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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004500
Title: An investigation of the knowledge and attitude of residents at Arak University of Medical Sciences on the principles of medical recording and medical malpractices
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Surgery, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
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Background and Objectives: Given that, medical records contain important and essential information about patient care and are also considered a rich asset in medical science, this study sought to assess the knowledge and attitudes of residents at the Arak University of Medical Sciences as effective people in the quality of filing the records concerning principles of medical recording and medical malpractices. Materials and Methods: The present research is a descriptive study that evaluates the knowledge and attitude of 83 staff members working at Arak University of Medical Sciences. The required data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. Furthermore, data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential methods in SPSS software version 21. Results: A total of 30.8% of the residents in the 1st and 2nd years (hereafter, postgraduate year [PGY]-1 and 2) and 45% of the residents in the 3rd and 4th years (hereafter, PGY-3 and 4) considered themselves as fully informed of medical malpractice rules. About 36.5% of PGY-1 and 2 had no information about the release sheets. The level of awareness and knowledge of PGY-1 and 2 on nursing reports was 38.5%, whereas in PGY-3 and 4, it was 41.9%. Moreover, 69.2% of PGY-1 and 2 and 48.4% of PGY-3 and 4 agreed that correct medical recording would help improve the quality of the diagnosis. Conclusion: Given that, the knowledge and attitudes of the residents toward the principles of medical recording and legal rules are weak, it is recommended that workshops be held in the field of recording and professional medical rules.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004497
Title: Stressors of clinical education in operating room students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Community Nursing Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
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Introduction: It is important to recognize clinical stressors to improve and enhance the learning level of trainees and interns and the importance of learning clinical education. This study was conducted to evaluate the stressors of clinical education in operating room students of Zahedan School of Nursing and Midwifery in 2017. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was performed on 78 students of Zahedan Nursing and Midwifery Faculty who had passed at least five training units. The questionnaire was used by Raji et al. and Sarvey et al., and its validity and reliability were confirmed. For data analysis, SPSS 20 was used, and descriptive statistics, mean, standard deviation, Spearman test, and t-test were also used. Results: In this study, semester four students had more unpleasant emotions than semester six and eight students, but in the stressful areas of humiliating experiences, clinical environment, and interpersonal communication, semester six and eight students experienced more stress. In relation to sex, females in all domains had more stress than males, and in the 21-year- old age group and younger, unpleasant emotions and humiliating experiences compared to those over 21 years were higher, but clinical environment stressors and interpersonal communication in 21-year-old age group and older experiences more stress than 21-year-old age group and younger. Conclusion: The study showed that students have moderate levels of stress, and according to the stress areas in the questionnaire and information obtained, it is necessary for colleges, universities, and training hospitals to plan to reduce the stress level of students and eliminate stressors as much as possible.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004417
Title: A comparative study of artificial saliva containing different anticariogenic agent
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Artificial saliva is prescribed as a prophylactic measure in xerostomia patients. It works by moistening and lubricating the mouth and throat. Xerostomia patients are prone to develop caries. Hence, supplementing artificial saliva with anticariogenic agents such as chlorhexidine or natural herbs will act as a prophylaxis in preventing the onset and progression of dental caries. Aim: The aim is to compare and study the antimicrobial effect of two different anticariogenic agents incorporated in artificial saliva. Materials and Methods: The anticariogenic agents studied were chlorhexidine and an herbal mixture containing Terminalia bellirica and Piper betle. The interventions were herbal (Group A) and chlorhexidine (Group B), and the antibacterial efficacy was tested against three different bacterial species, namely, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus. All three bacteria were cultured under each group. Each group was divided into two subgroups, subgroup 1 and subgroup 2, that is, with different ratios of anticariogenic agents and artificial saliva – 1:1 and 1:3, respectively. The bacterial growth was studied and analyzed. Results: Herbal and chlorhexidine agents inhibited cariogenic bacterial growth. The bacterial growth was comparatively less in chlorhexidine (Group B) when compared to herbal group. Among the two subgroups, bacterial growth was less in subgroup 1 than subgroup 2. Conclusion: Artificial saliva containing herbal anticariogenic agents will be beneficial to patients with xerostomia in preventing caries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004418
Title: Herbal formulation mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antifungal activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nanobiomedicine Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate herbal formulation (Andrographis paniculata and moringa olifera) mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its antifungal activity. Materials and Methods: Andrographis paniculata and Moringa olifera formulated and used for green synthesis of AgNPs has been gaining importance due to its simplicity and eco-friendliness. In this study, the herbal formulation mediated AgNPs are evaluated for antifungal activity using agar well diffusion method. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate herbal-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and its antifungal activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004419
Title: Anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic of Channa striata powder and Nephelium lappaceum fruit peel ethanolic extracts on albino Wistar mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Depatment of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Jl. A. Yani Tromol Pos I, Kartasura, Surakarta, Indonesia
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Aim: Channa striata powder (CSP) and Nephelium lappaceum fruit peel extract (NLPE) were studied for anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. Materials and Methods: The investigations on albino Wistar mice for anti-inflammatory action by injecting 0.2 ml of 2% w/v carrageenan sodium subcutaneously in the sub-plantar of the mice right hind paw. Meanwhile, antidiabetic activity performed on animal model diabetic by injected alloxan. Result: The results showed that CSP, NLPE, and their combinations at dose 150 mg/kg.bw proved to significantly decreased the volume of mouse foot edema (P < 0.05). Antidiabetic activity of the combination had best activity of lowering blood glucose level of 55.6%, while CSP and NLPE could decrease blood glucose level successively 27.4% and 71.2% in mice alloxan-induced diabetic. Conclusion: The combination of CSP and NLPE has anti-inflammatory effect lower than a single extract, has antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced mice but did not show synergistic effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004420
Title: Prevalence of cervical spondylosis among bike riders in South Indian population – A population-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cervical spondylosis (CS) is an age-related issue of the vertebral segment and found wherever in more elderly individuals. It is caused mostly due to bike riding. It depicts the morphological signs of unending and dynamic degeneration of the cervical spine that first influences the intervertebral disc and afterward influences the nearby vertebrae, the joints, the tendons, and in extraordinary cases, the substance of the spinal column. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 subjects will be subjected to a list of questions on the effects of riding bike, and the manifestations of the neck pain are correlated with CS among bike riders. All the collected data are analyzed systematically with the normal and affected individuals. The results obtained were analyzed statistically, tabulated, and represented graphically. Results: As per the result, it had seen that youngsters are more prevalent toward CS among bike riders in South Indian population. It is seen that 62% of male individuals, 36% of the female individuals, and 2% others are facing CS. About 53% of people between the age ranges of 12 and 18 face CS. About 53% of people do not have any kind of neck pain at present. About 53% of people feel discomfort in the neck region during bike riding. About 59% of individuals do not have pain in the neck after riding bike. Conclusion: From the results, it is observed that bike riding has a great impact over the CS. About 48% of people had heard about CS. About 47% of people go for a long ride in motorcycle. About 61% of people do not have any back pain due to long ride in motorcycle. About 42% of people feel that the type of motorcycle has an influence over the neck pain. About 59% of people think that the type of road they are using has an influence over the neck pain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004421
Title: Comparison of interalar width and maxillary intercanine distance as a tool to design dentures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Basically, the most complicating and perplexing aspects of complete denture prosthodontics is the selection of appropriately sized maxillary anterior teeth denture. The main aim of this study is to compare and correlate the usage of maxillary intercanine distance and interalar distance in denture making for the useful aspects of a patient with significant dental complaints. Materials and Methods: Nasal width was measured using two points marked on the nose of either side of the face with fine tip marking aid, which indicates the widest point in the outer surface of the alae of the nose. The distance was measured using a vernier caliper. For the determination of intercanine distance, the distance between the two lateral edges of the right and left canine teeth was taken in square, ovoid, and tapering arch forms. The data obtained were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The average value of the intercanine distance was found to be 10.44 ± 0.35. The average value of the intermaxillary canine distance was found to be 14.40 ± 0.51. The correlation between the two measurements was analyzed. Conclusion: It is based on the principle that the parallel line drawn from the alae of the nose touches the tip of the canine. On the other hand, this method might not hold better for all types of dental arch forms. This article finds a correlation between the alar of the nose and the tip of the canine for the various arch forms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004422
Title: Knowledge and awareness the risk factor of diabetes mellitus and the association between obesity and family history of diabetes among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which there is a high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. People who are obese have a high risk of developing Type-2 diabetes. The obesity has added pressure on their body’s ability to use insulin to properly control blood sugar level. The aim of the study is to create awareness about the risk factor of diabetes mellitus and to find the association between obesity and family history of diabetes. Materials and Methods: A twenty-approved standard questionnaire was prepared for diabetic patients in relation to their obese condition and family history. The participants were selected based on their age, sex, and diabetic severity. The collected data will be categorized, analyzed, and represented graphically. Results: To find whether there is any association between diabetes and food habits, 33% responded “yes,” 14% responded “no,” and 3% responded “not aware of.” To analyze the major risk factor of diabetes mellitus, 3% responded lack of exercise, 24% responded heredity, 8% responded lifestyle, 6% responded obesity, 7% responded all the above, and 2% responded none of the above. Conclusion: Awareness about diabetes mellitus is required so as to avoid various health issues. Now that we came to know the different ways through which one can get diabetes easily. It is important for each of them affected by diabetes to do some physical activities everyday to improve their health and have a constant control on their daily diet.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004423
Title: Antibiofilm activity of temu kunci (Boesenbergia rotunda), an Indonesian medicinal plant extract, against root canal pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Trisakti University, Jalan Kyai Tapa 260, Grogol West Jakarta 11440, Indonesia
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Introduction: A medicinal extract from an Indonesian plant, temu kunci (Boesenbergia rotunda) has an antibacterial effect. The objectives of this study is to determine the effects of temu kunci extract against Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Treponema denticola biofilms. Materials and Methods: This experimental laboratory study used the post-test control group design method. The E. faecalis, F. nucleatum, and T. denticola were each cultured in brain heart infusion broth, for 24 h, at 37°C, under anaerobic conditions. Each bacterium was distributed into 96-well microplate and treated with an ethanol extract of temu kunci in different concentrations and incubated for 5 min, 1 h, 6 h, and 24 h. The biofilm without treatment was used as the negative control, and sodium hypochlorite was used as the positive control. The biofilm mass was read using a microplate reader (490 nm). One-way analysis of variance and a post hoc test was used to analyze the results. Results: The temu kunci extract significantly reduced E. faecalis, F. nucleatum, and T. denticola in the monospecies and multispecies biofilms for all incubation periods (P < 0.05). Inhibitory efficiency of each concentration of the temu kunci extracts in preventing biofilm formation against E. faecalis, T. denticola, F. nucleatum monospecies, and multispecies. Moreover, the type of bacteria, the concentration, and the incubation time period were statistically significant compared to the control (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Temu kunci has antibiofilm activity against root canal pathogen biofilms, and it may be used as an alternative for root canal irrigation. However, further works are needed to determine the detailed mechanism by which temu kunci affects biofilm formation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004424
Title: A cross-sectional study on morbidity profile of sanitary workers in a private medical college and hospital in Kancheepuram district
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The safety and health of the sanitary workers are an important issue in the current situation. They are the most vulnerable population as they are exposed to hazardous materials affecting the health. This study aims to assess the morbidity profile of the sanitary workers and health-seeking behavior of the workers. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study done among the 99 sanitary workers in the tertiary care hospital selected by universal sampling technique. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data after taking the informed consent from the participants. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS software version 22. Results: Among the workers, 57.6% of them were ≤44 years of age and 48.5% of them were uneducated. About 24.2% of the workers were in this same occupation for more than 5 years and 87.9% of the workers were using protective equipment while working. The prevalence of musculoskeletal morbidities was high (68.7%) when compared to the other medical morbidities. Only 5.1% of the workers availed health services for the existing health problems. Conclusion: This study concluded that the musculoskeletal morbidities were high among the sanitary workers when compared with other medical morbidities. Most of the people did not avail health-care facilities. Hence, necessary steps such as health education and screening can be given to improve the quality of life among the sanitary workers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004425
Title: Alkaline protease of new bacterial species MTCC 5468 for chemical free dehairing of skin in leather making
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Alkaline protease secreting bacterium was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis and named as Bacillus crolab MTCC 5468. Materials and Methods: The enzyme created zone of hydrolysis in zymography and agar-casein plate and therefore used for production of protease. Optimum conditions for enzyme production and activity were standardized. Results: The crude enzyme showed maximum activity at 40°C, pH 9.0. The enzyme thus produced showed 855 U/ml activity. It was more stable in the presence of Li + followed by NH4 + and Ca 2 + salts, and affected by Hg2 +. The enzyme depilated was able to goat hair effectively without chemical aid. Thus enzymatically dehaired skin was characterized by histology and SEM. Also the enzyme successfully removed blood stain on white cloth. Conclusion: The alkaline protease of this newly identified organism can be used in leather making and laundry industries for pollution abatement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004426
Title: Central nervous system adverse effects of ertapenem in diabetic foot ulcer patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objectives: The objective of the study was to study the effect of ertapenem on central nervous system (CNS) and to study definite, probable, and possible CNS effects associated with ertapenem use. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 patients were in ertapenem therapy. Patients were divided into three groups. Provided with case pro forma and Naranjo probability scale, definite, probable, and possible effects are evaluated. Assessment of outcome will be done statistically among Group A, Group B, and Group C which consists of people given ertapenem for 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days, respectively. Moreover, the withdrawal effects of same groups will also be recorded after withdrawal of drug using Naranjo probability scale. Patients of the age group of 30–85 years diagnosed with diabetic foot ulcer and cellulitis. Results: The total number of 63 patients on ertapenem therapy was divided into three categories and had a total of 44 male and 19 female patients. Higher number of patients involved in this study was among the age group of 60 years. In this study, outdoor workers and people in rural population were affected more and I found that patients on ertapenem therapy for a lesser number of days had possibly less ADR and those on ertapenem therapy for more than a week had a definite and serious ADR. Conclusion: This study concluded that even though ertapenem furnishes a great effect on complicated infections. It has various adverse effects such as hallucinations, delusions, seizures, confusion, altered mental status, and some allergic reactions. On the other hand, withdrawal of ertapenem will subside the acquired adverse effects. Therefore, care must be taken while administering ertapenem and awareness must be created among the patients to avoid unwanted examinations or hospitalizations regarding altered mental status.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004427
