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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004190
Title: Morphometric study of petrosquamous part of the temporal bone with reference to stylomastoid foramen
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The petrous part is the medial part of the temporal bone. It is pyramidal in shape and forms a hard enclosure to protect the internal soft structures of the acoustic meatus and vestibular apparatus. There are numerous openings in the inferior surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone such as the carotid canal and the jugular foramen. The styloid process is a needle-like projection from the inferior aspect of the petrous part of the temporal bone and runs downward. The aim of the study is to analyze the morphometric parameters of petrosquamous part of the temporal bone with reference to stylomastoid foramen in dry human temporal bones. Materials and Methods: The study would carry out on 40 temporal bone from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for assessment. With the help of Vernier caliper and ruler, the measurements such as the length, breadth, and diameter of temporal bone were measured. The maximum breadth is measured of the temporal bone. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: The mean of tip of the mastoid process (TMP) to center of stylomastoid foramen (CSMF) of the right temporal bone was 14.53 mm. TMP to CSMF of the left temporal bone was 13.96 mm. The mean of upper end of the anterior border of the mastoid process (UAMP) to CSMF of the right temporal bone was 9.71 mm and UAMP to CSMF of the left temporal bone is 9.48 mm. The mean of CSMF to CJF of the right temporal bone was 11.82 mm and for the left temporal bone was 11.35 mm. Conclusion: The surgical anatomy of elongated styloid process and stylomastoid foramen is important for the neurosurgeons and radiologist while interpreting the computed tomogram scans and magnetic resonance images. This morphometric data of the stylomastoid foramen are important to the physicians.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004191
Title: Correlation between intercanthal distance and combined mesiodistal width of maxillary anterior teeth
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The main aim of the study is to correlate the distance between inner intercanthal distance and mesiodistal width of maxillary anterior teeth. The mesiodistal breadth of the anterior teeth to delineate a quantitative relation between the size of teeth and face may be used as a guide in crucial dental plate teeth. Materials and Methods: This study was done among the 50 subjects of the age group between 20 and 30 years of both sexes. The intercanthal distance was measured and related with mesiodistal width of maxillary anterior teeth. The measurement was done using Vernier caliper and the data were analyzed systematically. Results: The average intercanthal distance was found to be 29 cm, the right and left mesiodistal width was 8 cm in both sides and combined mesiodistal width was 16 cm. All the obtained values are expressed as mean ± SD and represented graphically in bar diagram. Conclusion: The data obtained show that the intercanthal distance was in correlation with the maxillary anterior teeth. As a conclusion, the values are in association with each other, but even more parameters can be applied for complete accuracy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004192
Title: Effectiveness of oral hygiene instruction given to patients by different communication methods
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Periodontal diseases are a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth. In its early stage, called gingivitis, the gingiva becomes swollen, red, and may bleed. In its more serious form, called periodontitis, the gingiva can pull away or recess from the tooth, bone can be degraded, and the teeth may become mobile. Maintaining an effective plaque control method is important for the prevention and control of periodontal diseases. Toothbrushing is the most widespread means of controlling plaque at home. The plaque reduction skill was attributed based on individual efficiency and ability to maintain a good oral hygiene practice. The success of oral hygiene depends on the attitude and awareness of the person toward oral hygiene. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the importance of different communication methods for oral hygiene instruction among gingivitis patient before and after non-surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was done by providing oral hygiene instructions to 150 patients from the Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College using different formats of communication; individual communication to 50 patients, group communication using pamphlets to 50 patients, and using digital media for communication to 50 patients. The minimal requirements for the selection of patients were as follows: To be having more than 25 teeth, between the age group of 18 and 30, mild-to-moderate gingivitis and non-surgical treatment were to be performed during the research. These patients were then recalled and checked for their oral hygiene after 4 weeks. The oral hygiene status was checked using patient hygiene performance (PHP) index before and after 4 weeks of delivering oral hygiene instructions. Conclusion: The patient hygiene index of patient before and after 4 weeks post oral hygiene instructions show a significant difference in individual communication group and digital communication groups, and intergroup comparison shows the least significance between digital communication and individual communication. Individual and digital-based communications were found to be more effective when compared to group discussion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004193
Title: Evaluation of extent of aerosols around dental chair during dental treatments
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent of aerosols around dental chair and to take preventive and control measures to reduce the risk in dental clinics. Introduction: Aerosols are the solid of liquid particles which cause environmental contamination in dental clinic. They have the potential to spread diseases to doctors and patients due to cross-contamination. Dental waterlines and dental equipment have the potential to produce aerosols. They are generated using high-speed handpieces, ultrasonic scalers, etc. Aerosols mostly cause respiratory diseases and oral infection among patients in and around dental clinic. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 samples were collected from Saveetha Dental College. Brain heart infusion plates are kept at three different positions (1 foot away, 2 feet away, and 1 foot height) for 30 min from the dental chair. It is then incubated at 37°C/overnight aerobically and CFU was calculated. Results: The aerosol dissemination is seen clearly in all the plates and the colonies were counted. The maximum contamination was seen in 2 feet away followed by 1 foot away and 1 foot height, and the average of CFU is found to be 171.5, 144.2, and 131.9, respectively. The maximum aerosols are found to be ejected to the extent of two feet. The result shows the least contamination at one foot above from the dental chair. Conclusion: Aerosols can be reduced by following evidence based protective techniques. Protective measures are not only for the dentist’s wellness but also for the patients in dental chair. The main criteria includes usage of personal protective equipments like gloves, head cap, face mask which adapt to contours, eye wear, rubber dam wherever and whenever possible.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004194
Title: Assessment of the nutritional status among the students of Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study sought to identify among adolescents about their nutritional status and the factors associated with characteristics such as sleep, stress, diet, and problem with weight. Background: Adolescents are commonly regarded as a healthy period in life aged between 10 and 19. Inactivity, in particular, television viewing, has been associated with obesity in cross-sectional studies of children, adolescents, and adults. Lack of accurate information, absence of proper guidance, parent’s ignorance, lack of skills, and insufficient services from health-care delivery system are the major barriers. Reason: This study is to identify the factors associated among adolescents. Results: The results of this study are in agreement with others reporting the intake of unhealthy food habits among college students, especially with regard to the low consumption of fruit and vegetables,milk and dairy products, fish,eggs, pulses, and the excessive consumption of meat, sausages, and sweets. Human nutrition refers to the provision of essential nutrients to support life and health. Students should maintain their time management to remain fit.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004195
Title: Knowledge, prevalence, and awareness of postural effects due to heavy backpacks in college students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Backpack is one of several forms of manual load carriage that is often used by school students, college students, adolescents and adults. The health effect of carrying a heavy backpack is evident and is an increasing concern for students across the globe. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, awareness and prevalence of the postural stability changes due to heavy backpacks among college students. Materials and Methods: A survey was carried out to study the combined effects of position of the load on the body, size and shape of the load and time spent carrying the backpack. A total of 15 close ended questions were included. Results: It was found that 63.8% of the students feel that their backpack causes discomfort and 83.2% of the students complain of musculoskeletal-pain due to their heavy bags. Conclusion: There is a need to increase the awareness among students, parents, health care professionals to restrict the backpack load to less than 5% of their body weight.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004196
Title: Knowledge and behavior of undergraduate students in a dental school regarding toothbrush disinfection
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and behavior of dentists regarding toothbrush disinfection. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and behavior of dentists regarding toothbrush disinfection. Materials and Methods: This study included 98 dentists who were actively employed at Saveetha Dental College, India. Participants were asked to fill out a standard questionnaire, which contained questions regarding their demographics, brushing habits, toothbrush storage and disinfection habits, toothpaste use, and knowledge of toothbrush disinfection, and whether they advised their patients about toothbrush storage. Statistics was done and results are tabulated. Results: Among the 105 surveyed dentists, 50% and 53% reported that they did not have any knowledge of toothbrush disinfection and did not disinfect their toothbrushes, respectively. However, approximately two-thirds of surveyed dentists thought that toothbrush disinfection should be performed by everyone. Significant associations were found between how they stored their toothbrushes and whether their toothbrushes were in contact with each other during storage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004197
Title: Use of stimulated day 5 estradiol levels in a treatment cycle for the prediction of ovarian response in in vitro fertilization
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Branch of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq
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Background: The use of serum estradiol (E2) levels obtaining shortly after the initiation of gonadotropin stimulation could revolve an early marker of ovarian responsiveness and might in case of predicting a high ovarian response assist in deciding whether to cancel the cycle or to adapt the stimulation dose by changing the amount of gonadotropin. Patients and Methods: One hundred and nine infertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycle will be included. The inclusion criteria are as follows: Body mass index 19–30, normal menstrual cycle, presence of two ovaries, no previous ovarian surgery, and a normal day 2 follicle-stimulating hormone. The exclusion criteria are as follows: Polycystic ovary syndrome, severe male factor, endocrine abnormalities, and female age >43 years. All are treated by short protocol. Serum E2 levels determine after 4 days of stimulation (day 5). Outcome measures in number of follicles, number of oocytes retrieved, duration of stimulation and pregnancy outcome, and also number of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and canceled patients. Results: There is a relationship between D5E2 and the ovarian response. The ovarian response threshold selected, i.e., poor responders (canceled and <4 oocytes 18% of the study population) and adequate responders (all have four oocytes and more) including those with OHSS because most of them were mild form, and we have no severe OHSS. According to receiver operating characteristic analysis, the cutoff value of day 5E2 which can predict normal ovarian response was found to be >84 pg/ml (rounded up to 100). With respect to the cutoff value of day 5 E2, all studied women categorized into two groups, Group 1 includes patients with low day 5 E2 ≤100 pg/ml (n = 19) and Group 2 includes patients with high day 5 E2 >100 pg/ml (n = 90). There was a significant relationship between the cutoff value of E2 and number of follicles, number of oocytes, number of metaphase II oocytes, number of embryos, and number of good embryos. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the hormone E2 level can be used as good predictive value in ovarian response in the IVF.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004198
Title: The effect of all-trans-retinoic acid against expression Bcl2 and Bax of Choriocarcinoma BeWo (ATCC CCL-98) cell line culture
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Oncology Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Dr. Saiful Anwar Malang General Hospital, Jalan Jaksa Agung Suprapto No. 2, Malang
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Aim: Retinoic acid, which is the active ingredient of retinol and vitamin A, has a stimulating activity termination trigger the cell cycle and apoptosis. The mechanism of apoptosis is important role in cancer treatment. This study aims to determine the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line (ATCC CCL-98). Materials and Methods: This study used BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line (ATCC CCL-98) cultures which derived from choriocarcinoma and was exposed to ATRA. This study is divided into six experimental treatment groups ATRA with various dose of 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml, 200 µg/ml, 400 µg/ml, and 800 µg/ml. Results: The results obtained that there was a significant deterioration and increasing of the Bcl-2 expression and Bax expression due to ATRA administration treatment. The Bcl-2 expression was significantly decreased from the dose of 200 µg/ml (P = 0.020), 400 µg/ml (P = 0.013), and 800 µg/ml (P = 0.020), with decreased expression happened the lowest dose group of 400 µg/ml. Increased expression of Bax was significantly obtained by ATRA-exposed groups at 200 µg/ml (P = 0.005), 400 µg/ml (P = 0.000), and 800 µg/ml (P = 0.000), with highest expression of Bax at a dose of 400 µg/ml. Conclusion: This indicates that administration of ATRA decreased the expression of Bcl-2, the lowest is in the dose of 200–800 µg/ml, and increased the expression of Bax in BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line, the highest is in 400 µg/ml.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00004199
