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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004329
Title: Awareness on impression disinfection procedures among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental impressions are contaminated with patients saliva or blood. Such fluids can contain viral and bacterial pathogens, including HIV and hepatitis A, B, and C viruses. Although most infectious agents do not survive for extended periods outside the body, many pathogens, if present in high enough numbers, can survive several days in protein-containing body fluids. Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted among the dental students of Chennai through survey planet. It consisted of 18 questions related to impression disinfection procedures, duration and their knowledge and awareness reading these. The respective responses were statistically analyzed. Results: With 80 responses totally, 72% of the people were aware that impressions are infectious. About 71% preferred alginate impressions over silicone and the majority chose to immerse the impression rather than spray with disinfectant. About 79% told that communication between technician and practitioner is very important. Conclusion: With efficient communication and proper protocols in a regular manner will not spread any kind of infection. This will keep the environment free of microbes and also prevent the spread of infections to patients and technicians.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004317
Title: Formulation and evaluation of an emtricitabine adjustable pediatric anti-retroviral dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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The aim of this study was to formulate oral dispersible tablets (ODTs) of anti-human immunodeficiency virus drug for pediatric and geriatrics with adequate dosage and it extends bioavailability. ODTs are varying from traditional tablets because they were expected to dissolve in the oral cavity within 1 min. In the present study, the ten ODT formulations were prepared by the direct compression method using different super disintegrants, namely, PPXL (crospovidone), Ac-Di-Sol (cross croscarmellose sodium), and sodium starch glycolate (SSG). The impact of superdisintegrants on the drug release profile of ODTs is to disintegrate within 60 s, in limited amount of the saliva. Disintegration time reduced for all ODTs with increased concentration of superdisintegrants. There pre- and post-compression evaluation parameters were subjected to the prepared powder mixture including infrared spectroscopy, micrometrics properties, hardness, friability, wetting time, disintegration time, in vitro drug release, and drug and accelerated stability study. Disintegration time declined for all ODTs with increased percentage concentrations of superdisintegrants. In which ODTs contain 5% SSG achieve disintegrating time (20–22 s), more desirable for drug dissolution (99.6%) was compared to the other formulations in this present study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004318
Title: Role of causing factors of anemia in cancer
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Lincoln University College, Kota Bharu, Malaysia
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Anemia is condition that arises due to low levels of hemoglobin content in the blood and the common symptoms include dizziness, fatigue, chest pain, and shortness of breath or a racing heart. It has been diagnosed in all most up to 40% of cancer patients at any given point of time, and its frequency rises with treatment and progressive disease. The fine interplay between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors and multiple mechanisms are responsible for the occurrence of anemia in cancer. The most predominant cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6) and hepcidin, along with chronic inflammation may play a key role in causing anemia. Moreover, these cytokines may be responsible, in governing iron metabolism, and also affects the erythropoiesis. Therefore, anemia in cancer can influence survival, progression of disease, treatment effectiveness, and the ultimate patients’ quality of life. Hence, the present review highlights the role of important factors responsible for anemia in cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004299
Title: Awareness of G.V. Black, Mount’s and ICDAS scoring systems of dental caries amongst dental practitioners in Chennai: A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the awareness of various dental caries classification systems among dental clinicians in Chennai by means of a survey and derive an opinion on the ease, accuracy, and their understandability of the various classifications. Background: Dr. G. V. Black (1836–1915) developed a system to categorize carious lesions based on the type of tooth affected and the location of the lesion into five classes. It identifies the position of a lesion and prescribes a cavity design regardless of the size and extent of the lesion. This method involved “extension for prevention” in contrast to today’s minimal invasive techniques. G.J. Mount’s classification is based on the site and size of the lesion to encourage a conservative approach to the preservation of natural tooth structure. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) is a detection and assessment system classifying stages of the caries process which fosters a new model for the measurement of dental caries developed and based on a systematic review of literature on clinical caries detection systems. