Aim: The aim of this study was purposed to investigate the antifungal activity of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. leaves extract against Candida albicans as natural antioral candidiasis (OC) candidate. Materials and Methods: The secondary metabolites content of S. polyanthum was detected by Harborne standard method. Ethanolic leaves extract at concentrations of 20, 40, 60, and 80% w/v was tested for the antifungal activity using the agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was determined as the lowest concentration that completely inhibited fungal growth using macrodilution method. For minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) determination, a volume of liquid was taken from each tube that showed no fungal growth, then subcultured onto the surface of Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) medium. Results and Discussion: The phytochemical analysis of S. polyanthum exhibited the presence of total flavonoids and tannins. The antifungal activity of the extract exhibited a significant increasing of inhibitory diameters as the increasing of extract concentration. This statement correlated with the finding of MIC and MBC value of the extract in the low concentration range that of 0.1562–0.3125% w/v. Conclusion: The antifungal potent of S. polyanthum (Wight) Walp. leaves extract could give an important contribution in the treatment of OC caused by C. albicans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003759
Title: Awareness on road safety among college students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Road safety refers to measures and methods used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured. Road traffic accidents are one of the world’s highest health and injury prevention problems. According to the World Health Organization, more than 1 million people are killed on the world’s roads each year. The previous studies also noted that the problem of the road traffic accidents was most severe in developing countries and that simple preventive measures could have a most higher number of deaths. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared which included questions on general knowledge about road safety. The sample size was 51 and the responses were recorded through survey planet. Among this, 51.98% were aware of the road safety measures. 47.1% of the students use a mobile phone while walking whereas 52.9% of the students do not. Various general knowledge question based on road safety among college students were captured in this survey. Results: From the survey, 95.8% feels the fact that road accidents are increased at a higher rate today. Around 87% of the population who took the survey feels that random breathing test can reduce the number of road accidents. Thus, these were the major results found through the survey. Conclusion: From the survey, it can be concluded that most of the college students who took the survey are aware of road safety measures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003760
Title: Acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of brown algae prevent rotenone-induced neurotoxicity
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The brown algae are a large group of algae comprising the classPhaeophyceae.There is a high need for understanding the role of the neurotransmitters to regulate the functions of the basal ganglia motor circuit by preventing motor fluctuations in the hope for developing some innovative strategies for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.The study is to determine the acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity rotenone-induced toxicity in neuroblastoma cells treated with brown marine algae. Materials and Methods: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the brown marine algae was determined on SHSY5Y cell lines. Results and Discussion: Brown marine algae exhibited a significant Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity against SHSY5Y cell line.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003761
Title: A comparative study on the efficacy of lycopene and quercetin in oral submucous fibrosis cell lines
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible disease that severely affects the oral, oropharyngeal, and the esophageal mucous. Lycopene, a red-colored carotenoid, prevents the promotion of carcinogenesis by interfering with various cellular processes and inhibiting proliferation of several types of cancer cells. It is also an effective antioxidant from tomato extract, which has been proved to be the most potent radical scavenger in various in vivo as well as in vitro studies. Quercetin, A flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, has unique biological properties. The aim of the study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of lycopene and quercetin on OSMF celllines. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity potential of Quercetin and Lycopene was compared and analysed on OSMF cell lines. Results and Discussion: Both Quercetin and Lycopene exhibited cytotoxicity against OSMF cell lines. From the results it was evident that lycopene was more efficient compared to Quercetin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003762
Title: Role of Kaempferol in decreasing 1-Methyl-4- phenylpyridinium induced mitochondrial dysfunction in sh-sy5y cells
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Kaempferol is a polyphenol antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables.1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) is a neurotoxin used in cellular models of Parkinson’s Diseases. Several studies show that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with early events in the pathogenesis of aging related neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the study is to analyze the role of kaempferol in decreasing the MPP+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells. Materials and Methods: The Role of Kaempferol in decreasing 1-Methyl-4- phenylpyridinium induced mitochondrial dysfunction was analysed using sh-sy5y cell lines. Results and Discussion: The role of kaempferol in protecting the SHSY5Y cells from MPP+ induced mitochondrial dysfunction was studied.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003763
Title: Membrane stabilizing activity of oregano oil -A traditional medicine for dental problems
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study was conducted to analyze the membrane stabilizing the activity of oregano oil. Materials and Methods: Oregano oil was purchased from pure and natural essential oils, India. Stock solutions of 10 mg/dl of oregano oil were freshly diluted to working concentrations in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. Results: The statistical significance was determined by one-way analysis of variance, and post hoc least – significant difference test. The half maximal inhibitory concentration value is 86 μg/ml. Conclusion: Oregano oil can be used as an effective drug for anti-inflammatory activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003764
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and attitude regarding barodontalgia among dental students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Barodontalgia is dental pain provoked by atmospheric pressure changes. The prevalence of barodontalgia among Indian pilots is as high as 20.6%. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and attitude regarding barodontalgia among the dental students of our institution. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year in January 2019 among the dental students of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. A total of 200 students were randomly enrolled in the study including postgraduates and undergraduates from 3rd year, final year, and internship. All students in the study voluntarily completed a validated questionnaire consisting of 15 close-ended questions, which was designed to assess their basic knowledge, attitude, and awareness regarding barodontalgia. Data collected were tabulated, statistically analyzed, and results obtained. Results: In the survey conducted, 59% of the students had heard about barodontalgia and 61% of students answered the correct definition of barodontalgia. Only 24.5% knew that the method to prevent barodontalgia would be to perform good restorations, whereas 42% of the participants knew the appropriate treatment methods. 65% of the students have never seen a patient suffering from barodontalgia. The attitude toward learning about barodontalgia was very good as 82% were interested in learning and 80% of the students thought that “barodontalgia” should be included in the dental curriculum. Conclusion: Dental students in this study have moderate levels of knowledge and awareness regarding barodontalgia and showed a positive attitude toward learning barodontalgia. The postgraduates had better knowledge regarding barodontalgia than undergraduate students. Among the postgraduates, the endodontists were more knowledgeable than the other specialty students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003765
Title: Awareness on thumbsucking and pacifier and its effect on child’s teeth
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Thumb sucking is a characteristic reflex for children. Sucking on thumbs, fingers, pacifiers, or different articles may make babies feel safe and cheerful and help them find out about their world. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire is prepared based on thumb sucking and pacifier and its effect among children. The questionnaire is administered to mother volunteers through online survey planet link. Results: From the survey done among the mother volunteers, 92% of the participants are aware of the oral habits practiced by their children. 61% of the participants’ children have mal alignment of the front tooth which is caused as a result of thumb sucking and usage of pacifier. 78% of the participants also intend to prevent their child from the habit of thumb sucking. Conclusion: The study reveals the knowledge and awareness on thumb sucking and use of pacifier and its effect on child’s teeth. It is the responsibility of the parents to improve breastfeeding and to avoid pacifiers so that mal alignment and other effects can be avoided.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003766
Title: In vitro free radical scavenging properties of synthesized nanoparticles from Solanum trilobatum