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of Moringa oleifera seeds
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: There is an urgent need to substantiate scientifically the roles of contemporary and native medicinal practices. This exercise will open up a new class of drugs which could be cheap, easily affordable, and with less or no side effects. Moringa oleifera or drumstick is known to a wonder herbal plant and most of its parts are used to cure various ailments. The present study deals with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of M. oleifera seeds and to understand the molecules present therein. Methods: GC–MS was performed on the water extract of the dried seeds of the plant by standard procedures. Results: Some important biomolecules such as 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, p-cresol, l-Norvaline, N-ethoxycarbonyl-, nonyl ester, Pentanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, ethyl ester, 1H-1,2,4-Triazole-1-carboxamide, 5-acetylamino- 3-amino-, Ethyl 2-hydroxybenzyl sulfone, beta-l-Arabinopyranoside, methyl, tetradecanoic acid, 10,13-dimethyl-, methyl ester, cyclohexane, 1-isopropyl-1-methyl-, decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-Methylthiolane, S,S-dioxide, 4-Methyl-2,4- bis(4’-trimethylsilyloxyphenyl)pentene-, 2,4(1H,3H)-Pyrimidinedione, 6-iodo-5-methyl-, 2-Fluoro-6-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid, and 4-nitrophenyl ester have medicinal roles comparable with the various medicinal activities of Moringa seed water extract. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Moringa seed is a potential candidate for drug designing for many diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004200
Title: The potential of Actinomycetes from rhizosphere Eucalyptus deglupta Blume in Lore Lindu National Park, Indonesia as an antibacterial producer
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia
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Background: Actinomycetes have high commercial value as producers of important bioactive compounds. Many of these are antibacterial compounds, excreted in the form of secondary metabolites. Objective: This research aimed to assay the ability of Actinomycetes present in the rhizosphere of Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. to inhibit the growth of human pathogenic bacteria and to identify the Actinomycetes present. Materials and Methods: This research consisted of the isolation and screening of Actinomycetes with selective starch casein agar media and performing bioassays using Actinomycetes metabolites against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), and Vibrio cholerae. The potential isolates of Actinomycetes were identified based on 16S rDNA sequence homology. Results: In total, 15 isolates were identified that produced antibacterial compounds against human pathogenic bacteria. Actinomycetes isolate L213 had the highest potency to inhibit the growth of S. aureus, MRSA, V. cholerae, and EPEC with inhibition zone diameters of 18.94 ± 0.34 mm, 19.90 ± 1.40 mm, 21.10 ± 0.26 mm, and 22.24 ± 0.24 mm, respectively. Isolate L213 had 99% 16S rDNA sequence similarity with Streptomyces aurantiacus LMG 19358. This isolate can be further developed as a candidate antibiotic-producing Actinomycetes. Conclusion: Actinomycetes that live in the rhizosphere area of E. deglupta Blume. have the potential to produce antibacterial compounds for human medicine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004201
Title: Estimation of sex from inion-opisthocranion-asterion triangle in dry human skulls – A craniometric study in South Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. The usefulness of sexual dimorphism with the help of human skeletal remains and its significance in forensic medicolegal analysis has been recognized long back. In that background, the most considered bone is the skull. Several landmarks in the skull are used as coordinates to form anatomical triangles which will have specific structural significance. One among them is the inion-opisthocranion-asterion triangle (IOA triangle). Materials and Methods: A total of 70 dry human skull bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality were used for evaluation. With the help of Vernier caliper and ruler, the measurements of length such as the length from inion to opisthocranion (a), opisthocranion to asterion (b), and asterion to inion (c) were measured. With the obtained values, the IOA index was calculated. Results: The mean value of IOA index of the right side in males was found to be 53.05 and for females, it was 41.28. The mean value of IOA index for the right side in males was 53.98 and for females, it was 42.11. The parameter in males was remarkably higher than in females. Conclusion: In summary, it can be stated that in the absence of similar reports, the present study proposes an easier way to estimate sex from skulls of unknown adult individuals using craniometric characteristics on occipital bone with high reliability.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004202
Title: Knowledge and awareness of the risk factor of peptic ulcer among college students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) develops when the protective mechanisms of the gastrointestinal mucosa, such as mucus and bicarbonate secretion, are overwhelmed by the damaging effects of gastric acid and pepsin resulting in the damage of lining epithelium and mucosal layer. Peptic ulcers occur mainly in the stomach referred to as gastric ulcer or in duodenum as proximal duodenal ulcer. There are several causes of PUD. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire- based survey was carried out through online containing 15 questions and was sent to 100 students on awareness on the risk factors of peptic ulcer. An online survey was conducted using online survey software and the data were collected and completely analyzed for statistical difference. Results: The results turned out to be positive the response was good and awareness was created among patients who took the survey. Around 50% of the college students are aware of the risk factors of peptic ulcer and related effects. Conclusions: Many students were aware of the cause and symptoms of peptic ulcer but still further awareness must be spread, to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Peptic ulcer could be aggravated by certain foods and also everyone must be hygienic to prevent several diseases from all other pathological effects and complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004203
Title: Prevalence, knowledge, and awareness of restless legs syndrome among adolescent and young adult population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Restless legs syndrome refers to a common neurological sensorimotor disorder which is most commonly prevalent among older people and females. The main cause of the syndrome is due to iron deficiency, pregnancy, and uremia. It causes an irresistible urge to move the legs that are mostly seen during the night-time. Materials and Methods: A cross- sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among the adolescent and young adult population of Saveetha Dental College to assess the knowledge, attitude, and awareness of restless legs syndrome. A simple random sample was drawn to reach the required sample size of 100. The response was estimated by personally collecting the completely filled questionnaire from the 100 samples. Results: Of the 100 samples taken for the survey, only about 50% of the individuals were aware of the syndrome, and it was estimated that the syndrome was more prevalent among the young adult population. Conclusion: It was found that this syndrome lasted more among the adult population than the younger age group as proven by the previous studie.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004204
Title: Sexual dimorphism of human occipital bone by craniometric analysis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Human skull is shown to exhibit varied sexually pleomorphism traits. The determination of sex from human skeletal remains is of basic importance in both medicolegal and bioarchaeological investigations. Estimation of sex could be a difficult task, particularly, once a region of bone is brought for investigation. This research was planned to judge the sexing potential of human occipital bone in forensic identification by craniometric analysis. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 30 dry human occipital bones of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality will be collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. With the help of Vernier caliper, the diameter of occipital condyle (OC) was measured. Using a protractor, the measurements such as the superior angle, inferior angle, and right and left lateral angles were measured. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: The diameter of the right and left OC in male was 1.63 cm and 1.74 cm, respectively. The diameter of the right and left OC in female was 1.48 cm and 1.52 cm, respectively. In male, the superior angle was 78.6, inferior angle was 47.5, right lateral angle was 45.3, and left lateral angle was 46.7. In female, the superior, inferior, right lateral, and left lateral angle were 79.3, 48.1, 47.4, and 48.2, respectively. Conclusion: Human occipital bone exhibits a varied dimension in male and female. Thus, it can be used in forensics to distinguish the sex of an individual. Human occipital bone can be used to determine sexual dimorphism.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004205
Title: Sex determination using geometric dimensions of greater sciatic notch and subpubic angle of human pelvic bone: A morphometric study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Identification of sex of an unknown individual from the skeletal remains is the first and the most important step encountered by forensic experts and archeologists, and the hip bone is considered an ideal bone for sex determination as it provides the highest accuracy levels. The greater sciatic notch is a notch in the ilium, one of the bones that make up the human pelvis. It lies between the posteroinferior iliac spine and the ischial spine. It is very important in sex determination as the greater sciatic notch is wider in women than in men. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 40 dry human pelvic bones of known sex (20 males and 20 females) and without any gross abnormality were collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, for evaluation. The length and depth of the greater sciatic notch were measured by using a sliding vernier caliper. The subpubic angle was also measured using a protractor. All the data obtained were tabulated, analyzed, and represented graphically. Results: The average value of the length and depth of the greater sciatic notch was 4.83 for the right side and 3.71 for the left side of the pelvis. The average value of subpubic angle in male pelvis was found to be 81.5 and in female, it was 90.5. Conclusion: Sex determination of an anonymous individual is one of the main objectives when human skeletal remains are found, both in forensic investigation and archaeological studies. This research helps provide more understanding of the notch.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004206
Title: Morphometric analysis of orbital cavity with reference to lacrimal crest as bony landmark in dry human skulls
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The human orbit is a complex anatomic region, which plays a predominant role in the evaluation of craniofacial complex. The bony orbit which lodges the visual apparatus is important not only for anatomists but also for ophthalmologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and forensic experts. The objectives of the present study are to provide the normal reference orbital parameters for the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 40 dry human skull bones (20 male and 20 female) and without any gross abnormality were collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for evaluation. The distances from lacrimal crest (LC) to frontozygomatic suture, LC to maxillozygomatic suture, and LC to infraorbital groove are measured. All the data obtained were tabulated and analyzed. Results: When the mean values were compared, the orbital indices were found to be higher in the right side than the left side. When the mean of various orbital indices was compared between the right and left orbits, statistically there was no significant difference observed. Conclusion: This investigation gives valuable benchmark orbital morphometric information of South Indian population, which are essential among plastic medical procedure, maxillofacial and neurosurgeries, and furthermore, in the structure of eye defensive gear.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004207
Title: Morphometric analysis of acetabulum and pubis of pelvic bone using acetabulopubic index
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Identification of sex of an unknown individual from the skeletal remains is the first and the most important step encountered by the forensic experts and archaeologists and the hip bone is considered as an ideal bone for sex determination as it provides the highest accuracy levels. Pelvis is the most reliable bone used in sexual dimorphism. It has been shown that sexual dimorphism of hip bone varies in different population. The objective of the present study is to analyze the morphometric sex difference in the innominate bone using acetabulum-pubis index. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 dry human disarticulated pelvic bones (10 right sided and 10 left sided) were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and Madras Medical College, Chennai. Using Vernier caliper, the distance from the anterior and posterior ridge to the ischial tuberosity (IT) and from midpoint to the IT was analyzed. The results obtained were analyzed, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: The average value from the anterior ridge, posterior ridge, and midpoint to IT was found to be 56.8 mm, 63.68 mm, and 64.56 mm on the right side and 53.27 mm, 62.195 mm, and 63.84 mm on the left side, respectively. Conclusion: This study is helpful for analyzing archaeological skeleton because only one hip bone is required, unlike some other methods in which both the sides of the pelvic bones are required.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004208
Title: Size, shape, and prominence of vascular foramina in dry calcaneal bone and its clinical implications
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Among the tarsal bone of hindfoot, calcaneus is the largest one and hence the name calcaneum. Calcaneus, the tarsal bone, is roughly box-shaped bone. Calcaneus sit below the talus, in its anterior aspect, it is inclined cranially. Posteriorly, the bone projects, so it forms the core of the heel. Clinically, the calcaneus articulates with the talus superiorly and anteriorly it articulates with the cuboid and the talonavicular joint shares the joint space with it, hence, the name talocalcaneonavicular joint. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using 20 calcaneal bones (10 right and 10 left) collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. The bones were macroscopically studied for vascular foramina with respect to its location, number, size, and shape using Vernier caliper. The data collected were categorized, tabulated, and statistically analyzed. Results: The experiment was done from the 20 calcaneal bone (10 right and 10 left) collected from the department of anatomy; it is observed that based on size among 100%. About 31% were found as large foramina and 23% were medium in size and 26% small in size. Based on the shape, it is observed that 46% foramina were round in shape, 39% were oval in shape, and 15% were double in shape. Conclusion: Vascular foramina were observed that on the posterior, anterior, inferior, superior, lateral, and medial surfaces of the calcaneus. It had been observed that the maximum number of the vascular foramina is present in the lateral and medial surface of the calcaneal bone and the anterior, superior surface. The minimum number of vascular foramina is seen in the posterior surface of both the sides.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004209