Title: Effect of Vitamin D supplement in improving pain, sleep, and quality of life on patients with chronic low back pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the intensity of pain in patients before Vitamin D supplements and post supplements, and to identify a therapy that reduces pain and improves the quality of life (QOL) of patients with minimal or no adverse effects. Materials and Methods: The patients enrolled in the study were assessed for their pain, sleep, and QOL using widely accepted testing categories such as visual analogue scale and numerical rating scale for pain, pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) for sleep, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Instruments for QOL. The testing for improvement in pain, sleep, and QOL was assessed at baseline (before Vitamin D supplements) and monitored post Vitamin D supplements. The testing was assessed 2 times–at baseline and after 8 weeks. The improvement in pain, sleep, and QOL was determined by comparing the scores obtained by the individual from the two intervals. Results: The study included 40 patients in which all were cases diagnosed with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Among 40 patients, with ages 36–45 years are at maximum affected by CLBP. Among the 40 patients, 24 patients (60%) are male and 16 patients (40%) are females. From the parameters, 90% of the patients were free from social habits. When LBP, QOL, and sleep quality of the patients were studied using questionnaires, before and after the administration of Vitamin D supplementation. When QOL was compared, after treatment phase showed positive results. QOL was statistically significant between the phase (P < 0.006). Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation has shown improvement in LBP by exerting immunological influences, thus decrement in pain is noted. The main mechanism through which Vitamin D supplementation reduces pain is its influences in the pain pathway by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Vitamin D supplementation thereby decreasing the pain increases the sleep and QOL of the patients with LBP.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004428
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on gestational weight gain in pregnant women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of this investigation was to study the knowledge, attitude, and practice on gestational weight gain (GWG) in pregnant women and also to determine them is perceptions and the effect of lifestyle modification on dietary habits and physical activity in the same. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study where the patients in their first pregnancy where included in the study. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the patients were recruited in the study. A KAP questionnaire was given to the patients. The questionnaire contained a total of 27 questions; each section had 9 questions each. The questionnaire focused more on lifestyle modification, misconception on pregnancy weight gain, and dietary habits. Results: Around 100 patients who were pregnant for the first time were screened for the study. There were varied from the age group of 18–35 years of age. The knowledge of the women was familiar only with regular habits and they were not very sure about the other food habits. The attitude of the patient regarding the GWG was not broad-minded, many refused to discuss it with their family members. The women did not have much knowledge of IOM guidelines, BMI, and teratogenicity. Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the gestation varied from each other. The pregnant women should be given more awareness about weight gain, lifestyle modifications, and dietary habits during. They also had many misconceptions which should be cleared by discussing it with physician.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004429
Title: Lyophilization and stability study of noscapine-loaded polycaprolactone nanoparticles
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Pallavaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Lyophilization or freeze-drying is a dehydration process used to overcome the instability of nanoparticles suspension, increasing its shelf-life, and simultaneously facilitating its handling and storage. This study aims to determine the effect of different cryoprotectants, lyophilization process on their physiochemical properties before and after lyophilization of noscapine-loaded polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles and to evaluate the effect of lyophilization on storage of noscapine-loaded nanoparticles at real time, ambient temperature, and accelerated storage conditions. Materials and Methods: Noscapine-loaded PCL nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method. Freeze-drying microscopy (FDM) used to evaluate the collapsed temperature of sucrose, dextrose, mannitol, and D-sorbitol. Freeze-drying cycle performed using benchtop lyophilizer for freeze-drying cycle optimization. Stability study performed for 6 months at real time, ambient, and accelerated conditions. Results and Discussion: Collapse temperature is important parameter in the development of freeze-drying cycle of nanoparticle and is evaluated using FDM for four cryoprotectants. The primary drying at −35°C and −30°C and secondary drying at +20°C were performed. The lyophilized noscapine-loaded PCL nanoparticles (CBY3H2) with sucrose as cryoprotectant were subjected to real time showed no change in particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. Slight increase in particle size and decrease in entrapment efficiency at ambient and accelerated storage conditions for 6 months. Conculsion: The noscapine-loaded PCL nanoparticles successfully formulated, screened for cryoprotectants for lyophilization. The effect of cryoprotectant on lyophilization process studied and finalized the freeze-drying cycle. The optimized lyophilized noscapine-loaded PCL nanoparticle showed better stability in real-time stability than ambient and accelerated storage conditions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004430
Title: Method development and validation for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine and benazepril by reverse- phase high-performance liquid chromatography in its bulk and pharmaceutical tablet dosag
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: A new, stability-indicating and precise method to develop and validating as per ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines for amlodipine and benazepril in it’s pure and marketed tablet formulation in application to biorelevant dissolution (FaSSIF) media using RP-HPLC technique. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was done with Inertsil ODS (4.6 × 100 mm, 5 µm) as the stationary phase and mobile phase was a mixture of 0.1% Triethylamine: methanol:acetonitrile (40:30:30) which were monitored at 235 nm, isocratic mode using UV detector. Results: By this method, amlodipine and benazepril were eluted with retention times of 2.436 min and 3.332 min. The regression line in calibration graph was linear toward the concentration ranges from 10 to 50 μg/ml for amlodipine and 20–100 μg/ml for benazepril. Limits of detection were 1.05 and 2.78 μg/ml and limits of quantification were 3.18 and 8.45 μg/mL for amlodipine and benazepril, respectively. Conclusion: The study of statistical analysis of this method shows that it is relevant for the combination of amlodipine and benazepril in its pure and tablet dosage form in biorelevant dissolution media (FaSSIF) without any intervention from the excipients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004431
Title: Effects of Vitamin E supplementation on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,
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Objectives: The main objectives are to understand the outcomes of Vitamin E supplementation for Type II diabetes mellitus patients receiving a standard oral hypoglycemic agent. There is a need to study the impact of these antioxidant vitamins in these metabolic disorders. Materials and Methods: A randomized parallel allocated study has been carried out to study the impact of Vitamin E supplementation with one group receiving metformin 500 mg BD + Vitamin E 400 IU OD and Group B receiving metformin 500 mg BD and placebo once daily. Their effects on fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, troponin T levels, lipid profile, etc. Results: A total of 80 patients were grouped into two groups. It was found that the group which received Vitamin E had a slight reduction in fasting blood sugar levels but not a significant difference (P = 0.0568). A significant reduction in the troponin T levels and Framingham Risk Score is observed in this study. Conclusion: we conclude that there is a need for Vitamin E supplementation as there are possibilities of Vitamin E deficiency in diabetes mellitus. Vitamin E was also beneficial in reduction of cardiovascular risk.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004432
Title: Clinical association of serum calcium levels in pre‑eclampsia and gestational hypertension patients: A prospective observational study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum calcium levels and to study the role of calcium in pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study design was conducted in 108 patients. Group A patients were diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and Group B patients were diagnosed with gestational hypertension. The study was conducted with the help of standard data entry forms, and serum calcium test was performed in both groups. The neonatal assessment was collected to study the role of calcium in pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Results: Out of 108 patients, 54 patients were diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and 54 patients were diagnosed with gestational hypertension. Serum calcium level was found to be decreased in both groups. Management with calcium supplements (2.0 g elemental calcium/day) reduces preterm birth, birth defects, and cases of lower segment caesarian section based on neonatal assessment. Conclusion: Calcium supplements are safe and relatively cheap way of reducing the risk of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, especially in women from communities with low dietary calcium.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004433
Title: Role of Vitamin B12 supplementation on incipient neuropathy in patients with type II diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) affects approximately 44% of older diabetics. Some DPN patients may experience extremely painful symptoms, whereas those who have a more marked neuropathic deficit may not have any symptoms. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin), which results in a lack of methylcobalamin, has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. It is also associated with the onset of diabetic neuropathy. In patients with DPN, Vitamin B12 deficiency may be caused by the use of antidiabetic agents such as metformin. This was a randomized controlled trial with a parallel assignment of two arms. All two parallel trial arms will be enrolled as per per-protocol analysis. The interventional model included Metformin 500 mg BD+pregabalin 75 mg+cyanocobalamin 100 mg OD. Every patient will be followed up for 9 months. Serum Vitamin B12 levels will also be assessed at the same time intervals. The trial arm showed significant improvement (P < 0.05*) in the pain control, serum homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid statuses compared to the placebo arm receiving pregabalin. Vitamin supplementation proves to be efficient in management of DPN.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004434
Title: Effect of oral hypoglycemic agents on theophylline pharmacokinetics in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients – A randomized controlled pilot study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by breathing difficulties due to the airflow limitation, causing blocking, and by damage of the elastic recoil of lung parenchyma, leading to hyperinflation. The main aim of this review article is to know about the hypoglycemic agents on theophylline pharmacokinetics (PKs) in COPD patients. Theophylline is the most well-known and commonly used methylxanthine. Methylxanthines are the main class of drug that is obtained from the purine base xanthine. Theophylline is one of the methylxanthine drugs used in the treatment for breathing difficulties such as COPD and asthma. Methodology: A randomized control study is carried out to assess the effect of oral hypoglycemic agents on theophylline PKs. A total of six blood samples (5 ml) were drawn from each participant at 0 h, ½ an h, 1st h, 3rd h, 6th h, and finally at 12th h to evaluate PK parameters such as AUC0-t , AUC0-∞, and Cmax which are to be assayed for the two types of patients and to determine the effectiveness of the treatment given. Results: Theophylline PKs were studied in patients with and without diabetes. Oral hypoglycemic agents reduced the area under the concentration-time curve by 12% after the administration of hypoglycemic agents in diabetic patients and decreased metabolic clearance and volume of distribution by 16% after the administration of theophylline 150 mg. Conclusion: In patients receiving theophylline blood glucose levels to be monitored, if the patient is on oral hypoglycemic therapy and the dosage is to be adjusted.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004435
Title: Evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters for gabapentin in diabetic neuropathy patients with two different drug regimens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objectives: The main aim of the study is to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters for gabapentin in diabetic neuropathy (DN) patients with two different drug regimens. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potentiality of the gabapentin in DN affected people. Methodology: The sample size chosen was 10 patients. The study design followed was open-labeled, randomized controlled, pilot study. Patients were separated based on the oral glycemic agent administration. Group A includes 5 patients using metformin, sitagliptin, and gabapentin, whereas Group B with 5 patients using metformin, glibenclamide, and gabapentin. Blood samples were collected with the time interval of 0 h, 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and finally at the 24th h after the dosing to evaluate pharmacokinetic parameters of the single-dose administration. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to 24 h (AUC0-t ), AUC from zero to infinity (AUC0–∞), the peak plasma concentration of the drug (Cmax ), and the time needed to achieve Cmax (Tmax ) are assayed to determine the efficacy of the treatment with gabapentin. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is the technique used in evaluating the pharmacokinetic parameters of dose concentration of gabapentin in DN patients along with two different dosage regimens. Results: Of 10 patients selected, 6 male patients and 4 female with diabetic were participated in the study. Baseline parameters such as age, duration of diabetes mellitus, duration of metformin use, C-reactive protein, and homocysteine level were checked for the patients. The total area for Group A was found to be 174.06, whereas in Group B was 125.32 for this P-value found to be 0.001, which is more statistically significant. Cmax of Group A was 19.1 and Group B was 13.1 which are within the therapeutic range of 2–20 µg/ml. AUC, Tmax , and Cmax were within the acceptable range. Conclusion: In our study, Group A (sitagliptin) shows an increase in AUC value and also increase in Cmax and Tmax . Hence, this may enhance increased therapeutic efficacy of the drug, and no serious adverse events were reported. Hence, this regimen may be pharmacokinetically superior to the regimen containing glibenclamide (Group B).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004436
Title: A prospective randomized control study on effect of liraglutide on cardiovascular outcomes in type II diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of liraglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in Type II diabetes mellitus (DM), to determine the role of liraglutide along with cardiovascular outcome in Type II DM, to determine the drug interactions in such a treatment regimen, and to evaluate the safety of the regimen. Methodology: Type II DM patients with or absence of complications were included in this study along with serum glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration between 7.5 and 9.5%. They are divided into test group, i.e., Group-B (which received liraglutide with metformin) and control group, i.e., Group-A received metformin with sitagliptin combination. Body mass index (BMI) status, fasting blood sugar (FBS), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) C-reactive protein and troponin T were noted at every 3 months of interval at total 6 months of this study. HbA1c percentage was measured at 3rd month after initiation of this study, patients with other comorbidities were found to be prominent in this study. Results: The principle message of our study is effect of liraglutide on cardiovascular outcome in Type II DM, as shown in result section, there was a significant decrease in FBS, HbA1c, BMI, C-reactive protein, troponin, LDL, and HDL, which was statistically significant at the end of 6 months of study, thus, concludes that liraglutide minimizes occurrence of cardiovascular disease in Type II DM. Conclusion: The principle message of our study is effect of liraglutide on cardiovascular outcome in Type II DM, as shown in result section, there was a significant decrease in FBS, HbA1c, BMI, C-reactive protein, troponin, LDL, and HDL, which was statistically significant at the end of 6 months of study, thus, concludes that liraglutide minimizes the chance of occurrence of cardiovascular disease in Type II DM.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004437
Title: A prospective single-blinded study on safety and efficacy of cholecalciferol supplementation in pulmonary tuberculosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study is to evaluate the cholecalciferol levels and to study the efficacy and safety of Vitamin D3 in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Subject Selection and Methodology: A randomized single-blinded study of two groups: Group A received conventional TB therapy while Group B received conventional TB therapy along with Vitamin D3 (5000 IU/day). Forty patients were assigned in each group by randomized permuted blocks. Results: After 8 weeks of treatment in Group A 24 patients and in Group B 36 patients were found to be sputum negative with P = 0.0001 in both groups. After 24 weeks of treatment in Group A 36 patients and in Group B 40 patients were found to be sputum negative with P = 0.0059 in both groups. By this, the given treatment was effective in patients with PTB. Conclusion: Supplementation of Vitamin D accelerates the clinical, radiographic improvement in TB patients. The results suggest a therapeutic role of Vitamin D3 in the treatment of TB.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004438
Title: Association of hypovitaminosis D with metabolic parameters among type 2 diabetics
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Hypovitaminosis D and type 2 diabetes are the most commonly prevailing amid the Middle East population and their associations along with metabolic anomalies are less studied. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the Vitamin D status on the diabetic population and also included its impact on metabolic parameters. Methodology: A cross-sectional study with a total of 275 diabetic patients was selected using a random sampling procedure. Demographic characteristics such as age, past medical illness, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Serum concentration of 25-OH Vitamin D, blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), with metabolic parameters such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), and total cholesterol (TC) were measured. Results: More than half of the patients (55.27%) were found to be Vitamin D insufficient with a mean serum 25-OH Vitamin D 12.88 ± 5.56 ng/ml. Negative correlation was observed between serum 25-OH Vitamin D and weight, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, LDL-C, TG, and TC, while positive correlation was found with the age, HDL-C, calcium, and phosphate. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D has become more common amid females with type 2 diabetes. This study recommends that sufficient Vitamin D status may assist to prevent further progression of metabolic-related disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004439