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The biological production of synthesized nanoparticles using herbal extracts is advancing as they do not use any harsh and harmful chemicals. Solanum trilobatum is a medicinal plant and is found to possess anti-bacterial and -inflammatory properties. Its extract is used to estimate antimicrobial activity of the in vitro free radical scavenging of nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: AgNPs from Solanum trilobatum extract was prepared . DPPH scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity of the e4xtract was measured. Result: The antioxidant activity of Solanum trilobatum AgNPs was estimated on the basis of its superoxide radical scavenging activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003767
Title: Urease inhibitory activities of silver nanoparticles of Andrographis echioides fruit extract against Helicobacter pylori
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria that enter the body and start living in the digestive tract and, as the years pass by, they form ulcers in stomach and small intestine. H. pylori attacks the lining of stomach and damages it due to which acid gets through it forming ulcer. Andrographis echioides is an annual herb which is present throughout South India. Compounds derived from plants have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anticancer agents. Materials and Methods: Andrographis echioides fruit powder was extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus for 8–16 h and silver nanoparticles were prepared and treated with Helicobacter pylori with varying concentrations. Urease activity was determined and urease inhibition by the extract was calculated. Results and Conclusion: From the results it is evident that Andrographis echioides fruit extract can be used as an anti-ulcer and antibacterial agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003768
Title: Anticancer potential of monosodium glutamate on KB cell lines
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral cancer is the third most common form of cancer in India and it is known to predominantly affect people on the lower end of the socioeconomic scale. Although there are various types of oral cancers, 90% of them are squamous cell carcinomas. Thus, we have attempted to test the anticancer potential of monosodium glutamate (MSG) – which is cheap and available as a part of our daily diet – through a 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on KB cell lines. Materials and Methods: KB cell lines were procured and cultured in RPMI 1640 – with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), L-glutamine, 1% penicillin (100 U/mL), and streptomycin (100 μg/mL) at 37°C in a humidified chamber. A 96-well plastic culture plate was taken and each well was filled with 200 µL of the culture medium. They were then incubated at 37°C for 24 h to facilitate the attachment of the cells to the plates. MSG was purchased and dissolved in distilled water and made into different concentrations such as 50, 100, 150, and 200 µg/mL. Controls were included for each experimental setup. An MTT assay was performed to determine the percentage of cell viability, and the absorbance was read on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader at 570 nm. From the values obtained, the percentage of cytotoxicity (IC50 value) was calculated. Each experiment was carried out in triplicate, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of the test sample as the percentage survival of the cells was calculated. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. The statistical significance was determined by a one- way analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: MSG exhibits an anticancerous potential although it is lesser than that of the standard. MSG (200 mL) shows a moderate cytotoxicity while MSG (50 mL) hardly shows any anticancerous potential. Conclusion: Although moderate, MSG has a notable cytotoxicity that could possibly be used for treating oral cancer. Since MSG is readily available through our diet, it also presents as an easy and inexpensive solution for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003769
Title: Genotoxic and antimutagenic activity of Ficus carica aqueous extract
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Ficus carica belongs to the family of Moraceae. The tree which is also known as F. carica is widely spread in the tropical and subtropical countries which have edible fruits which have high commercial value. To know more about the potential health-promoting constituents of fig fruits, Genotoxic and antimutagenic activity of aqueous Ficus carica extract was carried out. Materials and Methods: Genotoxic and antimutagenic activity of Ficus carica aqueous extract was carried out by AMES test and COMET assay. Results and Discussion: From the study, Genotoxic and antimutagenic activity of Ficus carica aqueous extract was proved.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003771
Title: Antibacterial activity of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruit ethanolic extract against chloramphenicol-sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia
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Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruit ethanolic extract against chloramphenicol-sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of the extract was tested against those Staphylococcus strains using a well diffusion method. Then, the extract was serially diluted in broth medium and challenged by an inoculum of S. aureus strains to determine the lowest concentration of inhibition, which is defined as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value. Results: The antibacterial activity exhibited that P. macrocarpa fruit extracts strongly inhibited the sensitive S. aureus but cannot inhibit the resistant strain. The antibacterial strength of P. macrocarpa fruit extracts was supported by the lowest MIC value data of the extract at the range of 0.391–0.781% w/v. Conclusion: The fruit extract of P. macrocarpa could be categorized as a strong candidate anti-staphylococcal from natural product.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003772
Title: Awareness on baby bottle tooth decay among South Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to create awareness on baby bottle tooth decay among the South Indian population. Background: Tooth decay has historically been considered as the most important global oral health burden. It is one of the most common childhood infectious diseases. The purpose of the study was to assess the awareness of mothers about baby bottle tooth decay among the South Indian population. Starting infants off with good oral care can help to protect theirs for decades to come. Mothers give information that their child are taking sweetened food regularly and it may cause tooth decay. Results: From the result, it shows that 86% of mothers using a baby bottle. 57.7% of children sleeping with feeding bottle at night. 75% of mothers feel this could be the reason for tooth decay 0.81% of them are planning to stop the children from feeding bottle. Baby teeth are important for chewing food and speaking properly. Conclusion: The awareness of baby bottle tooth decay is more effective and also makes mothers more aware of the importance of milk teeth preservation as well as tooth decay prevention. Baby bottle tooth decay is one of the significant and costly diseases in the world. The mothers aware about the cause of the tooth decay in the children among urban area. More awareness should to be created to the mothers living in villages.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003773
Title: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in diabetic patients attending a diabetic clinic in a tertiary care hospital
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to calculate the metabolic syndrome prevalence in diabetic patients in a tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in the General Medicine Department of Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research (Deemed to be University), Porur, Chennai - 600116, India. From August 2017 to April 2018, we enrolled 129 diabetic subjects. Newly modified International Diabetes Federation (IDF) diagnostic criteria are applied to gauge the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Results: Among 129 patients with diabetes mellitus, in whom 58% and 42% were women and men, respectively. Average age of the survey population was found to be 45.64 years. By applying new IDF criteria, metabolic syndrome was identified in 65.11% diabetics (42.6% of women and 22.4% of men). Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was found significantly higher, especially in women and waist circumference is one of the main risk factors for developing metabolic syndrome. Clinical pharmacist interventions on patients drug profile, patient counseling, and lifestyle modifications play a major role in the significant reduction of metabolic syndrome.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003774
Title: Evaluation of in vitro rheumatoid arthritis activity of catechol derivatives isolated from Semecarpus anacardium seeds
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study was aimed to examine the in vitro rheumatoid arthritis activity of catechol derivatives isolated from Semecarpus anacardium seeds. Materials and Methods: Different concentration (30, 60, 125, 250 and 500 μg/ml) of catechol derivative I, II, III and IV and diclofenac sodium(standard drug) were taken individually to inhibit the protein denaturation using bovine serum albumin. Results: Results showed that the catechol derivatives (I-IV) and diclofenac were effective in inhibiting heat induced albumin denaturation in a dose dependent manner. But, maximum inhibition (85.26 ± 2.34) (78.56 ± 3.56), (73.56 ± 2.68), (90.65 ± 3.23) and (95.52 ± 2.80) was observed at a concentration 500 μg/ml of catechol derivatives I-IV and diclofenac respectively. Among the catechol derivatives, catechol derivative IV showed more inhibitory activity than the other catechol derivatives I, II and III. This might be due to their structural variation or the position of their functional group. Conclusion: The effect produced by the catechol derivative IV was comparable to that of diclofenac- an anti-inflammatory drug. The study concluded that catechol derivatives are an effective inhibitor of protein denaturation which can be used potent as an antinflammatory and anti-arthritic drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003776
Title: Awareness of balanced diet among schoolchildren