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing questions that assessed the awareness of dental practitioners on the ease, accuracy, and efficiency of the different classification systems of dental caries was distributed to dental clinicians in Chennai (n = 100). Their responses were recorded and analyzed to obtain an opinion on the ease, accuracy, and understandability of the various classification systems. Results: About 75.83% of the dentists supported G. V. Black’s classification. This majority preference for G. V. Black’s classification was found to be because the dentists were unaware of the other newer minimally invasive systems like ICDAS. Conclusion: This study helps understand the current scenario of caries treatment in Chennai. The dentists surveyed have very little awareness of the ease and accuracy of the newer techniques available. There is an urgency in the need to spread awareness of these recent efficient and accurate systems.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004300
Title: A comparative study of sex determination using mandibular intercanine and intermolar width among South Indian population
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze whether mandibular intercanine width or intermolar width serves as an aid for sex determination among South Indian given population. Background: Teeth are the most durable part of our skeleton. They are more resistant to adverse conditions occurring in nature such as purification, mutilation, fire, and prolonged immersion in water. Odontometric measurements of the mandibular teeth (mandibular intercanine and intermolar width) can be helpful in sex determination. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 85 subjects 17–21 of age. The impression of their mandibular arch was taken using alginate and casts were poured using dental stone. The intercanine and intermolar width were found out using Vernier caliper and tabulated. Results: Mandibular intercanine width (P = 0.039) exhibited statistically significant difference between males and females while difference in mandibular intermolar width (P = 0.388) was insignificant. Maximum sexual dimorphism was shown by mandibular intercanine width (5.585%), while the sexual dimorphism for intermolar width was calculated as 2.082%. The maximum correlation was exhibited by mandibular intercanine width and the maximum value for predictability was also shown by mandibular intercanine width (4.9%). Conclusion: Mandibular intercanine arch width exhibited significant sexual dimorphism.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004301
Title: Molecular mechanisms underlying antimicrobial effect of caffeine against red complex pathogens – An in silico approach
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objectives: Phytocompounds are widely used in traditional and folk medicine due to its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties. Caffeine is one such compound extracted from the plant source Coffea arabica. The biological functions of caffeine include antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, and a psychostimulant which can increase energy metabolism throughout the brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible mechanism of inhibition elicited by caffeine on red complex pathogens. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the phytocompound caffeine was tested against the group of red complex pathogens, namely, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia employing in silico analysis. STITCH tool was used to reveal the interactions between the compound and the protein repertoire in the pathogens selected. The virulence encoded proteins have been identified using VirulentPred and their functional classification was deduced using VICMPred. Results: Caffeine was found to interact with several crucial proteins of the pathogens selected for the study. One among them is the virulence encoded protein putative cardiolipin synthase of P. gingivalis, which was involved in the cellular process. The protein was located in the cytoplasmic membrane of the pathogen and was found to harbor many peptide B-cell epitopes. Conclusions: Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of caffeine against red complex pathogen will enable researchers to define, focus, and target the functional proteins. Computational tools are boon to such drug target discoveries as it is more economical, user- friendly, and less time consuming.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004302
Title: Synergistic antibacterial activity of mangiferin with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak, Ipoh, Malaysia
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Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the synergistic effect of mangiferin with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: Mangiferin was isolated from Mangifera indica and tested for its synergistic activity with eight standard antibiotics against S. aureus using disc diffusion method. Results and Discussion: The results showed that 4 mg/disc of mangiferin exerted synergistic antibacterial effect on S. aureus when used in combination with four standard antibiotics. Combination with nalidixic acid, ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resulted in fold increase in area 69.00%, 21.37%, 16.16%, and 4.16%, respectively. At the same time, there is no synergetic antibacterial effect observed with other tested antibiotics against S. aureus. Furthermore, there is no antagonistic antibacterial effect for the tested antibiotics. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that mangiferin is a safe natural product which can potentiate antibacterial effect of some antibiotics suggesting good potential for combination therapy against S. aureus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004303
