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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003880
Title: Individual strategies for human adaptation under extreme climatic conditions
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Strategies used by individuals to adapt themselves under extreme climatic conditions are a biological and social connection linked specifically with a particular person. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 100 was taken such that they belong to various climatic conditions, and a self-prepared questionnaire was passed among them. The questions ranged from their ability to survive in the climatic condition to the strategies adapted by them to survive in the unforgiving conditions. Results and Discussion: From the questionnaire, it was evident that majority of the people were living in a moderate climatic condition. This being said that about 11% were living in extreme conditions such as high or low temperatures. Conclusion: Climatic conditions are different in different regions of the world. The adaptive measures taken in by the people to survive are essential to maintain life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003881
Title: Mood disorder among children and adolescent
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Everyday life is a roller coaster of emotions. You may feel on top of the world 1 day because of a high-profile promotion or an awesome grade on a test. Another day, you may feel down in the dumps due to relationship problems, financial troubles, or because you got a flat tire on the way to work. These are normal fluctuations in mood that comes and goes. When your mood starts to have an impact on your daily activities and in your social, educational, and vocational relationships, you may be suffering from a mood disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample size would be about 100 participants. Age group selected was about 14–18 years of children and 18–24 years of adolescents. All the data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: People the age between 20 and 30 years mostly suffer from the mood disorder it, especially females suffer from it, due to maturational cycle, workload, etc. Conclusion: Solution has been given to the children who were suffering from this disorder. Meditation, psychotherapy, family therapy, neurofeedback, yoga, equine-assisted therapy, acupuncture and massage therapy, and psychodrama are the treatment for which decrease the level of mood disorder.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003882
Title: Effect of meditation on mental stress among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The meditation is a non-religious and non-esoteric, which is based on a systematic procedure to alleviate the sufferings which is associated with physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Meditative techniques are categorized as emphasizing mindfulness, concentration, and automatic self-transcendence, in which the transcendental meditation, emphasizes the use of mantra to regulate one’s concentration and attention. Aim: The aim of the study is to know about the effect of meditation on mental stress. Objective: The objective of this study is to explore whether meditation reduces mental stress or not. Materials and Methods: The sample size choosed for this study is about 100 participants. A set of questionnaire was submitted in a SurveyPlanet software and all the data were compiled for statistical analysis. Results: The results show that 86% of the students state that they are stressed and they agree that meditational practices reduce their mental stress. Conclusion: Thus, our findings prove that meditation has a positive result in reducing mental stress and helps people to improve their concentration and memory power, but people fail to practice at regular intervals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003883
Title: Comparison of the clinical effectiveness of desensitizing toothpaste on dentin hypersensitivity following surgical periodontal therapy – A randomized, parallel-designed, double-blinded, clinical
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Non-surgical periodontal therapy may not always be sufficient for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Therefore, surgical procedures are followed to completely inhibit the disease progression and to establish healthy periodontal status. The major and most common post-operative complication after surgical periodontal therapy is gingival recession. This leads to exposure of the dentinal tubules on the oral cavity, leading to dentinal hypersensitivity. Management of dentinal hypersensitivity remains a challenge unto every periodontist till date. This study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of two different desensitizing toothpastes on dentinal hypersensitivity post-surgical periodontal therapy. Aim: This study aims to compare the effectiveness of two different desensitizing toothpastes on dentinal hypersensitivity following surgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects were included in the study. Group 1 consisted of 15 patients who were asked to use commercially available strontium chloride hydroxyapatite containing toothpaste and Group 2 consisted of 15 individuals who were asked to use commercially available potassium nitrate containing toothpaste twice daily. Modified Stillman technique of brushing was demonstrated to every participant and was asked to follow the same. Baseline values for dentinal hypersensitivity tests were recorded at the day of suture removal and brushing instructions were given on the same day. Toothpaste was provided to every patient and was asked to use them twice daily. Follow-up values were measured at 1 week and 1 month after suture removal. SPSS v20 was used for all statistical tests. Results: Both groups showed increased patient comfort on 1 month compared with baseline. However, potassium nitrate containing toothpaste was found to more effective on dentinal hypersensitivity reduction when compared with strontium hydroxyapatite containing toothpaste.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003884
Title: Comparison of the amount of bacterial microcolonies formed on using distilled water and ozonated water as an irrigating agent
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Periodontal diseases are constantly associated with anaerobic bacterial species such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival environment, and gingivitis and periodontitis are the common diseases which are the affecting the tissues surrounding the tooth. Bacteria are the prime etiological agent in periodontal disease, nearly 500 bacterial agent colonize the adult mouth,  and anaerobic bacterial microorganism is known to cause destructive periodontal diseases. Mechanical removal of the biofilm and adjunctive use of antibiotics have been the conventional methods of periodontal therapy, and the emergence of ozone therapy in periodontal treatment seems to have promising future. Ozone is a triatomic molecule (O3 ), it has three oxygen atoms, and it is a gas with extremely pungent odor. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than its diatomic allotrope O2 oxygen. Ozone gas has high oxidation potential and it is 1.5 times greater than chloride when used as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria, fungi, and protozoa;  it can be used in the treatment of alveolitis as a replacement of antibiotic mouthwash for oral microflora. The objective of the study is to find the effect of ozone in the form of ozonated water used as an irrigating agent in scaling and root planning (SRP) procedure and finding the amount of bacterial microcolonies before and after SRP from the subgingival plaque samples comparing with distilled water as a control irrigating agent. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the amount of microbial colonies formed on using ozonated water compared to distilled water as irrigating agent during SRP procedure and to know whether ozonated water is effective in bringing out changes in the number of microbial colonies under anaerobic environment. Objective: The objective of the study is to find the effect of ozone in the form of ozonated water used as an irrigating agent in SRP procedure and finding the amount of bacterial microcolonies before and after SRP from the subgingival plaque samples comparing with distilled water as a control irrigating agent. Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-blinded study was performed. A total of 20 patients suffering from chronic generalized periodontitis were recruited into the study; subgingival plaque samples were obtained from the patients before SRP and immediately after SRP. Both the patient and the clinician were blinded regarding the type of the irrigating agent used. The plaque samples were transferred into carrier medium and were cultured under anaerobic conditions; 24 h after culture, the samples were collected and total colony forming units were calculated. Results: On counting the number of colony forming units formed, it was found out that the amount of colonies formed in the ozone group had significantly lesser colonies formed when compared with the distilled water group from which we could interpret that ozonated water has better antibacterial properties. Conclusion: It is observed that there is drastic reduction in the bacterial microcolonies formed. It is clear that ozonated water is more effective in reduction of anaerobic organisms which are difficult to eradicate from the subgingival bacterial ecosystem henceforth ozonated water can be used as an alternative for water which is used commonly in daily practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003885
Title: Influence of magnesite mine soil for enhancement the efficiency of bioactive compound production from Actinobacteria
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, School of Biosciences, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Actinobacteria are the promising source of bioactive compounds production particularly in drug discovery. However, the development of drug is one of the challenging tasks due to the lacking of production enhancement methods. One of the ways to come out from this problem is the enrichment of medium to enhance the production quantity and quality of bioactive compound. Materials and Methods: Magnesite mine soil contains all essential trace elements. 30 Actinobacterial cultures which were isolated from Yercaud hills (Tamil Nadu) are screened for antagonistic activity. Bioactive compounds have been produced from selected potential cultures and screened for activity against clinical bacterial pathogens. Results: Screening study shows that the influence of magnesite mine soil extract enhanced the bioactive compound production of Actinobacteria. 5–10% of enhancement was occurred in quantity and also efficiency of bioactive compound. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the influence of trace elements of magnesite mine soil on bioactive compound production from Actinobacteria.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003886
