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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004047
Title: Effects of lupeol on insulin receptor and glucose transporter-4 in cardiac tissue of Type-2 diabetic rats
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Lupeol, a natural herbal drug, is abundant in edible vegetables, fruits, and also in medicinal plants. It has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in experimental model. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify the effects of lupeol on insulin-signaling molecules such as insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein expression in cardiac tissue of Type-2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group I: Control (vehicle treated-control rats were treated with olive oil); Group II: Diabetic (Type 2) rats; Group III: Diabetic rats treated with lupeol (25 mg/kg body weight/day) orally for 30 days; and Group IV: Diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg body weight/day) orally for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, animals were anesthetized, and cardiac tissues were dissected out and used for the assessment of IR and GLUT4 protein expression. Results: Type-2 diabetic rats showed detrimental changes in the IR and GLUT protein expression in cardiac tissue when compared to control rats. Oral dose of lupeol (25 mg/kg b. wt) for 30 days effectively restored altered levels of IR and GLUT4 proteins in the cardiac tissue which were reduced by high-fat diet and sucrose-induced Type-2 diabetic rats. Conclusion: This study concludes that lupeol regulates glucose homeostasis in cardiac tissue through the activation of IR and GLUT4 proteins. However, studies on the effect of lupeol on insulin downstream signaling molecules in cardiac tissue need to be carried out.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004029
Title: A novel approach in the treatment of type II diabetes using combinational herbal compounds
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Bioengineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes is the common disorder found in case of metabolic dysfunction leads to high blood glucose level in our body. Type two polygenic diseases are the most typical type of polygenic disease. If we have type II diabetes, our body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. Materials and Methods: At first, our pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. However, overtime it is not able to carry on and cannot create enough internal secretion to stay your blood sugar at traditional levels. To cure Type II diabetes, we have identified the gene responsible for the insulin resistance gene from the genomic information resource database. The gene is further analyzed and docked with the four herbal components and checked its minimum energy value for further studies. This will be the combination drug and using nanomedicine which will be the target drug delivery toward the target gene which stimulates the activity of the insulin-resistant gene. Since its targets toward the gene, it will be considered as the gene therapy and new combinatorial medicine, here, bioinformatics, combinatorial chemistry, pharmacology, and nanomedicine play a key role in the treatment of diabetes. Type II diabetes is the high risk of day-to-day life, so considering these facts, the gene responsible for diabetes is identified and diagnosis of DNA is done used molecular techniques and mutated gene is identified for further treatment. In this project, suitable drug targets are identified and targeted toward the type II diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004030
Title: Prevalence of hirsutism in women with menstrual disorders
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Hirsutism can be a side effect of caused due to intake of certain drugs or due to adrenal problems. However, more often, it is a symptom of a hormonal imbalance caused by extra androgens present in the blood. Hirsutism is often seen as a sign that a person might have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Roughly 70% of people with hirsutism can end up with a PCOS diagnosis. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was prepared and distributed to 82 female candidates within the age limits of 15–45 years. Results: People with hirsutism did not necessarily have menstrual problems, but those with menstrual problems, namely, PCOS noticed hirsutism in parts of their body. Conclusion: There is a link between hirsutism and menstrual disorders mainly due to the elevated androgen levels in blood in menstrual disorders like PCOS

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004031
Title: Social media and anxiety – A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine whether there is a relationship between social media and anxiety. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was designed based on social media usage and anxiety. The questionnaire was distributed through online link. The study population included 100 individuals belonging to 17–25 age groups. The participants were explained about the purpose of the study. The questions were carefully studied and the corresponding answers were marked by them. The data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: From the study, it is observed that many participants use multiple social media sites and for increased time. It is also seen that they get anxious when not able to view these sites which shows the relation increased social media usage has on anxiety. Conclusion: This study concludes that social media and anxiety have a correlation. Addictiveness to social media has increased and has a significant effect on mental health to a great extent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004032
Title: Evaluation of aerosol and splatter contamination during minor oral surgical procedures
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Dental procedures create aerosols and splatters that are ejected from the operating site in a ballistic trajectory contaminating the operator and the dental cubicle. They transmit various pathogens, leading to cross-contamination in the dental clinics. The aim of the study was to determine the aerosol and splatter contamination during minor oral surgical procedures and to assess the risk of spread of nosocomial infection in our dental institution. Materials and Methods: This evaluation study was done during various dental procedures including extraction and minor oral surgical procedures such as impaction, transalveolar extractions, and alveoloplasty in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. A total of 30 participants who were treated in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery were included in the study. Several samples were collected from different regions of dental cubicle and sent for microbiological analysis. The colony-forming units (cfu) for each procedure from different regions were counted. Data obtained were statistically analyzed and results obtained. Results: Bacterial colony counts were greater in cultures obtained from the left middle cubicle compared with the right middle cubicle and the results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Bacterial colony counts cultured following alveoloplasty procedure were greater in number when compared to transalveolar extraction procedure. Conclusion: From our study, it is concluded that aerosol and splatter contamination analyzed by number of bacterial cfu during different minor oral surgical procedures exceeded the permissible limits. Thus, strictly following appropriate universal barrier precautions, infection control measures, and the usage of high-volume evacuation plays a valuable role in the reduction of aerosol and splatter propagation. The operator and patient position, the type of procedure, and the type of rotary instrument used to determine the trajectory of aerosol and splatter contamination during various minor oral surgical procedures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004033
Title: Comparative study of health and physical status of sedentary workers performing yoga and aerobic exercise
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of our study is to compare whether yoga and aerobic exercise makes sedentary workers healthy. Introduction: A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle involving little or no physical activity. Yoga is a type of exercise, in which we can stretch body into various positions to improve breathing, relaxation, etc. Aerobic exercise is an activity to increase cardiovascular efficiency. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was conducted to sedentary workers by preparing a set of questions by online survey method. Discussion: The present study shows that yoga is more effective in decreasing stress, anxiety, and gives mind relaxation. Conclusion: The findings in this study indicate that there was a significant improvement in health performing yoga than aerobic exercise.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004034
Title: A survey on the effect of diet on cognitive functions
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Scientific findings nowadays describe that several neuronal functions which control the mechanics of the brain are highly influenced by the nutritional environment. For instance, generic cognitive abilities that are carried out all the time, like thinking, can be affected by the extent to which one’s digestive system is put to work for the night. Establishing a relation between both thus helps to manipulate the mental state and functioning simply by altering the dietary intake. The main aim of this study is to determine the effects of diet on cognitive functions. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires on the dietary habits and cognitive traits of the subjects were prepared and distributed to 100 people through SurveyPlanet. The results of the questionnaire were statistically analyzed and calculated. Results: There is a marked correlation between dietary patterns and cognition. This shows that the cognitive functions of individuals are modulated by the diet and can be controlled so. Conclusion: Cognitive functions are influenced by nutrition. This relation can be manipulated to establish a healing relation on cognitive deficiencies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004035
Title: Relation between productivity and sleep hours among the age group of 18–25 years
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The average recommended amount of sleep for adults is between 7 and 7.5 h/night, but the ideal amount for you may fall outside of that range. Poor sleep negatively impacts our productivity. The longer hours we work, the more tired we get, and the more prone we are to error, procrastination, or the sluggishness that blocks our creativity. Researchers noted these effects as late as the 19th century when they recommended cutting the workday from 9 to 8 h so the total work week totaled around 40 h. They could see that past that point, the efficiency of workers’ output seriously reduced. Materials and Methods: The sample size chooses for the study is about 100. A set of questionnaire was created using SurveyPlanet software. Both the sexes have been involved in the study. The age group of 18–25 was included in this study. All the data were compiled for statistical analysis. Results: There is a significant relation between productivity and sleep hours among the younger adults. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that the sleep hours are very important for younger adults for better productivity. Minimum 7 h of sleep is important for them to give a better performance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004036
Title: Sleep disorder in adolescent age
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: This study aims to find out the sleep disorder occurring in the late teens due to stress. Stress makes them unable to concentrate in their studies and work. This study is done to create awareness of the sleeping patterns on adolescents. Materials and Methods: Participants – children of both sexes ranging from 11 to 19 years. At the end of the survey, all the data were collected properly and analyzed statistically. Results: As observed from the study, there is a significant occurrence of sleep disorders in adolescents. Conclusion: From this study, we can conclude that sleep disorder is caused due to stress. Adolescents feel lethargic and sleepy during daytime due to being exposed to several stress factors related to the age.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004037
Title: Shampoo selection criteria among dental students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Everyone would like their hair to look shine and beautiful nowadays. Both the genders have shown more concentration toward their hair beauty. The main aim of the study was to create awareness of the choice of shampoo among dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire mainly deals about hair nature, brand, and fragrance of shampoo; data were collected and tabulated using statistics. Results: Most of the students preferred choosing after reading the ingredients used, i.e., 56% about 84% of students choose their shampoo according to their hair type. Discussion: In-store advertisements have attracted students in getting their shampoo. The most common problem faced by dental students was dandruff. Hence, they preferred using antidandruff shampoo, i.e., about 43% of students test the fragrance before choosing their shampoo.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004038
Title: Knowledge of pharmacology among dental students - a survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Pharmacology is an ever expanding medical science which effectively link together biochemistry,physiology, microbilolgy and pathology. Thus, knowing the importance of pharmacology and using it wisely is of utmost importance to every practitioner. Materials and Methods:A questionnaire-based survey with pre-tested 16 questions was distributed among 103 dental students. This survey was conducted to study the need and knowledge of pharmacology, frequency of medications, type of medications, and dosage forms in dental practice. Results: From the survey conducted, it was evident that 84.5% of them felt that pharmacological knowledge is essential for clinical practice, 55.3% of them regularly update the new drugs, 51.5% of them prefer brand names, 53.3% of them prescribe medications to the patient on their first visit, 61.2% of the dentists consider any other factors other than infections, 46.6% prescribe antibiotics on a regular basis, 48% follow-up the patient sometimes after prescription of medications, 56.4% of the dentists have never faced any patients that show resistance, 72.8% were aware of the mode of action of the drugs that were being prescribed, 65% of them inform the patient about the possible side effects after prescribing certain medicines, 64% prefer to give antacids along with any medication, 65.3% had all emergency medicines required, 58.3% of them have never faced any situation where they had to use emergency drugs, 55.4% get an opinion from the general physician before prescription, 65% of them have given the patient with vitamins supplements if they have identified any deficiencies, and 72.8% of them confirm the prescription from their faculty. Conclusion: It could be stated that the majority of the practitioners had a good knowledge of pharmacology and was putting it into their practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004039