Title: Antiendometrial cancer activity of aqueous extract Hypnea valentiae with its protein isolation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The purpose of the present research work was to investigate the antiendometrioid activity of red seaweed Hypnea valentiae with its protein isolation technique. Materials and Methods: The marine seaweed having potent source of protein content. Selected extracted H. valentiae screened by MTT assay by using HEC1A, which is endometrial cancer cell (ECC) line compared with the normal endometrial cell line. Electrophoresis is widely used to separate and characterize proteins by applying electric current and is rapid and relatively sensitive requiring only microweight of proteins. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel is carried out in buffer gel (non-denaturing) as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-containing denaturing gel. Polyacrylamide gel is formed with linking agent (bisacrylamide) in the presence of a catalyst (persulfate ion) and chain inhibition (TEMED). The relative proportion of acrylamide to the bisacrylamide determines the porosity of gel. At low percentage, gel (with large pore size) is used to separate concentrate ammonium persulfate and TEMED, which increases the amount of polymerized ion of the gel. SDS is anionic detergent which binds strongly and denatures protein. The number of SDS molecule bounds to a polypeptide chain approximately half the number of amino acid residue in that chain. The protein SDS complex carries net negative charges and hence moves toward the anode and separation is based on the size of the protein. Results: Aqueous extract of H. valentiae was found with shown significant activity at 15.32 µg/ml at HEC1A cell line and 12.58 µg/ml at ECC line, in case of normal endometrial cell line, cell necrosis started at 140.52 µg/ml. Hence, the potent seaweed having the valuable cytotoxic effect. Conclusion: Seaweeds had a potent carcinogenetic activity; in this, the antiendometriodial activity of H. valentiae (red seaweed) was proved. Nowadays, gynecological dysfunction of women should be a greater challenges, the seaweeds are useful remedies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004440
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of pregnant women toward antenatal physiotherapy in Al‑Qurayyat: A cross‑sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia Kingdom.
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Objective: The aim of this study was to explore and determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the role of physical therapy among pregnant women of Al‑Qurayyat. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross‑sectional study was conducted in over 3 months in 2019 of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Al‑Qurayyat General Hospital, Al‑Qurayyat city, KSA. A total of 134 pregnant women in any trimester were approached with a self‑administered questionnaire. Questions regarding their knowledge, attitude, and perception of antenatal physiotherapy were asked. A descriptive analysis of data obtained was done. Results: Knowledge regarding antenatal exercises was favorable, 80% of the respondents were aware of physiotherapy and 44% of the participants had adequate knowledge of the benefits of antenatal exercise, and 24% were believed that physiotherapy is mainly concerned with exercise. The attitude of the patients toward antenatal physiotherapy was poor, 48% of participants had a positive attitude toward physiotherapy during antenatal care and 58% of participants perceived that antenatal exercises reduce pregnancy‑related complications and ensure a safe delivery. The perception of physiotherapy was also poor and only 47% of the participants were exercising their present pregnancy. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding antenatal physiotherapy was favorable, but the attitude and perception of the patients were fairly low.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004441
Title: Prevalence and association of Helicobacter pylori infection with gastritis and its age and sex distribution in a population of Karbala
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Safwa University College, Karbala, Iraq
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Background: Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacterium that parasitizes the gastric mucous layer and the epithelial lining of the stomach that causes duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, and cardiovascular disease among others, is found in about half of world’s population. The aim of this study is to find the prevalence and association of H. pylori infection with gastritis and its age and sex distribution in a population of Karbala. Materials and Methods: A 50 blood samples were collected from patients referred to Imam Al-Hussein Medical City in Karbala, from October 1, 2017, to January 1, 2018, with the mean ages of 1–75 years of both sexes. The samples were analyzed for the presence of H. pylori antibody in serum. Results: In the present study, determined the prevalence of H. pylori-associated gastritis in the population of Karbala is 94%. Chronic gastritis was found in 84% of patients with H. pylori infection and 16% of patients with gastritis of some other etiology.of 50 blood samples, 46% were seropositive with male and 48% female seroprevalences. The antibody prevalence was higher (30%) in middle-aged patients (16–45 years) than in younger patients (1–15 years) (8%) and older patients (61–75 years) (12%). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between both sexes regarding the incidence of gastritis with H. pylori. Conclusions: The most chronic gastritis infections are resulting from H. pylori. The middle-aged patients are the most susceptible to infection. There is no statistically significant difference in sex.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004442
Title: Isolation of some bacterial species from different areas of Euphrates water in Al Anbar province and their antimicrobial susceptibility testing
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Education for Women, University of Anbar, Iraq
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Background: The Euphrates regarded as the longest river and from the historically recorded rivers in Iraq. Euphrates runs over Syria and Iraq to link with the Tigris in what is called Shatt al-Arab that drains into the Arabian Gulf. The drinking water was obtained from various sources that include the rainfall water, the groundwater, and the surface water which includes the natural reservoirs. Methodology: The current study was done on many water samples taken from different places in Al Anbar province to explore the degree of contamination and to know the degree of resistance for these isolates. These samples were cultured on nutrient, MacConkey, and blood agars, and then biochemical tests were done to diagnose the types of bacteria. Results: The results of the present study showed that different numbers and types of bacteria were isolated include Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Furthermore, the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing displayed that most isolated bacteria were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and to less extent to gentamicin, whereas most of these isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cephalexin, and erythromycin. Conclusion: Euphrates was contaminated by many bacteria, and these isolates were resisted to most antibiotics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004443
Title: Antifungal activity of combination of medicinal plant extracts with terbinafine through regulating subtilisin virulence genes in Microsporum canis
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Iraq
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Background: Microsporum canis is a zoophilic dermatophyte global distribution resulting in human as well as animal dermatophytosis. Different proteases have been associated with potential virulence factors of the pathogen. The current study aimed to investigate the antifungal and synergistic effects of Pimpinella anisum and Moringa oleifera with terbinafine on growth and the presence of subtilisin proteases (SUB1-3 genes) in M. canis. Methodology: Subtilisin proteases (SUB1- 3 genes) were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques under different combinations of treatment with specific primers were conducted. Results: The current study revealed the substantial effect of P. anisum and M. oleifera and/or antibiotic (terbinafine) on the growth of the pathogen during the experiment period when P. anisum and M. oleifera and/or antibiotic (terbinafine) were combined. There was a low growth of M. canis in the combination of M. oleifera, P. anisum, and terbinafine. It was reported as (M+P+T)-(3.4 cm) then it was followed by P+T (3.6 cm) and M+T (3.8 cm) then T treatment which was (4.1 cm) and finally P+M (5.5 cm) when compared with untreated one (7.1 cm). Three subtypes of subtilisin genes (SUBs), coding for serine proteases, were identified by giving positive results of PCR products that observed in different fragments of SUB1(609bp), SUB2(1120bp), and SUB3(1324bp). Conclusion: From these study findings, the combinatorial use of medicinal plant extracts with a known antifungal agent, terbinafine for exhibiting a potential antifungal property, and developing control mechanisms concerning SUBS by interacting with subtilisin virulence genes in M. canis DNA in particular with SUB1 and SUB3.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004444
Title: The relationship between insulin hormone and obesity in type 2 diabetic patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Iraq
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Background: Obesity and diabetes “second type” related medical problems have become of major cause of increase in mortality rates. It is, therefore, useful to understand the relationship between insulin and fat in the body during the process of turning these variables into diabetes. Materials and Methods: Data for the current analysis were obtained from Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital, the Centre for Research and Treatment of Diabetes, during the period of October 2012–January 2013. Clinical details of 26 (both sexes, age ranged between 35 and 60 years) patients with type 2 diabetes were studied. They were divided into two groups depending on body mass index (BMI) <25 and larger and equal to 25. Age-matched 22 healthy men and women also included as a control group. Results: The results of this study showed a significant increase of lipid profile and insulin hormone in diabetic patients compared with the control group in BMI < 25. As well as, a significant (P < 0.01) increase in fasting blood sugar and serum cholesterol was found in diabetic patients compared with control group in BMI larger than 25. On the other hand, it did not show a significant increase in each of triglycerides and insulin hormone in diabetic patients compared with control group in BMI larger than 25. Conclusion: Triglycerides, insulin hormone, and BMI are positively correlated regardless of the presence of diabetes. However, the majority of diseases, including type 2 diabetes, are caused by overweight and decreased physical activity with increased calories.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004445
Title: Evaluation of hormonal profile and insulin growth factor-1 gene expression before and after metformin treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Wasit, Iraq
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Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine defect affecting women with reproductive age. Metformin is a drug that using to reduce body weight and manage the reproductive function, hyperandrogenemia, and hyperinsulinemia in women PCOS. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of 4-month metformin treatment on serum concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone. Assessment of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene expression is also involved in this study. Methodology: Fifty women with PCOS and 30 healthy women recruited from the Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital and Al-Karama Teaching Hospital in Wasit Province, Iraq, based on the criteria of Rotterdam. Hormonal assay was performed using Addendum-Mini VIDAS apparatus. IGF-1 gene expression was estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: Before metformin therapy, the mean of testosterone (1.892 ± 0.27 ng/ml) and LH (11.883 ± 0.87 µIU/ml) was a significant increase (P < 0.05) when compared to healthy group 0.510 ± 0.06 ng/ml and 5.408 ± 0.68 µIU/ml, respectively. While there were no significant differences in FSH levels in patients and control groups. The IGF-1 gene expression recorded significant (P < 0.05) increase in mean value (3.156 folding) when compared to the healthy group (1 folding). After metformin therapy, there were non-significant differences in mean of testosterone and LH when compared to the healthy control group, but the FSH levels were recorded significant (P < 0.05) decrease (3.32 ± 0.18 µIU/ml) when compared to control group (7.73 ± 0.62 µIU/ml). The IGF-1 gene expression recorded non- significant change folding mean (1.108 folding) when compared to the healthy group (1 folding). Conclusions: The treatment of women with PCOS by metformin had a crucial role in improvement of hormonal profile, subsequently decreases the PCOS pathogenesis. Metformin is very important to reduce IGF-1 levels and restore the insulin levels.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004446
Title: Low-dose corticosteroid and Vitamin C effects on endothelial cell glycocalyx expression in sepsis model human umbilical vein endothelial cells culture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Sebelas Maret University, Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta, Central Java 57126, Indonesia
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Objective: The main factor of sepsis condition is not a bacterial infection, but the inflammatory reaction to the infection and research in sepsis condition has progressed to glycocalyx layer or endothelial surface layer. Corticosteroids and antioxidants treatment are one of the strategies to protect glycocalyx and to prevent damage or accelerate the recovery. Materials and Methods: The objective of this study is to investigate the low dose of corticosteroid and Vitamin C effects on endothelial cell glycocalyx expression using sepsis conditioned human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) culture. HUVEC culture used umbilicus obtained from caesarian section childbirth, and treated with lipopolysaccharide-conditioned monocyte medium exposure and steroid and Vitamin C treatment. Immunofluorescence staining was then performed to the samples. Results: The result shows that corticosteroid and Vitamin C have been proven to have a protective effect on glycocalyx layer under sepsis condition by suppressing inflammatory response to infection and antioxidant effect. Conclusion: 20 μM steroid, 75 μM Vitamin C, and 10 μM steroid combined with 50 μM Vitamin C gave the most significant glycocalyx thickness layer after 8 h of treatment, even though combined treatment does not as effective as single treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004447
Title: Anti-inflammatory effect of Lactobacillus casei on human epithelial cell responses to oral pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia
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Objective: The objectives of this study were to analyze the anti-inflammatory effects of the Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on epithelial cell expression of interleukin (IL)-8 and human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) in the presence of pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Methods: HaCaT epithelial-cells (1 × 105 cell/mL) were exposed to heat-killed Streptococcus mutans or Porphyromonas gingivalis (1 × 107 colony-forming units/mL) and then challenged with the probiotic L. casei train Shirota for 3, 6, and 24 h. The mRNA transcription levels of IL-8 and hBD-2 were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, cell viability was analyzed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Data statistically evaluated by one-way analysis of variance test. Results: L. casei does not effect the HaCaT epithelial cells viability (101.3%). IL-8 and hBD-2 transcription on HaCaT cells was increased after exposed to the heat-killed bacteria. The addition of L. casei reduced the transcription levels of IL-8; in contract, probiotics challenges increased the transcriptional expression of h-BD2 mRNA in the HaCaT cells (P < 0.05). IL-8 expression significantly reduced (P < 0.05) after the L. casei challenge. Conclusion: L. casei conveyed a beneficial immune modulation, reducing IL-8 levels, and elevating production of hBD-2. The epithelial cells showed no cytotoxic effects from L. casei. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular processes related to this probiotic’s anti-inflammatory properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004448
Title: A rare case of strangulated diaphragmatic hernia of Morgagni-Larrey’s in old age
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Faculty Medicine, Institute of Medicine Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russia
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Diaphragmatic hernia (DH) is a rare surgical pathology that occurs in clinical practice and sometimes occurs with symptoms of an acute abdomen. We present a rare case of strangulated DH of Morgagni-Larrey’s women in old age (76 years), which ended in a favorable outcome, thanks to an accurate pre-operative diagnosis of hernia and performed emergency surgery. Complaints, anamnestic data, results of clinical, laboratory, and instrumental examination are presented. X-ray, scan, and multi-planar reconstructions computed tomography of the chest are presented. The course of the operation to eliminate DH is described in detail. The course of the post-operative period is described. The anatomical substrate of this hernia was the presence of a defect in the development of the diaphragm in the form of a “weak” zone in the region of the sternal- costal triangle, which does not have muscle fibers. Patients with this disease need timely diagnosis and surgery to prevent serious complications. To improve the results of treatment and improve surgical technique, it is advisable to further study this pathology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004449
Title: Monoclonal antibodies of human zona pellucida 3 (Mab- hZP3) as immunocontraception candidate on connexin expression 43 (Cx43) in granulosa ovarian cell and luteinizing hormone level in the blood ser
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
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Objective: To prove that the use of Mab-hZP3 in various doses and observation time does not influence connexin expression 43 in granulosa ovarian cell and luteinizing Hormone (LH) rate on blood serum of mice (Mus musculus). Materials and Methods: The type of research method that is used is true experiment post-test only control group design. This research uses 48 mice that are classified into 12. They are control (adjuvant) and treatment groups (Mab hZP3 20 µg, 40 µg, and 60 µg). The measurement of connexin 43 (Cx43) is conducted by applying immunohistochemistry method and LH rate with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data processing technique is using analysis of variance. Results: The giving of Mab hZP3 with a dose range 20 µg–60 µg to Cx43 expression and LH rate does not show significant difference. Conclusion: The administration of Mab-hZP3 various doses and observation time does not contribute any effect to Cx43 expression and LH concentration of serum mice (M. musculus).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004450
Title: Binding affinity of selective inhibitors for M2 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors – In silico study for controlling myopia progressivity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Jalan Veteran, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia.