Title: Genome subtraction to identify the novel therapeutic targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Tuberculosis is a deadly infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease still puts a strain to HIV in causing high mortality rates. Many pathogens have developed resistance to antibiotics; therefore, in silico approach was done to find the new drug targets with less toxicity. In this study, the proteome of M. tuberculosis was sorted out for paralogs and homologous sequence and further analyzed to identify essential genes using database of essential genes. Materials and Methods: The metabolic pathway analysis was performed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Automatic Annotation Server (KAAS). The comparative examination of the metabolic pathways of the host and pathogen performed by KEGG pathway. The unique protein obtained was subjected to Basic Local Alignment Search Tool against Homo sapiens to select the non-homologous protein, in that 6 proteins with no significant similarity were found. The subcellular localization of the proteins was identified using proteome analyst specialized subcellular localization server v2.5 (PA-SUB). Results: The outcomes of comparative examination of the metabolic pathways of the host and pathogen performed by KEGG pathway database reveal 154 essential proteins involved in metabolic pathway in that 17 proteins were unique to the metabolic pathway of M. tuberculosis. Among the six proteins derived, crystallographic structure was made to protein acyl desaturase and molecular off-target analysis was carried out for that unique protein and commercial drug (ethionamide) involved in metabolic pathway. It was found that side effects caused by inhibitors targeting the drug targets possessed high side effects compared to new target proposed (acyl desaturase) since acyl desaturase has no similarities with Homo sapiens and vital function plays by protein in M. tuberculosis suggested as possible therapeutic targets.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003887
Title: In vitro propagation and biological activities of Coleus zeylanicus L.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: In vitro propagation is an important technique in tissue culture to yield a large number of medicinally important plants and to conserve the endangered species. In the present investigation, the multiple shoots from the nodal segment of the medicinal plant Coleus zeylanicus were induced and studied for anticancer and antibacterial activity. Materials and Methods: The multiple shoot induction was done in MS medium at different concentrations of plant growth regulators such as 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron (TDZ). Furthermore, the plant leaves were extracted with various solvents and tested for antibacterial by agar well diffusion method and anti-proliferative activity against laryngeal carcinoma cell line by MTT colorimetric assay respectively. Results: In the finding of multiple shoot induction, 2.0 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L TDZ hormone concentration have high percentage of multiple shoots formation. The methanol extract exhibits the highest zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and also it showed maximum cytotoxicity of 50.3 ± 0.21 against HEp-2 cancer cell lines at the concentration of 50 μg/mL.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003888
Title: Preliminary phytochemical and gas chromatography– mass spectrometry study of one medicinal plant Carissa carandas
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The present study deals with the preliminary phytochemical and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of different leaf extracts of one medicinal Carissa carandas. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical and GC– MS study of one medicinal plant, C. carandas was done as per standard protocols to correlate its medicinal activity with the biomolecules present in it. Results: The methanol extract of C. carandas indicated the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and steroids, whereas flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, and steroids were present in hexane fraction. Alkaloids, saponins, proteins, and triterpenoids were present in aqueous extract. The GC–MS analysis of hexane and aqueous leaf extracts indicated the presence of some important biomolecules such as pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-, methyl ester, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, (Z, Z, Z)-, Phytol, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, Squalene, Octasiloxane, 1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7,9,9,11,11,13,13,15,15- hexadecamethyl, beta.-Sitosterol, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, 2-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-1-[[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]methyl] ethyl ester, (Z, Z, Z)-Acetamide, N-methyl-N-[4-(3-hydroxypyrrolidinyl)-2-butynyl]-, 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid, methyl ester, (all-Z)-, and 6-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (Z). Conclusions: The presence of these molecules augurs well with the medicinal properties attributed to this plant ethnobotanical. Further work is in progress toward understanding this plant’s role as a medicine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003889
Title: Membrane and clinical abnormalities in uncontrolled stress in stages of type II diabetes mellitus patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objectves: Hyperglycemia, lipid peroxidation, alternations in lipid profiles, and ATPase activities were analyzed in plasma membrane of red blood cell (RBC) in uncontrolled type II diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Results and Discussion: Glycated hemoglobin, erythrocyte membrane cholesterol, and phospholipid were significantly increased in DM patients. The improper ratio of cholesterol to phospholipid, lipid peroxidation and glycated hemoglobin, and active substances thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were analyzed. The Na+ -K+ -ATPase activity of erythrocyte was significantly decreased in the diabetic subjects, as compared to controls. The study suggested that biochemical abnormalities in the RBC membrane also be an important factor for type II DM.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003890
Title: Evaluation of adsorbents dosage on dye removal from wastewater
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: To treat the colored pollutant in the wastewater, the choice for the use of adsorbent types depends on the cost efficiency so the idea of making use of waste material as adsorbent was carried out to prepare and test its efficiency in dye adsorption. Materials and Methods: In this study, adsorption of methylene blue using various low-cost adsorbents such as groundnut shell and tea waste was used. Results and Discussion: At constant dye concentration of 500 mg/l, adsorbent dose of 0.4 g of groundnut shell shows the highest adsorption efficiency of 94% than tea waste. Conclusion: Adsorbent dose of 0.7 g spent tea waste shows highest adsorption efficiency of 74% than groundnut shell.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003891
Title: A study on effect of heavy metal on the growth of bacteria
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Heavy metal, mercuric chloride is very commonly used as disinfectant in biological laboratory. Materials and Methods: The study was performed to analyze the effect of this heavy metal at different concentration on the bacterial culture. Contact time was considered as evaluation parameter, and plate counting was used to find out the bacteria concentration. Results and Discussion: The result showed that as time and concentration of disinfectant increased, the growth of culture decreased, which revealed its sterilization efficiency. Conclusion: Mercuric chloride can be used as commercial disinfectant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003892
Title: Evaluation of bactericidal activity of medicinal plants
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Herbal plants are in rich source of antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial effect of five important plants namely, Andrographis paniculata, Bacopa monnieri, Centella asiatica, Nardostachys jatamansi, Saraca indica. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was screened against clinical isolates viz gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Extracts were found significant inhibition against all the pathogens. Conclusion: These plants can be used as medicine without any side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00003893
Title: Evaluation of binding confirmation method for ligand binding to CD4 receptor in HIV-infected T lymphocytes
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Bio-Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) has been reported to weaken the immune system by binding to CD4+ receptor of T lymphocytes, thereby making the affected individual to become more susceptible to several microbial infections leading to life threatening problems. Recent literature indicate there is promsing advancement in identifying drug targets through CD4+ receptor binding capabilities with its ligand. The main purpose of this paper was to study the various molecular interactions of HIV to other molecules like receptors CD4+ and also co-receptors like CCR5 and CXCR4. Materials and Required: The molecules are going to be modeled by using software known as Swiss PDB viewer. The first objective is to get the FASTA sequence from the NCBI website. Then we need to paste the sequence onto the Swiss PDB viewer. Conclusion: The requierd protein/molecule is modeled. We are going to follow this method to obtain templates and modles for the following molecukles: HIV, GP120, CCR5 and CXCR4.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003894
Title: Cytotoxic and gene expression study of KRAS gene in lung cancer cell line of A549 treated with Tinospora cordifolia extract