Title: Comparative study of blood pressure variabilities in perimenopausal working and non-working women of Chennai
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Perimenopause, or menopause transition, begins several years before menopause. It usually starts in woman’s 40s but can start in 30s or even earlier. Perimenopause lasts until menopause, the point when the ovaries stop releasing ova. It is important to establish a relationship between occupation, prevalence of stress, and cessation of menstrual cycle, as blood pressure (BP) variability and stress are two significant risk factors for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Aim: This study aims to compare the BP variabilities of perimenopausal working and non-working women of Chennai. Materials and Methods: The BP values of 40 women belonging to the perimenopausal working population (40 years–50 years) and the BP values of 40 women belonging to the perimenopausal non-working population of Chennai were recorded for the assessment of significant variabilities. Results: Seventeen women of the 40 perimenopausal working women and 28 women of the 40 perimenopausal non-working women had normal systolic and diastolic BP (120/80 mmHg). Working perimenopausal women had a wider range of BP variability when compared to non-working perimenopausal women. Conclusion: This study is done to increase awareness among the perimenopausal working women about the contribution of stressful workplace environment which increasing the anxiety caused due to menopause that might eventually lead to hypertension.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004040
Title: Knowledge about basic life support among medical professionals
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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To study the awareness of Basic Life Support (BLS) among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. A cross-sectional study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected basic questions regarding BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. After excluding the incomplete response forms the data was analysed on 1,054 responders. A cross-sectional study is to be conducted you assessing the responses to 20 selected basic questions regarding BLS among doctors, nurse, students, medical, and dental professionals. A questionnaire with 20 questions regarding the awareness and skills involved in BLS used to assess the level of awareness to BLS and its practical knowledge. All the data were compiled for statistical analysis. The results were analysed using an answer key prepared with the use of the Advanced Cardiac Life Support manual.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004041
Title: A study on the correlation of stress with that of weight gain
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study the correlation of stress with that of weight gain. Materials and Methods: It was a cross- sectional study conducted among South Indian people. Ninety people were included with the age group of 10–50 years. Questionnaire was circulated through SurveyPlanet. It contains about 13 questions and mainly of the age groups, gender, marital status, occupation, educational level, stress scale, health issues due to stress, sleep scale, hours of sleep, and stress due to weight. Results were collected and analyzed by statistics. Results: It was observed clearly that most of the people with the age group of 15–20 years (81%) are more aware of stress related weight gain, in which 61% are female and 29% are male. Totally, 61% of female and 29% of male are aware and they managed stress and they followed mixed diet and tried to overcome stress. The awareness among both men and women is in equal rate. Conclusion: It was noted that the knowledge of stress correlated to weight was wide among South Indian people, but still people among rural areas are not aware.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004042
Title: Molecular evolutionary studies of epidermal growth factors using multiple sequence alignment methods
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Bioengineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a growth factor that stimulates cell growth, proliferation and differentiation by binding to its receptor EGFR. Materials and Required: Human EGF is a 6045-Da protein with 53 amino acid residues having three intermolecular disulfide bonds The Phylogenetic analysis can therefore help in research studies to discover the protein manually using bioinformatics tools. Results and discussion: In this paper the four different species nucleotide and amino acid sequence were analyzed along with their physiological and anatomical properties in order a build a Phylogenetic tree and perform a multiple sequence alignment using clustalx. Conclusion: If so all given species have same nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignment along with their physiological and anatomical similarities they can be implemented for research studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004043
Title: Trismus: An overview and management
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Trismus or lockjaw is a motor disturbance of the trigeminal nerve, especially spasm of the masticatory muscles, with inability in opening the mouth, characteristic early symptom of tetanus. There are many sources for this common symptom where the patient look for medical intercession immediately, as it impairs speech and eating. It is an ordinary problem to the majority of people experiencing at once in his or her life and to most dental practitioners experiencing often and has a number of possible causes that are a single or complex component. Its treatment will be contingent on the sources.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004044
Title: Management of odontogenic keratocyst – A 10- year experience
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the research was to record the management practices and recurrence rates of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) in our institution over a 10-year period. Background: The OKC is an odontogenic cyst seen in the maxilla and the mandible. There are many types of cysts of the jaws, but what makes the OKC unusual are its characteristic histopathological and clinical features including potentially aggressive behavior, high recurrence rate, and an association with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The characteristic histologic feature, i.e., the presence of parakeratin, is unique among all the different inflammatory and developmental cysts that occur in the jaws. Many treatment modalities have been advocated for its treatment, but none, in particular, has been regarded as the best treatment option. We present a study of management practice followed in our institution. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the patient’s records was carried out and patient’s details such as demographic data, chief complaint, duration of swelling, site, and treatment plan were recorded. All cases done between 2008 and 2018 were included. All data were analyzed using the SPSS. Results: High success rate was for enucleation and peripheral osteotomy followed by Carnoy’s solution. Two recurrences were recorded and were treated with enucleation, peripheral osteotomy, and Carnoy’s solution. Conclusion: This study includes a 10-year experience with 50 cases of OKC. All cases were treated by enucleation and Carnoy’s solution.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004045
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of using rubber dam in restorative procedure – a survey among dental colleges in Chennai: A short study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Successful restorations in dental patients depend largely on the effective control of moisture and microbes during the procedure. The rubber dam technique has been one of the most widely used isolation methods in dental restorative treatments. The evidence on the effects of rubber dam usage on the longevity of dental restorations is conflicting. Therefore, it is important to summarise the available evidence to determine the effects of this method. The most common reasons for not using rubber dam for a procedure were patients inconvenience. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of restoration using rubber dam and patients attitude to rubber dam. To assess the effects of rubber dam isolation,the outcome quality of restoration and the attitude of patient toward rubber dam used for direct and indirect restorative treatments in dental treatment. Materials And Methods: A questionnaire containing 15 questions was circulated to 150 Dental practitioner.The questionnaire is about the patient attitude,disadanvtage and advantages of using rubber dam towards the quality of restoration,and whether they agreed or disagreed with some aspects of the rubber dam. The question were then collected and evaluated.The data will be subjected to statical analysis. Results: Rubber dam has effect on the quality of restoration (65%) according to dental practitioners, and treatments are successful using rubber dam (65%). 25% of the dental practitioners say rubber dam placement takes about 3 min. Conclusion: From this study it was evident that dental practitioners are aware of the use of rubber dam. Some practitioners feel it is time consuming but with experience and development of better skills ,placement of rubber dam is easier and faster there by practitioners can provide better Endodontics treatment for the patients. Therefore proper treatment protocol to be followed for Isolation from undergraduate level will bring about a better treatment outcomes in future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004046
Title: A comparative study of allicin and antimicrobial denture base resin on biofilm formation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the ability of allicin and antimicrobial denture base resin to prevent biofilm formation. Objective: The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of allicin and antimicrobial denture base resin, on inhibiting biofilm formation. Materials and Methods: Test drug: Antimicrobial denture base resin and allicin were procured from Sigma Aldrich, USA. Bacterial culture: Streptococcus mutans UA159 was cultured in brain heart infusion broth. Minimum inhibiting concentration: The inhibitory effect of the test drugs against S. mutans was analyzed by a crystal violet assay. Result: Biofilm formed by S. mutans was stained using crystal violet. As observed, antimicrobial denture base resin possessed a better inhibitory potential on biofilm, when compared to allicin. Conclusion: Although allicin was observed to be less effective compared to antimicrobial denture base resin, in inhibiting biofilm formation, being a part of the Indian staple diet, it can be advised to patients for improved oral health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004048
Title: Binding affinity potential of acetogenins against different proteins
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Acetogenins are known to have various biological properties including insecticidal, anti microbial, anti cancerous activities. The structure of acetogenins namely Squamocin B, Squamocin C, Squamocin D, Squamocin E was studied. Materials and Methods: Protein sequence of NADH1 was retrieved from NCBI database with an accession number. Binding site of the model was chosen using default setting. Results and Conclusion: From the study it may be understood that six out of ten acetogenins chosen had a binding affinity to NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004049
Title: Cytotoxic action of rutin isolated from Morinda citrifolia against hepatic carcinoma cell lines
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The goal of this study is to determine, quantitatively the cytotoxic action of the bioactive component, rutin isolated from Morinda citrifolia plant against hepatic carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. Introduction: Hepatic cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and has a high mortality rate. Alternative medicine for the treatment of cancer has been long under research. Rutin which is a flavonoid extracted from M. citrifolia (commonly known as Noni) has a variety of beneficial properties such as antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, rutin has been used as a potential anticancer compound and its effects have been studied on HepG2 cell lines. Materials and Methods: HepG2 cell lines were procured from the National Centre for Cell Sciences, Pune, India. Ethanolic extract of M. citrifolia was prepared and rutin was extracted. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was carried out. Siliphos was used as control. Absorbance was read on an enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay reader at 570 nm. Cell viability percentage was calculated. Data were collected and results were represented using proper statistical methods. P value was calculated to check the statistical significance of the data collected. Results: The cell viability was found to decrease with an increase in the concentration of rutin used, P < 0.05. HepG2 cells treated with 100 µg/ml of Siliphos showed 25.1% cell viability and those treated with 30 µM/ml of rutin showed 30% cell viability. Cell viability of untreated HepG2 cells was 100%. Conclusion: Rutin has a highly significant cytotoxic action on HepG2 cell lines. Thus, we can conclude by saying that in the future rutin can be used as an alternative for conventional anticancer drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004050
Title: Hepatorenal profile of diclofenac sodium in wistar rats
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Anatomy, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Drug-induced liver injury possesses a major clinical problem and has become a leading cause of acute liver failure and transplantation. Overstressed liver compromises its detoxification role, which may expose it to a variety of diseases and disorders. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the adverse effects of different doses of diclofenac sodium on liver and renal tissues by biochemical and histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: Twenty four albino male rats weighing 180–200 g were divided equally into four groups. In control group, rats were administrated with physiological saline 2 ml/kg b. wt/intramuscularly. In experimental groups, rats were administrated with different doses of diclofenac sodium (50, 75, and 100 mg/kg b. wt/intramuscularly/7 days). Results: Diclofenac treated groups showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in aspirate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin, urea, and creatinine; however, a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in total protein in all the three diclofenac treated groups and also all the diclofenac groups show a significant increase (P < 0.001) in malondialdehyde on both liver and kidney; however, there was a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in glutathione level on both liver and kidney homogenates. Histopathological alterations were also observed in both liver and kidneys. No significant changes observed in control groups. Conclusion: Administration of different dose of diclofenac sodium induces severe adverse effects in liver and kidney.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004051