Title: A study on the effect of hyaluronic acid on tissue repair proteins
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) on tissue repair proteins. Different concentrations of HA was added L929 cell lines under controlled experimental conditions, and the determination of absorbance was done to assess the wound healing property. The results exhibited a concentration-dependent increase in tissue repair proteins by increasing concentrations of HA. Materials and Methods: Transforming growth factor-α and fibroblast growth factor assay were performed on fibroblast cell lines. Results: The results of this study showed that the addition of HA at different concentrations exhibited an increase in tissue repair proteins with increasing concentrations and aids in wound repairing activity. Conclusion: Hyaluronic acid as a biologically active molecule helps in the regulation tissue repair process.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004210
Title: Drug delivery of neurotransmitters by nanodrugs synthesized from mangiferin
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Cost-effectiveness and synthesis of metallic nanoparticles are a fast-growing research in nanotechnology. Mangiferin is a famous biologically active phenolic compound that is present in large amounts in the leaf of Mangifera indica. Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the evaluation of neuroprotective potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from mangiferin. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect, SHSY5Y cells were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin AgNPs (2.5–20 µg/ml) for 4 h and then incubated with 1-methyl-4- phenylpyridinium (MPP+ ) for 2 h. The effective dose of AgNPs was used to identify potential neuroprotective effects against MPP+ toxicity by acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Results: Mangiferin AgNPs showed a significant increase in the acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 µg/ml), and the inhibitory activity was found to be 24.5%, 44.6%, 52.1%, and 70.8%, respectively. IC50 value of the nanodrugs was found to be 9.59 (µg/ml). Conclusion: This present clearly shows that mangiferin AgNPs have potential neuroprotective efficacy, and hence, it can be used as one of the therapeutic neuroprotective drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004211
Title: Biological application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles prepared through laser ablation in liquid
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Engineering, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
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Background: Nanotechnology offers an interesting opportunity for investigating the potential biological activity of nanoparticles (NPs). Due to their small size, titanium dioxide NPs (TiO2 NPs) have the advantage to approach biomaterial materials such as cells and body fluids. Materials and Methods: TiO2 NPs prepared by laser ablation in liquid method, then characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet visible, and Fourier transform infrared approaches and investigated for their potential antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria such as Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Results: The antioxidant activity and the cytotoxic effects on blood human were measured. Spherical-shaped NPs were identified by SEM. Both S. aureus and E. coli exhibited higher sensitivity to the TiO2 NPs growth inhibition effect by a zone of inhibition reached to 20, 12.6 mm as compared with P. aeruginosa by the zone of inhibition that reached to 9.67 mm at the concentration of 800 µg/ml of TiO2 NPs. Conclusion: TiO2 NPs have strong antibacterial activity against Gram positive than the Gram-negative bacteria; furthermore, the high antioxidant activity of TiO2 NPs along with their negligible adverse effects on the components of red blood cells suggests that these particles could be further instigated as a promising candidate for introducing a new class of antibacterial agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004212
Title: Immunological marker of human papillomavirus type 6 infection in epithelial ovarian tumor before and after paclitaxel drug treatment in Al-Najaf Governorate, Iraq
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al Diwaniyah, Iraq
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Background: Ovarian cancer is the most common type of female cancer. The etiology of ovarian cancer is still unclear. Infection with different microbes may induce carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation caused by infection may play a role in carcinogenesis, progression, and metastasis. Materials and Methods: A total of21 patients with different types of malignant epithelial tumor included in this study. Serum samples from patients were collected from patients diagnosed as epithelial ovarian tumor. All the patients had provided their medical history and had undergone clinical and ultrasound examination. The average age of this group was 45.8 years and the range was 10–80 years. The blood sample was dispensed in a plain tube and left for 20 min at room temperature (20–25°C) for clotting. Then, it was centrifuged to collect serum. The serum was divided into aliquots (0.3 ml) and stored in the freezer (−20°C) until use for the measurement of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Results: The study showed that ovarian cancer usually occurred in patients aged more than 50 years 15 (71%) ovarian cancer patients lived in urban areas 12 (57%), while in rural areas 9 (42%). High percentage of patient with ovarian cancer were in stage III. Six cases of 9 (Stage III) malignant surface epithelial tumors were human papillomavirus (HPV) positive which is statistically significant. A total of ovarian carcinomas were categorized as TNF-α negative 5.7 ± 1.6 and 28.3 ± 3.1 as TNF-α positive. Both parameters showed significant differences. Conclusion: This study may raise the suspicion of possible role of HPV6 in pathogenesis of ovarian tumors and the benefit of immunological markers in progression of the disease which need further works to prove this role.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004213
Title: Comparative characteristic of the upper jaws structure with normal cutting of the wisdom teeth, retention, and absence of their germs
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: National Medical Research University, Belgorod State University, 308000, Belgorod, Pobeda St., 85, Russia
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The article presents information about the structural features of the upper jaw of an adult with the normal eruption of third molars, retention, and the absence of the rudiments of these teeth. It has been established that during the retention of the upper third molars and their absence, significant changes in the morphometric characteristics of the alveolar process of maxilla, the bone palate, as well as the shape of its alveolar arch and tuber are occurred. In terms of their morphometric parameters, the upper jaw with bilateral retention is as close as possible to the upper jaw with missing rudiments of wisdom teeth and the upper jaw with one-sided retention to the upper jaw with fully erupted third molars. According to its morphometric parameters, the upper jaw with bilateral retention is as close as possible to the upper jaw with missing rudiments of wisdom teeth and the upper jaw with unilateral retention – to the upper jaw with fully erupted third molars. Difficult eruption of the upper third molars is accompanied by changes in the angular parameters of the upper jaw and features of the horizontal and vertical facial profiling.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004214
Title: Cytomorphometric indicators of the gingiva epitheliocytes of patients with ischemic heart disease on the background of taking acetylsalicylic acid
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Therapeutic Dentistry, National Medical Research University, Belgorod State University, 308000, Belgorod, Pobeda Street, 85, Russia
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Aim: The aim is to study the cytological and morphometric characteristics of gingiva epitheliocytes in patients with IHD who are constantly taking ASA drugs. Materials and Methods: To determine the dental status, 92 patients aged 40–60 years who are on outpatient treatment of IHD were examined. All examined patients had received standard therapy for 1–3 years. Result and Discussion: For the purpose of conducting cytomorphometric studies, 56 patients were selected, who constituted the main group. For the purpose of conducting cytomorphometric studies, 56 patients who constituted the main group were selected. The control group included 20 somatically healthy individuals, representative by sex and age. Exclusion criteria from the study were the presence of acute inflammatory processes in the oral cavity, other concomitant somatic pathologies (endocrine diseases and pathology of the gastrointestinal tract), women in the post-menopausal period, as well as patients with tobacco addiction. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of periodontal disease in patients with cardiovascular disorders, an in-depth scientific study was conducted and the results of cytomorphometric indicators of the gingiva epitheliocytes of patients with ischemic heart disease, constantly taking acetylsalicylic acid drugs, were presented. The data presented by the authors of the study indicate reliable differences in these indicators in patients of the main group in comparison with the group of somatically healthy patients. The results of the study may be the basis for further in-depth study for early diagnosis of periodontal disease in this category of patients. The results of the study can be the basis for further in-depth study for the purpose of early diagnosis of periodontal disease in this category of patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004215
Title: Experimental comparison of osseointegration of titanium Grade 4 and hyperelastic titanium alloy Ti-22Nb-6Zr
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Prosthetic Dentistry, Belgorod State University, 308000, Belgorod, Pobeda Street, 85, Russia
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According to biomechanical studies, a superelastic titanium-nickel alloy of titanium is more favorable as dental implants in comparison with titanium because of its physical and mechanical properties closer to bone tissue. However, the presence of nickel in titanium-nickel inhibits its use as a material for dental implants. NUST MISIS has developed a superelastic nickel- free titanium-niobium-zirconium alloy. Morphological studies on animals of osseointegration of this alloy in comparison with Grade 5 titanium were carried out. Control of interaction with bone tissue samples of titanium alloys was 30 and 90 days; the method of study – scanning electron microscopy and microprobe elemental analysis of tissue on the border with titanium alloys. The proximity of the morphological picture and the elemental composition of bone tissue along the border with titanium and titanium-niobium-zirconium both at the control period of 30 days (in contact with the alloys, a low-mineralized connective tissue was found) and at the control of 90 days (the border with titanium alloys is covered with mineralized bone tissue similar in composition to the surrounding bone tissue).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004216
Title: Anatomical and physiological basis of the reduced occlusion syndrome
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Prosthetic Dentistry, Belgorod State University, 308000, Belgorod, Pobeda Street, 85, Russia
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Aim: Decrease in the interalveolar distance (IAD) that develops during a period of permanent occlusion as a result of progressive primary dental diseases: Increased abrasion of hard tissues of the teeth, extensive edentulous space, and generalized form of periodontitis is accompanied by morphofunctional changes in the masticatory muscles and the development of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction. The objective of the study was to identify development mechanisms of the reduced occlusion syndrome (ROS) that develops as a result of decrease in the IAD caused by primary dental diseases. Material and Method: 395 people 28–68 years of age with primary dental diseases of the dentofacial apparatus. Of the overall examined, 293 (74.2%) patients with decrease in the IAD constituted the active treatment group. The control group included 102 patients without sign symptoms of reduced occlusion. Patients in the control group had different types of dental prothesis in the oral cavity at the time of examination. The morphological examination object included 138 certified skulls with lower jaws. Anamnestic and clinical data were analyzed. Radiological methods were used rehabilitation capabilities of the dentofacial apparatus, a functional and physiological method for determining the jaw relation was applied, facial electromyography of the chewing muscles, and neck muscles was used. Results and Discussion: The work presents and scientifically grounds the diagnostic system for integral assessment of morphofunctional linkages of dentofacial apparatus and reduced occlusion syndrome patients, its stomatogenic and general manifestations have been defined, an effective treatment regimens and rehabilitation of reduced occlusion syndrome patients of varying severity have been developed. The combination of resulting data enables to reduce complications developed on the background of primary dental diseases accompanied by a decrease in the interalveolar distance of different origin. Conclusion: The study revealed that of 293 examined patients with a decrease in the IAD, 231 (78.8%) patients were diagnosed with the ROS of different severity. The ROS is a persistent pathological process characterized by progressiveness, which includes: Anatomical and functional changes resulting in compression of bilaminar region of the TMJ, as well as in an impaired functions of chewing-speech apparatus with somatogenic and general manifestations, developing on the background of a decrease in the efficiency of vegetative regulation of the region and the patient’s body.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004217
Title: The system dynamics of white and red blood in children, living in areas with high anthropogenic load
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Belgorod State University, Pobedy str., 85, Belgorod 308015, Russia