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Bio-Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: There has been global resurgence of interest in herbal drugs in the recent past. Though herbal medicines are effective in the treatment of various ailments very often these drugs are unscientifically exploited or improperly used. Materials and Methods: Therefore, these herbal drugs deserve detailed studies in the light of modern medicine. In spite of synthetic drugs, herbal drugs have their place in therapy. Results and Discussion: Their effectiveness, low-cost and comparative freedom from serious toxic effects makes these medicines not only popular but also an acceptable mode of treating diseases even in modern times. Medicinal plants are those plants that are used in treating and preventing specific human diseases. Conclusion: It can be treated by using medications and should not be used in most harmful cases. Chemical drugs cannot be used to treat such type of harmful diseases.Still, the use of plants as a source of medicine is very much important for human beings. Identify medicinal and how to use them is so important.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00003895
Title: Docking and homology modeling of human T helper cells for various SCFV fragment domains to block the access of gp120
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus which directly attacks human immune system as well as certain body organs such as brain kidneys and heart. The resistant framework is comprised of unique cells, which are associated with shielding the body from contaminations and a few tumors. The essential cells assaulted by HIV are the CD4+ lymphocytes, which help direct invulnerable capacity in the body. Materials and Methods: Since CD4+ cells are required for appropriate resistant framework work, when enough CD4+ lymphocytes have been devastated by HIV, the safe framework scarcely works. Results: A considerable lot of the issues experienced by individuals contaminated with HIV result from a disappointment of the resistant framework to shield them from certain harmful cancerous cells and tumors. Conclusion: Thus situation is utilized in a reasonable universe of bioinformatics in order to shape conceivable structure of the HIV gp120 which is reason for T cell contamination and a structure of the CD4+, to think about the coupling example of the gp120 and CD4+ through the docking procedure.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00003896
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of one medicinal plant, Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The scientific validation of ethnopharmacologically important herbal plants by latest techniques is necessary to understand their medicinal efficacy. Methods: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of one herbal plant, Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia was undertaken by standard procedures and its medicinal activity was verified with the biomolecules present in it. Results: The presence of some important biomolecules such as catechol, N-benzyl-2-phenethylamine, acetic acid, 4-oxocyclohexyl ester, 4-amino-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole, 1,1’-methylene-bis(di-2-propenylamine), inositol, alanine, N-methyl-N-methoxycarbonyl-, hexyl ester, 1,3-dioxolane, 2-methyl-2-pentyl-, cyclohexane, 1-methyl-3-(1-methylethenyl)-, cis-, phthalic acid, di(2,3-dimethylphenyl) ester, heptafluorobutyric acid, 2-naphthyl ester, and 2-fluoro-6- trifluoromethylbenzoic acid, 4-nitrophenyl ester has biochemical properties which represent the ethnomedicinal roles of this plant. Conclusions: The presence of these biomolecules having medicinal properties supports the validity of the medicinal roles of D. viscosa var. angustifolia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003897
Title: In vivo studies on malignant cancer and its treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Bio-Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: Oral cancer is a subtype of head and neck cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity. It may arise as a primary lesion originating in any of the oral tissues, by metastasis from a distant site of origin, or by extension from a neighbouring anatomic structure, such as the nasal cavity or the maxillary sinus. Materials and Methods: Oral cancers may originate in any of the tissues of the mouth, and may be of varied histologic types: teratoma, adenocarcinoma derived from a major or minor salivary gland, lymphoma from tonsillar or other lymphoid tissue, or melanoma from the pigment producing cells of the oral mucosa. Results and Discussion: There are several types of oral cancers, but around 90% are squamous cell carcinomas, originating in the tissues that line the mouth and lips. Oral or mouth cancer most commonly involves the tongue. It may also occur on the floor of the mouth, cheek lining, gingival (gums), lips, or palate (roof of the mouth). Conclusion: Most oral cancers look very similar under the microscope and are called squamous cell carcinoma. These are malignant and tend to spread rapidly.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00003898
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of one medicinal plant, Stachytarpheta indica
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai-600 073, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: Scientific efficacy evaluation of herbal plants for their medicinal roles is needed to establish their importance in medical science. The present study deals with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of one medicinal plant, Stachytarpheta indica. Methods: The GC–MS study of water extracts of the leaves of one herbal plant, S. indica was undertaken by standard procedures and its medicinal activity was verified with the biomolecules present in it. Results: The presence of some important biomolecules such as sulfurous acid, 2-ethylhexyl hexyl ester, and pentanoic acid has medicinal roles such as acidifier, arachidonic acid inhibitor, and increase aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity. N-t-Butylpyrrole, 1-hexanol, 4-methyl-, 3-methyl-2-(2-oxopropyl)furan, butanoic acid, 3-methyl-, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl ester, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid, methyl ester, 2-methylheptanoic acid and 2-propenoic acid, 3-(dimethylamino)-, methyl ester, etc., have very important medicinal roles which correlate well with the medicinal role of the plant. Conclusions: The results and discussion above clearly indicate that the various molecules present in S. indica leaf extracts do have medicinal roles ascribed to it and further work in this regard is on.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003899
Title: Primary phytochemical analysis of Ricinus communis
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Bio-Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The growth and usage of synthetic drugs may cause side effects like mental illness or the other physiological imbalances. A new approach for treating diabetic complications is possible by using alternative medications from medicinal plants which possess many active bio-compounds. Materials and methods: The plant sources consist of important phyto-constituents such as polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids and other components which acts against defective cellular metabolism and regulate its functional property. The active compounds from the plants could be recorded and systematically validated to increase the plant- based medicines with fewer side effects or without side effects, the vast family Euphorbiaceous contains almost around 300 genera and 7,500 species. Results and Discussion: Among all, Ricinus communis L. or on the other hand castor bean plant has high customary and restorative qualities towards a malady free network. The castor bean plant is successful as subterranean insect ripeness action, insect implantation action, antinociceptive action, anticancer action, cell reinforcement movement, immunomodulatory action, hepatoprotective action, against diabetic action, antiulcer action, antimicrobial action, insecticidal action, molluscicidal and larvicidal action, bone recovery action, focal pain relieving action, antihistaminic action, antiasthmatic action, cytotoxic action, lipolytic action, calming action, and wound mending action. Conclusion: Furthermore, the constituents present in this plant are helpful with the end goal of contraception, leaving no unfavorable consequences for the body. The target of the present rstudy centers around the phytochemical constituents, pharmacological exercises and future points of view of the R. communis L. plant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003900
Title: High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of Croton bonplandianus
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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A number of biochemical and physiological processes including radiations, tobacco smoke, infections by microorganisms, contamination of foods by mycotoxins, free radicals, and reactive oxygen species lead to chronic diseases such as cancer. Cancer is the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. Globally, the number of cancer deaths is estimated to increase from 7.1 million in 2002 to 11.5 million in 2030. It has been an important case to prevent and to find effective drugs to treat cancer. However, the conventional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy are expensive and have many side effects. Therefore, there is a need to discover alternative anticancer drugs from medicinal herbal plants which are more selective and less toxic than those currently in use. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the phytocomponents of aerial parts of chloroformic extract of Croton bonplandianus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00003901
Title: Engine performance analysis using biofuel blend
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The demand and price of fuel was increasing day by day due to increase in number of vehicles because of continuous increase in population. Materials and Method: This is one of the major problem which we are facing in our day to day life. Result and Discussion: Marine algae are found to be the good source of hydrocarbons and it can be readily used in the production of liquid bio-fuel. In this study, Gracilariacorticata which was collectedfrom Covelong, Chennai, and Tamil Nadu was used for extracting biofuel using hexane as solvent by solvent extraction method and its properties were analyzed. Conclusion: Engine efficiency of pure algal fuel and its blends were also analyzed. Results showed that fuel blend with 80% diesel has good brake thermal efficiency.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003902