Title: Biochemical evaluation of creatinine in patients with chronic renal failure
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Chronic renal failure is a progressive reduction in renal function. The kidneys lose their normal function, especially the excretory and regulatory functions which can be due to infections, autoimmune diseases, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, and toxic chemicals. The aim of this study is to estimate the serum creatinine levels in patients with chronic renal failure. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients who were diagnosed in kidney care center for renal failure based on their clinical history, clinical examinations, and renal function tests were randomly evaluated. Biomarker levels of serum creatinine before and after the hemodialysis session were screened. The creatinine levels in the samples were assessed by Jaffe Kinetic assay (22, 2002). Results: Serum creatinine level was significantly higher than normal range (up to 1.4 mg/dl) in renal failure patients undergoing dialysis (P < 0.005). Discussion: Renal failure is a gradual, progressive, and irreversible loss of normal functioning of kidneys. Increased levels of creatinine excretion in blood by impaired kidneys made complication in patients with renal failure before hemodialysis. Conclusion: Increase in serum creatinine level leads to chronic renal disease which can further lead to various complications such as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004052
Title: Direct sinus lift augmentation with autogenous bone graft and freeze-dried demineralized bone graft
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharat University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Natural and synthetic graft materials are used routinely in sinus floor augmentations to help support implants in atrophic maxillary ridges. The aim of the study is to evaluate the amount of bone formation using two different types of bone graft harvested adjacent to the actual surgical site as well as synthetic bone graft, the status of the implant, and the outcome of maxillary sinus lift augmentation in patient undergoing maxillary sinus lift and simultaneous implant placement

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004053
Title: Knowledge and awareness of caries status among speech impaired
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral health has a great impact on the overall health and well-being of an individual. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge and awareness among the speech-impaired individuals. Materials and Methods: Assessment of caries status was done among the speech-impaired people for finding their knowledge and awareness toward the caries status. Information about the oral hygiene practices, previous dental visit, and oral health knowledge were obtained through a preformed questionnaire. Results: School students participated in the survey, of which 57% of students were male and 43% were female. Age groups of the participants who took part in the survey were from 5 to 16 years. 87% of the student’s brushes their teeth only once a day. 85% of the students do not rinse their mouth after eating or drinking. Of those students, none are aware of the fluoride. 90% of the students have not visited the dental clinics. Conclusion: Although there are some studies that have explored the oral health of speech impairment population, the information available for speech impairment individuals is still scarce. Hence, more awareness needs to be created among the speech-impaired people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004054
Title: Estimation of bacterial load from biometric scanners used by dental practitioners in a dental clinic
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate the bacterial load from biometric scanners used by dental practitioners in a dental clinic. Materials and Methods: Nine numbers of samples were collected from nine different biometric scanners from various floors used by various dental practitioners in a dental hospital. Swabs were taken using saline and sterile cotton swabs and were sent to the microbiology department for the swabs to be cultured and the bacteria were identified using gram staining and light microscope. Background: Bacteria can be found anywhere in the environment. Especially in a clinical environment, they can be found in abundance. Biometric scanners being an essential device which is contacted by all the dental practitioners before and after entering a clinic could act as a potential vector in disease transmission and act as a potential hotspot for microscopic organisms. These electronic devices provide suitable warmth and humidity for the organisms to grow on it. It is essential to check the sanity of this type of electronic devices; hence, this study was carried out. Results: From the study which was carried out, it was found that on an average 170 colony-forming units (CFUs) was observed. The major organisms found were Staphylococcus albus, Micrococcus, and Bacillus. Conclusion: All of the organisms which were majorly found were commensal organisms; however, they do not cause harmful diseases; they are still a threat to immunocompromised individuals. Hence, it is better to find alternative secure devices such as iris scanners, voice recognizers as they do not involve any contact between the practitioners and the inanimate objects like this. This study’s main objective is to create awareness among dental practitioners who use biometric scanners in their clinics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004055
Title: In vitro effects of hyaluronic acid on human gingival fibroblast cells
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Hyaluronic acid is a glucosaminoglycan that is naturally present in human body. It’s highest concentration is in eye and joints. Interleukin are group of cytokines expressed by WBC. Materials and Methods: Human gingival fibroblast cells was produced and maintained in DMEM medium. To this HA was added to induce interleukin secretion. Interleukin causes dose dependent increase upon incorporation of HA. Result and Conclusion: IL 6 and 8 secretion was maximum in HA untreated HGF cells. There was a contaminate decrease in interleukin secretion observed with increase in concentration of HA as compared to positive control mitomycin C.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004056
Title: Autogenous bone graft combined with platelet-rich fibrin used in immediate implants placement: A series of eight cases
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharat University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The dental rehabilitation of a patient following single-tooth extraction in the esthetic zone is often clinically challenging. The treatment option for this is implant-supported single crown which has the advantage that adjacent teeth do not have to be prepared, as in a fixed prosthesis. This article presents a case of immediate implant placement in relation to 22 and a guided bone regeneration (GBR) approach with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and bone graft. After immediate implant placement, to compensate for the gap (jumping distance) between the implant surface and bone walls of the socket, we used bone grafts and PRF clot as well as PRF membrane to achieve GBR. PRF, which is the second generation platelet concentrate, offers the surgeon an access to growth factors with a simple and available technology. These growth factors, which are autologous, non-toxic, and non-immunogenic, enhance and accelerate the normal bone regeneration pathways.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004057
Title: Impacts of excessive mobile phone usage on adults
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the impacts on excessive mobile phone usage on adults. Introduction: A mobile with access to a cellular radio system can be used over a wide area even without a physical connection to any network. The use of mobile phones may lead to number of symptoms such as headache, impaired concentration, and memory and fatigue. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was planned to carry out among 100 adults. Discussion: The present study shows that impact of excessive mobile phone usage is increasing stress and anxiety and decreasing the mind relaxation. Conclusion: The public given their answers about the impact of excessive mobile usage on adults. Mobile phones are the most personal device to us, but we should make and optimal use of them. We should stop overusing the mobile and be a healthy person.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004058
Title: Malocclusion and its influence in the quality of life – A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Malocclusion is the improper positioning of the teeth and jaws. It is a variation of normal growth and development which can affect the bite, the ability to clean teeth properly, gum tissue health, jaw growth, speech development, and appearance. Malocclusion refers to any degree of irregular contact of the teeth of the child’s upper jaw with the teeth of the lower jaw. This includes overbites and crossbite, as well as crowding of child’s teeth. Most children seek treatment of malocclusion for cosmetic rather than medical reasons. Bullying is common in schools nowadays, numerous population-based studies have suggested that children with certain malocclusions are more likely to be the victims of bullying, such as teasing, name-calling, and physical bullying. The main aim of this reviews the types of malocclusion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004059
Title: Laminaria angustata extract reduces denture-related inflammation – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Laminaria is a kind of algae. It is used as food in several Asian countries. Protoctist genus contains iodine, part that the body must build thyroid hormones.The study is to investigate the antiinflammatory potential of Laminaria angusta against denture-related inflammations in vitro Methodology:Percentage of inhibition of growth of Candida albicans by varying concentrations of Laminaria was tested Result: Laminaria extract was found to possess potent antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004060
Title: Assessment on the quality of prescriptions, prescribed by dental undergraduate students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Writing a prescription is one of the most important steps in the management of a patient. A failure in the appropriate understanding between the patient and the doctor can result as an error in the prescription writing. Error in the prescription can lead to incorrect instruction delivery to the patient which can compromise patient’s health. Aim: The aim of the study is to concentrate and analyze the quality of the prescription, and their written pattern written by students of a dental institute in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done to analyze the quality of prescriptions prescribed by dental students to the patients. The study was conducted in a dental institute in Chennai. A case scenario with a clinical image of the disease condition was presented to the dental students and was asked to write a prescription for the condition. The samples collected were analyzed for their content based on the ideal prescription format, and the results were obtained and tabulated. Results: On analyzing the results, it was seen that some of the details were missing in the prescription such as, patient’s details – name (6%), age (74%), sex (53%), and address (100%) and doctor’s details name (32%), department (78%), signature (5%), and phone number (97%). When legibility is concerned, it was seen that 52% of the prescriptions are very unclear where more than one aspect of the details were missing and 31% were belonged to score 3 in which one aspect of the details was missing. Scores 1 and 2 were very less 2% and 15%, respectively. Conclusion: The present study depicted that most of the prescriptions were inadequate and had many details missing. Students should be taught to write a prescription with good quality by trained doctors to improve the quality of health of the patient

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004061
Title: Gastric cancer – A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Stomach cancer, also called as gastric cancer, is a malignant tumor arising from the lining of the stomach. Somehow, there has been a significant decrease in the number of people diagnosed with gastric cancer for the past 60 years. According to the American Cancer Society, the estimated numbers of new cases are 21,320 and deaths from gastric cancer are 15,070 in the USA.  The exact reason why a cell becomes cancerous is unclear, but when something damages or alters certain genes in the cell, it may get cancerous. This makes the cell abnormal and multiplies out of control. A cancerous tumor starts from one abnormal cell. Stomach cancers are classified according to the type of tissue where they originate. The most common type of stomach cancer is adenocarcinoma. Gastric cancer cells can spread by breaking away from the original tumor. They enter the blood vessels or lymph vessels, through which they can travel to all the tissues of the body. This process is called metastasis.  This article discusses about cancer and how stomach cancer spreads, stages, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of gastric cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004062
Title: Childrens preference toward color of compomer fillings
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Various tooth colored compomer fillings is used for cavity fillings. The compomer filling is a mixture of composite and glass ionomer cement thus combines the advantage of both. It is specially formulated for pediatric dentistry/ children and has an excellent wear resistance for a long-lasting restoration. Aim: This study was carried out to assess the like of children with compomer fillings. Methodology: A study was conducted toward children with caries tooth and colored compomer fillings were given to choose over eight colors. Study Population: A total of 100 children were interviewed. Compomer fillings colors were given to the children to decide which colors that want to be restored the compomer fillings color have eight colors which are pink, blue, gold, silver, green, orange, lemon, and berry. Twinky Star from Vaco was used. Results: Female children have chosen 14% of pink color and none from male children has chosen. This indicates that Male children do not like the pink color restoration. Blue is much more preferred in male where 5% of children has chosen against 4% of female children. Green is the highest chosen by female that is 15% and is the highest among all the colors and also against sex and 10% of male has chosen green. Conclusion: Most of the children have choose green color as their favorite compomer filling even in both sexes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004063