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Introduction: Most types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are found in the human scleral fibroblasts cells. This study was to control the progression of myopia. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the affinity of himbacine and methoctramine as selective M2 mAChR antagonists as well as 4DAMP as a selective M3 mAChR antagonist to control the progression of myopia through targeting selective scleral muscarinic receptors. Materials and Methods: We used a computational approach to predict the M2 and M3 mAChR muscarinic pathways in the process of fibroblast proliferation and the interaction between the mAChR antagonists. The prediction of molecular interaction was evaluated using STITCH (a search tool for interactions of chemicals, http://stitch.embl.de/; STITCH Consortium). The selective M2 mAChR antagonists himbacine (CID:6436265) and methoctramine (CID:107759) and the selective M3 mAChR antagonist 4DAMP (CID:3014059) were downloaded from the PubChem database (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD, USA). The interaction of these antagonists with their respective receptors was evaluated using the Autodock Vina software in PyRx 0.8. The molecular interaction of the drugs was evaluated using LogPlot and visualized using PyMol. Results: The results show that the himbacine and methoctramine have similar binding affinities to M2 mAChR and that 4DAMP has a strong binding affinity to the M3 mAChR, respectively. Conclusion: It is predicted that, using these selective M2 and M3 mAChR antagonists, myopia progressivity can be controlled.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004451
Title: The effect of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase on hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha level in a state of endothelial dysfunction after hyperbaric oxygen therapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medical, Universitas Hang Tuah, Surabaya, Indonesia
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Aim: This research aims to know the effect of eNOS on hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) levels in endothelial dysfunction after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Materials and Methods: The design of this study was experimental research; the study sample consisted of 30 Sprague Dawley (Rattus norvegicus) white rats and divided into three groups p1, p2, and p3; p1 rats with a standard diet, p2 rats with a high-cholesterol diet, and p3 rats with a high-cholesterol diet continued HBOT at 2.4 ATA with 98% O2 for three sessions with a duration of 30 min/session, and air brakes for 5 min between each session for 10 consecutive days. eNOS and HIF-1α were examined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: From the results of testing the significance of the regression model, the results showed that there was a relation of HIF-1α on eNOS levels (P = 0.009) after treatment with HBO 2,4 ATA with 98% oxygen for three sessions with the duration of 30 min/session, and air brake for 5 min between each session for 10 days consecutively. Conclusion: The effect of eNOS on HIF-1α levels in HBOT shows that HBO can significantly affect the levels of HIF-1α through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) level.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004452
Title: The tooth in eye, osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The major cause of vision loss worldwide is by diseases affecting the cornea followed by cataract in overall importance. The recent advance in this keratoprosthesis is using the person’s own tooth and alveolar bone for the prosthetic material so as to reduce the risk and, hence, came the name “osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis” (OOKP). Strampelli, in 1963, was one among many pioneers who were involved in developing new keratoprosthesis. The procedure of OOKP is by two steps with an interval of 3–4 months. Studies show that this method is getting established in very smaller range. Hence, this review aims to emphasize the usefulness of OOKP in corneal diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004453
Title: Comparing the antibacterial efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash and 1% stevia extract on oral microflora – An in vivo study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: In recent years, the researches concerning the use of herbal products have been vastly analyzed to decrease the disease burden caused by dental caries. It has been found that certain phytochemicals present in the plants have certain inhibitory effect toward Streptococcus mutans which is currently the main causative organism for dental caries initiation. Hence, in the present study, prepared herbal mouthwash has been tested for their antibacterial effect. Aim: This study aims to compare the antibacterial action of commercially available chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash product and prepared stevia mouthwash against oral microflora. Materials and Methods: A single-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted among 20 healthy individuals. The participants were randomly allocated into two groups: Group I (experimental group – aqueous stevia) and Group II (controlled group – chlorhexidine). Before conducting the trial, the study design was explained to the qualifying participant and informed consent was obtained from the voluntary patients who were willing to participate in the study. Results: There is a significant reduction in the colony count after using CHX mouthwash when compared to the use of stevia mouthwash. Stevioside can also serve as an efficient vehicle for topical oral medication. Furthermore, drug industries can incorporate such extracts which can be delivered. Conclusion: This study documented that among experimental groups, stevia was equally effective in reduction of colony count. Furthermore, this study highlights the effectiveness of stevia as mouthwash. Further studies for investigation of the effect of stevia use on dental caries are needed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004454
Title: Morphological and histological study by induced of piroxicam on the kidney, liver, and stomach in the rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Waist, Kut, Iraq
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Background: NSAIDs are the most frequently prescribed therapeutic agents used for the treatment of inflammation because they have antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory action. [5] NSAIDs work to reduced inflammation by depression cyclooxygenase 2 enzyme, which is a key enzyme in catalyzing the converted of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin, which are mediated by depression synthesis of prostaglandin. Materials and Methods: Fifteen rats are used as an experimental animals of rats, three of them used as control animals and the remain twelve animals are treated with piroxicam. Out of twelve treated animals, six were used for an anatomical study and other six animals for the histological study. The control animal gave 0.5 ml distal water injection intramuscle, but treated rats give 0.5 g piroxicam intramuscle 3 days then continuous give piroxicam orally till 27 days. 20 mg of piroxicam was dissolved in water and given orally to all laboratory test animals used in the study. After specified period of time animals were scarified and examined for the morphological change of organs as compared to the control animals. Results: The results revealed that after injection of piroxicam, the observed gross anatomical changes in stomach of treated animals, shows odematous and hypertrophic stomach. Cross sectional study of stomach revealed focal necrotic gastric mucosal surface with greenish discoloration. Liver shows grossly focal hemorrhage necrosis) while in kidney, there is no clear morphological change, but there is change in color to dull brownish color when compared with to control. Regarding histological study of treated animals, the microscopical examination liver sections revealed hydropic swelling of hepatocytes with mild glycogen depletion associated with central vein congestions and focal area of necrosis and mild inflammatory cells infiltrate with sinusoidal dilation and engorgement. The kidney sections showed dilation of renal tubules with hydropic and degenerative changes of tubular cells and tubular dilation associated with glomerular atrophy. The stomach sections showed erosion of gastric mucosa with necrotic changes associated with interstitial edematous changes in mucosal and submucosal layers. Conclusion: The result of our study suggests that the high dose of piroxicam has adverse effect and induces obvious histopathological changes in multiple organs as in liver, kidney, and stomach including degenerative changes and may induce microvascular damage, vascular congestion, and may affect the functions of these organs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00004455
Title: Correction of metabolic disorders in experimental chronic ethanol intoxication
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathological Anatomy, Kursk State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Kursk City, Russia
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Purpose: The purpose of the study was to study the corrective effects of pharmacological agents and allogeneic hepatocyte proteins (AHP) on metabolic disorders caused by chronic ethanol intoxication (CAI). Materials and Methods: Studies were conducted on 110 male Wistar rats. CAI was caused through intragastric daily administration of 20% ethanol solution at a dose of 3 ml/kg within 60 days. Allogeneic hepatocyte proteins (AHPs) were isolated from the culture fluid of hepatocytes obtained from newborn animals by M.N. Berry, D.S. Friend method. The obtained AHPs were intraperitoneally administered 5 times (with a 24-h interval) to the rats with CAI at the rate of 5 mg/kg of protein starting from the 55th day of ethanol intoxication. Pharmacological preparations with immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective activity were administered in accordance with the instructions for their use. Results: Due to CAI, the following signs developed: Cytolytic, cholestatic, cytotoxic, immune-inflammatory syndromes, insufficiency of synthetic processes, oxidative stress, imbalance of the functional and metabolic activity of erythrocytes, and neutrophils of peripheral blood. The combined introduction of Longidasa, Mexicor, and Essentiale Forte H normalized to 11.1% and corrected 88.9% of the studied laboratory parameters. The combined use of Glutoxim, Mexidol, and Heptral normalized and corrected 22.2% and 77.8% of the indicators, respectively. The most effective one turned out to be the introduction of AHP – normalized and corrected 70.4% and 29.6% of the altered laboratory parameters, respectively. Conclusion: A promising direction for further research is the purification of the culture fluid proteins of allogeneic hepatocytes with the release of the protein essence of the active substance, aimed at creating a medicine on this basis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004456
Title: The effect of different concentrations of copper sulfate on the some physiological and immunological parameters of local male rabbits
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, College of Applied Science, University of Fallujah, Iraq
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Background: Copper is an essential trace element and necessary for body survival. It plays a role in red blood cells construction. Additionally, it act as a cofactor in various critical biological manners such as iron transport and respiration. As well as, the other main functions of Cu are enzymes cofactor, antioxidant enzymes, and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as cytochrome oxidase, lysyl oxidase, ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and metallothionein. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to investigate the role of different concentrations of copper sulfate on the immunity response. A total of 24 local male rabbits were divided into three groups. The first and second groups were administrated copper sulfate orally 0.75% and 1%, respectively, while the third group was administrated normal saline 1% as a control group. Results: The results showed a highly significant effect (P ≤ 0.05) for IgG, IgM, and IgA in 0.75% concentration of copper sulfate compared with T1 and T3 and so showed a significant increment of IgG and IgA concentration in the serum of rabbit Group 1 (T1) compared with control Group T3. On the other hand, the results showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the complement C3 of rabbit that administrated 0.75% and 1.0% of copper sulfate compared with control Group T3. Moreover, the results revered to a significant effect in complement concentration C4 in Group T2 compared with T3. The results recorded significantly decrement in the reduction of dye (NBT) in the two treated groups compared with the control group T3. While the migration inhibition factor, there were recorded no significant differences among the treated groups compared with the control group. The liver and spleen weight of treated group rabbits were showed significant increases compared with the control group. Conclusion: The study concluded that the copper sulfate has effectiveness role an immunity improvement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004457
Title: The aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera and Marrubium vulgare L. leaf inhibit inflammatory response in mice infected with Salmonella typhimurium
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
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Aim: This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Moringa oleifera and Marrubium vulgare L. leaf aqueous extracts in mice infected with Salmonella typhimurium infection. Methods: A total of 50 female BALB/c mice, aged 7–9 weeks were divided into 10 groups: Positive control group (C+), normal mice (C−), protective groups (P1, P2, and P3), and treatment groups (P4, P5, P6, P7, and P8). M. oleifera and M. vulgare L. extract at different concentrations was tested as the single and the combination for 14 days. At the end of the treatment period, all mice were sectioned and mice lymphocytes were isolated. Immunomodulatory markers were determined by flow-cytometry which included CD11b+ TNFa+ , CD11b+ IFN-γ+ , CD11b+ IL-6+ , CD11c+ IL-6+ , NK+ TNF-α+ ,and NK+ IFN-γ+ . Results: The results of this study showed that M. oleifera and M. vulgare extracts stimulated the immune system through innate and adaptive immunity in experimental mice models. However, the M. oleifera extract was revealed to be the most effective than the M. vulgare extract. On the other hand, both extracts were more effective as protective agents than as cure agent, whereas single treatment was more effective than combination treatments. However, low doses were found to be most effective than high doses, especially with the M. oleifera extract. Protective treatment with the M. oleifera and M. vulgare extracts showed immunosuppressive effect. Similarly, it significantly inhibited the percentage of lymphocytes (CD11b and CD11c) NK cells and intracellular cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-6). Conclusion: The research finding suggested that M. oleifera aqueous extract had the most immunosuppressive effect on inflammatory markers compared to M. vulgare aqueous extract. Due to the immunosuppressive effect of M. oleifera and M. vulgare aqueous extracts as protective agents, treatment with these extracts as cure agents showed reverse effects and enhanced the inflammatory response.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004458
Title: Bioactivity of Benzo[a]pyrene against the expression of CD4+ TNFα, CD8+ IFNŸ, and CD4+ IL1+ in mice (Mus Musculus L) after paramyxovirus measles vaccine administration
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Life Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jalan Veteran, Malang, East Java 65145, Indonesia.