Title: Evolutionary study of lymphatic filarial parasites
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The present study was primarily aimed at the amplification of Internal transcribed Spacer (ITS), region of the filarial parasites and to depict the evolutionary significance of various nematodes that causes lymphatic filariasis. Materials and Methods: Lymphatic filariasis has been targeted by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be eliminated by the year 2020. Filarial nematode parasites are a serious cause of morbidity in humans and animals. Result and Discussion: The ITS along with the flanking 18S and 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were amplified from the isolated DNA of Wuchereriabancrofti, Brugiamalayi, and Setariacervi which was found to be ~1200bp. Conclusion: The amplification of ITS2 region of these filarial parasites illustrated that it is of ~600bp. The ITS2 region was sequenced and the nucleotide sequences homology was studied using BLAST. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using UPGMA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003903
Title: Phytochemical analysis of Rhaphidophora australasica
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: To subject Rhaphidophora australasica leaf extracts to phytochemical analysis. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis was performed on extracts of Aqueous, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform and propane on R. australasica leaves by standard procedures and results were tabulated. Results: The presence of steroids was observed in all the fractions whereas proteins, triple sugars and amino acids were absent. Conclusions: These results could be used for identifying the medicinal values of this plant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003907
Title: Awareness of nutrition and anemia among dental students in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Anemia is one of the world’s most serious global health issues as mentioned by the World Health Organization. Anemia can be defined as a condition in which oxygen carrying capacities are insufficient to meet the physiologic needs. Iron is an essential mineral which facilitates healthy functioning of the body. Vitamin C has been shown to enhance the process of iron absorption. It captures non-heme iron and stores it in a form that is more easily absorbed by the body. Hence, the current study is to create awareness of nutrition and anemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was distributed among 100 dentists between 18 and 25 years of age from various government and private dental colleges in Chennai through the SurveyPlanet application. The questionnaire consisted of 11 questions which were formulated for checking whether the students are well aware of the importance of nutrition and anemia. Results were tabulated using statistics. Results: About 82% of the total participants were quite equipped with the basic knowledge about being nutritious. Entire participants stood firm in the opinion of compulsorily having breakfast daily. 100% of the students were quite familiar with the term anemia from which 58% believed that anemia was due to the deficiency of iron while 35% of the participants assumed that anemia was due to the deficiency of hemoglobin, whereas 7% thought that anemia was due to the deficiency of proteins. Conclusion: Education interventions play a key role in changing ones attitude for the betterment of the society. Nowadays, most of the students are familiar in terms of anemia and nutritional importance in diet to maintain their health. Due to modern lifestyle, they are not following in day today life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003908
Title: Cytotoxic potential of cow ghee on the human epidermoid cell lines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The main objective of this study is to analyze the cytotoxic effect of cows ghee on the oral cancer cell lines (KB cell lines). Materials and Methods: KB cell line: KB cell line was procured from NCCs, Pune, and maintained in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium. Test drug: Cow ghee extract was used. Cytotoxic assay: Cytotoxicity of the extract was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and compared with standard drug cisplatin. Results and Discussion: Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical significance was determined by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. From the study, it is evident that cows ghee possessed cytotoxic potential against KB cell line in dose-dependent manner as compared to the standard drug cisplatin

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003909
Title: Awareness of radioactive pollution among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Radiation is the emission of a particle or energy in waveform. This is known as electromagnetic radiation. Examples consist of radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet and infrared lights, X-rays, and gamma rays. Radiation can be described as two basic types, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The three main kinds of ionizing radiation are alpha rays, beta rays, and gamma rays. Radioactive pollution has adverse effects when it comes to genetics. It leads to damage of DNA which leads to genetic breakdown in the course of time. Pregnant women exposed to radiations can give birth to children with adverse effects due to genetic mutations. Cancer is the most dominant disease caused due to radioactive pollution. Long- term exposure to heavy radiation causes cancer. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was prepared based on radioactive pollution; its causes, health effects and circulated among 80 college students. The data were collected in SurveyPlanet and the results were statistically analyzed. Results and Discussion: About 91% of college students are aware of radioactive pollution. About 90% of students are aware of the three types of radiations. About 87% of students are aware that the effects of radioactive pollution can be passed down to future generations. 91% of students are aware that long time exposure to radioactive pollution can cause cancer. Conclusion: Radioactive pollution is due to the presence or depositions of radioactive materials in the atmosphere or environment, especially where their presence is accidental, presents an environmental threat. The destruction caused by the radioactive substances is due to hazardous ionizing radiations such as alpha, beta, and gamma. Cancer is the most dominant disease caused due to radioactive pollution. About 91% of college students are aware of radioactive pollution.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003910
Title: Anti-inflammatory effect of iridoid glucoside on lipopolysaccharide-induced rat peritoneal macrophage
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Inflammation encompasses cellular, immune, and metabolic responses that protect the body from injury and infection.The aim of the present study was to isolate the iridoid glucoside from the leaves Vitex negundo and test their anti- inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rat peritoneal macrophage. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory effect of iridoid glucoside from the leaves Vitex negundo was tested with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rat peritoneal macrophage. Results: Pre-treatment with iridoid glucoside was found to potently prolong cell survival and significantly suppressed the LPS-induced increase in nitric oxide in a dose-dependent manner. This study provided evidence that iridoid glucoside appears to have the potential to prevent the inflammatory disease in stomach.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003911
Title: Greater palatine foramen: Assessment with palatal index, shape, number, and gender in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to identify the greater palatine foramen (GPF) location, numbers, and shape through associating with gender and palatal and indices and compare with literature research. Introduction: To anesthetize posterior parts of the then soft palate for a various surgical procedure, knowledge of the position of the GPF is very important. Blocking of the maxillary division of trigeminal nerve or its branch for local anesthesia is common practice for maxillofacial surgeries. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 dry skulls obtained from the Department of Anatomy in Saveetha Dental College were included in the study and their GPF was measured with materials such as Vernier caliper and using proper statistics and modality for group difference in variables such as index, shape, number, and gender. Result: These results would have great clinical influence in localizing the palatine foramen toward better palatal area surgical approaches to and anesthetize this area.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00003912
Title: Structural comparison of glutathione S-transferase from human samples
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are drug metabolizing enzymes. Various forms of GST and their chains have been reported. GST sequences from human and other species will be taken up, and comparative structure studies will be done to identify similarities and dissimilarities among alpha and omega subunit of GST. Materials and Methods: Sequence retrieval, structure modeling, and structure comparison were done in the samples of Chick, Rat, and Human. All the data were collected from the Swiss-Prot database and subjected to analysis. Results: A multiple sequence alignment involving all omega class sequences was obtaining, depicting a very high level of sequence convergence and thereby sequence similarity. Furthermore, there appears to be very negligible number of gaps in this alignment. In relation to GST omega, GST alpha classes of sequences are less similar. However, both the classes of GST in these selected species were found to be highly similar and therefore converged. Multiple structure comparison done using Mammoth-multitool resulted that the structures to adopting the same fold and architecture. Conclusion: This study thus shows the structural comparison of GST enzymes with human, rat, and chick samples.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003913
Title: Evaluation of dimensional changes in denture base resins in different storage medium