Title: Awareness of e-learning education among parents of school-going children
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: E-learning is learning utilizing electronic technologies to access educational curriculum outside of a traditional classroom. It is not a course delivered through a DVD or CD-ROM, videotape, or over a television channel. It is interactive in that students can also communicate with teachers, professors, or other students in the class. It is currently changing the way schools and colleges teach and the students learn. Aim: The aim of this survey was to create the awareness of e-learning education among parents of school-going children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among parents of school-going children. A survey administrated questionnaire was prepared to access awareness of e-learning education. The questionnaire was distributed through online SurveyPlanet. The data are collected and results are tabulated. Results: From the survey, it concludes about 75% of parents were aware about smart boards as one of the e-learning methods. 37.1% of parents told that both group e-learning and individual e-learning education are useful for children. Conclusion: About 90% of parents were aware of e-learning education and they agreed that these e-learning methods improve the ward’s academic performance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004064
Title: Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effect of Allium sativum aqueous bulb extract against alloxan‑induced diabetic male albino rats
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Herbal drugs play an important role in health programs worldwide and there is a resurgence of interest in herbal medicines for the treatment of various ailments including diabetes mellitus. In both insulin-dependent (Type 1) and non-insulin- dependent diabetes (Type 2), an increased oxidative stress has been notified. In the present study, the folklore medicinal plant Allium sativum was selected to evaluate its antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effect against alloxan-induced diabetic male albino rats. The biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, high- density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL, urea, uric acid, and creatinine) were analyzed. Finally, the antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, and glutathione S-transferase also analyzed. The aqueous extract shows very good antidiabetic activity confirmed by biochemical parameters and histopathological analysis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004065
Title: Antimicrobial efficacy of white tea mouthwash against bacteria in early childhood caries
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of green tea mouth rinse against oral bacteria found in early childhood caries affecting children. Materials and Methods: In this study, antibiotic susceptibility testing was done comparing different concentrations of white tea with vancomycin against pure isolates of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus following incubation for 24 h and measuring the zone of inhibition in millimeters. Results: From this study, it is evident that white tea acts as an effective mouth rinse in creating a barrier for the growth of oral S. mutans and L. acidophilus. The results are statistically significant. Conclusion: This study is done to evaluate the use of white tea as a prevention modality against bacterial diseases in the oral cavity and its use as an adjunct to other mouth rinses and oral hygiene methods usually in children with motor disabilities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004066
Title: Prevalence of morphological variation of condyle in patients undergoing routine dental treatment – A retrospective orthopantomographic study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study aims to assess the various shapes of the condylar heads using orthopantomography (OPG). Introduction: An OPG is taken when the clinician suggests some type of bone pathology; therefore, a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is necessary to conclude at a proper diagnosis. It is often assumed that the normal condylar head should have a convex shape throughout and that symmetry should exist in the contralateral side. There are different shapes of the condyles such as oval, bird beak, diamond, and crooked finger. As the early diagnosis and treatment of TMJ disorders are essential, the present study was conducted to investigate various shapes of condyle based on OPG. Materials and Methods: The present study comprised radiographic evaluation of 400 condylar heads after visualizing 200 digital OPGs taken from a routine investigation. The study includes condylar heads that are visualized clearly of radiographs taken in population ranging from age 18 to 45 years old. Patients with TMJ problem and those patients undergoing orthodontic treatment are excluded from the study. Results: The most common shape seen among the subjects were oval followed by bird beak, diamond, and crooked finger: (1) Oval (63%), (2) bird beak (22%), (3) diamond (12%), and (4) crooked finger (3%). The most common shape observed among both male and female was found to be oval where the former had 67% and latter had 33%. Conclusion: Cost-effectiveness and low radiation exposure make OPG a common option of the imaging prescription. Condylar evaluation is been a keen interest to the dentists all over the world to make fine observations. This can gain more interest in the field of forensics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004067
Title: Morphological and morphometrical analysis of lumbar vertebrae in relation to pedicle and its clinical implications
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Vertebral column is piled-up vertebrae that present on the dorsal side of the human body which extends from the base of the skull to the coccyx. Spine includes cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions comprising respective vertebrae. Pedicle screw on lumbar system is a popular technique for instrumentation to treat spinal disorders as it provides a stable fixation and corrects the spinal deformities. Morphometry of the pedicle and the adjacent neural structures should be understood to decrease the risk of post-operative complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 dry human disarticulated lumbar vertebrae were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and Madras Medical College, Chennai. Using a vernier caliper, the length, breadth, height of spinous process, vertebral foramen, and pedicle of lumbar vertebrae are measured. Results: In the study, the mean horizontal diameter of pedicle (HDP) ranges from 8.12 mm to 13.66 mm. The mean HDP increases from L1 to L5 vertebrae. The mean vertical diameter of pedicle (VDP) ranges from 17.78 mm to 18.95 mm. Maximum vertical diameter of vertebral pedicle was measured at L2 (18.95 mm), and the minimum diameter was at L5 (17.78 mm). Conclusion: The choice of the pedicle screw is determined by the minimum diameter of the pedicle. The success rate of pedicle screw fixation completely relies on the ability of the screw in maintaining the anchorage within the fixed site in the body of the vertebrae.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004068
Title: Knowledge, perception, and awareness of text neck syndrome among young adults South Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Text neck is a repeated stress injury and pain sustained from excessive watching or texting on handheld devices for long period of time. Dependence on the mobile phone is increasing rapidly and people spend long hours on mobile phone that leads to other musculoskeletal problems. This study will help us to find the knowledge, perception, and awareness of text neck syndrome in young adult South Indian population. This study also aimed at knowledge of preventive measures of this text neck syndrome. Materials and Methods: This study is a questionnaire-based study on young adult subjects. A self-administered questionnaire will be distributed to all the subjects. In this study, the awareness of text neck syndrome among young adults was analyzed using a standard questionnaire. Then, the final results will be calculated. Results: The study states that there was no much awareness of text neck syndrome among the southern Indian young adults. Thus, they have to know about the text neck and this study is to create awareness among them to use mobile phone in proper position. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated a low level of awareness of text neck syndrome among young adult population. Furthermore, it mentioned about lack of knowledge of preventive measures in this population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004069
Title: Morphological and morphometrical analysis of typical cervical vertebrae and their clinical implications
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: This study is to analyze the morphological and morphometrical variations of typical cervical vertebrae and to correlate it with its clinical applications and to analyze the size, shape, prominence, and morphology of typical cervical vertebrae using morphometry. This study intends to analyze the variations of typical cervical vertebrae using morphometrical parameters and to correlate it with its clinical implications. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 40 dry human typical cervical vertebrae (C3, C4, C5, and C6) of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality will be collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India, for evaluation. The height, transverse diameter, anteroposterior diameter of vertebral bodies, height and length of laminae, length and width of pedicles, length of spine, and length and width of superior and inferior articular facets were measured using vernier caliper. The results obtained were analyzed statistically, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: The shape, size, and prominence, height, anteroposterior diameter, and transverse diameter of C3, C4, C5, and C6 vertebrae showed slight variations, and there was much difference in the height of left and right lamina of these cervical vertebrae. Conclusion: The variations in morphological and morphometrical analysis of typical cervical vertebrae may have clinical correlation. Conservative therapy includes immobilization of the neck position which will prevent muscular weakness. Although cervical myelopathy has lots of risk, during or after surgery. Therefore such extreme conditions are mostly recommended with conservative therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004070
Title: Analysis of knowledge and awareness of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease and the association between smoking and family history of cardiovascular disease among young adult population in South
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CAHD) is a condition where the arteries supplying the blood to the heart are affected due to the plaque that gets buildup. It is very common in India affecting more than 10 million cases/year. The knowledge and awareness of CAHD are highly important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, analyze the early symptoms, and prevent the disease if possible. Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based observational study comprising of 100 sample size of young adults between the ages of 18 and 35 years. All are subjected to a list of questions regarding CAHD. They are tested for their knowledge about the disease and are asked some other questions to determine the association between smoking and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Result: From the survey, it is evident that from the 100 sample space, 92% of the young adult population are aware of the CAHD. 72% of the sample size strongly agreed that there is an association between CAHD and a family history of heart attack. Conclusion: It is, therefore, evident that majority of the young adult population taken into consideration had an adequate knowledge of CAHD and that there is an association between smoking and CVD.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004071
Title: Obesity, hypertension, and body weight management in diabetes mellitus patient aged between 40 and 70 years
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a widely prevalent metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Obesity, hypertension, lack of regular exercises, and sedentary lifestyle are the major risk factors apart from genetic origin. The impact of this disorder and its consequences are not aware among elderly people. Thus, this survey study aims to create awareness and to evaluate the prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and body weight management behaviors in people with diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 elderly people aged between 40 and 70 years having diabetes mellitus were subjected to a list of standard and approved questions. The questionnaire is based on their basal metabolic index, hypertension, and body weight management behavioral traits. All the data were collected and analyzed systematically for any association between the parameters involved. Results: From the survey questionnaire, it is inferred that among the 100 subjects that majority of the people with diabetes mellitus knows the consequence of it and its association with obesity, hypertension, and irregular management of their body weight but reluctant to follow and maintain it due to several reasons. Conclusion: From the survey analysis of this study, many elderly individuals are aware of the consequences but remain reluctant to follow due to age-induced exhausted thoughts. However, this can be overcome by their will power and motivated behavioral thought to follow these steps to stay fit and energized.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004072
Title: Association between diabetes and daily intake of white rice consumption among diabetes mellitus patients
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Whole grains are cultivated over 10,000 years ago and became part of the human diet for the past 300–400 years. During the 20th century, rice became staple food for Indian population. White rice consumption is the primary source of developing risk of type 2 diabetes. Substituting whole grains for white rice is the best solution to minimize the risk of diabetes mellitus. This study is to evaluate the association between the diabetes and white rice consumption among middle-aged diabetes mellitus patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 elderly population will be subjected for list of standard questions on diabetes and its associated effects with lifestyle. The collected data is further analyzed and categorized based on the criteria for stages of diabetic condition. All the data are represented graphically. Results: White rice has a higher level of starch and carbohydrate level (glycemic index) which would increase the glucose sugar level in the blood and increases the risk of diabetes. Conclusion: It is the fact to conclude that higher white rice intake is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, especially among Asian populations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004073