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the awareness of balanced diet among schoolchildren. Materials and Methods: The sample size of this study is 100. The study group consists of students in the age group between 10 and 18 years. This was a questionnaire-based study. The survey questions were prepared and administered through SurveyPlanet using an online link. The questions basically analyzed on different aspects of their eating practices. Results: The results obtained from this study showed that 82.5% of children are aware of balanced diet. More than 50% of children do not regularly include pulses, vegetables, and fruits in their diet. 30% drink only <1 L of water per day. Only 32% exercise every day. 86% of children are aware of health effects of high-fat diet. 30.8% of children snack twice a day. Moreover, 90% are aware that balanced diet is required for the well-being of an individual. Conclusion: Most of the children are aware of balanced diet but still fail to attain. From this survey, awareness on balanced diet and eating practices among children was created.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003777
Title: Evaluation of phospholipase and proteinase activity of Candida albicans on treatment with flavonoids
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Candida albicans infections are cautiously evaluated in numerous studies, whereas only little is understood about the physiological function of the secreted Phospholipase and protease. Flavonoids are phytochemical extracted from plant source. Flavonoids exhibit a very good antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the phospholipase and proteinase activity of C. albicans upon treatment with flavonoids. Materials and Methods:  The phospholipase production of C. albicans was assayed by measuring precipitate zone. Protease production by C. albicans was assayed using pour plate technique. The assay was done after incubating the plates with flavonoids of varying concentrations. Results: The percentage of inhibition of enzymes protease and phospholipase secreted by C. albicans was increased with increase in concentration of flavonoids in a dose-dependent manner as compared to standard drug.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003778
Title: Brown marine algae inhibit the growth and metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma in vitro
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, , Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Saveetha University Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine that brown marine algae inhibit the growth and metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma cell-cell attachment (CCA) cell lines. Background: Cholangiocarcinoma is cancer that forms in the slender tubes (bile ducts) that carry the digestive fluid bile. Bile ducts connect your liver to your gallbladder and to your small intestine. This condition, also known as bile duct cancer, is an uncommon form of cancer that occurs mostly in people older than age 50, though it can occur at any age. Metastasis is the medical term for cancer that spreads to a different part of the body from where it started. Brown algae contain several chemicals that work as antioxidants. Materials and Methods: Cell culture-CCA cell lines are procured from NCCS, Pune, and maintained in DMEM. Brown marine algae were macerated and metronomic extract was prepared. Bromodeoxyuridine proliferation assay was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to assess cell proliferation. Conclusion: Hence, brown marine algae inhibit cholangiocarcinoma. Although the inhibition is not up to the mark as in IC50 , further researches with higher concentrations of brown marine algae can be done to evaluate the efficiency of anticancer activity as equal as IC50

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003779
Title: Cast partial prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The oral rehabilitation of individuals with cleft lip and palate is directly related to severity of anatomical and functional alterations determined by malformations and at treatment. The ideal treatment of cleft area is closure by bone grafts and orthodontics when this is not feasible, many cases are solved with prosthetic rehabilitation. The prosthetic rehabilitation contributes directly and positively to the psychological aspects of the individual. Cast partial denture is chosen as the treatment of option in this case as removable partial dentures (RPDs) are especially indicated in patients with tissue deficiency. Planning of RPD should be combined to clinical and radiographic examination, dental cast analysis and occlusal analysis, and determination of retainer, connector, and dental bar.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003780
Title: Evaluation of antiplaque and microbial effect of herbal (neem extract), chlorhexidine, and betadine mouthwash on patients after dental implant treatment
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental implants are a well-accepted treatment for the replacement of missing teeth. The intraoral environment and overall health of an individual patient influence the outcome of implant therapy. Factors affecting the intraoral environment include the patient’s health status, medication use, level of oral hygiene, and habits such as smoking and drinking. Oral hygiene is an important determinant of implant success, as it is with the health of the natural dentition. Brushing, flossing, and mouthwash are also critical success factors, requiring considerable patient education and motivation. The potential long-term success depends on patient selection and patient commitment to oral hygiene measures. This study compared the short-term plaque control effect of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 2% betadine, and herbal (neem and clove extract) mouthwash after implant placement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003781
Title: Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic leaves extract of Cordia africana L.
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Aksum University, Axum, Ethiopia
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Introduction: At present, there has been an increased interest globally to identify antioxidant compounds from plant sources which are pharmacologically potent and has low or no side effects for use in protective medicine. Recent researches have shown that the antioxidants of plant origin with free radical scavenging properties could have great importance as therapeutic agents in several diseases caused due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extracts of Cordia africana on free radicals such as hydroxyl radicals (OH−), superoxide O2 − , nitric oxide (NO), and reducing power by in vitro antioxidant assays to develop the novel antioxidants in pharmaceutical formulation to cure oxidative stress-related diseases. Materials and Methods: The free radical Scavenging activity of the ethanolic solvent leaves extracts of C. africana Lam, was evaluated by using standard in vitro antioxidant methods such as Hydroxyl radicals (OH−), Superoxide (O2 −) , Nitric oxide (NO) and reducing power activity. Results: In the present study, the ethanolic extract of C. africana leaves had strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, then reaming in vitro assays it exhibited good radical scavenging activity. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract from C. africana leaves is promising source of potential antioxidants and efficient as preventive agents in the pathogenesis of some diseases; hence, this extract is used for the development of novel plant-derived antioxidant drugs for curing oxidative stress-related diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003782
Title: Health benefits of bishop’s weed (AJWAIN)
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Trachyspermum ammi is commonly referred as ajowan caraway, bishop’s weed or carom. It is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae (or Umbelliferae) and has its origin in the Asia Minor or Persia regions, from where it spread to the Indian subcontinent. The plant is mainly cultivated in Iran and India. Rajasthan produced about 55% of India’s total output in 2006. The fruits are rarely eaten raw; they are commonly dry‑roasted or fried in ghee (clarified butter). This allows the spice to develop a more subtle and complex aroma. In Indian cuisine, it is often part of a chunk, a mixture of spices fried in oil or butter, which is used to flavor lentil dishes. It is widely used in Pakistani cuisine as well, and it is also an important ingredient for herbal medicine practiced there. In Afghanistan, the fruits are sprinkled over bread and biscuits. The leaves of Plectra thus amboinicus, sometimes called “Indian borage,” are also occasionally called “ajwain leaves.” It is one of the important herbs for Indian kitchen to make the Indian cuisine tasty. All the parts of this herb have a very strong smell; hence, it is called Ugragandha in Sanskrit. Ajwain has many health and medicinal values. It is well‑known seed for Instant Remedy for Stomachache. The seed, oil, flowers, and extract are used as medicine for various diseases. It is also one of the potent medicines to kill worms. It is extremely beneficial for earache, toothache, influenza, heart problems, arthritis, and nasal blockage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003783
Title: Patient cooperation regarding food restrictions during orthodontic treatment - A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to find patient cooperation regarding food restriction during orthodontic treatment. Objective: The objective of this study was to improve our knowledge on maintenance and patients’ cooperation regarding food restrictions during orthodontic treatment. Introduction: Orthodontic appliances involve permanent fixtures on the teeth for the purpose of moving them. These attachments may sometimes be a hindrance for maintaining good oral hygiene. This is because there is a narrow gap between the wire and the tooth where the food particles can easily get lodged. For this reason, there are certain food restrictions to be followed by the patients to protect the appliance and prevent breakages from happening. Materials and Methods: It is a questionnaire study where 100 patients wearing orthodontic fixed appliance were selected and given a total of ten questions, for which they were asked to provide answers. These questions were related to food restrictions during orthodontic treatment. Results: This study reveals how many patients actually cooperate regarding food restrictions during orthodontic treatment. The study shows that patient cooperation regarding food restrictions during orthodontic treatment is average (64%). Conclusion: From this study, it has been shown that most of the patients were aware of the diet and food restrictions to be followed during orthodontic treatment. Only a minimal amount of patients followed food restrictions that have to be followed during orthodontic treatment. Added that the orthodontists have to stress more on diet restrictions so that the patients as well as the dentist do not have to face problems during the treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003784