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Aim: The aim of the work is to study the features of dynamics of quantitative indicators of peripheral red and white blood in children during the first 2.5 years of life. Methods: Peripheral blood sampling for clinical analysis was carried out by medical personnel on the 1st day of the life of newborns in the conditions of the maternity department of Gubkin Central District Hospital (first inspection), all the others (second-fifth) in the laboratory of children’s polyclinic no. 2 of Gubkin. Results and Discussion: The article presents an analysis of the dynamics of indicators of the white and red blood system, identified from birth to 2.5 years of life in children living in the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly zone with the industrial development of iron-containing ores in an open way. Anemia was found in newborns – 24.0% of girls and 18.0% of boys, but only 6.0% of girls had a lower amount of red blood cells; in 3 months – 29.0% of girls and 30.0% of boys; and in 6 months – 22.0% of girls and 6% of boys. Up to 2 years old, the hemoglobin level in the blood corresponded to the lower limit of the norm, and in boys, it was higher (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In 25.6% of 1 year old and 17.1% of 3 months and 2-year-old girls, the number of red blood cells was below norm. In healthy 6 months old, 24.0% of boys and 20.0% of girls had erythrocyte sedimentation rate higher than the age norm. The formula of leukocytes in newborns was age-appropriate, but among them were children with leukocytosis: physiological in 26% of girls and 16% of boys; pathological - in 16.0% of girls and 20.0% of boys; neutrophils - from 1–17% of rod and 45–80% of segment neutrophils. The average values of the lymphocytic index in girls and boys were 0.38 ± 0.01 and 0.37 ± 0.01%, respectively.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004218
Title: Cross-sectional survey of the amount of sugar in biscuits on sale in Chennai
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The objective of the study is to investigate the sugar content present in various biscuits available in the local stores in Chennai. Materials and Methods: The data were collected from products packaging and nutrition labeling. For each biscuit, the data collected included the product name, pack weight, serving size, total sugars per 100 g as well as per suggestive serving size. Results: The average sugar content in biscuits is 28.5 g/100 g. There was a large variation in the sugar content present between different biscuit products. Among the 40 products, 35 products showed a high sugar content when compared to the normal recommended dose for children. Conclusion: The study showed that the sugar contents present in biscuits were high, and there can be a reduction in the amount of sugar present and thus help in overall reduction of childhood obesity and dental caries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004219
Title: Comparative evaluation of antibiofilm formation activity of Plectranthus amboinicus extract against Streptococcus mutans
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Introduction: Biofilms are multimicrobial communities enclosed in self-synthesized polymeric matrices attached to biotic or abiotic surfaces. The biofilm is used to describe the various communities of microorganism attached to a surface. These are made up of microbial substances. Biofilms are highly competitive types, where some exhibit as antibiofilm. These show the characteristic features such as bacterial growth inhibition and exclusion. The present study leads to the synthesis of Plectranthus amboinicus extract and studying the antibiofilm formation against Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: The organism S. mutans was isolated from saliva sample using special media [Mutans- Sanguis agar] and maintained in Tryptose soya agar at 4°C in the Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. Evaluating the microtiter plate with different concentrations of Plectranthus extract against S. mutans and studying the antibiofilm formation. Results: P. amboinicus extract shows significant of antibiofilm against S. mutans. Conclusion: P. amboinicus extract was found to be 79.43% effective than S. mutans. Thus, by increasing the concentration of P. amboinicus extract in the microtiter plate, the effectiveness of Plectranthus extract against S. mutans can be assessed in future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004220
Title: Morphometric analysis foramen magnum and orbit in dry Indian skulls
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,
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Introduction: Foramen magnum is the largest oval aperture transmits medulla oblongata with meninges, vertebral arteries, and spinal branches of accessory arteries. The orbital cavity is an important anatomical space where eyeball and its associated structures were present. Materials and Methods: The analysis of foramen magnum and orbit in 35 dry Indian skulls was measured using Vernier caliper, scale, and marker. Results: The present study has observed the shape of the foramen magnum shows a marked occurrence of tetragonal 15% and oval shape 13% of foramen magnum when compared to the egg shape 3%, hexagonal 3%, and pentagonal 1%. In tetragonal shape, the mean value of vertical diameter was 3.5003 mm and transverse diameter was 3.04333 mm. In oval shape, the mean value of vertical diameter was 3.546923 mm and transverse diameter was 2.99615 mm. In hexagonal shape, the mean value of vertical diameter was 3.3866 mm and transverse diameter was 3.1833 mm. In egg shape, the mean value of vertical diameter was 3.476667 mm and transverse diameter was 3.20667 mm. In pentagonal shape, the mean value of vertical diameter was 3.24 mm and transverse diameter was 2.84 mm. The mean value of orbital index between the right and left was 86.5533 mm and 83.797 mm. Conclusion: The present study shows that there is a more occurrence of tetragonal and oval shape compared to hexagonal, pentagonal, and egg shape. In concern with measurement of axis of foramen magnum, the vertical axis is higher than that of the transverse axis. Besides that, orbital cavity index of our present study has observed no marked changes between the right and left sides.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00004221
Title: Determination of the main component presumably as antidiabetes contained in the ethyl acetate fraction of banana Fe’i (Musa troglodytarum L.) using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jawa Barat 45363, Indonesia
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Objective: Fe’i banana or “banana sticks sky” or “pisang tongkat langit” (Musa troglodytarum L.) traditionally and been reported to have antidiabetes activity. The previous research stated that the administration of ethyl acetate fraction from the sky stick bananas could reduce blood glucose levels in mice induced by alloxan. This study aimed to isolate and determine a major chemical compound from ethyl acetate fraction of Fe’i banana fruit. Materials and Methods: The material was macerated using ethanol 70% then fractionation by liquid-liquid chromatography method using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water. The ethyl acetate fraction was subfractionated by classical column chromatography and preparative thin-layer method and ensuring isolate purity using two-way thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Compound identification methods include organoleptic, TLC with specific spotting appearance, infrared (IR) spectrophotometry, and mass spectroscopy. From the study, four isolates were produced, but MT2 isolates had more results and were possible to be identified. Results and Discussion: The results of group identification showed that MT2 isolates were thought to be steroid group compounds. IR spectrophotometry results showed that isolates had functional groups C-O (aldehyde), C-O (carboxylate/ alcohol), C-H (alkana), C-H bend, C = C, C = O (aldehyde), C-H and O-H, and mass spectroscopy results that the isolate has a molecular weight of 507.1436 m/z. Conclusion: It was found that the main component in the ethyl acetate fraction of banana Fe’i was a compound with molecular formula C31 H23 O7 , C38 H19 O2 , or C24 H27 O12 which was similar to breynioside B.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004222
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of cross-infection and infection control in dentistry among clinical students in a private dental college in Chennai
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Dentistry is predominantly a surgical discipline which is more prone to blood and other potentially infectious materials. Some diseases can be transmitted through infected droplets by contacting surfaces of eye, nose, or mouth. Center for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States of America (CDC) updated guidelines for infection control in dental setup. The guidelines involve standard precautions which intend to make sure a safe working environment associated with preventing the potential transmission of professional and nosocomial infections among dentists, dental health-care professionals, and their patients. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice toward cross-infection and infection control between undergraduate dental students. Materials and Methods: The sample size of this questionnaire-based study is 150. This was conducted with 100 participants; thus, it is sufficient for the required sample size. After collection of data had been done, it was analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007 and presented into a graph. Data were collected and statistical analyses for knowledge, attitude, and practice descriptive statistics were computed using Microsoft Excel and presented into graphs. Results: The specific sample study on the 3rd -year students is a poor reflection when compared to final years in terms of knowledge, attitude, and practice on cross-infection and infection control in dentistry. A total of 50 3rd -year dental students and 50 final year dental students participated in this current study. The questionnaires survey for undergraduate dental students was distributed randomly among the 3rd year and final year students. Conclusion: A moderate level of knowledge and attitudes toward cross-infection and infection control can be seen among the 3rd -year students in comparison to final year dental students in this present study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004223
Title: Genetics as a risk factor in periodontitis – A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease that causes tooth loss. The complex pathogenesis of periodontitis implies the involvement of a susceptible host and a bacterial challenge. Many studies have provided a valuable contribution to understanding the genetic basis of periodontal disease, but the specific candidate genes of susceptibility are still unknown. In fact, genome-wide studies and screening of single-nucleotide polymorphisms have yielded new genetic information without a definitive solution for the management of periodontal disease. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the most relevant literature, presenting the main concepts and insights of the strategies that have been emerging to better diagnose and treat periodontal disease based on biomarker analysis and host modulation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004224
Title: Correlation between anterior crowding and bruxism-related parafunctional habits
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Bruxism is associated with several etiological factors ranging from psychological, neuromuscular, and occlusal disharmonies. Occlusal disharmony includes premature contacts, drifting of teeth following extraction, uncontoured restorations and prosthesis, and varying forms of malocclusion. However, the contributory role of lower anterior crowding inducing bruxism needs to be studied in detail. Aim: This study aims to evaluate if there is any correlation between anteriorly crowded teeth and bruxism-related parafunctional habits. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 individuals were examined; intraoral photographs are taken to assess their crowded teeth. Individuals were categorized as 50 controls and 50 cases, with controls as those without bruxism and cases of those individuals having bruxism. The number of people in each category having anterior crowding was estimated to determine correlation. The data obtained were tabulated and correlation coefficient was calculated using the Spearman’s method. Results: Thirty-eight patients had bruxism along with anterior crowding. Twelve patients had bruxism, but anterior crowding was not present. Sixteen patients had anteriorly crowded teeth but in the absence of bruxism. Thirty-four patients neither had bruxism nor anterior crowding. Spearman correlation coefficient ρ = 0.441 was observed. Conclusion: The study revealed a positive correlation between anteriorly crowded teeth and bruxism-related parafunctional habits in the population studied.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004225
Title: Chediak–Higashi syndrome – A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Chediak–Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, recurrent pyogenic infections (skin, mucosa, and respiratory system), and neurologic deficit. The hallmark of this syndrome is the presence of abnormal intracytoplasmic giant granules in all granule-containing cells including leukocytes in blood and bone marrow. A majority (85%) of patients with CHS develop an accelerated phase consisting of a lymphoproliferative syndrome with hemophagocytosis and infiltration of most tissues. This phase is characterized by fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, and neurological abnormalities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004226
Title: Clear aligners – A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Orthodontic treatment with clear aligners is a quickly growing sector of orthodontic treatment. Both the increase in awareness of esthetics and the increase in orthodontic treatment demand from adults have fueled the demand for a more esthetic orthodontic treatment technique. Fixed appliances area of clear aligners, much of the early research was focused on trying to discredit the use of aligners as an option for orthodontic treatment except for minor crowding or spacing cases. Even so, there was some research that was done to further improve and progress the clear aligner technique which has become smaller and more esthetically acceptable with the development of ceramic brackets, but they are still more noticeable than clear aligners. Dozens of companies worldwide now offer some type of clear aligner orthodontic product.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004227
Title: Papillon–Lefevre syndrome – A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma and precocious aggressive periodontitis, leading to premature loss of deciduous and permanent dentition at a very young age. Various etiopathogenic factors are associated with the syndrome, such as immunologic alterations, genetic mutations, and the role of bacteria. Dentists play a significant role in the diagnosis and management of PLS as there are characteristic manifestations such as periodontal destruction at an early age and an early eruption of permanent teeth. Here, we are presenting an elaborate review of PLS, its etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management options.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004228
Title: Oral manifestations of osteomyelitis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Osteomyelitis is referred to an infection which is considered difficult to treat and is characterized by the destruction due to progressive inflammation, leading to pus formation and new apposition of bone. This review focuses on the present knowledge of the oral manifestations of this disease, and the progress being made in understanding their pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004229