Title: Morphological and morphometrical analysis of talus bone with reference to sinus tarsi in dry human talar bone and its clinical applications
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Talus morphology falls along morpholine that tracks locomotor function related to a more inverted or everted foot set. Aspects of the external bony morphology of the talus and distal tibia reflect kinematic differences between how terrestrial bipedal humans and arboreal, quadrupedal African apes load their foot and ankle during locomotion. The aim of the study is to analyze the variation of talus bone with respect to its morphological and morphometrical parameters and to correlate it with its clinical implications. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 20 dry human talus bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality will be collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. With the help of Vernier caliper and ruler, the measurements such as maximum talar length maximum talar breadth and maximum talar width will be measured. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: The variation in the morphological and morphometrical analysis of talus bone may have a clinical correlation. The values observed are tabulated and analyzed. The final observation was represented as mean ± Standard deviation. Conclusion: Morphological and morphometrical analysis of talus bone with reference to sinus tarsi bone-in dry human talar bone was described to provide their morphology and clinical applications. The present study thus analyzed the morphology of the articular surfaces of the talus bone.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004074
Title: Morphological and morphometrical analysis of talar articular facets in relation to talocalcaneal articulation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The morphology of the bone provides several anatomical inputs and its variation provides significant points during orthopedic surgeries and also in fabrication of tarsal bone prosthesis. The calcaneum is the biggest of tarsal bone unpredictably cuboidal with its long pivot slanted distally. The aim of the study is to assess the type of facet on the talus and calcaneum, as well as the overall morphology and morphometry of the talus and calcaneum. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 calcaneal bones are gathered from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, and are utilized for this study. Digital Vernier caliper is utilized for morphometric investigation. The length, breadth, and width of talar articular facets in connection to talocalcaneal articulation are analyzed. Results: The bones were grown-up calcanei of both genders. The calcanei were finished in all viewpoints to give the right estimations. The calcanei were non-neurotic. Conclusion: From the study, it was observed that there is a high occurrence of the separate type of a talar articular facet which is common in all populations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004075
Title: Prediction of stature using hand dimension among Chennai population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Stature is an important anthropometric parameter that decides the physical identity of an individual. It is also a genetically inherited character. Stature plays a crucial role in many forensic investigations. This study was performed to predict the stature of an individual using hand dimension. Materials and Methods: The hand dimensions of Chennai populations of both sexes were measured using Vernier caliper. The data obtained were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. All the average values were plotted graphically for easy interpretation. Results: The average height of male and female was estimated. Mean and standard deviation of stature and hand length was calculated. Correlation was found by plotting a graph with the collected values. Conclusion: The present study depicts a significant correlation between the stature and hand dimension of an individual. The data are very essential for identifying of war casualties and medicolegal purpose.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004076
Title: Analysis of geographic variation in the South Indian dry skulls using cranial index
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The cranial index (CI) of the dry South Indian skulls can be used to segregate them geographically. Thus, the aim of the study is to determine and analyze the geographical variation in dry South Indian skulls using CI. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 skulls are taken from the Department of Anatomy and were been evaluated which are from unknown sex. The method of calculation is done by taking the length of the skull, breadth of the skull, and the CI of the skull which are taken with Vernier caliper and calculated. Results: According to data observed on skull, they are classified based on the CI value. The dolichocranic skulls are skulls with CI up to 74.9 or below 75.0. The mesocranic skulls are skulls with CI between 75.0 and 79.9. The brachycranic skulls are the skulls with CI between 80.0 and 84.9. Conclusion: The conclusion of the study is that most of the skulls of the South Indian population were under the dolichocranic skulls.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004077
Title: Morphological and morphometrical analysis of fibula in relation to fibular facet
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The fibula bone is also known as the calf bone, which was introduced into anatomical nomenclature by Vesalius during the 16th century. Fibula is a slender lateral bone of the leg, the fibula is identified by a proximal head, with a twisted shaft and a distal lateral malleolus. The lower ends of the bone fibula and tibia form an anatomic and functional unit. In view of the widespread clinical relevance, the purpose of this study was to investigate the morphology and morphometric analysis of the human fibula bone in relation to fibular incisura within South Indian population group. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 30 dry human fibula bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality will be collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. With the help of Vernier caliper and ruler, the measurements such as the length, breadth, and diameter of the orbital cavity will be measured. The maximum orbital length and the maximal orbital breadth are measured to calculate the orbital index. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: After analyzing the data we come to know that diameter from upper and lower articulating facet seems to lie between 2 cm and 2.5 cm and height of lateral malleolus tend to be between 2.5 cm and 3 cm in the analyzed dry bone. About 50% of the bone sample contains nutrient foramen at inferior one-third, 40% contain at superior one-third, and only 10% contain nutrient foramen at the middle one-third. Conclusion: Because this study documented several locations of the nutrient foramen within the fibular shaft, along with the diameter of superior articulating facet, diameter of inferior articulating facet, and height of lateral malleolus it may lead to the development of a simple classification scheme providing appropriate sites for the harvesting of grafts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004078
Title: Morphological and morphometrical study of transverse foramina of atlas, axis, and vertebra prominens and their clinical implications
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Atlas is a ring of bone and consists of a lateral masses connected by a short anterior arch and a long posterior arch. The transverse processes project laterally from the lateral masses and longer than that of the other cervical vertebrae except the seventh. Axis consists of dens or odontoid process projecting superiority from its body. It acts as a pivot for rotational process of the atlas. C7 transverse foramina are small and do not transmit the vertebral artery. C7 anterior tubercle is small, possesses a cervical rib. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 dry human atypical cervical vertebrae were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and were evaluated. The size, shape, diameter, and localization of transverse foramina of atlas, axis, and vertebra prominens are analyzed. Results: From the above data, we obtain the exact measurements of the transverse foramina for atlas, axis, and C7. The right transverse foramen is larger than the left transverse foramina in atlas and axis. Similarly, the left transverse foramen is larger than the right transverse foramina in C7. The shapes of the foramina seemed to be mostly round and oval in shape. Conclusion: There were significant changes in the transverse foramina on the left and right side in atlas, axis, and C7. Hence, morphological structures were also determined.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004079
Title: Correlation between breakfast skipping, nutritional food intake, and obesity among young adult undergraduate students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The impact of skipping breakfast on the health of developing children, particularly in adolescents, remains a much-debated health issue. In general, the morning breakfast is the most vital food of the day, which nourishes and supplements the body with energy after a long overnight fasting. Thus, the aim of the study is to examine the relationship between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and adiposity status by questionnaire-based survey. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 young adult undergraduate students of Saveetha Dental College were subjected for a list of standard and approved questions on the basis of breakfast, body weight, and nutritional food intake in their daily life. The data collected were analyzed systematically and were represented as pie chart for plotting the distribution of various responses. Results: Thus, it is inferred from the data that people who skip breakfast, improper balanced diet, insufficient physical activities in day-to-day life, craving oily foods, and lacking healthy nutritional intake, etc., seemed to have a correlation between breakfast skipping, healthy nutrition intake, and obesity. Conclusion: Regular skipping of breakfast and consuming malnourished, unhealthy junk foods may have a serious and deleterious effect on the health condition of the students and thereby affecting their entire body functionality leading to both psychological and physical disturbances.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004080
Title: Knowledge, awareness, prevalence, and frequency of daily physical activity in young adults of the present generation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Physical activity is defined as any physical movement made by the skeletal muscles that need energy. Practicing it daily reduces the chances of acquiring non-communicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. This study was performed to analyze the awareness and practice of daily physical activities among young adult people. Materials and Methods: A survey based on the topic was conducted among Chennai population with the sample size of 120, and finally, data were compiled and result was generated. The questionnaire is based on their frequency of daily physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, consuming junk foods, etc. All the data were collected and analyzed systematically for any association between the parameters involved. Results: The result shows that 61 of the total population have not even bothered to do any physical activity and the remaining 39% has several workout practices either daily or periodically twice a week. Conclusion: The sample population of the present generation is aware of the benefits of doing daily physical activity, but unluckily most of them do not practice any daily physical activity regularly.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004081
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental practitioners toward radiation hazards and safety – A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Although the radiation dose levels in dental practice are relatively low, one should consider the cumulative effect of repeated exposures. There should be a striving for the implementation of radiation protection measures and selection criteria for radiography in private dental offices. Aim: The study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental practitioners toward radiation hazards and safety. Materials and Methods: A self-formulated questionnaire composed of 12 questions was circulated among 100 dental practitioners which includes both general dental practitioners and specialist dental practitioners to evaluate their knowledge, attitude, and practices toward radiation safety standards. Results: The respondent’s knowledge regarding as low as reasonably achievable principle was as high as 83.8%, but the application in their clinical practice such as usage of film holders by the professionals was only about 51% and only about 54% of the practitioners use personnel monitoring device. Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental practitioners in regard to radiation protection and safety were noted to be higher with less application in their practice. This necessitates enforcement of appropriate measures to ensure maximum safety.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004082
Title: Antidiabetic activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using neem and Aloe vera plant formulation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious and chronic disease that can occur either when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin (Type 1 DM/insulin-dependent DM) or when the body fails to use the insulin, it produces effectively (Type 2 DM/non-insulin-dependent DM). Since the prevalence of DM has only been exponentially increasing, the need for finding alternative forms of medication and treatment is of immense importance. Here, we have aimed to analyze the possible antidiabetic potential of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) synthesized using neem and Aloe vera through an alpha-amylase assay. Materials and Methods: Leaves of Azadirachta indica and A. vera were made into a filtered herbal formulation. A metallic solution of silver nitrate was added to it and the conjunction was kept in a magnetic stirrer/orbital shaker for the synthesis of its nanoparticles. After centrifugation, the resultant pellet was powdered. The antidiabetic potential was studied through the inhibition of alpha-amylase. Ag-NP concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 μL were preincubated with 100 μL of alpha-amylase solution (1 U/mL) at room temperature for 30 min. About 100 μL of starch solution (1% w/v) was then added to it and the mixture was incubated at room temperature for 10 min. About 100 μL of 96 mM 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid reagent was added to it to stop the reaction and the solution was heated in a water bath. Control was maintained where equal quantities of the enzyme and extract were replaced by a sodium phosphate buffer maintained at a pH of 6.9. The reading was measured at 540 nm. The experiment was performed thrice. Acarbose was used as a positive control and the percentage of inhibition was calculated. Results: A color change was observed after the synthesis of Ag-NPs. The prepared particles were then characterized by a peak seen at 425 nm in ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results of the assay showed that 150 µg of our Ag-NPs exhibited an alpha-amylase inhibition which was close to that of acarbose with a variation of only 2.67%. Conclusion: Ag-NPs synthesized using neem and A. vera have an evident antidiabetic potential. They show a considerably good amount of alpha-amylase inhibition with respect to acarbose. They are also easy to synthesize, eco-friendly, and inexpensive. Thus, Ag-NPs could be used as a possible alternative for conventional antidiabetic drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004083