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the dimensional changes in denture base resins in different storage medium. Materials and Methods: The denture bases that were fabricated were stored into the storage environments which follow: Water, saline, artificial saliva, and vinegar for 2 weeks. Based on the number of mediums, each medium was allotted 5 dentures which was 20 dentures in total (n = 20). The dimensional changes of the dentures were recorded every 2 days for 2 weeks. Results: At the end of 2 weeks, the dentures stored in vinegar and saline contracted 0.052 mm and 0.040 mm, respectively, and the dentures which were stored in water and artificial saliva contracted 0.031 mm, 0.015 mm respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, water and artificial saliva were the best mediums to be used.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003914
Title: Awareness of gum disease and tooth loss among Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Periodontal ailments, regularly known by the name “gum disease,” show to those sicknesses or conditions influencing the tissues encompassing the teeth. They are chiefly caused by inappropriate oral cleanliness that enables microorganisms in plaque and math to stay on the teeth and taint the connection mechanical assembly. An online survey was conducted among the 100 Indian adults in the age group of 40–70 years using a link created with survey planet. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared based on on their oral health knowledge, gum disease, and tooth loss. All the data were compiled for statistical analysis. Results and Discussion: Hence, creating awareness alone is not enough. It is also the responsibility of dental practitioners to inculcate the regular oral hygiene among Indian population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003915
Title: Views about college students regarding polycystic ovarian disease among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Poonamallee, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a syndrome seen in the women of reproductive age group and nowadays seen in the college students due to the type of food consumption. This study is done to find the changes in the menstrual flow rate of the college students due to the current lifestyle and food habits. Aim: The aim of my study is to observe the rate of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) among the students of South Indian population. Objective: PCOD is seen to be a hormonal dysfunction which gives rise to cyst formation and enlargement of ovary in young college students due to their dieting habits. Materials and Methods: A research based on survey among 100 college students about their regular cycle, already done surgery for PCOD. This method is for finding that how much females have PCOD. At the last end, the data were compiled and formed a statistical analysis. Results: Hence, in the survey done, there were some females with PCOD and most without PCOD, but some females have symptoms of PCOD and have not yet been consulted properly. Conclusion: The conclusion is the ratio of females getting PCOD who are college students are less comparatively according to my survey research.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003916
Title: Cytoprotective effect of iridoid glycoside on lipopolysaccharide-induced rat peritoneal macrophage
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Inflammation is an adaptive response that is triggered by toxic stimuli and conditions such as infection and tissue injury.Macrophages are considered to play essential roles in inflammation.Vitex negundo Linn., belonging to the family Verbenaceae, is an aromatic shrub distributed throughout India.Iridoid glycoside is one the active main phytoconstituents isolated from the leaves of Vitex negundo and tested its efficacy previously on homeostasis through altered activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.The aim of the present study was to isolate the iridoid glycoside from the leaves Vitex negundo and test their cytoprotective effect of on lipopolysaccharide-induced rat peritoneal macrophage. Results: The cytoprotective properties of iridoid glycoside in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rats peritoneal macrophages were first reported here. Iridoid glycoside treatment was found to potently prolong cell survival even after treating them with LPS for 24 h. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that iridoid glycoside appears to have the potential to protect the peritoneal macrophages from LPSinduced oxidative stress.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003917
Title: In vitro antioxidant potential of Justicia adhatoda leaf extracts against 1,1-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl, hydroxyl, and nitrous oxide free radicals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Virology, King Institute of Preventive Medicine and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present investigation is aimed to study the antioxidant (AO) efficacy of Justicia adhatoda (J.a) medicinal plant leaf extracts against chemically induced oxidative (free) radicals. Materials and Methods: The solvents such as ethanol (EtOH), chloroform, and aqueous were extracted with J.a leaf extracts using Soxhlet apparatus. It was concentrated with Buchi rotary evaporator. Then, it was screened for chemically induced in vitro radicals on 1,1-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, nitrous oxide (NO), and total AO activity (TAA). Results: Among the extracts, EtOH extract revealed a highest AO potential (86.5 ± 0.25) at 250 g in assays of DPPH, NO radical (48.35 ± 0.16), hydroxyl radical (38.75 ± 0.12), and TAA (78 ± 0.45) than rest of the extracts. All the extracts were statistically significant dose-response at P < 0.05 when contrast to the standard drug Vitamin C. Conclusion: Hence, the present study scientifically validated the in vitro AO potential of medicinal plant J.a leaf extract with ascorbic acid as standard.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003918
Title: Effect of Saraswatarishta on sleep deprivation induced behavioral changes in mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Lakshmi Narayana Medical College and Research Institute, Pondicherry, India
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Objective: The study is aimed to assess the effect of Saraswatarishta (SA) on behavioral changes following 96 h of sleep deprivation in mice. Materials and Methods: The study was done in the Department of Physiology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Medical College and Research Institute. Proper ethical clearance was obtained from the CPCSEA. Thirty-six Swiss albino mice weighing 15–30 g were used for the study. Results: The 36 Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups with six animals in each group: Group I – control-(6), Group II – sleep-deprived group, and Group III – SA treated sleep-deprived group. SA was administered orally in the dose of 1.8 ml/kg/day for 15 days. Following this, the animals were deprived of sleep for 96 h using flower pot technique. Behavior was assessed using open field maze and elevated plus maze. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS version 20 when compared to controls, mice that were deprived sleep showed behavioral changes. The immobilization time and the time spent in the closed arm were increased with a significant decrease in the ambulation. Whereas in the group treated with SA, the immobilization time and the time spent in the closed arm were decreased with an increase in the ambulation when compared with the sleep-deprived group not treated with SA. Sleep-deprived mice showed alteration in behavior when compared to controls.Conclusions: This study identified that SA treated group showed an improvement in such behavioral changes when compared to the sleep-deprived group not treated with SA. Hence, it proves that SA exerts antidepressant effects on its own on sleep-deprived rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003919
Title: Evaluation of Na+ and K+ in patients with chronic renal failure
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The Na/K ratio in urine stands for the dietary of sodium and potassium intake in patients with chronic kidney disease remains unclear for the renal progression. We aimed to determine the risk of progression of chronic kidney disease based on the Na/K ratio in a 24-hour urine collection. Materials and Methods: The study includes 30 chronic renal failure (CRF) patients of both sexes, diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings. The control group included 30 healthy individuals of both sexes. The cases were grouped as follows: Group I: Normal healthy controls = 30 cases. Group II: CRF cases = 30 cases. Results and Discussion: The present study was done with an aim to study of serum sodium and serum potassium in CRF patients. The comparison of serum sodium and serum potassium levels between control cases and CRF cases was found to be statistically significant. Serum sodium level decrease and serum potassium level were found elevated in CRF cases as compare to control cases. Conclusion: Serum sodium level and serum potassium level have some prognostic significance in chronic renal diseases, i.e., when patient improves, the level returns toward normal and the level rises when patient deteriorates.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003920
Title: Pharmacological and toxicological effects of Rubia cordifolia - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Rubia cordifolia (binomial name-R. cordifolia L.,), commonly known as Indian madder, is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant that has been listed at the Chinese Pharmacopoeia in 2015. It belongs to the family Rubiaceae and is one of the 70 species that belong to the genus Rubi. It is widely distributed around the world and is cultivated during the ancient days. It is a perennial climbing plant; roots are long with a thin outer red layer while their stem is long with woody base. The presence of dibutyl phthalate in the fruits of R. cordifolia has toxicological effects. It is used to treat many diseases such as treating skin disease and cancer; moreover, R. cordifolia was proven to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects. R. cordifolia is an old medicinal plant which contains various pharmacological activities such as anti-arthritic, antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, and wound healing property and its fruits have toxicological effects. This study results in an overview of pharmacological and toxicological effects of R. cordifolia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003921
Title: Prevalence of neck pain among dentists