Title: A review on intra-operative and post-operative bleeding during implant placement in completely edentulous patients
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: epartment of Prosthodontics and Implantology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A systematic review was performed on the immediate or immediate post-operative bleeding complications in dental implants to identify the areas of greatest bleeding risk, the causes of bleeding, and their management. Materials and Methods: A Medline (PubMed) search was made of articles on immediate bleeding complications in dental implants published in English up until May 2019. Results: One article met the inclusion criteria. The region most commonly associated with bleeding complications corresponded to the mandibular anterior region. Immediate bleeding and severe edema during can occur due to direct damage of the sublingual arteries, as a consequence of lingual cortical bone perforation. Management focused on securing the airway (with intubation or tracheostomy if necessary), with bleeding control. Conclusions: It is important to do proper treatment planning, good case selection, and a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the surgical area before implants are placed in the region. The most frequent cause of bleeding was the perforation of the lingual plate. Treatment involves securing the airway, with bleeding control.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004230
Title: Body mass index eating habits and related factors among students of Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The past two decades have witnessed tremendous changes in the eating pattern of Indian population. There has been a revolution in adolescent’s lifestyle and eating pattern which can be largely attributed to changes in family and social environment. The changes in eating pattern may adversely affect their health. Aim: The aim of this research is to evaluate the body mass index (BMI) and eating habits among dental students. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 students of Saveetha Dental College in the age group of 17–26 years were selected for the study and were divided into five age groups, respectively, age 17–18 (Group 1), 19–20 (Group 2), 21–22 (Group 3), 23–24 (Group 4), and 25–26 (Group 5). The questionnaires were distributed to them and their food intake for 1 whole week was noted down, the collected data are tabulated for further interpretation of the study. Results: Results were assessed statistically. Almost every fourth male student was overweight. Strikingly, 15% of female students were underweight. The highly-significant difference was found between average BMI of male and female students. Students’ BMI did not correlate with average family income or with the frequency of taking breakfast. Conclusion: Increasing the proportion of adolescents meeting recommended dietary and physical activity guidelines has been identified as an important strategy to contrast the epidemic increase in obesity, especially in Western Countries. These students are more concerned about their appearance than their healthy diet intake. They are keener on finishing their works then taking proper care on their health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004231
Title: Assessment of knowledge and attitude of dental undergraduate students about antibiotic prophylaxis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the administration of antimicrobials in situations where there is no actual infection, but where there is risk of infection is substantially high. The major objective of antibiotic prophylaxis is to prevent the development of systemic and local infection complications. Severe underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, and their treatment have been shown to predispose the patient to odontogenic infections. Manipulation of infected oral tissues such as calculus removal and tooth extraction is known to cause bacteremia. Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge among dental students about the antibiotic prophylaxis in dentistry. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 questionnaires were distributed among dental undergraduate students and they were made to answer 10 questions regarding knowledge, awareness, attitude, and barriers toward the evidence-based dental practice. The recorded responses were then statistically analyzed. Results: All the participants were responded that they are aware of the antibiotic treatment. Over 95% of the participants were aware of the drugs used during antibiotic prophylaxis. About 80% of the part responded that it is necessary for hypertensive patient to undergo antibiotic prophylaxis before undergoing any dental treatment. Among 100 participants, 60% of them answered that amoxicillin is an alternative drug used for patients who are allergic to penicillin. Conclusion: Every dental undergraduate student should have enough knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis to provide effective treatment. Recommendations on antibiotic prescribing are essential to prevent overprescribing of antibiotic. The prescription of antibiotics should be considered adjunctive to the dental treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004232
Title: Mercury leaching from amalgam
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental amalgam is one of the most commonly used restorative materials in dentistry and has been used for more than 150 years. It consists of about 50% elemental mercury and a mixture of silver, tin, copper, and zinc. Mercury is one of the most toxic non-radioactive elements and may be toxic even at low doses. The level of mercury vapor, which is emitted from dental amalgam restorations, markedly increases by chewing, eating, brushing, and drinking hot liquids. People with amalgam fillings are found to have high contents of mercury in their body which is mainly due to the leaching mercury during delayed expansion of the filling.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004233
Title: Survey on the use of guided tissue regeneration membranes by dental practitioners
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics and Implantology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a popular technique in periodontics which would facilitate bone growth around the roots of teeth with substantial bone loss. Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) among dental practitioners in Chennai pertaining to the use of GTR membranes in their private practice. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted using a 14-item self-administered, closed- ended, and structured questionnaire. A total of 200 available private dental practitioners of Chennai made up the sampling frame of the study. Results: Of 200 practicing dentists, 147 participated with a response. A total of 77% dentists were <35 years of age, whereas 23% were ≥35 years of age. A highly significant difference in knowledge in relation to age was observed. The results of this study showed that this technique is widely practiced by the general dentists, and the membrane of choice is natural bioresorbable membranes. Conclusion: Dentists in Chennai have vast knowledge of GTR techniques and membranes. The widely popular perception is that more research is required to improve the membrane properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004234
Title: Influence of modern food varieties in dental caries among schoolchildren
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Dental caries or cavities are a breakdown of teeth due to the action of acids on the enamel surface. Food is the common factor for causation of dental caries. Frequent consumption of carbohydrates in the form of dietary sugar is associated with increased dental caries. In this modern lifestyle, consumption of carbohydrate and sugary foods is increased which leads to more health problems and dental problems. Consumption of these modern food varieties is more common in children’s than adults. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of modern food varieties in dental caries among schoolchildren. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 450 participants were considered among them, 200 participants belong to school which has snack time and 250 participants belong to school which does not have snack time. Assessment of dental caries based on modern foods was done. A questionnaire was prepared to check the frequency of foods and it was marked for the student’s responses. Results: Among 200 students in school having snack time denote that 74% of children having caries and 26% of children have zero caries. Among 200 students in break free school denote that 28.5% of children having caries and 71.5% of children have zero caries. Children in break free schools have less incidence of caries than in children’s having snack time due to the frequency of snacking frequency. Conclusion: This study was done to reduce the risk of caries by eliminating the intake of cariogenic food. Our study shows that the risk of caries was higher among the participants who belong to the schools which have broken due to high snacking frequency.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004235
Title: Awareness of triple antibiotic paste among dental students
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Triple antibiotic paste (TAP) containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline is said to be a highly successful regimen in killing the root canal pathogen and in managing non-vital young permanent tooth. From the existing literature, it is clear that TAP can be effectively used for sterilization of canals and healing of periapical pathology. The effectiveness of TAP in managing non-vital young permanent tooth is based on the availability of viable stem cells. Aim: This study aims to study the awareness of TAP in root canal therapy among dental students. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 intern students from five different colleges were chosen. They were given with the questionnaire form which was prepared with 10 different questions about TAP. The responses were gathered and analyzed. Results: Of the 100 students, 45% of the students preferred the usage of calcium hydroxide in endodontic treatment, while 55% of them preferred the usage of TAP. About 25% of the students said that TAP can be used in the management of coronal root fracture, while 75% of the students do not encourage the use of the paste in coronal root fracture. Moreover, 48% of the 100 students said that TAP can be used for periradicular cyst lesions, while 52% of them said that it is not used for it. Conclusion: From this survey, it is concluded that the students were moderately aware of this TAP. It is recommended to all the institutions to teach about the alternative or other medicaments used in root canal therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004236
Title: Herbal mouthwash
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Plants and herbs are used to treat diseases globally before the existence of modern clinical drugs. They can be beneficial for the therapeutic purposes and used as precursors in the synthesis of drugs. The importance of mouth and teeth cleanliness has been recognized from the earliest days of civilization to the 21st century. Patients and oral health practitioners are faced with a multitude of mouthwash products containing many different active and inactive ingredients. Current trends have witnessed a popular inclination toward the use of herbal products in the field of medicine and dentistry mainly because they are naturally occurring and have fewer side effects. Herbal mouthwash was recently introduced with the intention of controlling the plaque. Plaque and microorganisms in the mouth are the major contributing factors that induce various orodental infections. Studies prove that herbal extracts are the typical modes of treatment in ancient times when technology and chemicals are still undeveloped. Existing herbal products and extracts such as guava, pomegranate, neem, propolis, tulsi, green tea, cranberry, and grapefruit are likely to be tested as individual and as combination for animal toxicity, anti-microbial activity, dental plaque, and other dental complications. Hence, this multifunctional herbal mouthwash helps to improve the oral hygiene in healthy individuals that prevent any type of orodental complications thereon in near future. This review is an attempt to outline such natural substances, which may be used as effective mouthwashes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004237
Title: Association of parental smoking and dental caries in children – A Review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental caries involves the endogenous oral bacteria. There are several evidence for considering passive smoking as one of the etiologies in dental caries development. In children who are exposed to smoking environments, Vitamin C is found in low level, and low levels of Vitamin C are associated with decreased immune function and Streptococcus mutans growth. Decrease saliva and reduces buffering capacity in children are also associated with passive smoking. Passive smoking can also reduce remineralization, the rate of bacterial clearance, and enhance bacterial colonization and may result in dental caries. This article is to review on parental smoking and its association with dental caries in children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004238
Title: Herbal nootropic agents
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Nootropics herb constitutes of compounds that enhance cognitive performance by increasing mental functions memory, creativity, motivation, and attention eventually causing individuals to be much alert and focused. These nootropic herbs tend to affect the brain performances through several mechanisms and pathways such as dopaminergic pathway and several studies reported have proven to have influence in brain activities such as on treating memory disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s diseases, and other mental-related disorders which are believed to impair the pathways and mechanisms as mentioned above. However, nowadays, with the present ever-evolving technology, modern science has been associating and incorporating some cognitive benefits in addition to ever safer, purer, and much effective modern manufacturing techniques fully utilizing these nootropic herbs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004239
Title: Assessment of knowledge, awareness, and attitude toward prevention of hepatitis B virus infection among dental students – A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the health setting is a global public health problem. Among health care workers, dentists are placed in a high-risk group for exposure to HBV. High-speed dental instruments can create an airborne mist of fluid, saliva, blood, and possible infectious droplets through the irrigation systems and exposure to infected blood or body fluids during surgical procedures. In 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States of America updated their guidelines for infection control in dental settings. Although these guidelines are available, very few health care workers follow them or are even aware of them. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried among 100 dental students using a questionnaire. Among 100, 50 were undergraduate students and 50 were postgraduate students. Questionnaire contained 15 questions on assessment of knowledge, awareness, and attitude toward the prevention of HBV infection among dental students. The data were extracted and analyzed. Individuality was assured when the participants filled the survey. The questionnaire was filled in the paper and pen method. After the data collection, statistical measurements are done. Results: On comparing with knowledge, awareness, and attitude of the undergraduate and postgraduate students, we finally conclude that postgraduates have lower knowledge (64%), awareness (66%), and better attitude (68%) toward HBV infection compared to undergraduates have knowledge of (73%), awareness (75%), and attitude of (68%). Conclusion: In this study, the findings highlight the necessity of continuous infection control education. In addition, it can be stated that although these dental students appear to have a fairly good level of knowledge regarding most HBV-related issues, more effort should be made to prepare them regarding the most efficient protective strategies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004240