Title: Influence of salivary pH on the surface roughness of metal prosthesis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different salivary pH on the surface of metal (Ni-Cr alloy) prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Sixteen Ni-Cr blocks measuring 1 cm × 1 cm subjected to different salivary pH-5.0, 7.0, and 9.0, and a control group (saline) maintaining at a temperature of 37°C with a sample size (n = 16) immersed for a period of 1-week duration.To observe the roughness, a non-contact profilometer was used before samples immersing in saliva and after immersing in an artificial saliva with different pH for a week period. Group 1: Ni Cr specimens immersed in saline, Group 2: Ni Cr specimens immersed in artificial saliva with pH 5, Group 3: Ni Cr specimens immersed in artificial saliva with pH 7, and Group 4: Ni Cr specimens immersed in artificial saliva with pH 9. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test was conducted between the pre- and post-Ra and Sa values. ANOVA was conducted between the four groups, and the values are tabulated. Results: The values of the mean and standard deviation of surface roughness (Ra and Sa) at different salivary pH before and after immersion are 2.50 ± 1.2, 5.02 ± 2.16, 2.87 ± 1.89, and 6.36 ± 1.84, respectively. The values obtained by ANOVA show no significant difference between the experimental groups. Conclusion: Ni-Cr alloys seem to be resistant to variation in the pH of saliva. This study observes no statistically significant change in Ra and Sa induced by varying levels of salivary pH.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004084
Title: Comparison of the effect of Triphala, green tea, and 2% chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to compare the antimicrobial activity of Triphala, green tea, and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) on Streptococcus mutans biofilm on microtiter plate. Introduction: S. mutans is one of the major etiological factors of human dental caries. Triphala, a polyherbal preparation, which consists of equal amounts of fruits of three plants, namely, Amalaki Phyllanthus emblica, Haritaki, and Bahera in a fine powder form is said to have antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. Green tea is said to have antibacterial properties against S. mutans and CHX is also known for its antimicrobial property against S. mutans. The antimicrobial efficacy of all the three substance is compared in this study using a microtiter plate. Materials and Methods: S. mutans was isolated and maintained in Tryptose soya agar at 4°C. Individual wells of sterile polystyrene 96-well flat bottom microtiter plates were filled with 200 ml of culture suspension of test organism. Different concentrations of Triphala, green tea, and CHX were added and incubated. After the incubation, the adherence of bacteria was fixed and stained by crystal violet. It was removed by acetone and readings were taken. Experiment was carried out in triplicate and their mean was taken for analysis. Results: CHX which is well known for its antimicrobial property had a greater efficacy in lower concentrations when compared with other two substances. In higher concentrations, Triphala was found to have greater efficacy than the other two substances.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004085
Title: Green synthesis of copper nanocrystallites using Triphala Churna and their antimicrobial studies
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Nanotechnology, Centre of Excellence for Prototyping in Nanotechnology, Bharath Institute of Science and Technology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Na
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Objective: The objective of this study was to prepare copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) of Ayurvedic formulation, Triphala Churna, their characterization, and their antimicrobial activities as compared to Triphala Churna. Materials and Methods: Cu-NPs were prepared using Cu sulfate (CuSO4 . 5H2 O) and Triphala Churna, which is a mixture of dried powders of three fruits, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Embelica officinalis in equal proportions. Two different methods such as stirring and without stirring conditions were employed for the synthesis of nanostructured crystallites. The nanocrystallites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The presence of phytochemicals in the nanoparticles was studied by TLC. Antimicrobial activities of both normal Triphala Churna and the nanoparticles of Triphala Churna wee compared using microbes, namely, Lactobacillus, Escherichia Coli, and Aspergillus niger. Results: The XRD studies indicated the formation of Cu, cupric oxide (CuO), and cuprous oxide (Cu2 O) nanocrystallites. The Cu-NPs were face-centered cubic structure, CuO was monoclinic, and Cu2 O was orthorhombic structures. Spherical nanocrystals which were homogeneous and of uniform distribution were found by SEM. TLC of Triphala Churna indicated the presence of main phytochemicals such as steroid, terpenoid, flavonoid, and alkaloid. Triphala nanoparticles indicated better antimicrobial activity against all the three microbes studied. Conclusions: The above report indicated that Cu-NPs of Triphala Churna ware obtained having mostly cuprous and CuO combinations. The nanoparticles gave better antimicrobial results when compared to regular Triphala Churna.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004086
Title: Hypoglycemic bioactivity of novel eco-friendly carbon dots derived from traditional Costus igneus
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study is to find out the hypoglycemic bioactivity of novel eco-friendly carbon dots derived from traditional Costus igneus. Background: C. igneus was introduced from America to India as an herbal cure plant. Among the South Indian population, these plant’s leaves are consumed to reduce blood glucose level. For their hypoglycemic effect, these plants are commonly called as Insulin plant. Materials and Methods: The carbon quantum dots were synthesized from by a simple hydrothermal treatment at relatively low temperature. Alpha-amylase inhibition potential of carbon dots derived from C. igneus was estimated with varying concentrations. Discussion: The carbon dots of C. igneus inhibit the alpha-amylase with dependence to the concentration of CIE-SDs. Conclusion: Hence, C. igneus has an antidiabetic property.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004087
Title: Quality of campus life among college students – A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Quality of life (QoL), the degree to which an individual is healthy, comfortable, and able to participate in or enjoy life events. College is a time for leaving the comfort and security of home and embarking on the journey to adulthood. This is very beneficial to students as they will learn about campus life and the many benefits that come with living on campus. The World Health Organization QoL assessment group has included in its definition of QoL the individual’s perception of his position in life in the context of culture and a system values in which he lives and in relation to his goals, expectations, and concerns. The WHO emphasizes the positive side of the concept of health, a positive attitude of society toward the maintenance and improvement of health as the main condition for social well-being. Materials and Methods: A survey of 10 questions was prepared to assess the awareness of importance of nutrition among the college students in their lifestyle. The sample size for the survey includes 100 students from various colleges through SurveyPlanet link. The data were statistically analyzed. Results: According to the survey, 89% of students feel safe in the college campus and >89% of students were satisfied with their college faculty. The most important thing in campus life is your friend circle, and in my survey, it was found that almost 90% of students were friendly. 73% of students were satisfied with their career counseling and 74% of students were satisfied with extracurricular activities help in personality development which play an important role in this modern era. Conclusion: From this survey, it was concluded that though 80% of students are were satisfied with their campus life and got benefited by all the facilities given in college. This survey was to create awareness of the importance of campus life among the college students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004088
Title: An osteologic study of the cranial opening of optic canal in dry human skulls
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the cranial opening of the optic canal through various osteological parameters and to correlate it with anatomical variations. Objective: The present study analyses the size, shape, diameter, and structural variations of the cranial opening of the optic canal through osteological parameters using a Vernier caliper. The anatomical significance of these variations is also touched on. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 dry human skull bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality were collected from the Department of Anatomy at Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. With the help of a Vernier caliper, and ruler, dimensions of the cranial opening of the optic canal were measured, and the results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: The left cranial opening of the optic canal had an average diameter of 0.55 cm while the right diameter was 0.54 cm. Conclusion: The findings recorded here intend reference beneficence to medical practitioners during surgeries involving invasive procedures, or of its contents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004089
Title: Evaluation of jugular foramen through osteological parameter and its clinical significance
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The jugular foramen is a large foramen in the base of the skull. It located behind the carotid canal and is formed in front by the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and behind by the occipital bone; it is generally larger on the right than on the left side. It is divided by two transverse septa of inner meningeal layer of dura mater into three compartments: The anterior, middle, and posterior. We aimed to evaluate the jugular foramen through osteologic parameter. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 60 dry human skull bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality will be collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. With the help of Vernier caliper and ruler, the measurements such as maximum jugular length, maximum jugular breadth, and diameter will be measured. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: The mean average diameter of the left jugular foramen is 1.866 and the average diameter of the right jugular foramen is 2.166. Average diameter of the left jugular foramen is lower than the right jugular foramen. Conclusion: The observed variation of jugular foramen is possibly due to constitutional, racial, or genetic factors. This study is expected to provide a clear understanding of the foramen anatomy and supports reported morphometric variations. Anatomical variations especially slit-like jugular foramen and jugular fossa with high depth may be the reason for unusual clinical diagnosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004090
Title: Morphology and navigational landmarks of the cranio-orbital foramen among South Indian populations
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the morphological and navigational landmarks of the cranio-orbital foramen among South Indian populations. Background: The morphology and localization of cranio-orbital foramen in South Indian population using dry human skulls was analysed through morphometric parameters. The cranio-orbital and accessory foramina are located in the lateral wall of the orbit and adjacent to the superior orbital fissure. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dry skulls were used for the morphological and localization of the cranio-orbital foramen. The bones are collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College. The characterization of both cranio-orbital foramina was performed with the help of the faculty in our college. The purpose of the study is considering the clinical importance to determine the morphological variation of the cranio-orbital foramen. Results and Discussion: The present study says that the average distance between frontozygomatic suture and cranio-orbital foramen in right is 4.75 mm and left is 4.96 mm; the average distance between supraorbital notch and cranio-orbital foramen in right is 5.96 mm and left is 6.51 mm, where the average distance between Whitnall’s tubercle and cranio-orbital foramen in right is 5.28 mm and left is 4.9 mm. Conclusion: The study was conducted to improve our knowledge of the occurrence of the cranio-orbital foramen in the skull which may be of surgical significance to ophthalmologist, neurologists, and radiologists.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004091
Title: Morphological and morphometric analysis of sella turcica in South Indian dry skulls – Gender effect
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of our study is to analyze the morphological and morphometric data on sella turcica in dry South Indian skulls in relation to gender. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological and morphometric observations of sella turcica in dry South Indian skulls in relation to gender using Vernier caliper. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 dry skulls of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality and breakage will be collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. The maximum length, breadth, depth, and sella median height are measured with the help of Vernier caliper. The data observed will be analyzed and represented graphically. Results: Considering the gender, the transverse breadth, sella diameter, and sella peak – median changed into greater in women than in men, whereas anteroposterior duration becomes positioned to be excessive in adult males than in women. Conclusion: Precise anatomical information of the sella turcica is crucial for neurologists and surgeons going for walks inside the location of cavernous sinus or the encircling structures. Therefore, the sella turcica landmark is one of the most critical cephalometric landmarks, even though it is a floating landmark in nature.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004092