Title: Combinatory effect of embelin with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak, Ipoh, Malaysia
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Aim: The study aims to evaluate the combinatory effect of embelin with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: Embelin was isolated from Embelia ribes. The combinatory antibacterial effect of embelin along with antibiotics against S. aureus was determined using disc diffusion assay. Results and Discussion: The antibacterial study showed that 4 mg/disc of embelin enhanced antibacterial activities in four of eight standard antibiotics against S. aureus. Nalidixic acid in combination with embelin depicted the highest fold increase in area which accounts for 98.61%. Combination with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and tetracycline resulted in fold increase in area for 16.19%, 6.38%, and 5.91%, respectively. Conversely, antagonist interaction occurred for gentamicin and embelin combination against S. aureus. At the same time, there is no synergetic antibacterial effect observed with other tested antibiotics against S. aureus. Conclusion: The results suggest that the use of embelin in combination with antibiotics may be microbiologically useful in therapy against S. aureus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004304
Title: Study of occurrence of MB 2 canal and the distance between MB1 and MB2 canals using CBCT analysis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The maxillary first molar is the human tooth, located laterally from both the maxillary second premolars. The function of this molar is similar to that of all molars in regard to grinding being the principal action during mastication. They have three roots, namely, mesiobuccal, distobuccal, and palatal, of which the mesiobuccal root is most commonly associated with having two canals. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of the second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal in the maxillary molars as well as to determine the distance between MB1 and MB2 canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) analysis on extracted human first molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 teeth were collected with intact roots. They were cut using diamond discs at the cementum region. They are viewed using normal unaided vision and CBCT, and the occurrence of MB2 canal is located. Results: The study showed that 88.88% of the teeth had two canals in the mesiobuccal root and 11.11% of the teeth had one canal in the mesiobuccal root. The distance between canals ranged from 1.51 to 3.58 mm; the average distance between the two canals was 2.30 mm. Conclusion: Proper knowledge of the anatomy will enable successful treatments and less failure in the treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004305
Title: Body weight, tumor volume and histopathological changes is a novel marker for effect of Paclitaxel along with Di Allyl Sulfide on 7,12 Di Methyl Benz (a) Anthracene induced skin cancer Wistar rats
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research, Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the levels of body weight, tumor volume, histopathological and antitumor efficacy of Paclitaxel along with di allyl sulfide against skin cancer in experimental animals. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in western countries. It is estimated that more than 1 million new cases occur annually. The incidence of all forms of skin cancer is increasing each year, representing a growing public concern. The most common warning sign of skin cancer is a change in the appearance of the skin such as a new growth or a sore that will not heal. Skin cancer is caused by chemical carcinogens and papillomavirus infection. Materials and Methods: Skin cancer was induced in rats by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) at the dosage of 5 µg dissolved in 100 µl acetone and administered into experimental animals for 28 weeks. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of paclitaxel and diallyl sulfide reverts the changes in the rats from lethal dose of DMBA within 30 days. Results: The levels of body weight, tumor volume, and histopathological changes in skin were found to be decreased body weight, increased tumor volume, and loss of the radiating melanocytes architecture in cancer-bearing animals when compared with control animals. The treatment of paclitaxel along with diallyl sulfide to cancer-induced animals showed significant increased body weight, decreased tumor volume, and regenerate normal architecture when compared with cancer-induced animals. Conclusions: The treatment with a combination of paclitaxel and diallyl sulfide effectively increased body weight and decreased tumor volume levels. Hence, from the obtained results, it is concluded that paclitaxel and diallyl sulfide are capable of restoring the skin architecture.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004306
Title: Comparison of split-bone technique versus bur technique in the impacted third molar surgery