Title: Questionnaire study on the perception of color of teeth among young women
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Tooth color is the most common factor that every patient demands for the dental treatment. An esthetically pleasing smile depends on color, size, shape, tooth position, superior lip position, and visibility of teeth and quantity of gingival exposition. The importance for maintaining/perceiving the natural color of the teeth increased than before among patients especially among women. Dental professionals play a major role in providing esthetic smile among patients. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the perception of young women on the color of teeth. Objectives: The objective of the study was to analyze the knowledge and perception about the color of teeth and awareness on teeth whitening procedures among young women. Materials and Methods: This study utilizes a questionnaire to check the perception about the color of teeth among young women. 100 volunteers were selected to participate in the study and the questionnaire was distributed through survey planet link. Data collection and statistical analysis were done. Results: The result of this study shows that 75% of the participants were satisfied with their color of teeth and 35% of that was very satisfied with the appearance of their teeth. 73% felt that whiter teeth are more aesthetically pleasing and aware about the term bleaching before; 79% of participants felt that it is possible to whiten the patient’s teeth by the dentist. Only 45% felt that bleaching is the application of acidic substances to remove stains on the tooth surface, only 7% of the participant’s undergone bleaching procedure before. 71% were more interested to know more about bleaching and other methods of tooth whitening procedure and 60% of the participants had an opinion that the expected outcome of bleaching procedure would be naturally white and good appearance. Conclusion: Although most of the study participants were satisfied with their color of teeth, the knowledge regarding bleaching procedure among young women is very less. Hence, more awareness should be created among the general public to enhance esthetic smile and confidence.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003785
Title: Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescent schoolchildren in Malaysia
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to find out the prevalence of malocclusion in Malaysian adolescents aged 13–17 years. Materials and Methods: A sample of 100 adolescent schoolchildren in Malaysia, both male and female, with the age ranging from 13 to 17 years was randomly selected for a dental examination. None of the subjects had previous orthodontic treatment and all had a permanent dentition. The inclusion criteria of the study include: (i) No previous orthodontic treatment done, (ii) permanent dentition present with no remaining deciduous teeth, and (iii) all had their first permanent molars. A full clinical examination was carried out using mouth mirror and light to evaluate the anteroposterior molar relationship, crowding, overjet, overbite, crossbite, and midline diastema. Results: About 93% of the population had malocclusion, of which 80% had Class I, 8% had Class II, and 12% had Class III malocclusion. Class II occlusion was most prevalent in Indians (17.4%) and Class III occlusion had a higher prevalence in Chinese (17.9%) and Malays (12.2%). Frequency of crowding was 70% and had increased prevalence in Malays (77.6%). Normal overjet and overbite were seen in 44% and 50% of subjects, respectively. 6% of the subjects had midline diastema. Crossbite was seen in 32% of the subjects. Conclusion: Malocclusion is a widespread phenomenon among Malaysian adolescents. The prevalence of Class II occlusion was more prevalent among Indians, whereas Class III was seen mostly in Malays and Chinese. Crowding was the most common feature seen in all the three ethnic groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003786
Title: Preference of antibiotics in pediatric dentistry
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the preference of antibiotics in pediatric dentistry. Introduction: Antibiotics are prescribed for oral conditions related to endodontic, oral surgical, and periodontal manifestations. Unwarranted use of antibiotics is reported in children, mostly for ear and dental infections. However, in children, increasing microbial resistance to antibiotics is a well-documented and is a serious global health concern. Antibiotic resistance is due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics by clinicians. Materials and Methods: A set of questionnaire was framed, and the survey was conducted among 85 dentists. This was performed using SurveyPlanet. The answers given by dentists were studied and the use of antibiotics in pediatric dental practice was determined. Moreover, the results were statistically analyzed. Results: There are many circumstances during dental treatment where antibiotics are prescribed by dentists to prevent further infection. When dentists were asked about whether they prescribe antibiotics to their pediatric patients, about 69.4% of them prescribed antibiotics while about 31.6% of them were not prescribing any kind of antibiotics for their pediatric patients. Amoxicillin is one of the most prescribed antibiotics in the field of dentistry. About 17.5% of dentists preferred amoxicillin as antibiotic to their pediatric patients. The most commonly used antibiotic in dental practice, penicillins in general, were found to be the most commonly prescribed antibiotics by dentists, the most popular one being amoxicillin (24, 25). About 13.1% of dentists prescribed penicillin as antibiotics. About 52.9% of dentists were unaware of the new generation of antibiotics and about 67.1% of dentists did not do any kind of antibiotic sensitivity test before prescribing antibiotics. Conclusion: Appropriate and correct use of antibiotics is essential to ensure that effective and safe treatment is available. Practices that may enhance microbial resistance should be avoided. To improve standards of care, dentists need to be up-to-date in their knowledge of pharmacology in dental education.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003787
Title: Prevalence of toothpaste swallowing habit in children between the age group of 3 and 5 years
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences,Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush to clean and maintain the esthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste is used to promote oral hygiene; it is an abrasive that aids in removing dental plaque and calculus from the teeth. Salt and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) are among materials that can be substituted for commercial toothpaste. Large amounts of swallowed toothpaste can be toxic. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was prepared using SurveyPlanet and was circulated among 75 parents of children between the age group of 3 and 5 years having toothpaste swallowing habit. Results: About 96% of the children have the habit of toothpaste swallowing. Intestinal problems are seen in more children and also few children’s complaint about stomach pain. Most of the parents prefer low fluoride toothpaste for their children. Conclusion: Most of the children between the age group of 3 and 5 years have the habit of toothpaste swallowing. The most seen side effects are intestinal problems and stomach pain. Nowadays, as people are more concerned about hygiene, most of the children brush twice a day.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003788
Title: Questionnaire study on awareness of the prosthodontic/ implant considerations in cardiovascular patients among the students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its drug therapies have direct impact on oral cavity causing severe gum diseases and periodontal problems as a secondary adverse complication. Surgical dental procedure in CVD patients should be managed carefully as the blood clotting mechanism is compromised with anticoagulant therapy. Hence, precautionary measures, special treatment protocol, and physicians consent are required to perform dental treatment in CVD patients. Dental professionals play an important role in the detection of adverse oral reactions and to prevent oral and systemic risk in CVD patients with the help of general physician’s opinion. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and awareness about prosthodontic considerations in CVD patients among dental students. Materials and Methods: This study used a questionnaire to check and evaluate the knowledge and awareness level of dental students about prosthodontic considerations and mainly implants in CVD patients. 100 volunteers were selected to participate in the study and the questionnaire was distributed through SurveyPlanet weblink. Data collection and statistical analysis were done. Results: The results of this study show that 96.1% of students felt that CVD patients require special consideration in dental treatment planning. 45.1% of students thought that hypertension is the most common CVD in Indian population. 35.1% of students felt that myocardial infarction is the most common CVD in Indian population. 56.9% of students felt that stress reduction, short appointments, monitor vital signs, premedication, and physician consent are the modifications required in the dental treatment plan for CVD patients. 54.9% of students felt that discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy temporarily before prosthetic surgical procedures is mandatory. Conclusion: This study shows that most of the students are aware of the basic management protocol for CVD patients, in general. Around half of the students were unaware about emergency drugs used in emergency situations. However, awareness on the specific prosthodontic procedures indicated for each specific CVD disease and about management of emergency conditions should be increased.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003789
Title: Oral appliances for obstructive sleep apnea