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Background: Benzo[a]pyrene is one of the external factors that reduce immunity. The disease arises by the accumulation of benzo[a]pyrene in DNA, which forms benzo[a]pyrene and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR bonds). The bond of benzo[a] pyrene and AhR could affect the differentiation of immune cells then induce an immunosuppressive effect. Objective: This research aims to identify the bioactivity of benzo[a]pyrene toward the expression of CD4+ tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, CD8+ IFNŸ, and CD4+ interleukin (IL)1+ in mice treated with a paramyxovirus vaccine. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted using a split-plot design. The bioactivity analysis of benzo[a]pyrene toward immune cells expression in mice (Mus musculus L) was analyzed by administration of benzo[a]pyrene at 20 mg/kg BW through intramuscular injection 2 times/week for 4 weeks. The expression of CD4+ TNF-α+ , CD8+ IFN-Ÿ+ , and CD4+ IL-1+ was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results: Group with vaccine and benzo[a]pyrene exposure at week 4 showed that TNFα was repressed while IFNŸ was elevated. Furthermore, the modest regulatory function of CD4+ was activated. Conclusion: The exposure of benzo[a]pyrene to the mice (M. musculus L) with dose 20 mg/kg BW for 2 times/weeks exhibited the immune cell repression on CD4+ TNFα+ and immune cell activation on CD8+ IFNŸ+ , while CD4+ IL-1+ at week 4.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004459
Title: Pulmonary function test in yoga practitioners in Chennai district
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Yoga is considered as the mind and body practice having historical origin from ancient Indian civilization. Classical literature on yoga indicates its importance in day-to-day life and that it is of great value as a method of preservation of health and treatment of various diseases. Yoga practice consists of the five-principle including proper relaxation, proper exercise, proper breathing, proper diet, and positive thinking and meditation. In yoga, the respiration consists of very slow, deep breaths with sustained breath-hold after each inspiration. Practicing yoga contributes to the improvement of pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 individuals of the age group of 20–40 years were included in the study. It comprised 30 control groups. The materials which were used in this study were a computerized RMS Med-spirometer. Pulmonary function test was performed in them the parameters measured include forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV), FEV/FVC, and peak of expiratory flow. Data were analyzed statistically. Results and Conclusion: The study shows that there was a higher value of lung function of yoga practitioners compared to the control group and thus concluding that yoga practitioners have good lung function test. The knowledge so gained of the respiratory functions through spirometry can be utilized for the betterment of the population by bringing in a modification in their lifestyles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004460
Title: Prevalence of urinary tract infection and correlation with lifestyle in women at Hadakewa Health Center, Lembata, East Nusa Tenggara
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
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Background: The prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is higher among women than among men; as many as, 50% of women under the age of 30 are reported to have had at least one UTI. Genetic, biologic, behavioral, and other factors play a role in UTIs among women. This study aimed to find out the prevalence of urinary tract in rural area of Indonesia, which is Hadakewa, Lembata, East Nusa Tenggara, and how lifestyle contributes to UTI prevalence. Materials and Methods: Ninety women residing in Hadakewa and Merdeka villages on Lembata Island who met the study’s inclusion criteria took their midstream urine specimens to be analyzed using dipstick urinalysis and were given questionnaires about their lifestyles. This research was an observational study with a cross-sectional approach. Results: Eighty-three (92.2%) of 90 respondents had a UTI. Age groups of 0–10, 11–20, and > 51 years old each accounted for 18.1%; the group aged 21–30 years accounted for 13.3%, and those aged 31–40 and 41–51 years each accounted for 14.4%. Correlation between the availability of water source and UTI was significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of UTI in women in Hadakewa and Merdeka villages is high. Lifestyle can contribute to UTI.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004461
Title: A prospective cross-sectional study on the clinical association of serum fibrinogen, platelets, and serum albumin in diabetic foot ulcer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim and Objectives: The main aim of the study was to find out the association of serum fibrinogen, serum albumin, and platelet values in diabetic foot ulcer patients. Materials and Methods: All the patients who were diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus will be included in the study. Their serum levels of fasting blood sugar, post-prandial blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), and associated blood parameters will be assessed. Diabetic foot ulcer is confirmed based on the signs and symptoms of the patients such as redness, tenderness, warmth, and swelling of the intensate foot or ankle. Serum fibrinogen, albumin, and platelet levels are measured. Results: Out of 108 patients, 54 were Type II diabetic without foot ulcer and 54 were Type II diabetic foot ulcer. Mean Serum fibrinogen of diabetic foot ulcer and diabetic is 412 ± 13.4 and 296.5 ± 13.6, respectively. Mean serum albumin of diabetic foot ulcer and diabetic is 2.7 ± 0.3 and 3.6 ± 0.6, respectively. The mean platelet value of diabetic foot ulcer and diabetic is 4.25 ± 1.25 and 2.75 ± 0.25, respectively. Conclusion: There has been a significant increase in serum fibrinogen, serum albumin, and platelet in diabetic patients. It can be clearly seen that elevated levels of these parameter have correlation with the severity of the disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004462
Title: Usage of denture adhesive in complete denture wearers – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the usage of denture adhesive in complete denture wearers. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the comfort, practicality, and use of the denture adhesive among complete denture wearers. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a questionnaire which is applicable to the patients from Saveetha Dental College. Ten questions were prepared regarding the usage of denture adhesive in complete denture wearers and the questionnaire was given individually to each patient for their feedback. Each patient was given about 5 min to complete the questionnaire. The answers were analyzed and the following variables were tabulated. Results: The results showed that majority of the denture wearers do not prefer wearing denture adhesive due to various reasons such as discomfort, allergy, and many more. Not only that but also not all of them are introduced to denture adhesive and about their advantages and also disadvantages. Conclusion: The complete denture wearers were not comfortable and not introduced in using the denture adhesive, thus resulting ill-fitting dentures, discomfort, and many more.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004463
Title: The safety, efficacy, and quality of life of methotrexate with hydroxychloroquine as a combination versus methotrexate as monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis: A comparative single-blinded prospecti
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of this investigation was to study and ascertain the effect of adjunct therapy in naïve rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients by disease active index, quality of life (QoL), and hematological changes pre- and post-treatment. Materials and Methods: A comparative prospective study was carried out where the patients were divided into two groups, namely, combination and monotherapy groups of 30 patients each. The combination group was administered 2.5 mg and tab. hydroxychloroquine 200 mg, whereas the monotherapy was administered with tab. methotrexate (MTX) 5 mg. The hematological changes and QoL were noted during the commencement of the study and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results: The drug works together and produces synergic effect, thereby increasing the disease activity index and decreasing the disease activity score. There was statistically significant difference in the values of biomarkers in the naïve patients before and after the treatment with the combination group and monotherapy group. Conclusion: The study has significantly proved that even though MTX is the preferred drug of choice in RA, the efficacy and end results are better when given in combination with the hydroxychloroquine (disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs) making it safer and more potent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004464
Title: Analysis of physical and mental stress between school-going and college-going students among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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 Background and Objectives: The vicissitudes and stresses of medical education in India have been suggested to be different from that of the Western world. Several studies have attempted to assess the psychological morbidity among medical students in India. This systematic review attempted to collate the findings relating to the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among medical students in India. Materials and Methods: Studies were identified using PubMed, Embase, MedInd, and Google Scholar databases. Those studies conducted in India which reported the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the medical students were included. Pooled prevalence rate was calculated for depression, anxiety, and stress. Results: The prevalence rate of depression varied from 8.7% to 71.3%, while the pooled prevalence rate of depression from 16 studies (n = 3882) was 39.2% (95% confidence interval: 29.0%–49.5%). Similarly, the pooled prevalence rate of anxiety from four studies (n = 686) was 34.5% (95% confidence interval: 10.1%–58.9%), and the pooled prevalence rate of stress from 28 studies (n = 5354) was 51.3% (95% confidence intervals: 42.8%–59.8%). Female students had higher rates of depression and stress as compared to males. Conclusions: Depression, anxiety, and stress affect a considerable proportion of undergraduate medical students in India. Systemic efforts are needed to address their concerns and make mental health care easily accessible to them.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004465
Title: Comparative antibacterial analysis of fresh face cream, expired face cream, and papaya extract – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nanobiomedicine Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Face cream is a cosmetic cream applied to the face to improve the complexion. The expired face cream will cause irritation, and it will not be effective. The papaya extract has the property of antibacterial, antimicrobial and it gives effective fairness. Antibacterial activity is an activity that destroys bacteria or suppresses their growth or their ability to reproduce. In this study, we are going to find the comparative antibacterial activity of the new face cream, expired face cream, and papaya extract. Materials and Methods: Collection and preparation of new face cream, expired face cream, and papaya extract were used. To study the antibacterial activity of new face cream, expired face cream, and papaya extract against the skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using Agar wells diffusion method. Result: The present study shows the highest zone of inhibition for the papaya extract and thus its more effective then the other two creams, in which the E. coli has got the highest value than the S. aureus. Thus, papaya extract is more resistant to the skin pathogens and it can be used as the face cream or face wash. Conclusion: This study shows that the papaya extract is more resistant to the skin pathogens and it can be used as the face cream or face wash. It acts as the antibacterial agent against the skin pathogens, thus it resists the irritation to the skin and gives effective fairness and shinning to the face.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004466
Title: Antibacterial spectrum assessments of Solanum nigrum L. fruit juice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM 21 Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia
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Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the antibacterial spectrum activity of fruit juice of Solanum nigrum found in Indonesia. Materials and Methods: The Solanum fruits were juiced using a sterile blender followed by the pulp separation to obtain the Solanum juice. The juice then analyzed for phytochemical content using standard methods and evaluated for its antibacterial spectrum against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The antibacterial activities were done using the agar well diffusion method. In addition to this, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) determinations were conducted by macrodilution assay. Results and Discussion: Phytochemical analysis revealed that the fruit juice of S. nigrum possessed flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, and saponins. Solanum fruit juice presented a broad spectrum of antibacterial due to its inhibition against both bacteria. However, the juice worked more effectively against E. coli compared to S. aureus. These data scientifically proved by the resulted values of MIC and MBC determination, revealed that the juice had the much less MIC and MBC values against E. coli than S. aureus, ranging from 30% to 45% v/v and 45% to 60% v/v, respectively. Conclusion: The current study assured the broad spectrum of antibacterial activity of S. nigrum fruit juices.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004467
Title: Cytotoxic effects of herbal formation mediated silver nanoparticles
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Nanobiomedicine Lab, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of herbal formulation mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Materials and Methods: The herbal formulation of Moringa olifera and Andrographis paniculata used for the preparation AgNPs and will be characterized using UV-vis spectrophotometer analysis of wavelength 300 – 600 nm. The cytotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles was analyzed using brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: The peak between 410 – 430 nm confirms the silver nanoparticles sybthesis and herbal formulation mediated AgNPs shows less cytotoxic effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004468
Title: Correction of asymmetric dimethylarginine-like pre-eclampsia in rats by micronized purified flavonoids fraction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Medicine, Belgorod State University, 85 Pobedy St., Belgorod 308015, Russia
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Background: About 10% of pregnancies in the world are accompanied by hypertensive disorders, while from 2% to 8% are pre-eclampsia. One of the components of the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia is placental ischemia. The humoral factors released during it have a pro-inflammatory effect and can contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. One of the possible options for reducing the effects of these cytokines may be the use of drugs containing natural flavonoids, one of the positive aspects of which is the reduction of vein-specific inflammation. The Aim of the Study: This study aims to study the effectiveness of using purified micronized flavonoid fraction (diosmin+flavonoids expressed as hesperidin) in the correction of functional disorders that occur during pre-eclampsia in the experiment. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed on 150 white female rats of the Wistar line weighing 250–300 g. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)-like agent (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) was introduced intraperitoneally at a dose of 25 mg/kg/day from 14 to 20 days of gestation. The purified micronized flavonoid fraction (diosmin+flavonoids expressed as hesperidin) in dosages of 86 mg/kg and 260 mg/kg was administered orally once a day from 14 to 20 days of pregnancy. On 21 days of pregnancy, functional tests and laboratory tests were performed. Results: The administration of purified micronized flavonoid fraction to laboratory animals leads to a pronounced correction of pathological changes in experimental ADMA-like pre-eclampsia with the greatest effect in a higher dose of the drug used. A significant decrease in systolic and diastolic pressure was noted, respectively, improved microcirculation in the placenta, restoration of the nitric oxide synthesizing function of the endothelium, and a decrease in proteinuria. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate the promise of using a purified micronized flavonoid fraction for the correction of functional changes in pre-eclampsia and substantiate the feasibility of further research in this direction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004469