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Surgical removal of impacted third molar is done most commonly in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. This study aimed at clinically comparing the two different surgical techniques and finding the reasonably better technique (lingual split using chisel and mallet and buccal approach technique using rotary instruments) used in the removal of impacted mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: The present clinical study comprised 40 patients with impacted mandibular wisdom teeth. Patients were divided into two groups and bone covering the third molar was removed by the split-bone technique using chisel and mallet and buccal approach technique using rotary instruments. Results: Time period of surgery was significantly increased in bur technique. Trismus was increased significantly in split-bone technique when compared to buccal approach technique using rotary instruments. Post-operative lingual nerve paresthesia was significantly higher in lingual split technique. Dry socket was more in patients of buccal approach technique using rotary instruments. Conclusion: In this study, we found that split-bone technique using chisel and mallet is found to be better when compared to buccal approach technique using rotary instruments (bur technique).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004307
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness regarding the resin-bonded restorations among dental students in Chennai
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Conservative Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the research is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and awareness regarding the resin-bonded restorations among dental students in Chennai. Objective: The objective of this research is to find out the knowledge, attitude, and awareness of dental students regarding the resin-bonded restorations. Materials and Methods: A descriptive survey is conducted using a questionnaire consisting of 10 questions to collect the data pertaining to the knowledge and awareness of resin-bonded restorations among the dental students in Chennai. Results: From the results, it is evident that 33% of the students were not aware of the resin-bonded restorations. Only 26% of the students know all types of the resin-bonded cement and 31% of the students did not select polymerization as setting reaction for resin-bonded cements which show that there is a lack of knowledge regarding resin-bonded restoration among dental students. Conclusion: From the results, it is found that the awareness of resin-bonded cement among dental undergraduates has been found to be inadequate. Hence, increased importance should be given to education in this aspect of dental cement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004308
Title: Knowledge and awareness of basic life support among the dental students in Chennai type of research: A survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of basic life support (BLS) among the dental students in Chennai. Objective: The objective of the study was to find out the awareness of BLS among the dental students in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using a questionnaire comprising 10 questions to collect the data pertaining to awareness and knowledge of BLS, attitude toward BLS among the dental students. Results: From the results, it is evident that 80% of the dental students were aware of the term BLS. About 42% of the dental students have not done cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or observed doing a CPR. About 50% of the students do not know the exact location of the chest compression. About 65% of the study population does not know the ratio of chest compressions and mouth breathings. Conclusion: The study shows that there is a significant lack of knowledge among students regarding BLS. This study emphasizes the need for all health-care professionals to update the knowledge and skills regarding BLS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004309
Title: Zygoma fracture associated ophthalmic consequences
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Fractures of the zygomatic complex are often reported with defects in the orbital floor correlated with computed tomography findings. To address the ophthalmic outcomes associated with fractured zygoma, some surgeons recommend exploration and repair of these defects during the repair of the zygoma, while others advocate a more selective approach, but there is still a debate surrounding intraoperative exploration of the orbit and insufficient evidence either way. Materials and Methods: We report a case series of 60 patients who had open reduction and internal fixation of zygomatic fractures in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, between 2015 and 2018. The orbit was planned for exploration only in those cases with severe diplopia, or restriction of eye movements or malpositioning of the globe. The variables reviewed included patients age, sex, mechanism of injury, pre-operative ocular and orbital findings, presence or absence of diplopia and visual acuity, extraocular motility, pupillary reactivity and fracture pattern, and morbidity. Results: During a 3-year study period, zygoma fractures were mainly caused by road traffic accidents and there is higher prevalence in males in the age group of 15–29 years. Conclusion: Due to time constraints, this study is observational in nature. There is no evidence that routine exploration of the orbital floor improves post-operative outcomes or reduces complications. On the basis of our findings, we think that selected patients only should have orbital exploration, and this should depend on the severity of the pre-operative signs and on the intraoperative findings.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004310
Title: Effect of visual reality on the operators experience during local anesthetic administration for pediatric patients