Title: Awareness of polycystic ovary disease among college students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is a condition in which ladies have an irregularity of female sex hormones. The polycystic ovary ailment is viewed as most common of every single endocrine issue which ladies face. Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted among 100 young ladies to evaluate the learning on the polycystic ovarian disorder. Result: From the survey it was understood that early determination of PCOD and its brief treatment will assist the young ladies with improving personal satisfaction and avert further well-being risks.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004093
Title: Structural annotations of hypothetical proteins in Mycoplasma genitalium
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to define the structural annotations for hypothetical proteins in Mycoplasma genitalium. Methods: M. genitalium is one of the serious pathogens causing a wide range of genital diseases in human beings. Although the genome of this bacteria is already sequenced, there still remain proteins for which neither the function nor the structures are known yet. Therefore, in this study, we will be performing structural annotation of the hypothetical proteins present in M. genitalium to find proteins that are similar in fold for further understanding. Results: It was found that the protein selected was protein translocase subunit, which happens to be transmembrane protein predicted to present across various bacteria.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004094
Title: Hyaluronic acid conjugated nanoparticle - An anti-inflammatory study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Hyaluronic is an anionic, non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan circulated broadly all through connective, epithelial, and neural tissues.A nanoparticle (NP)–biomolecule conjugate is a NP with biomolecules joined to its surface. NPs along these lines are among the most effective methods for delivering responses and are innately important in the concoction business.The present study aims at exploring the anti inflammatory property of the Hyaluronic acid conjugated nanoparticle. Materials and Methods: In vitro antiinflammatory assay was carried out using Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) Membrane Stabilization Method to study the antiinflammatory potential of Hyaluronic acid conjugated nanoparticles. Result: HA NPs exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in vitro.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004095
Title: Estimation of cortisol in Type II diabetes mellitus among South Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The aim is to measure the cortisol level in obese patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients were selected from those attending the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and divided into two groups, namely normal healthy individuals and patients with obesity, and the sample was collected and analyzed using ROBONIK ELISA READER. Results: All the data were analyzed using the SPSS package. Paired sample t-test analysis was done to find out significant differences between the two groups. All the tests were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. Conclusion: The results suggest that compared with normal weight people, overweight people have higher cortisol levels in the serum. These results suggest that it might be relevant to consider cortisol and cortisone promotion in overweight people; however, the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities are not abnormal compared with normal weight people. Our association study shows that less healthy family eating behavior is associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as well as higher cortisol and cortisone levels. Our findings emphasize the need for further research on the relationship between overweight/obesity in children and cortisol, cortisone, and ratio of cortisol to cortisone, as well as the influences of parent’s BMI and family dietary habits on children’s people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004096
Title: Anti-inflammatory activity of avocado seed extract mediated silver nanoparticles
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Nanobiomedicina Lab, Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Study of anti-inflammatory activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) prepared using avocado seed. Objective: The objective of the study was to prepare of AgNPs using avocado seed and anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Collection and preparation of avocado seed extract, synthesis of AgNPs, collection of AgNPs using centrifugation, and anti-inflammatory activity of AgNPs using inhibition of albumin deformation assay were used. Results: AgNPs synthesized using avocado seed extract shows good anti-inflammatory activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004097
Title: Persea americana seed-mediated silver nanoparticle and its bioactivity against Candida albicans
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Nanobiomedicina Lab, Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Persea americana seed and its bio activity against Candida albicans. Objective: The main objective of this study is to analyze the antifungal activity of seed mediated Ag NPs. Materials and Methods: Collection and preparation of avocado seed extract and synthesis of Ag NPs. Analysis of antifungal activity of synthesized nanoparticles against Candida albicans. Results: The synthesized silver nanoparticles shows good antifungal activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004098
Title: Lupeol protects kidney from high-fat diet-induced renal damage: An experimental study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder generally characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin or impairment of insulin receptors, resulting chronic hyperglycemia. A high fat diet (HFD) induces the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and related complications like obesity and Type-2 diabetes. Lupeol is a triterpenoid found in vegetables and fruits; it has been shown to exhibit various pharmacological activities. However, the effect of lupeol on kidney from HFD induction is still unclear. Hence, the present study was designed to elicit the protective role lupeol on kidney from HFD-induced renal damage. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine whether lupeol protects the kidney from diet-induced renal damage. Materials and Methods: Healthy adult male Wistar albino rats 150–180 days old, weighing 180–200 g were used in the study and maintained in clean polypropylene cages under specific humidity (65+−5%) and temperature (21+−2°C) with constant 12 h light and 12 h dark schedule. Rats were subjected to 60 days of an HFD containing cholesterol 3%, cholic acid 1%, coconut oil 30%, standard rat feed 66%, and 30% sucrose through drinking water. On the 58th day of treatment, after overnight fasting, blood glucose was checked and the rats that had blood glucose above 120 mg/dl were chosen as Type2 diabetic rats. Sucrose feeding through drinking water with an HFD was continued until the end of the study. Results: It was found that the foreign medicines lupeol protects the kidney from the damage. Conclusion: The lupeol used for the diabetes does not affect the kidney and it is more useful and protective than metformin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004099
Title: Usage of commonly used mouthwash on alterations in salivary pH
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Mouthwash is used as an effective remedy for oral hygiene and prevents dental caries by targeting on bacteria. Varieties of mouthwashes prevent dental caries by inhibiting plaque formation by reducing gingival inflammation. Aim: The present study was aimed at analyzing the alterations in the pH in commonly used mouthwashes against human saliva. Methods: A total of 20 people were included in the study. Before the consumption of mouthwash, saliva was collected from the people in a test tube in a glass funnel. Then, the people were asked to use mouthwash, again the saliva was collected and the pH was determined. Results: The pH of saliva before using mouthwash was found to be normal at the pH of 6.7. Before and after mouth wash the salivary pH was found to be significantly (p<0.0043) increased from pH 6.9 to 7.5 due to the components present in the mouthwashes. Conclusion: This study concludes that oral hygiene practice with commonly available fluoridated mouthwash twice a day may be recommended in moderate-to-high caries group.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004100
Title: Incorrect psychopharmacotherapy as a cause of applications of physical restraint measures to patients, hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital on a voluntary basis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Informational Science, Natural Sciences and Teaching Techniques Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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Introduction: Psychomotor agitation in people with mental disorders with a threat of harming to themselves or others, which arose during the period of treatment in a psychiatric hospital, is the cause of applying measures of physical restraint. In accordance with the Legislation of the Russian Federation, the latter can be only applied in relation to an involuntary basis. Aim: This study aims to develop recommendations for the coupling of psychomotor agitation in the voluntarily hospitalized people with mental disorders to prevent the applications of physical restraint measures (PRMs). Materials and Methods: A total of 162 patients aged 20–86 (37.3 ± 12.7) were examined: 112 male patients and 50 female patients hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital on a voluntary basis, which measures of physical restraint were applied. Clinical-psychopathological, clinical-dynamic, and statistical methods of research were used. Results: Schizophrenia and organic mental disorders (29.6%) were diagnosed more often (59.9%) in patients who were subjected to PRMs. Clinically, paranoid and psychopathic (28.4%) syndromes were the most frequent (57.4%). In females, hereditary burden was observed more often than in males. Males were brought up in adverse conditions, abused alcohol, which contributed to the formation of psychopathic syndrome and antisocial behavior, and 23.0% committed socially dangerous acts. Despite the informed consent to hospitalization and treatment in a psychiatric hospital, 54.0% of the female and 43.8% of the male population declined to take medicines. The most frequent errors of psychopharmacotherapy were therapeutic underdoses of drugs and unfounded drug changes, less often – disaccord of the drug with clinical symptoms. Conclusion: For the prevention of the recrudescence of psychopathological symptoms in patients hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital on a voluntary basis and the need to apply measures of physical restraint in women with schizophrenia and hereditary burden and in men with organic mental disorders combined with alcoholism, it is advisable to administer parenterally optimal therapeutic doses of neuroleptics since the 1st day of stay in the hospital.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004101
Title: New approaches in the diagnosis of kidney cancer
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Belgorod State University, Pobedy St. 85, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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The Purpose: The aim of this work is to study new approaches in the diagnosis of kidney cancer. Materials and Methods: Erythrocytes of patients with kidney pathology are the object of this research. After allocation of erythrocytes blood samples from a vein were studied in scanning electronic microscopes “FE1 Quanta 200 3D” and “FE1 Quanta 600 FEG.” Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) was done in the probe laboratory Ntegra Aura. AFM images were processed and implemented using the NOVA software and Image Analysis. Results: The number of transient forms of erythrocytes is increased with the aging of patients. There was a decrease of discocytes and an increase in the number of transitional, prehemolytic, and degenerative cell forms with kidney cancer. When studying the appearance of erythrocytes with the help of AFM, it was established that the depth of the discocyte cavity counted by studying the cell profile was significantly changing. With the progression of the disease, the cells acquired elongated forms as well as contacts between the cells were more common. Conclusions: The study has found that the appearance and condition of erythrocyte membranes depend on the age of the recipient and to the greater extent on pathological processes in the kidneys (cysts and cancer) with a change of their cytoarchitecture. The greatest changes have been found in kidney cancer with distant metastases. Modified cells are functionally defective in part and cannot fulfill their most important oxygen transport function in full measure.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004102
Title: Self-control as a predictor of the formation of adherence to therapy in patients with hypertensive disease
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of the General and Clinical Psychology, FSAE HPE “Belgorod State National Research University,” Belgorod, Russia
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This article focuses on the study of a self-control mechanisms role in the compliance formation in patients with hypertensive disease. Psychological factors governing the patient’s adherence to therapy are presented. It is shown that for patients with the hypertensive disease, which have a low self-control level, a lower level of adherence to therapy is typical. The self-control skills development in patients with hypertensive disease shapes in them the ability to adapt more flexibly to new conditions, to take responsibility for the recovery process, forms emotional, and behavioral elements of the compliance. The study results confirmed the need for work aimed at self-control skills development and compliance formation in patients with hypertensive disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004103
Title: The results of the surgical treatment of thyroid and parathyroid diseases