Title: A research survey on correlation between obesity and periodontitis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Besides being a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers, and Type II diabetes, obesity has been suggested to be a risk factor for periodontitis. A number of epidemiological studies have studied the association between obesity and periodontitis. The aim of this study was to determine the association between patients affected with periodontitis, patients with healthy gingiva, and patients affected with obesity. Aim: The aim of this study is to know whether there is any correlation between periodontitis and obesity. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between obesity and periodontitis and to correlate the risk factors, to assess obesity and periodontitis parameters, to compare periodontitis using three signs, namely probing depth, clinical attachment loss, and gingival index, and to evaluate the relationship among four groups of study, namely Group 1: Obesity and periodontitis, Group 2: Obesity without periodontitis, Group 3: Periodontitis without obesity, and Group 4: Control group of healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending the Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College, where 100 patients were randomly selected and were categorized into four groups, namely periodontitis group, periodontitis and obesity, and obesity group, and a control group. Periodontitis was assessed based on pocket depth, attachment loss, and mobility. Obesity was assessed based on the body mass index. Now, both periodontitis and obesity were correlated using Peirson analysis and the results were tabulated. Results: The study showed positive results where the mean and standard deviation of probing depth and attachment loss in obesity and periodontitis group were 5.1177; 0.8345 and 2.677; and 3.075, respectively, which were much higher than that of periodontitis without obesity group which were only 2.634; 2.349 and 2.971; and 3.432, respectively. Conclusion: Thus, the data suggest that obesity is associated with periodontitis. Obese individuals might be at risk for initiation and progression of periodontitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004241
Title: Effect of antifibrotic activity of Drynaria quercifolia on oral submucous fibrosis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Drynaria quercifolia is an oak leaf fern belonging to polypodiaceae family. It possesses many beneficial qualities that can treat quite a few diseases. It has a wide spectrum of uses and is widely used in South India. The main aim was to study the effect of D. quercifolia on oral sub mucous fibrosis. Basically, oral sub mucous fibrosis is a premalignant (pre-cancer) condition of the oral cavity. It is caused due to betel nut chewing majorly. It leads to inflammation and blanching (white appearance) of oral mucosa. Materials and Methods: Primary human buccal fibroblasts were cultured for the present study. 10g of the powdered D. quercifolia sample was extracted with 85% methanol using Soxhlet Extraction method. MTT assay was used to monitor cell viability and proliferation. The cell viability was calculated. Results and Conclusion: From the results, we can observe that the cell viability of the buccal fibroblasts decreases as the concentration of D. quercifolia extract increases. So it is evident that the plant possesses an anti fibrotic effect on oral sub mucous fibrosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004242
Title: Anti-inflammatory effect of withaferin A on dopaminergic neuron of aged rat
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of Withaferin A (WA) on aging induced inflammation in the dopaminergic system of the rat brain. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats were divided into Group I – young (3 months), Group II – aged (24 months), Group III – aged rat supplemented with WA (50 mg/kg body weight [b. w.] once in a day for 30 days), and Group IV – young rat supplemented with WA (50 mg/kg b. w). Results: The estimation of nitrate and nitrite (NOx) levels revealed significantly increased levels in the aged animal when compared to young. The estimation of superoxide (O2−) showed significantly increased in the midbrain and striatum of aged rat when compared to young. The estimation of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines presented significantly increased levels in aged midbrain and striatum when compared to young. The apoptotic study also revealed increased apoptotic nuclear morphology in substantia nigra and striatum of aged rat when compared to young. Interestingly, the WA administration significantly reversed the NOx, O2− levels. Conclusion: The present data clearly demonstrate that the WA potentially repress the aging mediated oxidative stress and inflammation in the dopaminergic neuron, thereby it prevents aging induced neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004243
Title: A survey on assessing the denture hygiene awareness among elderly patients
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Denture hygiene and proper maintenance is an important aspect for any removable denture. It is necessary to have proper knowledge and follows the steps to maintain clean dentures and a healthy oral cavity. This study is to spread awareness regarding the importance of clean dentures and the adverse conditions if not done correctly. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and awareness of denture hygiene and its importance among elderly patients. Materials and Methods: A survey on 60 patients who had removable dentures was done. Questionnaires were distributed when the patients came back for treatment review. The previous denture wearers were also counted in this survey. The questions asked assessed the method they used to clean the denture and how often they cleaned it. The results were tabulated and analyzed. Results: Thirty-two patients who underwent the survey were using their dentures for a maximum of 5 years. Twenty-five used it for 6–10 years. Most of the patients had a habit of cleaning their dentures once a day. Forty-one patients reported dentists had given proper information to the patient regarding the method to clean their dentures. Conclusion: From the study, it was concluded that majority of the patients were aware of the method to clean their dentures and they were provided with proper instructions from their dentist to maintain the dentures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004244
Title: Knowledge and awareness about coagulation disorders among information technology professionals
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this research is to find out the knowledge and awareness about coagulation disorder among information technology (IT) professionals. Introduction: Normal hemostasis requires the interaction of platelets and the clotting cascade with normal blood vessels and supporting tissues. Bleeding problems and easy bruising are commonly encountered clinical problems. Assessment of these patients is a multistep evaluation process that involves a complete detailed history, thorough physical examination, and relevant laboratory evaluation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done among IT professionals regarding their awareness about causation and effects of coagulation disorder. Conclusion: There was a lack of awareness among IT professionals about the coagulation disorder.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004245
Title: Acute adverse effect profile of zoledronic acid in cancer patients
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the adverse effect profile of intravenous (IV) zoledronic acid in cancer patients with skeletal metastasis. Materials and Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted at a cancer specialty hospital and research center, Bengaluru, for a period of 6 months. A total of 80 subjects receiving the first dose of zoledronic acid 4 mg 3 weekly regimens were enrolled and followed up. However, there were seven dropouts. Primary end point was to determine the difference in proportions of developing renal toxicity using relative risk (RR). Secondary end point was to compare baseline with post-treatment serum calcium values using paired t-test analysis. Suspected acute-phase reactions (APRs) were subjected to causality (WHO scale) and severity (Hartwig and Siegel scale) assessment. Results: Significant elevation in serum creatinine indicates higher risk of renal toxicity (RR = 1.625) at 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.134–2.330). Statistically significant decrease in serum calcium was determined in the patients treated with IV zoledronic acid (P = 0.00) at 95% CI indicating the therapeutic efficacy. Thirty-one patients experienced adverse drug reactions with probable causal relationship, the commonly reported APRs being flu-like symptoms (48.8%). Severity of the suspected APRs was mild to moderate. Hence, discontinuation of zoledronic acid was not needed. Conclusion: A single dose 4 mg IV infusion of zoledronic acid is effective and safe in patients with skeletal metastasis. Due to its effectiveness in increasing bone mineral density, it can be the drug of choice in preventing fractures, osteoporosis, and hematological malignancy including lymphoma and multiple myeloma other than breast cancer with skeletal metastasis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004246
Title: Awareness of varicose veins among dental students – Pilot study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the awareness of symptoms, causes, and treatment of varicose vein disorder among dental students. Introduction: Varicose veins are a very common problem usually neglected by patients due to lack of pain in the initial stages of the disease. Varicose veins are the disease of mainly lower limb veins. In this disease, the veins of legs become dilated and tortuous. This is because, the non-return valves present in these veins start leaking, leading to stagnation of impure (deoxygenated) blood in the leg veins. One must know the early symptoms of this disease so as to avoid complications, which can be dangerous. Visible dilated veins over legs and thighs are usually painless to start with; as time passes they become more dilated and tortuous. Other common symptoms are leg fatigue, cramps, edema, and pigmentation of the skin of lower legs. As varicose veins a major risk to dental students, this study will create awareness about this disease among them. Materials and Methods: The questionnaires study was conducted among 50 dental students aged 20–26 years old. Informations were collected through a structured pro forma which includes demographic variables. The students were asked to choose only one appropriate answer. All data collected were compiled for statistical analysis. Results: The results of the survey show that 70% of the students were aware of varicose veins from other sources, while 16% of them were alerted by their friends during casual chats and 8% of them by work colleagues and seniors. Conclusion: With the light of available evidence, this study concludes that there is a need to create awareness among undergraduate dental students regarding the complication of varicose veins considering their prolonged working hours standing by the patients. This may help the clinician to avoid complications in their general practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004247
Title: Hypolipidemic properties of Aloe vera in female Swiss albino mice
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Coimbatore Medical College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Obesity is a chronic, multifactorial, and complex disease resulting from a long-term positive energy balance, involving both genetic and environmental factors. It acts as a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, and in the past decade, it is emerging as a global problem. The need of the hour is to develop natural remedies to treat obesity. Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the hypolipidemic properties of Aloe vera. Methods: Oral effective dose of Aloe vera (0.3 ml/kg. b.wt) was administered to high-fat-fed female Swiss albino mice for 30 days orally. Results: Aloe vera significantly reduced the blood glucose level, lipid profile, and C-reactive protein in high-fat diet-fed rats. Conclusion: In the present study, we investigated the anti-obesity properties of Aloe vera, an easily available herb in high-fat diet-fed rats. Hence, it is concluded from the present findings that Aloe vera could serve as one of the potential hypolipidemic drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004248
Title: Pro-inflammatory role of leptin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Central Research Laboratory, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Hyperleptinemia is a pathological condition that mediates activation of inflammatory cells and trigger events that promote atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the signaling mechanisms (JAK-2/STAT-3 pathway) underlying the pro-inflammatory role of leptin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Materials and Methods: PBMCs were isolated from healthy volunteers and treated with leptin in the presence or absence of JAK-2 inhibitor, tyrphostin AG490. The mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were then analyzed by ELISA and reverse transcription-PCR, respectively. NO levels were measured using Griess reagent. Results: Leptin activated PBMCs and promoted the synthesis of TNF-α, iNOS, and NO. However, exposure of PBMCs to tyrphostin AG490 significantly reduced the protein levels of both TNF-α and iNOS and decreased the secretion of NO. Conclusion: Leptin augments inflammatory response in PBMCs through JAK-2/STAT-3 pathway.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004249
Title: In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of root canal sealer in combination with antibiotics against Enterococcus faecalis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Microbes and microbial products are the main etiologic factors of pulpitis and apical periodontitis. Root canal sealers that possess good antimicrobial property can prevent recurrent infection. Adding antibiotics to a sealer can enhance their antimicrobial effect. Failure of root canal treatment is the presence of oral microbial species. E. faecalis is the most commonly isolated species being recovered in over one-third of the canals of root-filled teeth with persisting periapical lesions. Aim: The aim of the study was to do a study on in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of root canal sealer in combination with antibiotics against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial efficacy of zinc oxide eugenol and Dycal was evaluated individually and also in combination with amoxicillin against E. faecalis which was isolated from necrotic pulps and endodontic lesions using the disc diffusion technique. Conclusion: Combination of root canal sealers with antibiotics showed better results compared to the root canal sealers individually, and so furthers strategy can be done in vivo to confirm our study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004250