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: One of the many goals of dentistry includes the reduction of anxiety of the patient while treatment is being performed. Virtual reality (VR) has been gaining popularity in recent times. Using this device in dental treatment can be very useful in distracting the patient from the anxiety of local anesthetic administration. Materials and Methods: Sample selection: A total of 20 children were assessed for the study. One group had Local anesthesia (LA) administered with VR the other without VR. The inclusion criteria were children belonging to the ages of 5–11 years and the exclusion criteria were children aged between 1 and 4 years. Results: From the present study, we can say that there was a statistical significance value that was obtained. There was a considerable improvement for the operation to administer LA with the group that had VR. One of the major limitations was the size of VR being large which was hindering the administration site. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is a considerable amount of improvement in experience in the perspective of the operator during the administration of local anesthesia in children who wore VR.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004311
Title: Dental students’ knowledge regarding the indications of antibiotics after extraction – A multicenter survey
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Practice Management, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technological Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to find the knowledge and awareness about the indications of antibiotics post-extraction. Background: Dental practitioners commonly prescribe antibiotics to treat dental infections. Proper use of antibiotics thus becomes essential to ensure that effective and safe treatment is available and that practices that may enhance microbial resistance are avoided. An antibiotic is a chemical produced by a microorganism that kills or inhibits the growth of another microorganism. Antibiotics act as adjuncts in the management of oral/dental infections. They are not substitutes for definitive treatment, but their proper use can shorten the period of infection and minimize the spread of infection to the adjacent anatomical space or systemic involvement. As a result, antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medicine by the dentists. Materials and Methods: The survey was uploaded and conducted through Google forms. The survey had 140 responses from III year, IV year, CRRI, and PG students. The questionnaire had 20 questions based on indications and dosage forms. The results were collected and analyzed. Conclusion: Thus, the majority of the students exhibited adequate amount of knowledge and awareness in prescribing antibiotics for various clinical situations. The antibiotic prescription practice lacked adequate knowledge in providing alternative antibiotics when required. Hence, the knowledge of the dental students’ needs to be updated to increase awareness and improved prescribing practice for good patient care and avoid the occurrence of any adverse effect arising as a result of erroneous drug prescription which could endanger the patient’s life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004312
Title: Evaluation of internship program of undergraduate students in a private dental college
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental education is at a critical state due to advances in health-care delivery system. In dentistry, one can gain extensive amount of knowledge only when they are students. Aim: This study aims to assess the internship program of undergraduate students of a private dental college in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduates. A pretested questionnaire was used to assess the internship experience such as critical thinking knowledge, problem-solving skills, sense of responsibility, creativity, professional attitude, appearances, quality of work, and ethics. Descriptive statistics were analyzed. Results: It shows that about 72.3% of interns were satisfied about their internship achievements. Conclusion: The study concludes that the internship program has built in the clinical competency of the interns.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004313
Title: Comparative evaluation of canal cleanliness using three different irrigation agitation methods
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Different techniques and irrigant delivery devices have been proposed to increase the effect of chemical disinfection within the root canal system and to improve canal cleanliness following mechanical instrumentation. Aim: The aim of the study was to do a comparative evaluation of the cleanliness of the canal using EndoActivator (Dentsply Sirona), modified Waterpik tooth floss, Finishing File, and without any agitation. Materials and Methods: Single root canals of extracted human anterior teeth were used. Root canals were prepared. Irrigation was performed using 3% sodium hypochlorite and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution. Samples were divided into four equal groups, according to the irrigation activation techniques: (a) EndoActivator (Dentsply Sirona) (b) modified Waterpik tooth floss with EndoActivator tip, (c) Finishing File (Neoendo Healthcare India Pvt. Ltd.), and (d) without any agitation (control). Roots were cross-sectioned longitudinally, and the canal walls were subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer at coronal, middle, and apical levels was evaluated. Results: The Finishing File (Neoendo Healthcare India Pvt. Ltd.) performed better than the EndoActivator (Dentsply Sirona) and modified Waterpik tooth floss in the debridement of coronal to the apical thirds of the root canal. In the coronal third, modified Waterpik tooth floss was effective in the debridement of the root canal. Similarly, in the middle and the apical thirds, Finishing File (Neoendo Healthcare India Pvt. Ltd.) was effective in the debridement of the root canal. Conclusion: Finishing File scored the best in debris removal compared to the other irrigation activation systems. However, none of the irrigation activation systems were able to debride the root canal completely.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004314