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cervical spondylosis is a clinical condition associated with compression of spinal nerves of cervical region that causes degeneration of the spine. The causative factors for this condition are aging, working nature, etc. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted among dental surgeons using a questionnaire. Results: The data were obtained and showed that 56.4% of the dentists had suffered with the neck pain for 10–15 years, sometimes during their practice of dentistry. 20.9% (21%) of the dentists complained of the back pain, 33.6% had pain along the neck side, and 31.8% of the dentists had numbness over the medial side of the arms. 49.1% of the dentists seek medical care for neck pain and 57.3% of the dentists are undergoing physiotherapy as a corrective measure. Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that majority of the dental practitioners acquired development of cervical spondylosis. The study might be useful for dental practitioners and creates an awareness about the prevalence of cervical spondylosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003922
Title: Prevalence of heart disease among smoking individuals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cigarette smoking was spread in the new world. The last century use of tobacco cigarettes has been increased. The smoker has deeper inhalation that smoke finally he gets heart diseases. The awareness of smoking is not uniformly spread across the world. Smoking mostly affected. Cigarette smoking is also bad for the people around you. Materials and Methods: The study carried out survey on questionnaire among smoking individuals with 21 questionnaires was initially prepared in English. Results: About 50.5% of people using <5 cigarettes per day and 28.7% of them using more than 6 cigarettes per day and 20.8% of people smoking more 10 nearly one package of cigarette. About 29.7% of people smoking <3 years and 9.9% of them continuously smoking more than 10 years, 35.6% of smoking more than 7 years, and 24.8% of the smoking more than 3 years. About 56.4% of them maintaining the die. About 61.4% of them are taking medication for to control blood pressure. About 51.5% of them monitor regular blood pressure. Conclusion: In our knowledge, smoke affects the cardiovascular diseases. In directly smoke affects the cells directly and platelets also. Smoking promotes lung diseases, bladder, pelvis, pancreas, liver, and pennies. Even women have high risk of coronary heart disease due to smoking. Clinicians must play a more active role and before in supporting to the public. Several studies are testing these strategies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003923
Title: Awareness on obesity among children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Stoutness is most generally brought about by a mix of extreme sustenance consumption, absence of physical action, and hereditary susceptibility. A couple of cases are caused fundamentally by qualities, endocrine issue, prescriptions, or mental disorder. The view that large individuals eat pretty much nothing yet put on weight because of a moderate digestion is not medicinally supported. Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based study using an online survey portal called “survey planet.” The survey was circulated among children of age group between 15 and 20. Results: The students who took up the survey were given two answers, and the majority that is about 81% answered stop intake of junk food and 19% answered counseling. A large portion of this additional nourishment vitality originated from an expansion in starch utilization as opposed to fat consumption. The essential wellsprings of these additional sugars are improved refreshments, which currently represent very nearly 25% of day by day sustenance vitality in youthful grown-ups in America. Conclusion: Numerous individuals do not understand how harming stoutness can be to the body and for your general well-being. Heftiness is something that is progressively on the ascent today and will keep on rising except if we take care of business like advising individuals of how terrible it truly is and urging individuals to carry on with a well-being upgrading way of life. From this it is well understood that everyone must aware and serious action about obesity in children and its effect on day to day life of growing children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003925
Title: A South Indian skull-based study of morphological and morphometrical measurements of foramen magnum
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to analysis of morphometric and morphology parameters of foramen magnum. Objective: The study was conducted on completely ossified adults 92 dry skulls. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 South Indian skulls (25 females and 25 males). The skulls were free from fracture or other deformities. Morphometric analysis on the occipital bones was conducted with Vernier calipers graduated to the last 0.01 mm. Discussion: The area of the foramen magnum was calculated using the formula derived by Radinsky’s and Teixeria, and hence, mean and standard deviation was calculated. Radinsky’s formula: A=1/4× π×w×h. Teixeria’s formula: A=p×[{(h+w)}/4]sq. Conclusion: The length, breadth, and area of foramen magnum are found to be higher in males than female.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003926
Title: Usage and the effects of hair dye
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Depatment of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to create the awareness of the usage of hair dye and its adverse effects. Introduction: Hair dye is used to change the hair color. People use hair dye to cover gray hair, white hair, or even as a fashion. The chemicals used in hair dye are harmful, and thus, measures must be taken to reduce the use of it. Materials and Methods: This study is a survey- based study done using Survey Planet. A questionnaire was prepared regarding the hair dye. People were asked to fill the survey. This survey was taken up by 125 people. This survey was created to know their views on hair dye and the effects caused due to it. Results and Discussion: Majority of the people have used hair dye for coloring their hair even after knowing the chemicals involved in making it. Hair coloring is harmful and causes premature graying, hair fall, and allergy. This also causes leukemia and other fatal diseases. Conclusion: Hair coloring was begun at an early age. Dominant part utilized semi- lasting colors despite the fact that they saw that regular colors were protected. They kept coloring regardless of unfavorable responses, which show restorative significance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003927
Title: Elongation of styloid process – Eagle’s syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The styloid process is a slender extension of temporal bone that projects downward and gives attachment to muscles and ligaments. The aim of this study is the prevalence of the elongated styloid process (Eagle’s syndrome) among the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: An observational study was carried out on 45 dry South Indian adult human skulls and five temporal bones which were used from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India, to study the morphometry of styloid process and its elongation. Length more than 30 mm was considered as an elongated styloid process. A Vernier caliper was used for the measurement. Results: The average length of the styloid process was observed to be 26.35 and the average of dry human skulls having an elongated styloid process was 4%. Conclusion: From the processed data, we can conclude that Eagle syndrome though a rare phenomenon is prevalent in South Indian population too and considerable research has to be done to understand it in its full extent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003928
Title: Evaluation of coronoid process by orthopantomogram
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim is to study and find that is there any difference in coronoid process for males and females during these cases, mandible structures play a key role in forensic dentist. We want to find, is there any difference in coronoid process in between males and females. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using 900 orthopantomogram comprised both genders. The different shapes of the coronoid process were traced on both the right and left sides. The data obtained had put in statistical analysis. Results and Discussion: The triangular square area including the lengths of coronoid process to angle of mandible, angle of mandible to condylar process, and from condylar process to angle of mandible. Is numerically there is a difference between males and females, but statistically there is no significant difference. There are different shapes of coronoid process in males and females. In males, triangular coronoid process was more on the right side about 57.8% than the left side about 54% followed by beak shape and round shape. In females, triangular coronoid process was more common followed by beak, round, and flat shape. In our study, flat-shaped coronoid process was present only in female.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003929
Title: Awareness of cleft lip and palate among patients visiting tertiary care hospital, Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is one of the most common congenital deformities of craniofacial malformation leads to various dental anomalies in early childhood. Its prevalence is estimated as 1 in 700 births by the World Health Organisation in 2001. Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge and awareness level on CL/P among patients visiting tertiary care hospital, Chennai. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among 240 patients visiting tertiary care hospital, Chennai. A total of 10 closed-ended questions related to the risk factors which cause CL/P were included in the questionnaire. Data were collected from the filled questionnaire and analyzed. Descriptive analysis was done and the results were graphically represented. Results: There were a total of 240 respondents who participated in this study. About 35% were aware of the term “cleft” or seen orofacial cleft. About 70% of the study population was aware that consanguineous marriage among parents may cause cleft in their children. Nearly 98% of the study population were unaware that passive smoking may cause CL/P. Conclusion: The awareness of individual factors that contribute to clefting was less among the participants, and hence, it can be concluded that awareness of etiological factors that contribute to CL/P was found to be less among the study participants. Improved awareness of the etiology of orofacial clefts is required.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003931