Title: Estimation of stature using odometric measurement of mesiodistal width of maxillary anterior teeth
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate the stature using odontometric measurement of mesiodistal width of the maxillary anterior teeth. Introduction: The tooth size standard based on odontometric investigation can be used in age and sex. Hence, a study was planned to measure the mesiodistal width of six anterior natural teeth. It also investigates the variation in the size of the left and right maxillary anterior teeth between men and women. The ideal dimension of teeth varies from person to person. In forensic investigations of such cases, estimation of stature becomes equally important along with other identification parameters such as age, sex, and race. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 50 males and 50 female subjects. The height of male and female subjects was measured using stadiometer. Measurement of mesiodistal width of maxillary anterior teeth was measured using vernier caliper. The observed values are correlated with each other and association between the two parameters was analysed and interpreted. Results: It was observed that the average height of male was 165.39 cm ± 4.1 and in female was 153.62 cm ± 3.2. The mean of mesiodistal width of the right maxillary anterior teeth was 23.22 ± 0.235 mm and for left maxillary teeth was 23.49 ± 0.659 mm in male. In female the mean of mesiodistal width of right maxillary teeth was 21.58 ± 0.323 mm and for left maxillary teeth was 21.94 ± 0.461 mm. Conclusion: Positive correlation was found between height of a person and that of the mesiodistal width of the maxillary anterior teeth. This study is useful in many fields of research, forensic investigation and anthropometry for evaluating the height of the individual from the obtained remains of body parts like head, jaws of the human body, etc.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004251
Title: Antimicrobial efficacy of natural intracanal medicaments: A systematic review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of natural intracanal medications in eliminating microbes from human root canals. Materials and Methods: PubMed central databases were searched. Reference lists from identified articles were scanned. A forward search was undertaken on the authors of the identified articles. Papers that had cited these articles were also identified through the science citation index to identify potentially relevant subsequent primary research. Data of the included studies were independently extracted. Results: Three ex vivo studies were identified and included in the systematic review, covering 250 samples. Sample size in each study varied from 70 to 90 teeth. Only one study indicated that the natural intracanal medication was significantly more effective than other groups. The other two studies indicated that the natural intracanal medicament was less effective initially, but later, it was equally effective as the other groups based on elimination of microorganisms as evidenced by reduction in colony-forming units. Conclusion: Natural intracanal medicaments are equally effective in elimination of bacteria from human root canal when assessed by culture techniques.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004252
Title: Determination of bioactive components of chloroform extract of Ctenolepsis cerasiformis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the bioactive and pharmaceutical components of the chloroform extract of Ctenolepsis cerasiformis. Methods: The phytoconstituents of chloroform extract of C. cerasiformis were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: The present study indicates that the presence of 15 phytocompounds of the chloroform extract of the plant. Conclusion: Medicinal plants have been exhaustively studied for their potential value as a source of drugs. Obviously, natural products will continue to be extremely important as sources of medicinal agents for treating many diseases including human cancers. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the phytocompounds of C. cerasiformis chloroform extract by GC-MS

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004253
Title: Study of type 2 diabetes mellitus among night shift workers in Chennai
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Rotating night shift work disrupts circadian rhythms and has been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and glucose dysregulation. However, its association with Type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate this association in Indian population, particularly in Chennai. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to figure out the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in night shift workers in Chennai. Materials and Methods: After obtaining written informed consent and Institutional Ethical Clearance, a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted for 200 subjects of both sexes by convenient sampling method. Personal details from the subject along with sleep duration and history of diabetes were collected. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were filled by them. The exclusion criteria are college going students, part-time workers, and day time workers. Data collected and entered into Microsoft Excel. Data cleaning were done and analyzed using SPSS software. The results were interpreted and analyzed. Results: Among the study population of 200, there were 74 cases of pre-assessed diabetes mellitus, which concludes for 37%. Conclusion: The study suggests that night shift work is a risk factor for the onset of diabetes mellitus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004254
Title: Diagnostic value of hematological parameters in acute appendicitis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pathology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the diagnostic value of the mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) in acute appendicitis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective, case-controlled study which compared 100 patients with acute appendicitis (study group) and 100 healthy individuals (control group). The age, gender, white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil percentage, MPV, and PDW values from blood samples were compared among the groups. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows software. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. Results: The mean ages of patients were 27.4 ± 10.44 of the study group and 39.28 ± 13.21 for control group. Age and gender were not significantly different among the groups. Whereas WBC count and neutrophil percentage were higher in the study group compared to control group and MPV was found to be lower in study group patients, and PDW was not significantly different. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 94.7%, 77.4%, and 84% for WBC count, 81.7%, 84.4%, and 83% for neutrophil percentage, 85.1%, 70.6%, and 76% for MPV, and 50%, 50%, and 50% for PDW, respectively. The highest diagnostic accuracy detected was for WBC count followed by neutrophil percentage and MPV between study group and control group with P < 0.005. Conclusion: Considering the MPV decrease along with the WBC count and neutrophil percentage elevation would be beneficial in patients with suspicion of acute appendicitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004255
Title: Leptospirosis complicating dengue infection in a 39-year-old female – A case report
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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In tropical and subtropical countries, like India, infection of leptospirosis and dengue is endemic and has potential to break out as an epidemic. The peak incidence of these diseases occurs during monsoon and post-monsoon season. Both diseases manifest similar clinical presentation; thus, it is difficult to differentiate them. Diagnosing leptospirosis early has good prognosis with antibiotic therapy, whereas dengue has no specific monitoring and mainly has good prognosis with early diagnosis and fluid management. Although both of these diseases have very high prevalence rate individually, the coinfection is reported rarely. Here, we present a 39-year-old female case with dengue fever complicated by leptospirosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004256
Title: Acute flare-up of systemic lupus erythematosus by unknown insect bite: A case report
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease. In genetically susceptible cases, environmental factor plays a major role as triggering factor. In this case study, a 21-year-old female with known case of SLE on treatment presented with fever, joint pain, rashes over the face after the bite of unknown insect, which was reduced immediately after treating her with a high dose of steroid.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004257
Title: A study on the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes among outpatients visiting a Rural Health Training Center in Kanchipuram district
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are the major public health challenges worldwide. They are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and their burden are rising in India. Objectives: This study aimed to find out the prevalence of hypertension and DM among patients visiting a rural health training center in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among outpatients attending Rural Health Training Centre situated in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu. All the outpatients >10 years of age attending the Rural Health Training Centre during the period of January 2019–May 2019 were included in the study after obtaining informed consent. A total of 3698 participants were included in the study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect the sociodemographic details. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 16% and diabetes was 18.3%. The prevalence of both hypertension and diabetes was found to be higher in males (18.6% and 18.9%) compared to females (13.2% and 17.6%). The prevalence of hypertension is more among 51–60 years (23%) and diabetes is more among more than 60 years (26.2%). Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of hypertension and diabetes shows that apart from increasing health services in our community, there is also a dire need to focus on greater information, education, and communication activities regarding awareness of causes of these non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their prevention along with periodic screening camps. This can lead to early diagnosis and management which can improve the overall morbidity due to hypertension and diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004258
Title: Adsorption of heavy metal
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath University, Selaiyur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: This study deals with removing heavy metal lead from leather processing effluents using tea waste by adsorbent technique. Results: It was observed that at higher concentrations of tea leaf waste the absorbance was more. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded that tea waste could be used effectively in the bio sorption of heavy metals from effluents of leather industry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004259
Title: Characterization of antioxidants from two varieties of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Plant enzyme peroxidase was extracted from different varieties of neem and its purification by gel filtration. Medicinal plants are premier adapt for helping the body and mind to adopt and cope with a wide range of physical, emotional, chemical, and infectious stresses and restore physiological and psychological functions to a normal healthy state. The isoenzyme, peroxidase stands responsible for their health beneficial antioxidant capacity which, in turn, contributes toward their medicinal properties. Results and Discussion: Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach varieties of neem were studied for peroxidase analysis. The optimum pH and temperature of peroxidase were found to be 6.5 and 40°C. This was studied to understand the variation between single species at protein level. Protein profiling was done in both native PAGE and SDS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004260
Title: Identification of bioactive compounds from Crossandra infundibuliformis chloroform extract
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Bio-Technology, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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This study aimed to determine the quantitative analysis of phytoconstituents such as total contents of phenolic compounds, tannins, alkaloids, and flavanoids from the chloroform extract of Crossandra infundibuliformis. The total concentrations of phenolic compounds and tannins were performed by Folin–Ciocalteu method, with gallic acid as standard. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used to determine the total content of flavanoids, and quercetin was used as standard. In conclusion, the present investigation envisages the presence of various phytoconstituents in the chloroform extract of C. infundibuliformis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004261
Title: Assessment of reproductive health status of adolescent girls of urban slums in Raipur city of India
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
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Background: Reproductive health is burning topic in today’s world. It actually marks the future population quality of a nation. The adolescents of present are the parents of future and mark the nation’s growth and development. In this context, girls are given more importance as they are the future mothers and health status of a mother marks the health status of a child and thereafter the health status of the community or region as a whole. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess menstrual hygiene status in adolescent girls, to assess the knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene, family planning, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and to assess teenage pregnancy and abortion in adolescent girls of urban slums. Materials and Methods: Study design – A cross-sectional study done in the year 2004. Sample Size: The sample size was 4000 adolescent girls’. Inclusion criteria – Girls of the age group of 10–19 years residing in urban slums were in the study. Sampling Method: Cluster sampling method to choose clusters 40 slums from list of 215 slums in Raipur city, 100 subjects were selected by house-to-house survey from each slum. Material – Predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Analysis – Proportion analysis. Results: Out of total, 76.2% of respondents had already attained menarche and 69.4% of respondents used unhygienic cloth. Awareness of FP method and family life education was good, i.e., 60.8% were aware and about 56.7% preferred IUD as ideal family planning method for spacing. Knowledge of STDs and AIDS was present in 43.6% of respondents. Total conception was 17.1%. Of total conceptions, 56.4% were successful deliveries with live births and 2.7% were stillbirth and 40.9% are abortions. Conclusion: In any community mothers and children constitute a priority group, as they are a vulnerable and special risk group. As adolescents girls are the future homemakers and mothers, their reproductive health is of great concern for the better shape of the future of society and in turn the nation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004262