Title: Attitude of dental students toward their oral hygiene – A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Oral health awareness has an important role in the general health and well-being of the individual. As dental students, we have an enormous role to play in maintaining public health. Hence, it is very important to have a sound knowledge and importance of oral hygiene measures and their importance. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to know the views of dental students toward their oral health. Materials and Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to assess the attitude of dental students toward their oral health. The awareness about their oral health, self-evaluation, and their oral hygiene practices was assessed. A sample of 100 students was evaluated and their response was recorded, tabulated, and analyzed. Results: The frequency of the dental student’s brushing interval and duration has been highlighted through the study that a majority (58%) of the students brush twice a day, the rest brush either only morning (39%) or only night (3%). The brushing duration has an equal proportion (50%). About 69% of the students showed concern about having bleeding gums and about 75% of them do a self-appraisal of their teeth. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that the overall knowledge of oral health behaviors among dental students was good, but there were deficits in their oral hygiene practices in certain areas.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004315
Title: A study of evaluation of body mass index and food pattern changes in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technological Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The demand for orthodontic treatment has been increased in recent years. This is due to the high conscious of esthetics by the patient themselves. Most done treatment is fixed orthodontics. During fixed orthodontics, patients are often advised to follow certain dietary restrictions such as to eat soft food during the initial stages of treatment by the practitioner for preventing pain and discomfort which is usually caused by the appliance. This study involves in accessing the difference of mean weight, body mass index (BMI), and food frequency between the pre-operative and post-operative records. Aim: This study aims to find out if there is any variation of food pattern and BMI before and after orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: In this study, 50 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were considered. The history of the patient was obtained. Their weight, height, and dietary food pattern were asked and accessed. Similar assessment was done after the orthodontic treatment is completed and noted. All the patient records were compiled and computed. Then, comparison of the pre-operative records and the post-operative records was assessed. Results: The results were statistically significant. There was a significant amount of difference between the pre-operative and post-operative records. The mean difference between pre-operative weights was 1.58. The mean difference between pre-operative BMI is 1.0. The mean difference between pre-operative dietary patterns is 1.28. Conclusion: Thus, there is a small amount of changes in the weight, BMI and food pattern are revealed by this study. This change is due to the dynamic changes happening in the oral cavity which affect the frequency of food quantity and the amount of food that the persons are taking during the treatment, thus affecting the weight, thereby reducing the BMI.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004316
Title: Antipyretic effect of oral versus rectal paracetamol in febrile children
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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Objectives: The objectives of the study were to compare the antipyretic effect and safety profile of oral and rectal paracetamol in febrile children. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was conducted in 76 children in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Bengaluru. Subjects were divided into two groups, Groups O (oral) and R (Rectal) based on the route of administration of paracetamol. Group O was given oral paracetamol at a dose of 15 mg/kg and Group R was given rectal paracetamol at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Required data were collected in specially modified case report form. Baseline axillary temperature and temperature after 1, 2, and 3 h of drug administration were recorded using digital thermometer. The adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with oral and rectal paracetamol were monitored. The suspected ADRs were assessed for causality using the WHO scale and severity using Hartwigs and Siegel scale during study. The collected data were compared using two sample t-test and followed by one-way analysis of variance and appropriate post hoc test. Results: It was observed that the antipyretic effectiveness of equal doses of oral and rectal paracetamol (15 mg/kg) is non-significant in terms of mean change in temperature in comparison to the baseline values in between patients of both the groups after 1 h (P = 0.364), 2 h (P = 0.900), and 3 h (P = 0.757) which is more than 0.05. Conclusion: The difference in the antipyretic effect of oral and rectal paracetamol is still unclear. The results of the study conclude that both the oral and rectal paracetamol have similar effectiveness in reducing the temperature in febrile children. Rectal route can be preferred in case of unconscious patient, patient with complaints of vomiting and any condition which precludes the administration of oral paracetamol.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004319