Title: Calcineurin inhibitor old but gold: Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor versus calcineurin inhibitor as an immunosuppression regime combined with mycophenolate mofetil in kidney transplantation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Internal and Nephrology, Nephrology Unit, Minia University, Egypt
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Aim: The clinical experience of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in post kidney transplantation remains challenging even after more than 30 years of clinical studies. After these years, several studies using database registration data indicate that patients receiving mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I), as sirolimus (SRL), are at increased risk of acute rejection. Graft loss is increased compared to patients receiving cyclosporine (CSA) or tacrolimus (TAC) in combination with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Materials and Methods: A meta-analysis study research has performed in Nasr City Insurance Hospital and Nile Badrawi Hospital from September 2011 to September 2018 on the patients with renal transplantation who follow up with the team of transplantation. All patients were transplanted from an unrelated living donor and have zero PRA (no donor-specific antibody [DSA]) before transplantations. Results: We have excluded any comorbidities, risk of rejection as non-compliance with cytotoxic drugs, recurrent glomerular disease, patients have positive DSA before transplantation or already known with graft rejection before shifting from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) to mTOR-I. We have followed those patients after transplantation, and all cases were transplanted at Nasr City Hospital and Nile Badrawi Hospital. We have classified the patient on two groups: Group I: On mTOR-I (SRL or everolimus) there were 658 patients. Group II: On CNI (cyclosporin or tacrolimus) there were 800 patients. The selection of group number one has depended on patients who have shifted from CNI to mTOR-I due to different causes. Our protocol of conversion from CNI to mTOR-I was: Six months after transplant and patients should be a low immunologic risk, have (eGFR) > 40 mL/min and no significant proteinuria (i.e., below 800 mg/day). The causes of shifting from CNI to mTOR-I were different, but CNI toxicity was the leading cause and diagnosed by biopsy. The group of mTOR-I showed a significant increase in the rate of biopsy proved acute rejection (41.8%) in comparison with the group of CNI which showed less incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (11.1%). Conclusion: CNI-based immunosuppression remains the cornerstone of our current immunosuppression protocols. The current mainstay immunosuppression protocol is the one used, i.e., antibody induction, low-dose CNI, MMF, and steroids avoid the use of mTOR-I de novo.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004470
Title: Salts of 5-hydroxynicotinic acid as potential cardioprotectors: Study of the structure and pharmacological evaluation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Medical Institute, Belgorod State University, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod 308015, Russia
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Introduction: Impact on oxidative stress is one of the promising approaches in cardioprotection. In this regard, experimental verification requires the study of the cardioprotective properties of the salt of 5-hydroxynicotinic acid compounds under laboratory code ССК-497. Objective: Study of the chemical structure and cardioprotective effects of magnesium 5-hydroxynicotinate. Materials and Methods: Hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectra of compound ССК-497 were measured on an Agilent MR400 broadband pulse spectrometer in DMSO-D6 solutions using the σ-scale of chemical shifts (ppm). The study of the cardioprotective properties of ССK-497, as well as the comparison drug Mexidol, was carried out on 30 rabbits using the model of coronary occlusion myocardial infarction. The cardioprotective effect of CCR-497 was assessed by determining the necrosis zone and biochemical marker Tn I, the plasma concentration of which was determined after 2 h on a Triage MeterPro immunofluorescence device (Biosite, USA); in addition, the products of malondialdehyde (MDA) and diene conjugate (DC) lipid peroxidation in the homogenizer were evaluated hearts. Results: When confirming the structure of ССK-497, a high sensitivity of 1 H NMR spectroscopy was revealed, confirming the chemical structure of the compound. Compound CCK-497 at a dose of 37.2 mg/kg showed high cardioprotective activity in a model of coronary occlusion infarction in rabbits by limiting the necrosis zone, preventing ST-segment elevation and reducing the increase in biochemical markers of Tn I, MDA, and DC myocardial damage. Conclusion: Magnesium 5-hydroxynicotinate (CCK-497) potential cardioprotector for the correction of ischemic/reperfusion myocardial injuries was found.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004471
Title: The effect of acetylsalicylic acid and its combination with methyldopa on the functional parameters of rats in asymmetric dimethylarginine-like preeclampsia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Institute, Belgorod State National Research University, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod 308015, Russia
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Introduction: Preeclampsia is still one of the most common causes of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. Violations in the hemostatic system observed in preeclampsia can be its consequence, as well as independently exacerbate existing violations, which entails the development of a more pronounced generalized vascular spasm, increased blood pressure and, as a consequence, ischemic disorders in the organs. Objective: The objective of the study was to the protective activity of a small dose of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its combination with methyldopa in the correction of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)-like preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 150 female Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g. Research Results: During the series of experiments, the expressed protective activity of ASA in combination with methyldopa against morphofunctional disorders in ADMA-like preeclampsia was established. Conclusion: The combination of ASA and methyldopa is a promising direction in the treatment of preeclampsia in pregnant women.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004472
Title: Protective effects of 11-amino acid darbepoetin fragment in the experimental hypertensive neuroretinopathy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Medicine, Belgorod State University, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod 308015, Russia
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Introduction: Hypertensive retinopathy is recorded in 66.3% of patients with hypertensive disease. As authors note, there is a lack of drugs for targeted, specific correction of retinal damage, occurring in arterial hypertension (AH). Objective: The objective of the study was to improve the pharmacological correction effectiveness of retinal damage with the use of 11-amino acid darbepoetin fragment PRK-002 in the experimental hypertensive neuroretinopathy. Materials and Methods: Hypertensive neuroretinopathy simulation was performed by daily injection of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester for 28 days and a single increase in intraocular pressure. The retinoprotective effects of the 11-amino acid darbepoetin fragment PRK-002 in comparison with carbamylated darbepoetin and sulodexide were estimated by the changes in the b/a coefficient. Measuring the retinal microcirculation level was carried out with the use of laser Doppler flowmetry. Results and Discussion: The most pronounced protective effect is demonstrated by PRK-002 in a dose of 4 µg/kg, which is expressed in reaching the target values of the b/a and the retinal microcirculation level. When pathology was corrected by carbamylated darbepoetin in a dose of 300 µg/kg, microcirculation level increased by 41.9% (P < 0.05) in comparison with the group without correction, but did not reach the target values; b/a increased by 30.9% (P < 0.05) in comparison with the group without correction and reached the target values. When pathology was corrected by sulodexide in a dose of 150 LRU/kg, the microcirculation level in retina increased by 52.5% (P < 0.05) in comparison with the group without correction, but did not reach the target values; b/a reached the target values. Conclusion: The obtained data give an experimental substantiation of the pharmacological correction possibility of retinal damage in AH by 11-amino acid darbepoetin fragment PRK-002.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004473
Title: Correction of endothelial dysfunction by arginase type II inhibitors and tadalafil in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Institute, Belgorod State University, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod 308015, Russia
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Background: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is one of the most cardiovascular disease pathogenesis leaders. This fact discloses a large number of potential molecular targets for novel pharmacological drugs. Among these targets, enzymes arginase type II and phosphodiesterase type 5 can be distinguished. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 male Wistar rats weighting 250–300 g, which were randomly divided into 12 equal groups. The screening was carried out among compounds with laboratory codes C239–0844, L207–0208, L207–0210, L207–0322, L207–0404, L207–0525, and L327–0346. N-nitro- L-arginine methyl ether (L-NAME)-induced ED was modeled by daily intraperitoneal injection of L-NAME at a dose of 25 mg/kg to male rats for 7 days. The degree of coefficient of ED (CED) was determined on the 8th day from the beginning of the experiment. In parallel, a test was performed for adrenoreactivity and myocardial reserve exhaustion, as well as an assessment of the values of biochemical markers (total nitric oxide [NO] and endothelial NO synthase [eNOS] expression). Results and Discussion: Compounds L207–0525 and L327–0346 at a dose of 1 mg/kg showed the highest activity and were showing the values of CED 1.5 ± 0.3 and 1.9 ± 0.4 c.u., respectively, whereas in the control, it was 5.4 ± 0.4 c.u. At the same time, studied compounds showed cardioprotective effect, what expressed in adrenoreactivity decrease and myocardial reserve exhaustion, as well as a lowering of NO metabolites (NOx) values and expression of eNOS. The combined use of tadalafil and arginase II inhibitors increased the endothelioprotective effect but did not enhance the cardioprotective effect. Conclusion: The study proved the possibility of arginase inhibitors using to prevent the ED development. Among arginase II inhibitors, the most promising compounds are L207–0525 and L327–0346.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004474
Title: The sensitivity and specificity of available Helicobacter pylori diagnosis techniques considering the emerging multidrug resistance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Allied Medical Sciences, Al-Zarqa University College, Zarqa University, Zarqa, Jordan
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Aim: Helicobacter pylori is a ubiquitous organism that is present in about 50% of the global population. Chronic infection with H. pylori causes atrophic and even metaplastic changes in the stomach, and it has a known association with peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori causes chronic gastritis and has been associated with several serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract including duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. The aim of this study is to determine the comparison between the sensitivity and specificity of these methods and their application and also study the antibiotic resistance appearing in H. pylori. Materials and Method: H. pylori infection can be diagnosed by invasive techniques requiring endoscopy and biopsy (e.g., histological examination, culture, and rapid urease test) and by non-invasive techniques such as serology, the urea breath test, urine/blood, or detection of H. pylori antigen in stool specimen. Non-invasive test-and-treat strategies are widely recommended in the primary care setting. The choice of appropriate test depends on the pre-test probability of infection, the characteristics of the test being used and its cost-effectiveness. Antimicrobial resistance is a growing problem in H. pylori treatment. A very high percentage of patients were infected with metronidazole- and clarithromycin-resistant strains. This research will be carried out in several hospitals and private laboratory in Jordan. Results: The results showed that the highest sensitivity was using tissue samples and resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and other antibiotics is mostly due to the use of these drugs for infectious diseases other than H. pylori infection. Conclusion: Furthermore, false-negative results may occur following a new infection before the antibody level is sufficiently elevated.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004475
Title: Metabolic and neuropsychic status in chronic brain ischemia: Correction of disorders
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “Kursk State Medical University” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 305041, Kursk, Ru
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Introduction: Chronic brain ischemia (CBI) is one the causes of disability and Russian population mortality, moreover inflicting a great economic loss to the society. The development of a strategy for pharmacological correction of this pathology is one of the urgent, timely tasks. The aim of the study is to determine the clinical and laboratory efficacy of glutoxim among patients with CBI of I and II stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 patients at the age of 50 ± 5 years from the Neurological Department of the BME “Kursk Regional Clinical Hospital” were under constant observation with a verified diagnosis of CBI in presence with II stage hypertensive disease, thus 24 patients with CBI of the I stage and the II stage, respectively, received basic pharmacological therapy (enalapril, vinpocetine, ceraxon, and mexicor). Half of the patients with each stage of the disease received an additional preparation with immunomodulatory effect glutoxim. Metabolic and immunological disorders were assessed by total antioxidant activity, acylhydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, stable metabolites of nitric oxide concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes, catalase activity, superoxide dismutase, plasma levels of C-reactive protein, endothelin-1, erythropoietin, neopterin, and immunologically – according to the concentrations of cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1β, interleukin 17, and interferon-gamma in blood plasma. The complex of patients’ examination included, in addition to general clinical status, the assessment of neuropsychic one. Results and Discussion: In the case of CBI, to a greater extent on II stage, in the presence of the hypertensive disease, similar metabolic disorders were revealed, indicating the activation of lipid peroxidation, the development of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. The inclusion of glutoxim in complex pharmacotherapy contributes, especially at an early stage of CBI, to a reduction in the severity of subjective disorders, indicators of neurological status, cognitive dysfunction, and laboratory metabolic parameters. Conclusion: The obtained data indicate the effectiveness of glutoxim in the basic pharmacological treatment of CBI.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004476
Title: Is there a correlation between matrix metalloproteinase-3 and interleukin-37 with interleukins 1β, 9, 21, and 25 in Iraqi psoriasis patients?