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of this review is to evaluate the use of an oral appliance (OA) to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The word “OA” is a generic term used for devices that is inserted inside the mouth for the purpose of modifying the position of mandible, tongue, and other structures in the upper airway. During early 1902, an OA had been recognized as a device to treat mandibular deficiency and upper airway obstruction. This review will discuss about the efficacy of OAs in patients with OSA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003790
Title: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination: A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical and dental education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found to be an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of the entire procedure behind an OSCE, describing its underlying aim, and determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales, its advantages and disadvantages, and the steps and procedures in modeling and OSCE.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003791
Title: Obstructive sleep apnea
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Obstructive sleep apnea (or apnea) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by obstruction of the upper airway. It is characterized by repetitive pauses in breathing during sleep, despite the effort to breathe, and is usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation. These pauses in breathing, called “apneas” (literally, “without breath”), typically last 20–40 s. The following article gives a detail explanation of incidence, symptoms, history, features, pathogenesis, predisposing factors, radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and treatment of this disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003792
Title: Pain perception in children toward dental anesthesia – A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to study the effects of pain perception in children toward dental anesthesia and to evaluate the factors associated with pain perception in children and its effects on the overall dental treatment. Background: Local anesthetic injection is considered as one of the most anxiety-provoking procedures in dentistry, which may result in the development of avoidance behavior in children that is often exaggerated with severe anxiety and fear. Pain perception in children toward local anesthesia is often the reason for not visiting the dentist, mainly due to its association with needle puncture despite its use to eliminate pain during a dental procedure. This study provides information on the factors commonly associated with pain perception in children toward dental anesthesia and its effects on the treatment progress. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was done among 100 participants who took part in the survey. The participants consist of pediatric patients ranging from 5 to 12 years of age. All the participants were provided with a list of 12 questions related to their pain perception toward dental anesthesia. Data were collected and a statistical analysis was performed. Results: Based on the results, 65% of the participants have been to a dentist previously and 58% of them enjoy going to the dentist. Awareness of dental anesthesia is seen in 55% of the participants with 49% of them have been anesthetized before. 95% viewed anesthetic injection as painful with 85% think that the pain is severe. Dental anesthesia is the main factor eliciting dental fear as stated by 88% of them and 73% suggest that they would react negatively toward dental anesthesia. Post-anesthetic problems were experienced by 67% of the participants, and 3% have had allergic reactions following dental anesthesia. Conclusion: Based on the findings in this study, it can be concluded that pain perception in children toward dental anesthesia has a significant effect on the overall dental treatment, in which behavioral management is often incorporated for such patients. A dentist should take into consideration the patient’s point of view toward dental treatment and factors that may elicit dental anxiety, especially in children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003793
Title: Melatonin in periodontitis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The concept of periodontal diseases as localized entities affecting only the teeth and supporting apparatus has been revised in the past few decades with considerable research focused on the wide-ranging systemic effects of these diseases. One of the mechanisms through which systemic health is affected in patients with periodontitis is through generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress which induce a great deal of damage to various body tissues. To address this aspect, the use of antioxidants has become a standard part of medicinal treatment. Melatonin, an endogenous hormone produced by the pineal gland is a powerful antioxidant and possesses a number of other potentially beneficial biologic activities to prevent the damage produced by oxidative stress on periodontium and other organ systems. Current review article provides contemporary evidence for the role of melatonin in periodontal diseases and envisions at the emerging status of melatonin to be utilized as diagnostic, risk reduction, and therapeutic strategies in the field of periodontal medicine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003794
Title: Management of patients with bleeding disorders in dental practice
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Oral care providers must be aware of the impact of bleeding disorders on the management of dental patients. Initial recognition of a bleeding disorder, which may indicate the presence of a systemic pathologic process, may occur in dental practice. Furthermore, prophylactic, restorative, and surgical dental care of patients with bleeding disorders is best accomplished by practitioners who are knowledgeable about the pathology, complications, and treatment options associated with these conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review common bleeding disorders and their effects on the delivery of oral health care.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003795
Title: Malocclusion status among Goldsmiths
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A malocclusion is a misalignment or incorrect relation between the teeth of the dental arches when they approach each other as jaws close. Malocclusions are a common finding, although it is not usually serious enough to require orthodontic and sometimes surgical treatment to correct the problem. If severe, it can cause discomfort while they work. Correction of malocclusion may reduce the risk of decay and help relieve excessive pressure on the temporomandibular joint. Materials and Methods: The survey was taken among 84 Goldsmiths working in Chennai. They were asked to fill the questionnaire and the results obtained were used to come to a conclusion on their awareness and knowledge on malocclusion. Results: This study observed the malocclusion status in 84 Goldsmiths. Among these, 23% were Class 1, 24% were Class 2, and 33% were Class 3. There was a statistical non-significance distribution of the three categories of malocclusions (x2 = 18, dF = 16, P = 0.324). Conclusion: There was a significant prevalence of malocclusions among the Goldsmiths and a suitable remedial awareness should be initiated.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003796
Title: Mast cell disorders in periodontal disease
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Mast cells (MCs) are mobile, bone marrow-derived, granule-containing immune cells that are found in all connective tissue and mucosal environments and in the peripheral and central nervous systems. MCs are able to phagocytose, process, and present antigens as effectively as macrophages. MC disorders are conditions in which MCs are either increased in number, hyperreactive, or both. These conditions range in severity from relatively benign disorders that do not impact life span to malignant clonal diseases that progress rapidly. Reason: Recently, MCs were found in high numbers in chronically inflamed gingival tissue taken from patients with chronic marginal periodontitis. This topic will review the classification of MC disorders, provide a brief clinical description of each disorder, and highlight the role of MCs in periodontal health and disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003797
Title: Management of diabetic patients in dental practice
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic lifestyle disease affecting all age groups. It is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The term “DM” describes a group of disorders characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood and abnormalities of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. A number of oral diseases and disorders have been associated with DM, and periodontitis has been identified as a possible risk factor for poor metabolic control in subjects with diabetes. The article will speak in-depth about the complications of DM. This article aims to review and increase the awareness of oral manifestations, complications, and dental management of diabetes patients and to stimulate research on the subject.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003798
Title: An in vitro study on compatibility action of flaxseed oil on periodontal ligament cells
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Flaxseed oil is being heavily promoted as an alternative to fish oil. Flaxseed oil contains plant-based omega-3 fats. A diet low in carbohydrates, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, rich in Vitamins C and D and rich in fibers can significantly reduce gingival and periodontal inflammation. Materials and Methods: (1) Source of chemicals: Flaxseed oil was purchased from Hakim Chichi Pharma, Surat, Gujarat. (2) Cell culture: The periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were cultured in a humidified atmosphere at 37°C in the appropriate medium. (3) Bromodeoxyuridine proliferation assay: The bromodeoxyuridine proliferation assay was done using the appropriate chemicals. Results: Proliferation of periodontal ligament cells increased with increasing concentration of flaxseed oil in a dose-dependent manner. Integrin was taken a positive control. Conclusion: PDL cell proliferation is essential for wound healing by inducing the growth of immature PDL cells and that, in turn, accelerates periodontal regeneration. Thus, induction of proliferation of PDL cells by flaxseed oil was analyzed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003799
Title: A survey based on the knowledge about yoga and exercise among health professionals in Tamil Nadu