Title: Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice of epileptic patients toward the disease and its management in tertiary care teaching hospital – An interventional study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders that affect more than 50 million people worldwide of all ages, especially childhood, adolescence, and elderly having a prevalence rate of 2.8–19.5/1000. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAPs) of epileptic patients toward their disease. Methodology: Prospective interventional study conducted over a period of 3 months after receiving the institutional ethical committee approval. The study patient was randomized into test and control groups. At baseline and follow-up visits, the patients of both the groups were administered with KAP questionnaire. Test group patients received patient education. Results obtained were assessed to determine the influence of education on patient’s KAP. Results: A total of 72 patients were recruited and completed all the follow-ups. There were more male patients compared to female patients (5:2). A significant (P < 0.05) improvement in KAP score was observed in the test group patient compared to the control group. It was observed that illiterates responded significantly to the education provided (significant P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our study concluded that pharmacist-mediated education has improved the patient’s attitude and practice of their disease which, in turn, would lead to better and effective seizure control.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004320
Title: The morphometric study of occurrence and variations of foramen ovale
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Foramen vale is one of the important foramina present in the sphenoid bone. Anatomically it is located in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. The foramen ovale is situated posterolateral to the foramen rotundum and anteromedial to the foramen spinosum. The foramen spinosum is present posterior to the foramen ovale. The carotid canal is present posterior and medial to the foramen spinosum and the foramen rotundum is present anterior to the foramen ovale. The structures which pass through the foramen ovale are the mandibular nerve, emissary vein, accessory middle meningeal artery, and lesser petrosal nerve. The sphenoid bone has a body, a pair of greater wing, pair of lesser wing, pair of lateral pterygoid plate, and a pair of medial pterygoid plate. Aim: The study involves the assessment of any additional features in foramen ovale in dry South Indian skulls. Materials and Methods: This study involves examination of dry adult skulls. First, the foramen ovale is located, and then it is carefully examined for presence of alterations and additional features, and is recorded following computing the data and analyzing it. Results: The maximum length of foramen ovale on the right and left was 10.1 mm, 4.3 mm, respectively. The minimum length of the foramen in right and left was 9.1 mm, 3.2 mm, respectively. The maximum width of foramen ovale on the right and left was 4.8 mm and 2.3 mm, respectively. The minimum width of the foramen in the right and the left side was 5.7 mm and 2.9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Hence, the anatomic variations should be assessed before any process as variation found in the present study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004324
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practices of complementary and alternative medicine for oral health-care management among dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a vast group of medical and health-care systems, practices, and products which are not recognized as a part of conventional medicine. These are dealt as a separate system for treating diseases. Biofeedback, homeopathy, acupuncture, Ayurvedic medication, massage, bioelectromagnetic therapy, meditation, and music therapy are some of the examples of treatments using CAM. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 dental students belonging to 3rd year, final year, and internship selected by simple random sampling. The questionnaire was a pre-fabricated, simple, and close-ended. Consent was taken from the students for participating in the survey. Data were gathered using an online survey application. To evaluate the knowledge of dental students regarding CAM, the questionnaire consisted of 18 questions with yes/no/do not know as options for response. Results: From the survey conducted, it was found that about 67% of the participants were found to be females. About 77.3% of the people were aware of CAM. Majority of the students, that is, about 79.5% of them felt that the use of CAM should be asked during history taking. About 38% of them felt that the use of CAM should not be encouraged along with conventional medicines. Majority of them felt that the consultation on the use of CAM should be done to the dentist. Conclusion: Nowadays, a lot of emphases is being given to CAM; however, there is still a lot of research that needs to be done regarding the proper use of CAM, particularly with regard to dosage and contaminants in dentistry. At present, CAM is still opinion-based. Many retailers of CAM do justify that it is individualized, holistic, intuitive, etc., in research. However, there is a lot of research that is warranted on its use and needs in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004330