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq
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Background: Psoriasis (PS) is a chronic systemic infection where patients progress continuing irritation of the joints and skin, causing to incapacity and joint destruction; it is the greatest predominant autoimmune skin infections. Nonetheless, its causes and pathogenesis until now indistinct. The study designed to evaluate the correlation among matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and interleukin (IL)-37 with IL-1β, IL-9, IL-21, and IL-25 in Iraqi PS patients, and to estimate which of these parameters have the maximum effect on this disease. Methodology: Forty-two PS patients and consistent age, sex, and ethnic background coordinated healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in our study. Serum levels of MMP-3, IL-37, IL-1β, IL-9, IL-21, and IL-25 were estimated by the commercially existing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Weight, height, waist, thoracic and hip circumferences, waist/hip ratio, waist/thoracic ratio, and body mass index (BMI) were documented. Results and Discussion: After the calculating anthropometric measurements, the results were recorded as mean differences in MMP-3, IL-9, and IL-21 of 13.92 ng/ml, 51.55 pg/ml, and 251.3 pg/ml, respectively, among PS cases and HCs were detected, while IL-37, IL-1β, and IL-25 mean differences were 122.33, 33.54, and 138.5, pg/ml, respectively, among PS cases and HCs were detected. The correlation which was observed established positive important correlations between MMP-3 with IL-9, IL-21 and BMI, but it presented negative important correlations with IL-37, IL-1β, and IL-25, whereas IL-37 exhibiting positive important correlations with IL-1β and IL-25, but it offered negative significant correlations with IL-9, IL-21, and BMI. IL-37, BMI, MMP-3, and IL-9 displayed the maximum value for receiver operating characteristic curve in comparison to other variables. Conclusion: This study shows that there were strong correlations between MMP-3 and IL-37 with IL-1β, IL-9, IL-21, and IL-25, we can conclude the high serum levels of MMP-3, IL-9, and IL-21 with low serum levels of IL-37, IL-1β, and IL-25 maybe lead to high risk of PS disease, also offers signs that higher BMI leads to a higher risk of PS disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004477
Title: Ankylosing spondylitis – A review article
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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An interminable type of joint pain what influences for the most part the spine and in many prompting combinations of the vertebrae. Guys have a higher frequency than females 2–3:1 proportion. More youthful age gathering is more affected. This generally influences the pivotal skeleton; however, it might likewise connect with fringe joint pain and extra-articular features. The beginning of the ailment is progressive and portrayed by aseptic aggravation at the sacroiliac joints (SIJs). It causes incapacity and decreased personal satisfaction. The most widely recognized finding of Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is acute foremost uveitis which is found in 20–25% of patients. Eye and inside issues may likewise occur. The principle side effects in eye are torment, diminished impression of light, photophobia, and expanded lacrimation. The solidness of the influenced joints intensifies after some time. AS is discovered worldwide, however, it is increasingly common in Caucasians. This has a place with spondyloarthropathy class of Rheumatic illnesses. There is no remedy for ankylosing spondylitis. Against - rheumatic medications are less full of feeling and biologic treatments are successful. In a large portion of the cases, medical procedure is the main way. This survey article talked about ankylosing spondylitis, its weight, pathogenesis, conclusion, and the board.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004478
Title: Trend of caffeine consumption among medical students and its side effects
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Caffeine is regularly utilized for its advantages, which incorporate expanded watchfulness. It has reactions, nonetheless, for example, palpitations and withdrawal indications that incorporate migraines and languor. Tertiary instruction frequently expects understudies to read for broadened hours, particularly during times of expanded remaining task at hand preceding tests and assessments. Medicinal understudies, who need to ace an extremely enormous volume of scholastic work in a constrained timeframe, are no special case. This examination was led to decide the pattern of caffeine utilization among medicinal understudies and furthermore the reactions related with it. Methodology: It is a cross-sectional study. The present examination was directed among 3rd year M.B.B.S understudies at Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. Around 100 restorative understudies took an interest in the investigation. A concise early on introduction was given to understudies about the method of reasoning and organization of the investigation. The information was gathered independently from anyone else evaluation poll accessible in English. Results: The examination demonstrated that lion’s share of restorative understudies where low customers of caffeine during standard days though during test days, the measure of utilization moves more toward moderate admission class. The most common reason and situation behind caffeine admission was to battle laziness and keep them progressively aware and of concentrate for the test. The manifestation they confronted frequently was loss of rest and during test days, different central nervous system related impacts were likewise noted. Conclusion: The frequency of caffeine use among medical students increases during exam days while it remains moderate to low on regular days and the most common side effect associated with such intake was found to be nervousness and loss of sleep.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004479
Title: Antimicrobial resistance in India
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) or medicate obstruction occurs when microorganisms, parasites, and infections never again react to a medication that recently treated them viably. AMR leads to the accompanying issues such as few diseases being more difficult to control and remain for longer duration inside the body, longer medical clinic stays, and expanding the monetary and social expenses of contamination. A characteristic and gained system of antimicrobial obstruction has been distinguished in numerous bacterial strains that are of high clinical significance. This has genuinely endangered the utilization of antimicrobials and has caused the spread of microorganisms that remain unharmed to the standard first decision or first- line drugs. Thus, the treatment for a wide range of diseases like tuberculosis has been adversely affected due to this increased resistance. The treatment is delayed and is not satisfactory. As the present drugs are not effective enough against the resistant bacteria, viruses, and other microbial agents, there is a need to look for and find newer drugs. Usage of antibiotics when limited could avoid the spread of opposition in the microbial network. In this way, reasonable utilization of antimicrobial agents and the quest for newer antimicrobial agents have a high significance and impact on the future generation. This review article aims to highlight the burden of AMR in the world and discuss the mechanism; possible risks involved in the treatment of microbial infections in future generations and also about the steps to be taken to prevent the complications of AMR. Impact of AMR can only be prevented by taking timely appropriate actions such as judicial use of antimicrobial agents both for the treatment of human beings and in other fields such as veterinary, poultry, and agriculture. Unless this huge step is taken, it will be impossible to cope with the burden and impact of AMR.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004483
Title: Effect of different beverages on staining ability of the composite resins
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the staining ability of three different composite materials which are subjected to different beverages. Materials and Methods: Fifteen specimens per restorative material were divided into three groups (n = 3) and stored in different types of solutions: distilled water, coffee, and Coco-Cola. Color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a spectrophotometer using CIE L * a * b * relative, and color changes (DeltaE *) were then calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way analysis of variance, and mean values were compared by the Tukey honestly significant difference test (alpha = 0.05). Results: In terms of comparison among the three different restorative materials, there were significant color changes in all the resin composite materials (P > 0.05). Coffee caused more color change than others. Immersion in coffee caused highest color change in microhybrid composite resin (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Overall maximum discoloration was seen in microhybrid composite resin followed by nanohybrid composite resin and minimum in fine hybrid composite resin. Among the solutions, in which specimens were kept, maximum discoloration was seen with coffee followed by coke and minimum in distilled water.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004492
Title: A rare of sacral tuberculosis in an immunosufficient woman: A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in India and is a major public health problem globally. The prevalence of TB in 2015 is 2.5 million cases. Extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) accounts for 16% of all the TB cases. Osteoarticular TB makes up for 1–5% of all the TB cases and 10–18% of all the EPTB cases. Spinal TB is the most common form of osteoarticular TB and isolated sacral TB is extremely rare. A 32-year-old female who presented with lower backache is diagnosed with TB and is treated for the same.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004493
Title: A case report on adenocarcinoma of lung in 45-year-old male
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Non-small cell lung cancer is the most lethal cancer worldwide. The rate of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene fusion is the most common in young, non-smoking adenocarcinoma lung patients in Asia. Here, I report a 45-year-old male, nonsmoker, with cough, and breathlessness. Computed tomography-guided biopsy showed adenocarcinoma. The staging was Stage III B.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004494
Title: A study on morbidity profile of patients attending dermatology outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital in Kanchipuram district
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Skin diseases in population are common all over the world. There is a wide variation in the presentation of skin diseases. The variation among skin disease can possibly be due to region of study, prevalent environmental factors, type of population studied, hygiene, nutritional status, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to study the prevalence, of various skin diseases among patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Kanchipuram district. Objectives: The present study was designed with the aim to describe the morbidity profile of the patients attending dermatology outpatient department (OPD) at a tertiary health care hospital in Kanchipuram district of Tamil Nadu. Methodology: A cross-sectional observational, single-center study on patients with skin diseases attending OPD for a period of 1 month (April 1, 2019–April 30, 2019). Results: A total number of 400 patients attended skin OPD during the study period of 1 month (April 1, 2019–April 30, 2019). Out of them, 235 (58.75%) were males and 165 (41.25%) were females. Noninfectious skin diseases were more common (68%) whereas infectious skin disease was 32%. Among the infectious skin diseases, dermatophytosis (16.5%) was the most common one whereas, among the noninfectious skin disease, psoriasis vulgaris was the most common (15.75%). Conclusion: A huge burden of skin diseases was present in the OPD of tertiary care hospital with the predominance of noninfectious skin diseases. Among the noninfectious skin diseases, psoriasis vulgaris was the most common disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004495
Title: Shortwave diathermy – An obstacle in dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Shortwave diathermy (SWD) is a therapeutic device, accepted to be one of the most widely employed clinical modalities. It is employed in dentistry to treat oral and maxillofacial diseases, chronic periodontitis, taste disorders, and oral submucous fibrosis. SWD should not be used on patients who have any implanted metallic lead or any implanted system that can contain lead. In dentistry, most of the restorative materials and appliances contain metallic compound. Hence, the use of SWD is constrained in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004496
Title: Patients’ satisfaction with health-care service delivery and its related factors: Results from a cross-sectional study with a large sample size
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Research Center of Health and Environment, School of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
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Background: Satisfaction is an important indicator in measuring the quality of services. Patients’ satisfaction as well as the quality of services provided is directly related to the level of expectations of the patients. This study aimed to determine patients’ satisfaction with health-care service delivery and its related factors. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study conducted in 2018. The research instrument was a questionnaire. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were confirmed. The community and research samples were patients who were admitted to the educational centers, hospitals, and medical centers of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS V.18. Results: A total of 1089 patients from 25 hospitals were included in the study. Fifty-nine percent of the patients were female. The patients’ mean age was 43.93 ± 17.26 years. The patients expressed high satisfaction with their hospital care (Mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 78.74 ± 14.3). The lowest satisfaction score was related to facilities (Mean ± SD: 61.10 ± 28.26) and information (Mean ± SD: 71.64 ± 20.85). Multiple regression analysis showed that the patients’ sex, educational level, and hospital ward were factors predicting the overall satisfaction. Conclusion: Females, more educated patients, and patients hospitalized in ward other than surgical ward had a meaningfully lower satisfaction level. Therefore, the study suggests improving care of women, hospital physical environment, and service delivery through education and system design. Furthermore, patients’ sex, level of education, and hospitalization ward should be considered for evaluating the quality of health-care services.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004498
Title: Quality of life in patients with precancerous lesions – A short review of literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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An important tool in the treatment of patients with any health-associated disease or disorder is the assessment of health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). The same applies to any premalignant or precancerous conditions or lesions under the term oral HR-QoL (OHR-QoL). OHR-QoL helps both the patient and clinician in understanding about the disease and its effect on day-to-day living. This review is done to establish a relationship between QoL and its relation toward various precancerous lesions so that further researches can be made to improve the treatment standards and approach toward such conditions. The aim of this review is to determine and evaluate the quality of patients who have existing precancerous lesions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004499
Title: Histological and biochemical study in male rats treated with Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathological Analysis, AL-Furat Al Awsat Technical University, Kufa Technical Institute, Kufa, Najaf 54001, Iraq
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Introduction: Cinnamon is a flavor, which is highly used in food, drink, and medications. It well identified in the previous researches that oil of cinnamon contains antibacterial and medicinal properties and it is also a powerful antioxidant. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different doses of ethanolic cinnamon extract (ECE) (250 and 500 mg/kg) on histological and biochemical parameters of liver of rats. Materials and Methods: At this study, the animal experiment divided into four groups whereas each group have seven rats prolonged to 8 weeks involved 3 days in each week giving ECE for intoxicated group. The statistical analysis carried out with t-test, analysis of variance, and least significant difference. Results: The male rats carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-toxicated group in compared with control group shows elevation in liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) as well as elevation in total serum bilirubin (TSB), but the group of the male rats CCl 4 -toxicated for 8 weeks and treated with ECE at concentrations of 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight showed a remarked decline (P < 0.05) in the serum AST, ALT, ALP activity, and TSB compared to CCl 4 -toxicated group. However, elevation (P < 0.05) of urea, uric acid, and creatinine level in CCl 4 -toxicated group as compared with control but CCl 4 -toxicated group treated with ECE at concentrations of 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight shows reduce in urea, uric acid, and creatinine levels. Further, the CCl 4 group could induce series histological changes in liver sections such as fatty degeneration, hepatocyte necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and fatty liver disease and marked sinusoidal vessels congestion with mild distribution histological configuration but in kidney sections glomerular capillary degeneration, tubules epithelial degeneration, and necrosis. The results of liver and kidney sections with CCl 4 along with ECE at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg show unique enhancement. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated significant effect of ECE on both histological and biochemical change and confers high potential for liver toxicity treatments.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004501
Title: Investigating educational misbehavior in students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences: A case study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Community Nursing Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