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Hospital Surgery, Institute of Medicine, Belgorod State University, Pobeda 85, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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Introduction: Among the endocrine pathology, diseases of the thyroid gland are on the second place after diabetes mellitus. According to the WHO, about 2 billion people live in the conditions of iodine deficiency, which leads to the various diseases of the thyroid gland. Diseases of the thyroid gland take an important place in the structure of the endocrine system’s pathology. Aim: To determine the optimal tactics of the surgical treatment for various diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Method: A retrospective analysis of the results of surgical treatment of 727 patients was performed in 3 years in the Surgical Department, № 1, Belgorod Regional Clinical Hospital of St. Joasaph. Patients were admitted after an endocrinological outpatient examination with such clinical diagnoses: Nodal euthyroid goiter 371 (51%), diffuse-nodal euthyroid goiter 15 (2.1%), diffuse euthyroid goiter 2 (0.3%), diffuse toxic goiter 132 (18.2%), diffuse-nodal toxic goiter 36 (5.0%), nodal toxic goiter 97 (13.3%), autoimmune thyroiditis 9 (1.2%), thyroid cancer 33 (4.5%), recurrent goiter 27 (3.7%), and parathyroid adenoma 5 (0.7%). Result and Discussion: In all nosological groups, females have traditionally predominated. The diagnostic tests included an ultrasound of the thyroid gland, T3, T4, TSH, and, if necessary, a computed tomography scan. Further, during the choose of the treatment tactic, we adhered to the principle of maximum surgical radicalism, especially in the treatment of patients with toxic and multinodal goiter forms since unjustified leaving of the thyroid tissue can lead to the risk of the recurrence of the disease. Conclusion: According to the results of our work, the percentage of thyroidectomies in the past 3 years was 70.1%. At the same time, an increase in the percentage of radical operations did not lead to a significant increase in the segment of the specific complications (injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve – 1.65%, bleeding – 0.4%, and hypoparathyroidism – 2.5%).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004104
Title: A computer vision algorithm for implementation of hematological analysis based on price-jones curve
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Mathematical and Software Information Systems, Institute of engineering and digital technologies, Belgorod State University, Pobeda Str. 85, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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This article is about implementing a hematological analysis through computer vision algorithms. This type of analysis is one of the basic analyses providing huge amount of information about the patient and his state. We propose a pipeline with a few steps for image preprocessing; thus, the image becomes more contrast and noiseless. At first image color space converting – so we separate a luminance channel and ignore other channels (due to source image features). Then, we blur the image with Gaussian filter and apple contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization filter for contrast improvement, so background pixels form more homogenous areas and become less bright in comparison to cell’s pixels. The next step is background removal and image binarization based on Otsu algorithm for border pixel luminance level detection. Afterward, we extract an array of contours from the binary image and use this array as an input source for Watershed algorithm. As a result, we have a color image where every single class of object has its own color and an array of object. This array then used as a source for cells diameters distribution histogram – a Price-Jones curve. All the described steps implemented in Python 2.7 with OpenCV and Seaborn libraries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004105
Title: Physiology of manifestation of preclinical forms of hyper- and hypo-thyroidism in the able-bodied population of the city of Gubkin
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Belgorod State University, Pobedy str., 85, Belgorod 308015, Russia
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Aim: The aim of the study was to study the peculiarities of manifestations of preclinical forms of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, and to assess the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease occurrence in the adult population in the city of Gubkin, Belgorod region, Russia. Methods: Analysis of the functional state of the thyroid gland in 120 women of 3 age groups (I – 30–50 years, II – 51–60 years, and III – 61 and older) and 20 men Kursk Magnetic Anomaly. Biochemical laboratory methods of diagnostics were used in the work. The concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was determined by the method of solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The integral thyroid index (ITI) was calculated as the ratio of the sum of free thyroid hormones (FT) to TSH. Enzymatic photometric test “CHOD-PAP” was used to estimate the concentration of free cholesterol (FCh) in blood serum and the composition of separate classes of lipoproteins – low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The data obtained in the work were statistically processed on an IBM PC computer using Microsoft Excel 2000 and Statistica 6.0 software packages. Result and discussion: In the preclinical form of hyperthyroidism, the concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was lower than the norm in men – 3.6 times, in women 30–50 years – 3.1 times and in 60–83 years – 3.3 times; the concentration of Free thyroxine (FT4) in men is higher than the norm by 74%, in women aged 30–80 years exceeds the norm from 43% to 57%; the concentration of free triiodothyronine (FT3) is higher than the norm in men by 60%, in women 30–50 years by 90%, and in 60–83 years – 2.2 times. The concentration of TSH on the background of hypothyroidism is higher than normal in men by 4.4 times, in women 30–50 years old by 3 times, 51–60 years old by 4.6 times, from 61 years and older by 3.5 times; in women of all groups, the concentration of FT4 was lower than normal by 50%; in men, the concentration of FT3 is reduced by 12%. In all groups of women and men, the levels of total creatine kinase, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, and glycemia were consistent with the norms. According to the values of catalase, the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease against the background of preclinical hypothyroidism was 37.5% and 62.5%, respectively, in men, in 30–50-year-old women – 36.8% and 10.5%, in women over 50 years – 18.7% and 31.2%; the risk of atherosclerosis against the background of preclinical hyperthyroidism – in 14.3% of women aged 30–50 years. Conclusion: The preclinical forms of hyper- and hypo-thyroidism in men and women of all groups were revealed according to the criteria of TSH and FT concentration and ITI values. Preclinical form of hyperthyroidism against hypothyroidism in men and women is higher. Hyperthyroidism is characterized by a decrease of TSH concentration in serum against the lower limit of the norm in women and an increase in the average concentration of TSH against the norm in men. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and glycemia were consistent with thenormative values in all the examined patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004106
Title: Clinico-functional changes of myocardium after percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with chronic heart failure
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Belgorod State National Research University, 85 Pobeda St., Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of clinico-functional changes in the LV myocardium after stenting of the coronary arteries in patients during the year and to analyze and evaluate the effect of CHF on the effectiveness of PCIs in patients with coronary heart disease as well as on the safety of surgical intervention. Method: The article shows the results of clinical and functional changes in the myocardium in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of clinical and functional changes in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium in patients with CHF after transluminal balloon angioplasty (TLBAP) of the coronary arteries with stenting of the coronary arteries during the observed period and to study the safety of surgical intervention in these patients. Result and Discussion: During the year, 96 patients with chronic heart disease were observed in the age range from 40 to 70 years who had CHF I, IIA, and IIB stages, from I to III functional class (FC). All patients with clinical indications and coronary angiography data were routinely performed TLBAP with stenting of a symptom-dependent coronary artery with appropriate medication. Conclusion : The study showed a statistically significant decrease in the FC of CHF after PCI, followed by an improvement in the diastolic function (E/A) of the LV in the course of the observed period.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004107
Title: The antimicrobial effect of some disinfectants to reduce the contamination of toothbrushes
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq
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Background: Tooth caries is parts of teeth that have rotting that can develop into small or large holes gradually. Caries, also called tooth decay, is the result of several causes and factors combined, including unclean teeth, lack of care for cleaning teeth, eating sweets, sugar, and sugary drinks. The bacteria may go up to 1.8 m in the air and pollution toothbrushes in the bathroom and lead to the accumulation and stability of bacteria above toothbrushes and when used toothbrushes the bacteria transmitted directly to the mouth. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 samples were collected from patients (50 from patients with teeth decay and 50 from patients with gingivitis) using clean and sterile swaps, then choice 24 volunteers were selected from patients who suffered from teeth decay and gingivitis, and 48 new toothbrushes were purchased from local markets. Ten volunteers were put the toothbrushes, one outside the bathroom and another inside the bathroom for 10 days and 12 volunteers divided into four groups were put the one toothbrush in and another without disinfectants for 2 weeks. Results: The results showed that the number of positive samples isolated from tooth decay was 32 from 50samples, while the number of positive samples isolated from gingivitis was 27 from 50 samples. The results display that, the crest toothpaste the most effective toothpaste compared with other types used by patients with tooth decay. The result showed the percentage of positive samples isolated from the patient used electric toothbrushes suffered from teeth decays was 25% less than the percentage of positive samples isolated from the patient used manual toothbrushes was 58.8%. When compared the colony forming unit between the brush placed outside and inside the bathroom found that the number of colony forming unit for all the toothbrush placed outside the bath was much lower than that placed inside. Conclusion: The current study concludes that it is better to keep the toothbrush in a dry place away from the bathroom to avoid contamination of microorganisms and also clarified the possibility of using some sterile materials to reduce the contamination of toothbrush and thus reduces the diseases of tooth decay and gingivitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004108
Title: Neural network classifier of hemodynamic brain activation patterns within a functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based brain-computer interface for a bionic prosthetic hand
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Information Management, Belgorod National Research University, 85 Pobeda St, Belgorod 308015, Russia
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Introduction: In the modern world, bionic limb prostheses based on brain-computer interfaces (BCI) can be considered a potential aid to improve the quality of disabled people’s life. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based BCI is a system that acquires and decodes hemodynamic activity of the brain in real-time while performing various motor actions. This NeuroData can be interpreted as a multidimensional time series. Objective: The aim of the present study is to develop a classifier of the hand motor activity patterns obtained by a limited duration multidimensional time series with the help of deep neural networks method. Results: The brain signals’ analysis revealed (a) a 4–6 s delay in the registration of hemodynamic responses, and (b) signal starts to increase and decrease along a parabolic trajectory. The method for time-delay compensation developed in the study was implemented by taking into account the time when the formation of any motor action pattern begins. An analysis of the most applied deep neural networks architectures for the classification of time series was carried out. Original sets of marked data for multidimensional time dependencies of brain hemodynamic activity on hand movements were formulated. Furthermore, a neural network classifier of motor patterns based on the long short-term memory type recurrent neural network architecture was developed. Conclusion: The present study states such future perspectives as the removal of the noise class to improve the accuracy of tools developed for the classification of motor action patterns. One of the feasible approaches that can preserve signal processing in a real-time mode suggests that an additional channel responsible for detecting the fact of motor action execution has to be taken into consideration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004110
Title: A comparative study of sex determination using maxillary intercanine and intermolar width among South Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze whether maxillary intercanine width or intermolar width serves as an aid for sex determination among South Indian given population. Background: Teeth are the most durable part of our skeleton. They are more resistant to adverse conditions occurring in nature such as purification, mutilation, fire, and prolonged immersion in water. Odontometric measurements of the maxillary teeth (maxillary intercanine and intermolar width) can be helpful in sex determination. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 85 subjects 17–21 years of age. Impression of their maxillary arch was taken using alginate and casts were poured using dental stone. The intercanine and intermolar widths were found out using Vernier caliper and tabulated. Result: Maxillary intercanine width (P = 0.00) and maxillary intermolar width (P = 0.001) exhibiting statistically significant difference between males and females. Maximum sexual dimorphism was shown by maxillary intercanine width (16.94%), while the sexual dimorphism for intermolar width was calculated as 5.92%. The maximum correlation was exhibited by intercanine width. The maximum value for predictability was shown by maxillary intercanine width (21.2%), and the value of predictability shown by maxillary intermolar width was 12.2%. Conclusion: Maxillary intercanine arch width exhibited significant sexual dimorphism.