Title: Awareness of safety/infection control practices followed by dental laboratory technicians in South India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental impressions are among the items that are considered potentially infectious. They are invariably contaminated with patient saliva or blood. Such fluids can contain viral and bacterial pathogens including human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis A, B, and C viruses. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was done among dental technicians in and around Tamil Nadu. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a questionnaire containing 18 questions about the knowledge, precautions, and awareness of impressions disinfection procedures. A total of 65 (50 males and 15 females) technicians participated in the study. Results: This study conveyed that 32 technicians have 0–5 years of experience, 19 of 5–10 years, and about 14 of them gained more than 10 years. Among them, 77% usually wash their impressions once they received it, while others do not. Conclusion: As we know that even small amount of negligence can lead to accidents, the technicians need to be guided and create awareness of various safety precautions to be followed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004331
Title: A study based on role of community pharmacist on health screening and monitoring of hypertensive patients in Mysuru city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Introduction: Hypertension is a chronic cardiovascular incurable disorder where it may not precipitate the symptoms in each and every individual. In other words, hypertension is also called silent killer, where it can damage heart, kidney, eye, and brain if left untreated. People in the advanced age as well as people with risk factors such as smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle habits, and consuming more salt and fat in the food diet should always be screened for blood pressure (BP). Health screening services are those health-care services provided to patients and general public by health-care professionals such as measurement of capillary blood glucose by glucometer, measurement of peak expiratory flow rate using spirometry, and measurement of BP by sphygmomanometer. Our practicing community pharmacists work only in the interest of business welfare rather than public health welfare. Therefore, research investigators thought that introduction of health screening service of BP in community pharmacy can create awareness to general public and this type of health-care service rendered in one community pharmacy can spread to another community pharmacy so that role of community pharmacist can be recognized in terms of professionally rather than meagerly businessmen by general public. Objective of the Study: The objective of the study was to screen the public visiting and to implement and evaluate health screening and monitoring services for hypertension, in JSS Community Pharmacy, Mysuru. Methodology: This was a prospective observational study carried out in JSS Community Pharmacy over a period of 1 year. Subjects who met study criteria were enrolled in this research study by giving consent form. Demographic details such as age, gender, qualification status, marital status, and social history were documented in suitably designed data collection form. Auscultatory method was applied to estimate BP of the study subjects. Results and Discussion: Mean change of systolic BP observed among screened patients was 11 ± 3.68, and mean change of diastolic BP observed among screened patients was 04.52 ± 1.04. The mean change of systolic BP observed among monitored patients was 7.32 ± 0.75, and the mean change of diastolic BP observed among monitored patients was 04.41 ± 0.83. Conclusion: The mean change of systolic and diastolic BP observed among screened and monitored patients were found to be statistically significant of P < 0.05.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November [ Special Issue 1]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004333
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice of the association between diabetes and periodontitis among medical practitioners: A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The oral cavity is the intersection of medicine and dentistry and the window to the general health of the patient. Hundreds of diseases and medications have a huge impact on the oral cavity and pathologic conditions in the oral cavity have a greater systemic impact. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, awareness, and practice of the association between diabetes and periodontitis among medical practitioners. Materials and Methods: A web- based questionnaire comprising 15 questions was formulated and circulated among 100 medical practitioners of more than 10 years of practice. The responses were then subjected to statistical analysis. Conclusion: Although the medical practitioners have knowledge of the association between diabetes and periodontitis, they fail to apply it in the clinical practice.