Title: Risks of iron supplements
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, VELS Institute of Sciences, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Iron is a vital mineral that is included in many over the counter multivitamin and mineral supplements and is used therapeutically in higher doses to treat or prevent iron deficiency anemia. When taken at the usual recommended daily doses or in replacement doses, iron has little or no adverse effect on the liver. However, in high doses or accidental overdoses, iron causes severe toxicities. Today different types of iron supplements are available in the market without mentioning the individual compound. These supplements are based on at least 20 different iron compounds and sold under a wide range of brands. Iron supplements are good for women and children, but when we focus on individual compound, not all supplements are created equal potency, as some compounds may actually do more harm than good. From the recent research, it was found that two iron compounds, ferric citrate and ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid are often used in dietary supplements and as a food additive, respectively, in worldwide markets can increase the biomarkers for colon cancer, suggesting a link to the death toll. This review reports the cautious of iron supplements and serious disorders of an overdose of ionic compounds.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003932
Title: Changes in hematological parameters in oral cancer patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral cancer includes carcinoma in the sites of oral cavity, lips, pharynx, and nasopharynx. The most vital and sensitive functions are carried out through blood in our body. Hence, any alterations in the level of the blood parameters significantly affect the overall functioning and homeostasis of the human body. Many disorders such as thrombocytopenia and anemia cause alterations in the blood parameters. The study thus aims to find the changes occurring in these parameters in oral cancers patients which can be used as markers for early diagnosis of oral carcinoma. The study aims to observe and compare the variations of hematological parameters in oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods: The clinical study was conducted at Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. After ethical consent, 5 ml of intravenous blood was drawn from the patients. The samples obtained were centrifuged and used for further biochemical analysis. The levels of various hematological parameters obtained through biochemical tests were further consolidated through statistical analysis. Results: There is a significant difference in the levels of blood parameters observed between the control and the oral cancer patients. Subsequent elevations in leukocytes and platelets are observed during the detection of oral cancer. Conclusion: The original study done depicted relative changes in the hematological parameters of oral cancer patients when compared with healthy individuals. Although these variations do not serve as the only confirmatory tool in the diagnosis of cancer, yet they are very efficient indicators and can be used to identify cancer at the earlier stage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003933
Title: Cariogenic potential of commercially available date syrup as a sweetening agent in milk – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Sree Balaji Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Early childhood caries is a condition with multifactorial etiology, of which frequent nighttime use of bottle containing milk sweetened with sucrose plays a significant role. In the quest for finding an alternative low cariogenic sweetening agent to sucrose, date syrup was studied. Aim: The study aimed to determine the cariogenic potential of commercially available date syrup in combination with milk and to compare it with milk sweetened with sucrose. Materials and Methods: Analysis of viscosity and constituent sugars of the test substances were performed using viscosimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. The effect of the test substances on the growth of Streptococcus mutans was carried out using ditch plate method (zone of inhibition/exhibition). Results: Date syrup showed the highest viscosity, but in combination with milk, it was not statistically different from milk sweetened with 10% sucrose. Analysis of sugars by HPLC revealed the presence of sucrose (1.039% w/w), glucose (3.365% w/w), fructose (4.033% w/w), lactose (0.466% w/w), and a polyol (sorbitol – 8.045% w/w) in date syrup. When combined with milk, the concentration of fructose and sorbitol decreased significantly. Date syrup showed a zone of inhibition (20.72 mm) when tested using ditch plate method. However, in combination with milk, no inhibitory action was present. Conclusion: Based on these results, it was concluded that there was no significant difference in the viscosity and effect on growth of S. mutans between milk sweetened with date syrup and 10% sucrose. However, the inhibitory action of date syrup against S. mutans when used alone is a novel one and warrants more research.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003934
Title: Survey on fruits and vegetables as adolescents food choice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Fruits and vegetables are especially intriguing for their substance in minerals, cell reinforcement nutrients, phytochemicals, and dietary fibers. Every one of these fibers plays a crucial role. If some of this fiber lacks, then it leads to diseases such as some sort of malignancy, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, heftiness, obstruction, or diverticulosis. In this research, we describe about the fruits and vegetables as adolescents food choices and its effects when the person lacks those fibers. The aim of this study is to create awareness of fruits and vegetables among Chennai adolescents. Materials and Methods: This research is a cross-sectional study, clear scientific investigation which was held in 2018 among the teenagers of Chennai to make an awareness of fruits and vegetables. In this investigation, 150 teenagers were evaluated in Chennai. A questionnaire was prepared based on the importance of fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, these young people are requested to answer the inquiries. Data were calculated and discussed with statistics. Results: Only 31% of the adolescents who takes organic products twice daily. About 40% of adolescents have organic foods once daily. About 24% of adolescents have organic product once in a week and 5% opted for rare. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that adolescents lack consumption of fruits and vegetables. Hence, in future, they might develop disease such as cardiovascular sickness, circulatory strain, hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, and pernicious infections.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003935
Title: Suprameatal trigone and its relation to the length of the sigmoid sinus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study the morphology, morphometry, and the clinical significance of the suprameatal trigone and spine and to find its relation with the length of the sigmoid sinus. Objective: The objective of this study was to understand the basic anatomy of the suprameatal trigone and spine and to find its relation with the length of the sigmoid sinus. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 dry human skulls were collected and evaluated. In each skull, the suprameatal triangle was identified and measured on both sides. Similarly, the sigmoid sinus was located and its length was measured. All the measurements were taken using Vernier caliper and scale. Results: There is a slightly negative correlation between the length of the sigmoid sinus and the area of the suprameatal trigone. Conclusion: It is important to understand the relation between suprameatal trigone and sigmoid sinus to avoid thrombosis of the sinus during mastoidectomy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003936
Title: Awareness of adolescent problems of teeth and mouth among the Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The main aim of this study is to reveal the presence of adolescent problems of teeth and mouth among the Indian population by the means of survey. Introduction: Good dental or oral care is important for maintaining healthy teeth , gums and tongue . Bad oral health include bad breadth , dry mouth , cancer , or cold sores . TMD , tooth decay or thrush are all treatable with proper diagnosis and care .Oral health is important for all age group . Regular dental checkups are mandatory to keep ones smile and teeth healthy. Materials and Methods: An online survey on adolescent problems of teeth and mouth was conducted among 100 adult Indians using the survey planet portal. Results and Discussion: The study shows that , Over 65% of south Indians suffer from tooth decay problems ,though 75% are aware that eating sweets and chocolates leads to tooth. decay . It also reveals that over 70% population have not undergone ortho treatment for their malocclusion to be corrected . Only 40% of the population have the habit of brushing twice a day though , they suffer from many oral problems . The survey clearly portaits that only 11% of the population consult a dentist periodically Though , we all know that consulting a dentist is one of the good solutions to all these oral related problems. CONCLUSION: From this survey it is evident that there is a lack of proper awareness on oral health among south Indian population. This survey has created awareness on the importance of visiting dentist to maintain oral hygiene.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003937