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Yoga serves as a therapeutic agent and also many research are being done in the past few decades. Regular practice of exercise helps in the reducing the rate of mortality by all cause. Exercise has also been shown to increase the lifespan by as much as five years. So the main of this study is to survey about the knowledge of yoga and exercise among health professionals in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Method: A questionnaire containing 15 questions was framed based on the knowledge of yoga and exercise among health professionals in online on Survey Planet app. The study population was consisted a total of 56 participants between the ages of 20-44 years. Result and Conclusion: The benefits of practicing yoga and exercise were acquainted to the individuals along with the side effects of sudden stop of the both.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003800
Title: Morphometric study of carotid canal
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to analyze measurements of carotid canal in dry human skulls of South Indian origin. Introduction: The carotid canal was described as a bony canal located within the middle cranial fossa at the apex of the petrous temporal bone. It transmits the internal carotid artery to pass into the cranium. The carotid canal has rounded exterior opening lying at the base of the skull in the petrous part of the temporal bone. The average length of the carotid canal is 2 cm approximately. The position, dimensions, and extensions of the carotid canal are of vital importance in cases of skull base surgery as in the identification and isolation of the internal carotid artery throughout its petrous course. Materials and Methods: This study used about 44 dry human skulls of unknown sex andSouth Indian origin. The length and breadth of the carotid canal were determined using Vernier calipers. Results: The shape of the carotid canal was found to be rounded or oval in shape. In some skulls, it is directed downward while in other is directed downward and slightly medially. The mean length of the carotid canal was found to be 0.77 mm and the mean breadth of the carotid canal was found to be 0.67 mm. There are no significant differences between the left and right sides of the carotid canal and length and breadth of the canal in both the left and right sides. Conclusion: The present study concluded that morphometric data on the carotid canal have great significance in the medical imaging, surgical procedures, anthropological, and forensic studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003801
Title: Knowledge of oral health for children with special needs among dental students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Children with disabilities are a special group who have impaired ability to take care of their own oral health and need prior procedures for the prevention of oral diseases, as they have higher risk of dental diseases. Managing and treating such children are difficult, challenging and require skill and time. Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the knowledge of oral health for children with disabilities among dental students. Materials and Methods: The study included 100 dental students studying at Saveetha Dental College. Their knowledge was assessed using online survey link consisting of 18 questions. Results: The results of the questionnaire revealed average level of knowledge on oral health of children with disabilities, their special features, and behavioral problems. Conclusion: These results show that there is a need for taking measures in creating instruction programs in dental colleges which provides basic information on children with special health care needs (SHCNs) and thereby increasing the students’ knowledge, training, and exposure to children with SHCNs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00003802
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of one ayurvedic pain relieving oil “Mahamasha Thailam”
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The aim of the study is to understand the efficacy of Ayurvedic medicine by subjecting it to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This knowledge could help in finding the molecules that are of medicinal importance. Materials and Methods: Mahamasha Thailam was bought from a Standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and subjected to GC-MS analysis by standard procedures. Results: The GC-MS results indicated the presence of some important molecules such as n-Hexadecanoic acid, n-Decanoic acid, 2,6-Difluoro-3-methylbenzoic acid, 2,3-dichlorophenyl ester, propane, and 2-methoxy-2-methyl-, which have medicinal roles supporting the pain reliving role of Mahamasha Thailam. Conclusions: GC- MS results indicated that the medicinal roles of some of the important molecules augur well with the activity of Mahamasha thailam. The roles of some other molecules such as 1-Heptanol, 2,4-diethyl-, Cis-3-ethyl-endo-tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2.6)]decane, 3-Octyne, 2,2,7-trimethyl-, 1,3-Benzodioxole, 5,5’-(tetrahydro-1H,3H-furo[3,4-c]furan-1,4- diyl)bis-, [1S-(1.alpha.,3a. alpha.,4.beta.,6a.alpha.)]-, and 1,3-Dioxolane-2-methanol are not reported yet.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003803
Title: Anti-inflammatory activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using neem and Aloe vera extract
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nano Biomedicine Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera and neem herbal formulation using silver nanoparticles. Introduction: Inflammation is the primary response of the body against an infection or an injury and it is very essential when it comes to our immunity. It comes along with the biological reaction of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli such as various pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Due to the growing prominence of pain and pain-related conditions and other complexities of clinical management it is important to understand about the anti-inflammatory drugs that are available in the market. Moreover, the usage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has proven to give side effects such as stomach pain, heartburn, and stomach ulcers. Hence, it is time for us to go back to nature and promote herbal medicines rather than the allopathic medicines for having the least side effects. This study deals with the anti-inflammatory activity of silver nanoparticles which are synthesized using neem and A. vera herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: They are used in (1) collection of A. vera and Azadirachta indica, (2) synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a herbal formulation, and (3) to finalize the anti-inflammatory activity of silver nanoparticles. Results: The silver nanoparticles can be synthesized using herbal formulation using A. vera and A. indica. Conclusion: The silver nanoparticles synthesized using the herbal formulation of A. vera and A. indica have shown anti-inflammatory activities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003804
Title: Gene-dependent cariogenicity detection in Streptococcus mutans from human oral cavity
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Dental caries is the most prevalent infectious disease in mankind and is considered a chronic disease that is associated with multiple factors, including host factors (tooth surface, saliva acquired pellicle), diet, and dental plaque (bacteria). Saliva is a complex mixture of several components. Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as cariogenic bacteria in dental caries because they can produce high levels of dental caries-causing lactic acid and extracellular polysaccharide. Materials and Methods: The examined children were required to refrain from any oral hygiene procedure and food intake during the 12 h before sampling. 5 mL of non-stimulated saliva was collected in the morning in a 15 mL sterile plastic tube, which was maintained at 4°C until brought to saliva was transferred to 1.5 mL centrifuge tubes for further analysis. Gene- dependent cariogenicity detection in S. mutans from human oral cavity. Results: The isolating of total DNA samples from 15 patients was followed by the analysis of DNA integrity of saliva. The electrophoretic separation showed the presence of DNA bands larger than 10,000 bp, with integrity of the isolated DNA and minimal degradation. The standard curve was designed based on the dilution of DNA isolated from S. mutans UA159. The melting curve for the amplification of DNA of S. mutans UA159 shows a single amplification pick, to the same temperature for all the dilutions. Conclusion: This study concludes that the specific gene is present in the sequence obtained which is responsible for gene-dependent dental caries in S. mutans present in the oral cavity. This investigation revealed that the SYBR green-based real-time PCR was accurate and useful for the absolute and relative quantification of cariogenic bacteria from oral specimens in which the Gtfh gene was responsible for dental caries is present in S. mutans. The qPCR is potentially useful for quantifying viable cariogenic pathogens in oral specimens and is applicable to oral biofilm experiments. This assay will help to elucidate the relationship between the number of viable cells in oral specimens and the oral status.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003805
Title: Awareness of rheumatoid arthritis among dental students – A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Tamil Nadu, Chennai, India
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Aim : The aim of this study is to assess the awareness about rheumatoid arthritis among dental students. Materials and methods: This research is a survey based study. An online questionnaire was distributed among the students and responses was collected online. The questionnaire was administered through survey planet link. Results and Conclusion : The data was collected and statistically analyzed. It is seen that there was less knowledge about rheumatoid arthritis among dental students. It is necessary to conduct awareness programs among dental students to enrich the knowledge about the various risk factors, etio pathogenesis, treatment modality of the disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00003806
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of one ayurvedic pain relieving oil “Karpooradi Thailam”