Title: Analysis of time of agitation on color removal
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Nowadays, finding the easy and economical way to treat the industrial wastewater is the raising ideas in newer technology. In this work, adsorption of methylene blue using various low-cost adsorbents such as groundnut shell and tea waste was used in batch studies at constant dye concentration of 300 mg/l, adsorbent dose of 0.5 gm groundnut shell powder and spent tea powder. The time of agitation was varied by 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min. After the time of agitation of 100 min, maximum dye removal of 86% was observed in spent tea powder and 80% was observed in groundnut shell powder.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004263
Title: Discovery of potential mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors: A combination of virtual screening and molecular docking studies
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Bioengineering, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Lung cancer is the leading cause of death in many countries. Non-small cell lung cancer more common it generally grows and spreads more slowly. Recent, rapid advances in molecular biology have led to the development of many new agents that inhibit the activities of specific molecules related to tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. Materials and required: Several of the protein kinases have been directly implicated in human ontogenesis by virtue of being overexpressed or mutationally activated in cancer cells. Hence, the protein kinases have been widely considered to represent an important class of candidates as drug targets for cancer therapy. Results and Discussion: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is also known as mechanistic target of rapamycin. Rapamycin is a bacterial product that can inhibit mTOR by associating with its intracellular receptor FKBP12. Conclusion: The FKBP12-rapamycin complex binds directly to the FKBP12-rapamycin binding domain of mTOR. Side effects in patients consuming rapamycin drug severe mood swings, small purple spots over the body retention, water face allergy, and anger. Drug-like molecules from DrugBank were used to screen for potential inhibitors by docking into the active site of mTOR and also with yielded several docked structures using Glide tool. Ten top scoring ligands, based on the glide score, were selected from the virtual screening. These drug molecules are complexed with mTOR its subjected to molecular simulation studies shows that DB00094 drug molecule can bind effectively into the binding site of mTOR. Thus, it is proposed that DB00094 can be a better substitute of rapamycin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004264
Title: Antioxidant potential of copper oxide nanoparticles using leaves of Cordyline fruticosa
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The green synthesis of nanoparticles using herbal plants and metal salts has gained importance since last decade and their medicinal values are being probed. It is of interest to probe newer plants which have not been explored for their medicinal potentials. Crotons and ornamental plants could be examined for their potential medicinal role in general and also by making nanoparticles from them. In the present work the antioxidant study of copper nanoparticles was done which were prepared by water extracts of one medicinal plant, Cordyline fruticosa by using Copper nitrate solution. Methods: Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using the water extract of dried leave powder of Cordyline fruticosa and copper nitrate solution as per standard procedure. The nanoparticles were studied for their DPPH scavenging antioxidant properties. Results: The nanoparticles indicated good DPPH scavenging activities.Conclusion: It is concluded that the copper nanoparticles made from Cordyline fruticosa have good antioxidant properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004265
Title: Reduction of hardness of effluent
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Leather is one of the major foreign exchange earners in India. Tanning is the process of converting rawhides or skins into leather. Hides and skins have the capability of absorbing tannic acid and other chemical substances that prevent them from decomposing, build resistance to wetting, and keep them flexible and durable. Even though tanneries exist for a long time, the problem of environmental pollution focused seriously only in recent years. The pollutants of tanneries in the country produce significant damage in drinking water supply and irrigation. Materials and methods: In this study, leather effluent was treated with various marine algal extracts to reduce the hardness. In this study, seaweeds such as Centroceras clavulatum, Enteromorpha flexuosa, Grateloupia lithophila, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Chaetomorpha antennina, and Ulva lactuca were collected from Covelong, Chennai. Sargassum sp., Amphiroa sp., Ulva sp., and Hypnea sp. were collected from Kanyakumari and C. antennina was collected from Puducherry. These seaweeds were underwent extraction with various solvents such as methanol, ethanol, water, chloroform, and benzene. The extracts were then used to treat effluent. After treatment, the reduction in hardness was estimated. Results and Discussion: revealed that the maximum hardness reduction was obtained by ethanolic extract of Hypnea sp. collected from Kanyakumari (83%) and the lowest was found in methanolic extract of G. lithophila collected from Covelong (27%). Conclusion: Then, these reduction results were correlated with phytochemical constituents of algal extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004266
Title: Antidiabetic activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using neem and Aloe vera plant formulation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious and chronic disease that can occur either when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin (type 1 DM/insulin-dependent DM) or when the body fails to use the insulin it produces effectively (type 2 DM/non-insulin-dependent DM). Since the prevalence of DM has only been exponentially increasing, the need for finding alternative forms of medication and treatment is of immense importance. Here, we have aimed to analyze the possible antidiabetic potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using neem and Aloe vera (A. vera) through an alpha-amylase assay. Materials and Methods: Leaves of Azadirachta indica and A. vera were made into a filtered herbal formulation. A metallic solution of silver nitrate was added to it and the conjunction was kept in a magnetic stirrer/orbital shaker for the synthesis of its nanoparticles. After centrifugation, the resultant pellet was powdered. The anti-diabetic potential was studied through the inhibition of alpha-amylase. AgNP concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 μL were preincubated with 100 μL of alpha-amylase solution (1 U/mL) at room temperature for 30 min. 100 μL of starch solution (1% w/v) was then added to it and the mixture was incubated at room temperature for 10 min. 100 μL of 96 mM 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid reagent was added to it to stop the reaction, and the solution was heated in a water bath. Control was maintained where equal quantities of the enzyme and extract were replaced by a sodium phosphate buffer maintained at a pH of 6.9. The reading was measured at 540 nm. The experiment was performed thrice. Acarbose was used as a positive control, and the percentage of inhibition was calculated. Results: A color change was observed after the synthesis of AgNPs. The prepared particles were then characterized by a peak seen at 425 nm in ultraviolet-visible-spectroscopy. The results of the assay showed that 150 µg of our AgNPs exhibited an alpha-amylase inhibition which was close to that of acarbose with a variation of only 2.67%. Conclusion: AgNPs synthesized using neem and A. vera have an evident antidiabetic potential. They show a considerably good amount of alpha-amylase inhibition with respect to acarbose. They are also easy to synthesize, eco-friendly, and inexpensive. Thus, AgNPs could be used as a possible alternative for conventional antidiabetic drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004267
Title: Cytotoxic effect of Aloe vera and neem herbal formulations assisted silver nanoparticles
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nanobiomedicina Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxic effects of Aloe vera and neem herbal formulation using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). Introduction: The changing life style as well as the food habits has resulted in the introduction of numerous diseases in the past few decades. Moreover, by the passing day, we are becoming more aware about the drug resistance that is developed in most of the disease-causing pathogens. In this scenario, bringing more herbal medicines into the market is the only way to improve the situation. Moreover, neem and A. vera already have proven about their antioxidant as well as many other medicinal properties were taken to check the cytotoxic effects along with the help of Ag- NPs. Materials and Methods: The Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica for the synthesis of Ag-NPs and analysed the cytotoxic effects of Ag-NPs using brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: The Ag-NPs can be synthesized using herbal formulation using A. vera and A. indica. Conclusion: The Ag-NPs synthesized using herbal formulation of A. vera and A. indica have cytotoxic effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004268
Title: Preparation and characterization of nutmeg oleoresin-mediated silver nanoparticles
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study was to prepare the silver nanoparticles from nutmeg oleoresin and to characterize using UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Materials and Methods: One milliliter of nutmeg oleoresin was mixed with 99 mL of water and boiled for 5–10 min. It was then mixed with 1 mM silver nitrate solution. The solution was kept in orbital shaker for nanoparticles synthesis. The color change was observed visually and photographs were recorded. The particles were confirmed by using UV-vis spectroscopy. The results were recorded for graphical analysis. The size was further evaluated by TEM. Results and Conclusion: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using nutmeg oleoresin suggests that it is a better alternative to chemical synthesis as it is simple and eco-friendly. The stable silver nanoparticles synthesized from nutmeg oleoresin were with an average size ranging from 20–50 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles may be used for the antibacterial, cytotoxicity, drug delivery, and biosensor applications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004269
Title: Awareness of oral hygiene aids among students of professional colleges – A Survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral hygiene aids help in maintaining a clean oral cavity to prevent dental problems, such as dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Plaque and calculus are the main causes of gingival disease, periodontal disease, and dental caries. There are various oral hygiene aids available to maintain a proper oral heath, but these oral hygiene aids need to be used in a right method to obtain the optimal results. A questionnaire was prepared to evaluate the knowledge of oral hygiene aids among students of professional colleges. Aim: This study aimed to assess oral hygiene aids related knowledge and practices among students of professional colleges. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using a self- administered, close-ended questionnaire with 15 questions to assess the oral hygiene aids knowledge and practices among 100 students of professional colleges. Results: The toothbrush with toothpaste is the most common oral hygiene aid used for cleaning teeth; it was observed that a greater number of students brushed their teeth twice a day. Conclusion: The study showed that the students had good knowledge about the basic oral health measures necessary to maintain proper oral health, but their attitude and practices toward oral health were relatively poor.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004365
Title: Biomedical potential of hesperidin against methotrexate induce hepatotoxicity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Methotrexate (MTX) is an antiproliferative agent and is one of the most widely used anticancer drugs. Cytotoxic effect of MTX also affects the vital orangs, one of the well-known toxicity caused by MTX chemotherapy is liver damage, and it induces liver cirrhosis and fibrosis. Hesperidin is an antioxidant which acts as active flavanone glycoside found in citrus whole fruit and peel also a byproduct of citrus. Materials and Methods: Normal rats given vehicle for 7 days are served as vehicle control. Rats were given intraperitoneal injection of MTX (20 mg/kg body weight) 24 h before the treatment. Rats were given pretreatment with hesperidin orally for 7 days. Rats were given pretreatment with hesperidin before the induction of hepatic damage by administration of MTX. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed by cervical decapitation. The blood and liver tissue was used to assess the biochemical change. Results: The activities of marker enzymes alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase were found to be elevated in MTX-induced hepatotoxicity. Decline in the activities of membrane-bound phosphatase found during MTX-induced liver damage was reverted back to normal when pretreated with hesperidin, indicating the membrane stabilizing potential of hesperidin. Histopathological observations in MTX induced and hesperidin pretreated rats reveal the protective nature of the hesperidin against MTX-induced liver damage and further support the hepatoprotective potential of hesperidin. Conclusion: The above result concluded that hesperidin has potential clinical applications in MTX-induced liver damage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004383
Title: Investigation of SOD2 gene polymorphism in patients with chronic kidney disease in Babylon province
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Laboratory Investigation, College of Science, University of Kufa, Iraq
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Background: Oxidative stress has been linked to the progression of the disease, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of antioxidant enzymes may contribute to diseases associated with oxidative stress. Methodology: Thirty blood samples were collected from patients with CKD who visit Dialysis center/Marjan hospital/Babylon/Iraq and thirty samples as controls. PCR and SSCP were performed to investigate the polymorphism. Results: The results of PCR-SSCP for SOD2 gene illustrated the two different haplotypes according to the numbers of bands in the SOD2 gene, including 5 and 6 bands. While these haplotypes were detected between the two groups; in renal failure patient groups and control, the results indicate that there was an association between 5 and 6 bands in patients as compared with the control group, and hence, SSCP technique is a good screening method to detection SOD2 SNPs gene in a patient with renal failure disease. Conclusion: the current study concludes that SSCP technique is a good screening method to detection SOD2 SNPs gene in the patient with renal failure disease.