Title: Neuroprotective effect of cranberry extract on chronic noise stress-induced changes in rat hippocampus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Tagore Dental College and Hospital, Rathinamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Noise is considered as an environmental stressor which exerts negative effects on the body when it exceeds 100 dB, including behavioral, neuroendocrine, and memory loss. Exposure to chronic noise stress leads to oxidative stress and behavior, biochemical, and structural alteration of neuron. Objective: In this study, to investigate the protective effect of cranberry ethanolic extract (CBE) on hippocampus of rats exposed to chronic noise stress. Materials and Methods: A total of eight groups rats were used in this study, Groups 1 and 2 used as control rats, in Groups 3 and 4 rats were exposed to noise 100 dBA/4h/d for 30 and 60 days. Group 5 and 6 rats treated with CBE per oral 250 and 500 mg/kg/bw plus 30 days noise stress. Group 7 and 8 rats treated with CBE per oral 250 and 500 mg/kg/bw plus 60 days noise stress. The effect of cranberry extract was assessed by oxidative status, histological changes, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) expression in hippocampus. Results: The results of the present study showed that both chronic stress groups significantly reduction in the antioxidants and its enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, protein thiols, and reduced glutathione and concomitantly increased lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase which is prevented significantly by 500 mg/kg CBE treatment. Furthermore, CBE supplementation effectively improvises histological alterations and 4-HNE expression in stressed rats hippocampus. Conclusions: CBE effectively prevents neurons in rats hippocampus on chronic noise stress-induced oxidative damage due to its antioxidant property.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003938
Title: Single sample management system for biobanks
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia,
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Biobanks are a repository or storing biological samples from both human and non-human sources. In the past, biobanks sample storage standards focused more on the heterogeneity of the sample and this defines the design and use of the biobanks. This research objective is to analyze the requirements for a single sample management system in biobanks units and levels. A systematic and meta-analysis review focusing on sample variability and heterogeneity. The laboratory information management system that is fully integrated with the entire process, or in some centers mention it as BIMS, or other methods that have integrated and standardized collecting system that has almost the same principle system in sample management in biobank.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003939
Title: Recent methods in identifying drug targets using in silico methods
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Bio-Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: Concentrates on ligand receptor connection is a critical region in new medication discovery program for different targets, sinsce cell surface receptor is recognized as perfect focus for some drug targets. In this study, protein and ligand will be used as it is in lock and key model respectively. Sub-atomic docking might be characterized as an enhancement issue. Materials and Methods: We observed that the both tertiary structure of protein and ligand were more compatible with high binding affinities, a “submit glove” similarity is more suitable than “lock-and-key”. Throughout the procedure, the ligand and the protein alter their compliance to accomplish an in general “best-fit” and this sort of structural modifications bringing about the general restricting is alluded to as “initiated fit”. Results and Discussion: The focal point of atomic docking is to computationally animate the sub-atomic acknowledgment process. Conclusion: The point of atomic docking is to predict the graphical model using in silico methods to improve the compatibility between two targets with the end goal that the free vitality of the general framework is limited.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003940
Title: Cancer screening methods for the detection and localization in lung cancer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation:
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Aim and Objective: Lung cancer is one of leading causes of death in the world. Detection and localization of tumor at early stages is the only way to decrease the mortality rate. CT scan is the most used diagnostic tool for lung cancer screening. However, several microwave imaging methods have been developed. Materials Required: Microwave ultra-wideband (UWB) imaging is currently one of promising methods that are under investigation by many research groups around the world. This method involves transmitting UWB signals through the breast tissue and records the scattered signals from different locations surrounding the lung using compact UWB antennas. It has been shown by different research groups worldwide that the healthy fat tissues of the lung have a dielectric constant that ranges between S and 9 and conductivity between 0.02 Sims and 0.2 S/m. On the hand, the malignant tissues have a dielectric constant of around 60 and conductivity around 2 Sim. Results and Discussion: From the neural network point of view, it is possible to say that the difference in the scattering properties of healthy and malignant tissues means that the scattered signals recorded in different places around the breast have the signature of existence of tumor. Conclusion: Study reveals that most of the research on neural networks for lung cancer detection were aimed to make accurate diagnoses of lung cancer on Computer tomography.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003942
Title: Awareness about monosodium glutamate among school students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods, in large part because glutamic acid (an amino acid) is pervasive in nature. MSG is used in the food industry as a flavor enhancer with an umami taste that intensifies the meaty, savory flavor of food, as naturally occurring glutamate does in foods such as stews and meat soups. MSG has been used for more than 100 years to season food, with a number of studies conducted on its safety. Under normal conditions, humans can metabolize relatively large quantities of glutamate, which is naturally produced in the gut by exopeptidase enzymes in the course of protein hydrolysis. The median lethal dose (LD50) is between 15 and 18 g/kg body weight in mice and rats, respectively, 5 times greater than the LD50 of salt (3 g/kg in rats). The use of MSG as a food additive and the natural level of glutamic acid in foods are not toxicological concerns in humans. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given MSG it’s generally recognized as safe designation. A popular belief is that large doses of MSG can cause headaches and other feelings of discomfort known as “Chinese Restaurant Syndrome,” but double-blind tests fail to find evidence of such a reaction. The European Union classifies it as a food additive permitted in certain foods and subject to quantitative limits.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003943
Title: Dental computed tomography, cone-beam computed tomography - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Radiographs are valuable diagnostic tools, for clinical examination in the diagnosis of dental diseases. Two-dimensional (2-D) periapical radiographs and panoramic radiographs are routinely used in dental practice. However, there are certain limitations of 2-D radiographs, which can be overcome by three-dimensional, imaging techniques such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and CT. The purpose of this article is to analyze the recent advances made in digital dental imaging (CT and CBCT). Correct use of newer radiographic techniques can help early detection and appropriate and timely treatment for various dental and oral pathologies. Recent advances in imaging technologies have revolutionized dental diagnostics and treatment planning. Correct use of appropriate imaging technology and their correct interpretation, following the as low as reasonably achievable principles and cost-effectiveness, newer radiographic techniques can help to detect pathologies in very early stages, which ultimately help to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve the quality of life of the patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003944
Title: Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Phyllanthus emblica, Phaseolus vulgari, and Indigofera aspalathoides – A step toward alternative cure for cancer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Plants are a source of inspiration for the development of a novel drug compound. It cures many diseases such as skin disease, snake bite, swelling, burns, and diabetes. The free radicals caused by oxidative stress leads to the development of chronic and degenerative diseases such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, aging, cataract, rheumatoid arthritis, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this regard, bioactive compound analysis of selected plants was carried out. Phytochemical analysis, evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of plants, namely Indigofera aspalathoides (Aerial Part), Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit), and Phaseolus vulgaris (Seed) was carried out to deduce the concentration and activity of methanol and aqueous extracts. The screening of plant parts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, saponins, flavonoids, proteins, and quinines. The screened plant extracts were used for the evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial property. The results showed potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in P. emblica extracts, I. aspalathoides extracts showed moderate antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Thus, this research will pave a way to the discovery of potential lead compound as a step toward an alternative cure for cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003946
Title: Knowledge and practices of dietary supplements among students of Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dietary improvements are considered as nutraceutical courses of action that can be figured in certain estimation shapes containing certain micronutrients to meet the absence of explicit enhancements. In any case, these improvements cannot replace the dietary advantages of typical sustenance. Materials and Methods: The sample size chosen for this study involves about 100 participants and were submitted a set of questionnaire with the use of survey planet software and the end of the survey, all the data will be collected and compiled. Results: About 86.1% of the students are aware about dietary supplements. From the results, females have good knowledge about dietary supplements than males. Conclusion: This study reported good level of general knowledge about dietary supplements. The organization of educational campaigns to create awareness about knowledge and practice of nutritional deficiency and important of the nutritional element on our health among Saveetha Dental Students.