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The scientific validity of contemporary and alternative medicinal forms such as Ayurveda and Siddha is of prime importance in today’s world. Materials and Methods: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) study of one pain relieving Ayurvedic oil, Karpooradi Thailam and to correlate its medicinal activity with the biomolecules present in it. Karpooradi Thailam was bought from a standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and subjected to GC MS analysis by standard procedures. Results: The presence of some important biomolecules such as N Hexadacoinc acid, Chloroacetic acid, dodec-9- ynylester, n-Decanoic acid, Trichloroacetic acid, dodec-9-ynyl ester, Hexadecanoic acid, and 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester has biochemical properties which help in relief from pain and inflammation. Conclusions: The presence of these biomolecules having medicinal properties support the validity of skin treatment with Karpooradi Thaila.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003807
Title: Impact of stress on menstrual cycle
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Stress is a feeling of emotional or physical tension. A woman’s menstrual cycle typically follows a 28- day cycle. Stress may play a role in causing irregular or missed periods. As stress levels rise, there is a chance that your menstrual period will temporarily stop. Materials: Inventories to measure stress. Participants: 100 adolescent girls of ages 13–18. Methods: Inventories were distributed among adolescent girls and results were compiled and analyzed statistically. Results: This survey analyzed that stress plays an important role on menstrual cycle which causes negative impacts on menstrual cycle among the teenage girls. Conclusion: Our findings concluded that stress causes a negative impact on menstrual cycle among the teenage girls.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003808
Title: Antimicrobial efficacy of green tea mouth rinse against oral bacteria causing early childhood caries
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of green tea mouth rinse against oral bacteria causing early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: In the present study, preparation of green tea mouth rinse was done before the study and the prepared solution was transferred to bottles for antimicrobial testing. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus pure isolates used in this study were obtained from HiMedia Laboratories. Distilled water loaded discs were used as negative controls for mouthwash, respectively. The discs were then inoculated in Mueller-Hinton agar and the diameter of inhibition zone was measured for the antibacterial activity assessment. Results: From the present study, it is evident that green tea acts as an effective mouth rinse in creating a barrier for the growth of oral bacteria and there is a significant increase in the salivary levels of L. acidophilus and S. mutans. The results were also statistically significant. Conclusion: This study is done to create awareness of green tea as a prevention modality against bacterial diseases in the oral cavity and its use as an adjunct to other mouth rinses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003809
Title: Mathematical model of the blocked breast duct
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Computational Methods in Continuum Mechanics, Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Control Process, Saint Petersburg State University, 7-9, Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034, R
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Aim: development of a mathematical model for non-invasive mammary duct tumor. Methods: the model was developed using the apparatus technique of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations. The gland duct is represented by a hollow cylindrical tube inside which the afunctional tissue growth occurs. Results: initial boundary value problems were set for differential equations; stability limits of stationary solutions were determined; an option of the mathematical model for treatment was proposed; conditions for the existence of autowave solutions were found, and numerical solutions were constructed. Conclusion: on the basis of the developed model, an estimate of the tumor growth rate was given; a treatment option was proposed, and an explanation of the reasons for a possible recurrence of the disease was given.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003810
Title: Detection of blaIMP gene among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different clinical samples
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Basic Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Al-Iraqia, Baghdad, Iraq
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Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa develop resistance to carbapenems and antibacterial therapy may become difficult because their great capability for acquiring resistance mechanisms to various kinds of antibacterial such as carbapenems group, even during the period of treatment. This study was aimed at investigating the blaIMP gene between the local isolates of imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: Eighty-two P. aeruginosa bacterial isolates have been collected from verity clinical specimens of different sources including ear, wound, and burns obtained from different hospitals in Tikrit and Baghdad–Iraq during the period from May 2018 to January 2019. Results: The isolates of P. aeruginosa have been diagnosed according to microscopic, biochemical tests and the results have been shown that the percentages of isolates bacterial from burns were 46 (56%), wound 18 (21.95%), and ear 18 (21.95%). Clinical bacterial isolates susceptibility to imipenem has been tested. The results showed that 18 isolates of P. aeruginosa in this study were resistant to imipenem antibiotic (9.21%), while the percentage of resistance to ciprofloxacin (68.30%), ceftazidime (51.2%), gentamicin (48.78%), and amikacin (43.9%). The minimum inhibitory concentration for the imipenem has been determined for the imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates values ranged between 16 and 512 µg/ml. The detection of plasmid DNA isolates by gel electrophoresis showed that some of these isolates had plasmid bands. DNA PCR technique has been done for P. aeruginosa isolates resistance to imipenem, results of amplification products PCR showed that one band for 12 P. aeruginosa isolates was observed on the gel at the same size (740) bp for a blaIMP gene. Conclusion: The study concludes ability of P. aeruginosa to acquire carbapenem resistance gene through extrachromosomal elements.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003811
Title: Soluble amyloid-β and 24S-hydroxycholesterol as parameters for examining mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease cognitive
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jawa Barat 45363, Indonesia
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Objective: Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia are currently a serious problem faced by the elderly population in both developed and developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine amyloid-β and 24S-hydroxycholesterol concentrations as parameters in patients with Alzheimer’s, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and normal people. Materials and Methods: Amyloid-β concentration measurements were carried out by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay sandwich while 24S-hydroxycholesterol concentrations were determined by the gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy method. Results and Discussion: The results showed that amyloid-β in serum had increased in MCI and Alzheimer’s patients compared to normal controls with a significance value of P = 0.140 and P = 0.728 (α = 0.05) while 24S-hydroxycholesterol showed significant differences in the MCI and Alzheimer’s groups compared to normal controls with both significance values P = 0.001 (α = 0.05). Conclusion: It concluded that amyloid-β and 24S-hydroxycholesterol can be used as examination parameters for early detection of Alzheimer’s disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003812
Title: Awareness on monosodium glutamate among elderly population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer commonly used in soups, fried rice, stews and other foods. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of MSG among elderly population. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire based study was administered though an online survey planet link to the participants. Results and Conclusion: Results were collected and statistically analysed. Worldwide and national bodies administering nourishment added substances at present consider MSG alright for human utilization as a flavor enhancer. More research may be required to analyze the exact mechanism of action of MSG in human body and its impact on metabolism.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003813
Title: Predictors of puberty health behaviors based on health belief model in 9th grade female students of public schools in Rasht
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
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Objective: Puberty is a biological process and is one of the important dimensions of adolescence whose health includes principles and care that leads to maintaining and improving the physical, mental, and emotional health of the individual within this period. Accordingly, this study sought to investigate the predictive power of health belief model (HBM) in puberty health behaviors among 9th grade female students of public schools in Rasht, Iran, in 2018. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study was performed on 250 female students at Grade 9 using multistage random sampling technique. The instrument was a self-administered, valid, and reliable questionnaire encompassing demographic characteristics, awareness, HBM constructs, and behavior. The collected data were analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis in SPSS software version 22. Results: The mean age of the students was 15 ± 0.7 years old. The mean age of the first menstrual period was 11 years old and most of them were aware of menstruation before puberty and were not afraid of the first menstruation. The most important clue for action was the family in 67.4% of the subjects. Based on data analysis using multiple stepwise linear regression model, HBM could explain 20% of changes in puberty health behaviors through perceived self-efficacy, perceived awareness, and perceived benefits. However, there was a moderate reverse correlation between perceived barriers and perceived self-efficacy. Conclusion: Given the results of this study, perceived self-efficacy, awareness, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers had the most important roles in predicting puberty health behaviors that need to be taken into account in educational interventions. On the other hand, it is recommended to influence families as the most important clue for action for students as well as to enhance the role of health educators in the studied population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003814
Title: Epidemiology of utero - vaginal prolapse in Aksum University College of Health Sciences and Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (AKU-CHS-CSH), North Ethiopia
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Science, College of Health Science and Referral Hospital, Aksum University, Axum Town, Ethiopia
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Background: Uterovaginal prolapse (UVP) is a prolapse occur when there is protrusion of female organ or structure beyond its normal position. In UVP, there is descent of the uterus and/or vagina. This is a common gynecological condition. Materials and Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted to assess the epidemiology of UVP and its risk factors associated with it. All cases of UVP admitted and treated in Aksum University College of Health Sciences and Comprehensive Specialized Hospital from October 3, 2016, to February 26, 2018, were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed using 16.0 version SPSS software. Chi-square test was used and also considered to be significant when P < 0.05. Results: During the study period, a total of 1676 individuals studied in gynecological admissions, 710 patients had genital prolapse. The prevalence of UVP was 42.3%. Factors found to be significantly associated (P < 0.05) with UVP include age, parity, occupation, marital status, and residence. Case notes were retrieved from the medical records department. Relevant data were obtained from the case notes, which included age, parity, occupation, marital status, residence, presenting symptoms, and stage of surgical management. Conclusion: UVP has very high prevalence associated with its risk factors such as age, parity, occupation, residency, and marital status in this study. Awareness creation on risk factors of UVP and the use of contraception to reduce parity is recommended. Higher policymakers should be advocated to minimize the rate of home deliveries and other risk factors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003815
Title: Effects of sleep on obesity
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to find the effects of sleep on obesity. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of sleep on obesity. Materials and Methods: The sample size chosen for this study involves about 100 participants of both the sexes. A set of questionnaire is been created by the use of survey planet software, and finally, all mothers results were compiled for statistical analysis. Results and Discussion: About 53.8% female and 46.2% male were asked for this survey. In that 97.4% of people were 15−25 years of age, 2.6% of people were 40−55 years of age. Maximum number of people sleeps 5–6 h. In that maximum number of people do not check the weight, there is no awareness about the weight in many people. According to my survey, the way they answered the survey tells that they were not aware about the sleep and obesity. Conclusion: We want to spread awareness about the sleep and obesity. Although obesity is not severe, it leads to serious problems. People of young ages like school going and students are knowing facts of sleep and obesity. They are some or more awarded of it. However, the detailed facts of this two are to be awarded.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003817
Title: Evaluating the safety from the chemical migration component from plastic bottle packaging for cough medicine at the Tasikmalaya City Health Center, Indonesia
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang, Indonesia
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Objective: The process of migration from the composite compound for cough medicine plastic bottles to medicine syrup can have a negative impact on the safety and quality of the product. This study aims to test qualitative analysis of chemical compounds that might migrate from the packaging of cough medicine plastic bottles to cough syrup using by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method. Materials and Methods: This study includes the purposive sampling method, cough syrup extraction, sample preparation, and testing using the GC–MS method. Results: The test results showed that there were residues of chemical compounds derived from plastic packaging compounds that migrated to liquid syrup, including diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP), phthalic acid, 3-nitrophatalic acid, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and benzene dicarboxylic acid. Conclusions: In accordance with regulations issued by the European Commission in 2010, packaging chemical compounds which are not allowed to be detected migrating are DIOP, whereas other compounds are still permitted with certain limits. Research to determine the concentration of migratory compounds is needed to determine the limit that has been determined by regulation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003820
Title: Characterization and detection of aspartyl proteinase and phospholipase among clinical isolates of Candida species
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A wide spectrum of disease is caused by pathogenic fungi in the genus Candida. These range from superficial mucocutaneous infections to invasive diseases involving internal organs as well as bloodstream infections. New opportunities have been created for Candida to gain access to the circulation and deep tissues by technological advances in medicine. An important cause of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections by Candida species is emerging. The aim of this study is to determine in vitro phospholipase and aspartyl proteinase activities as virulence factors of Candida species isolated from various clinical samples. Materials and Methods: Twenty Candida species isolates from various clinical samples from hospitalized patients were studied. The collected clinical samples were streaked on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and incubated at 37°C for 24–48 h. All isolates were transferred onto fresh SDA plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Then, the isolates were reidentified by colony morphology, germ tube formation, chlamydospore formation on Corn Meal Agar, sugar fermentation and assimilation patterns, and pale pink colonies of Candida species on HiCrome Candida Differential Agar. Results: This study suggests that the pathogenicity of Candida might be related to the site of infection. Early detection of virulence factors by Candida is useful in clinical decision-making. Conclusion: Analysis of the results obtained indicates differences in phospholipase and acid proteinase production by different Candida isolates from different sources.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003827
Title: Estimation of gamma-glutamyl transferase level in liver cancer patients
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an enzyme mainly found in the liver. Normal level is 9–48 U/L level which can vary for gender: for male 50–70 U/L and for female 40–45 U/L. Its level indicates the state of the liver. GGT level is higher in liver diseases. The aim of this study is to estimate the GGT level in liver cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Patients were selected from the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and divided into two groups as follows: (1) Group I – normal healthy individuals and (2) Group II – known liver cancer patients. Results: Mean level of GGT in control is 17.33 and mean level of GGT level in liver cancer is 365.55. Liver cancer is clinically significant. Conclusion: From this, we can conclude that the GGT level in liver cancer patients is comparatively higher than normal healthy people

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003828
Title: Antidiabetic potential of polyherbal drug against high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus male Wistar rats
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Sri Muthukumaran Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Chikkarayapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic potential of polyherbal against high-fat diet- (HFD) induced Type II diabetic rats. Background: Mixture of several cured extracts enhances the beneficial effects and diminishes any possible adverse effects of a single ingredient. Materials and Methods: HFD-induced Type 2 diabetic Wistar male rates (180–200 g) were treated with different dose of the polyherbal drug (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg b.wt). Results: Administration polyherbal drug (250 mg/kg body weight) to diabetic rats for 45 days resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and increase in the levels of insulin and Hb and body weight in diabetic treated rats. Conclusions: Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the polyherbal drug possesses antidiabetic properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003831
Title: Effect of fluoridated and herbal toothpaste on plaque formation and salivary pH
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to compare the effect of fluoridated and herbal toothpaste on plaque formation and salivary pH. Materials and Methods: The present study was a single-blinded randomized study conducted on hostel inmates aged 20–24 years. The study included 20 participants in each group: Group A – fluoridated toothpaste and Group B – herbal toothpaste. Two different toothpastes were assigned to two groups by simple random method. Modified Bass brushing method was advised. Salivary pH was assessed before and after brushing. Plaque scores were taken on the 0th day and 7th day. The data were statistically analyzed (t-test). Results: The mean change in plaque score was 0.065 for Group A and 0.015 for Group B (0–7 days). The difference was found to be statistically significant. The mean value of pH was found to be 7.02 and 6.8 for Group A and Group B. The mean salivary pH value increased to 7.77 and 7.6 in Group A and Group B, respectively. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that the mean change in plaque score was more in case of Group A patients who used fluoridated toothpaste when in comparison to the group who used herbal toothpaste.