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Background and Objectives: The incidence and prevalence of educational misbehavior is a major problem in the university classrooms, and its extent has increased dramatically over the past two decades. The current study aims at investigating the prevalence of educational misbehavior among students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in 2018. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical research, overall 300 students who were randomly selected using stratified sampling method. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire with validity and reliability. The validity of the questionnaire was verified by faculty members and the reliability of the tool was 0.91. Data were entered into SPSS software version 16 and analyzed using ANOVA test and Mann–Whitney U-test for the relationships between the variables. The significance level was considered to be 0.5. Findings: Findings showed that the mean score of educational misbehavior was 71.21 among the students. The findings also indicated that the incidence of educational misbehavior was increased by increasing the grade of students (P < 0.05). In addition, among components of educational misbehavior components, the component of drawing attraction was observed more in male students. Conclusion: Considering the frequency of educational misbehavior among students, identification of types and prevalence of educational misbehavior should be considered by the educational authorities and managers of universities and faculties. In addition, identification of these behaviors significantly influences learning-teaching process and provides an important image of the way of treating and thinking for such behaviors with the professors. Appropriate disciplinary preventive measures, important measures for classroom management, and management of behaviors of students in the classroom are recommended for reducing these behaviors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004502
Title: Inhibition effect of silver-calcium nanocomposite on alanine transaminase enzyme activity in human serum of Iraqi patients with chronic liver disease
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Wasit University, College of Science, Al Kut, Iraq
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Silver-calcium (Ag-Ca) nanocomposite was synthesized by the chemical reduction method. The nanocomposite was investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. It was shown that the particles in the nanocomposite were about 16.8 nm in average crystal size. The effect of Ag-Ca nanocomposite was studied on the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT) in the serum patients of chronic liver disease. The results have shown that there was a highly significant increase in the serum levels of ALT activity in patients of chronic liver disease with and without nanocomposite compared to the control group (P < 0.001). A highly significant decrease in the serum levels of ALT activity in patients of chronic liver disease with nanocomposite compared to serum patients without nanocomposite. The result was related to the observation that Ag-Ca nanocomposite had an inhibition effect on serum ALT activity because the Ag-Ca nanocomposite strongly interacts with carboxylic groups of vital enzyme and inactivate them.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004503
Title: Comparative study of new formula of ultrasound gel with commercial ultrasound gel
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq
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This study aims to examine the applicability of using new formula of fabricated ultrasound gel. This was accomplished by conducting a clinical study using ultrasonography and comparing the images that were obtained from using two gels, the new prepared gel and the commercial gel available in the market. Two hundred patients were participated in the study and the imaging of each organ was conducted twice using the prepared gel once and the commercial gel in another imaging. The gel was used for imaging different organs including liver and gall bladder, kidney and urinary bladder, uterus and fetus, spleen and pancreas, joints, thyroid gland, and other body organs. The ultrasound imaging was conducted by two ultrasound specialists and 400 opinions were collected. The image quality, resolution, and image details were compared between the images obtained through using the prepared gel and the commercial gel, which was used as control. Results showed that there is no significant difference (P < 0.05) between the prepared gel and the commercial gel. In some cases, the prepared gel showed better performance than commercial gel, while in few cases or other studied organs the commercial gel seemed superior to the prepared gel; however, the difference, in both cases, was not statistically significant. It is worthy to mention that the formula was stable after 6 months of production and no side effects were reported on using of this gel throughout the study. As a conclusion, we recommend the use of this gel and confirm that the prepared gel can be used as an alternative for the imported and expensive gel.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004504
Title: The effect of galing plant extract (Cayratia trifolia L.) on white rats (Rattus norvegicus) wistar strain with breast cancer through analysis of cyclin D1 and Cox-2
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy and Pathology, Medical Faculty, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
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Introduction: Every year, cancer patients have increased. Disease recovery methods, such as by surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy, sometimes do not provide satisfactory results and sometimes provoke negative side effects. Therefore, it is necessary to alternate ways to overcome it by utilizing medicinal plants including galing plants (Cayratia trifolia L.). Aim: This study was conducted to determine the declination of the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) cells occurred after the galing plant extracts administration to adult female white rats (Rattus norvegicus). Materials and Methods: This study used true experimental design research method, employing a post-test design with a control group (i.e., the post-test – only control design group). Rats were divided into three groups (eight rats each): A normal group; a control group (breast cancer – conditioned rats that treated by carboxymethyl cellulose for 4 weeks); and the galing group (breast cancer – conditioned rats treated by C. trifolia L. extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg of body weight every day for 4 weeks). Results: This study obtained that the growth of cancer cells in the galing group was slower than that in the control group. Likewise, the expression of the COX-2 protein and cyclin D1 in the galing group was smaller in comparison with both the normal group and the control group. As such, it can be confirmed that there was a decrease in COX-2 and cyclin D1 protein expression in the galing group breast cancer cells versus the normal and control group ones. Conclusion: We concluded that C. trifolia L. can be applied as new alternative herbal-based medicine for cancer treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004505
Title: Clinical treatment of rabbits experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus using different antibiotics
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Internal and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Fallujah, Fallujah, Iraq
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Background: The recurrent bacterial strains antibiotic-resistant is a dangerous problem that has been interfere with human and animal’s public health. The bacteria have permanently the aptitude to keep themselves from the antibiotics that used by the ways of getting resistance through the interchange of the genetic materials with another bacterium. The problematic has been heightened as the occurrence of resistant of bacteria to the antibiotic has increased, and multiply drug-resistant strains have arisen in numerous species that cause illness in humans as well as animals. Materials and Methods: A 30 local rabbits were used in the present study to evaluate the most efficient antibiotic that treats the Staphylococcus aureus infection. These rabbits were divided randomly into six groups, each group contain five rabbits, all groups (except G6) were infected experimentally with 1 ml intraperitoneal of bacterial suspension containing 1 × 108 cfu/ml of viable virulent S. aureus then treated each group with different antibiotic 10% gentamycin 0.5 ml for G1, ceftiofur 5% 0.5 ml for G2, florfenicol 20% 0.5 ml for G3, oxytetracycline 20% 0.5 ml, all given intramuscular after 7 days post-infection for once daily for 3 consequence days, G5 used as control positive, and G6 used as control negative. Results: The results showed that all rabbits in G2 and G3 were cured after using florfenicol and ceftiofur, respectively, while G1 showed two rabbits cured, and there was a resistance of S. aureus for oxytetracycline used in G4. Conclusion: Ceftiofur as well as florfenicol can be used in the treatment of infection with S. aureus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004506
Title: Studying of certain immunological parameters in the Province of Babylon for systemic lupus erythematosus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, AL-Mustaqbal University College, Hillah, Iraq
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Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease with a variable clinical presentation. SLE can affect all organs, and the involvement of major organs can be life threatening. Lupus can affect many parts of the body, including the joints, skin, heart, kidneys, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. The exact pathological mechanisms of SLE remain elusive, and the etiology of SLE is known to be multifactorial. Methodology: The investigation subjects consisted of 30 sick people suffering from SLE collected randomly from the Merjan Teaching Hospital (28 female and 2 male patients) as a patients group of SLE with average age (10–50 years), the investigation of control group would include 15 apparently healthy patients including (6 female and 9 male patients) with average age (20–50 years), this group complemented the group of patients. Results: Patients with SLE were divided by age into groups. The age group (11–20) was the first age group, the infection rate was 13.4%, while the second age group (21–30) the infection rate was 26.6%, the third age group (31–40) the infection rate was 46.6%, was the highest, and the fourth age group (41–50) the infection rate was 13.4%. Results of study groups distribution by sex showed that the rate of infection in females was relatively higher than males 93.3% and 6.7%, respectively. Moreover, the overall duration of SLE was 73.3% of sick people who suffer from SLE who suffering from the disease for lesser than 5 years as a total duration. About 53.4% of patients who suffer from SLE were complained from rash of different body parts. Results of antinuclear antibody test (ANA test), show (80%) of patients are positive result, while (20%) of patients have a negative result. While the results of C-reactive protein concentration measurement showed an increase in the concentration of the age groups. Immunoglobulin distribution of SLE patients revealed the highest average immunoglobulin G of sick people who suffer from SLE (1203.05 ± 5.08) mg/dl, while the lowest average immunoglobulin A (125.9 ± 4.35) was mg/dL. The average immunoglobulin M was among patients (45.6 ± 4.25) mg/dL. Conclusion: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus disease is more common among females than males, In this study patients with SLE disease have elevated levels of ANA and CRP. and we have shown the differential expression of IgG, IgM, and IgA in SLE patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004507
Title: Genetic variation of the Apo CII gene and plasma lipid levels in healthy and patients with acute coronary syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq
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Background: Genetic polymorphisms in apolipoprotein C2 (APOC2) genes maybe relationship with modification in lipid profile and susceptibility to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The current study aims to investigate some of the causes of ACS through study APOC2 gene polymorphisms in the Babylon Center population and to investigate the relation of these polymorphisms with lipid, and APOC2 levels. Materials and Methods: In this study, participants were 120 men of age group between (40-65) years old and BMI of 20-29.9 kg/m2 . Study group (60 men) included smokers with hypertension and no other risk factors for ACS. On the other hand, control group included 60 men who were nonsmokers, no hypertensive, with no systemic diseases. The serum sample was used to measure the concentration of total cholesterol (CL), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) using colorimetric methods, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated using the Friedewald equation, APOC2 level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, and DNA was extracted from leukocytes in the blood samples to study APOC2 gene. Results: Revealed the relationship between levels of APOC2 concentration and the polymorphism of the APOC2 gene a significant elevated in A1A2 genotype. In addition, there was a significantly increase in CL and LDL and significantly decrease in HDL with genotype A1A1 and genotype A1A2 showed significantly increase in TG and very-LDL compared with other genotypes. Conclusion: APOC2 gene polymorphism contributed to the occurrence of the ACS, where A1A1 genotype has a higher level of total CL and LDL and this increases the incidence of atherosclerosis, increased concentration of APOC2 play a role in the occurrence of ACS by interfering with the action of lipoprotein lipase, and this may increases the level of TGs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004508
Title: The role of luteinizing hormone receptor gene (rs2293275) polymorphism on luteinizing hormone level in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Al-Anbar Health Directorate, Ramadi, Iraq
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Background: The aim of this study was to determine the genetic relation of luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor gene (rs2293275) polymorphism on luteinizing hormone level in women polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), which affects 5–10% of all women of reproductive age. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 88 Iraqi women diagnosed with PCOS. The females were divided into two groups 43 patients (Group A) with regular secretion of LH and 45 patients (Group B) with irregular secretion of LH. All females were assessed the status of obesity by body mass index (BMI) and blood samples were taken from these two groups for hormones and gene expression analysis. Results: LH receptors genotype and allele frequency was specified G935A polymorphism in the two group, Group A genotype, contain on 51.18% were wild genotype (GG), 32.55% were heterozygous (GA), and 16.27% were homozygous genotype (AA), while Group B appeared 42.22% were GG, 37.78% were GA, and 20.0% were AA. Regarding, hormones showed significant increase in LH level in Group B compared with Group A (18.91 ± 3.07 mlU/ml and 5.47 ± 0.49 mlU/ml, respectively). The mean value of other hormone levels was different in both study groups but remained within normal range. The age, BMI, and duration of infertility did not differ between Group A and B. Conclusion: From this study, we concluded the choriogonadotropin receptor gene (rs2293275) polymorphism effected on the LH level especially the women carrying GA genotype or A allele which has high risk to develop high LH level with PCOS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004510
Title: Pediatric obturating materials – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Pulp therapy for primary teeth continues to be a challenge to clinicians. One of the major areas of research is in the area of finding new obturating materials to suit the specific properties of these teeth. This article seeks to present a review of the major obturating materials in dentistry and their modifications as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Aim: The aim of this review is to analyze the role of different pediatric obturating materials in dentistry. Materials and Methods: Thorough literature search will be performed in the electronic database in the present inclusion and exclusion. For this work, a systematic bibliographic search was performed using PubMed and ResearchGate, without time or language limitations and books as a complement. The search was performed using the following words: Pulpectomy, children, obturating materials, zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide, iodoform, endoflas, metapex, vitapex, and pulpotec. Conclusion: The selection of appropriate obturating material is crucial in successful endodontic therapy. It has been found that the current obturating materials for primary teeth while providing satisfactory clinical results still need to be modified to suit the various clinical situations that are encountered. Recent advances in alternative root filling materials also promise better adhesion to root canal and avert the shortcomings of gutta-percha.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004511
Title: Knowledge and awareness of parents about their children first dental visit undergraduate – A cross-sectional survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The oral hygiene of pre-schoolchildren plays a very important role in bringing about the future dental health of the person. Children are more prone to dental caries and thus the prevention of dental caries is important to avoid loss of primary teeth prematurely and decreases the risk of diseases in the future. Parents play an important role in teaching and maintaining oral hygiene to their children. Thus, this study is designed to assess the parents’ knowledge and awareness of their children oral hygiene and timing of the first dental visit by doing a survey among parents of pre-teen children in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. Aim: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the knowledge and attitude of parents regarding their child’s first dental visit. Materials and Methods: With prior consent, a 10-question survey including both multiple-choice and yes/no questions was distributed to 100 parents visiting Saveetha Dental College. The data collected were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Results: About 15.5% opted 1 year and below, 42% opted 3 years, and 34.4% opted 6 years as the ideal age for the child’s first dental visit. About 65.3% opted emergency as the main reason for visiting the dentist, whereas 28.1% opted regular checkup. About 70% opted enhancing and motivating the child is the best approach in bringing the child to the dentist. About 80% of the subject opted only when their child has pain they make a visit to the dentist. About 90% of the subjects knew that their child’s teeth are more prone to cavities. Conclusion: It was evident that the awareness level regarding the importance of the first dental visit is very low in the Indian population, with an average age of the child’s first dental visit being at 3–6 years of age. The most common reason for seeking dental care at the first visit is found to be pain and dental caries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004534
Title: Knowledge and awareness of oral hygiene among nursing students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Oral health knowledge is considered to be an essential prerequisite for health-related behavior. Little is known about oral health attitudes and behaviors of nursing students, especially of those who are great supporters of this field. Due to the high stress levels, the nursing students may find it difficult to maintain perfect oral hygiene. Hence, this study was initiated to assess the oral hygiene status and create improved awareness in them. Aim: The objective of the study is to assess the oral hygiene status among nursing students. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the nursing students in Chennai to assess the knowledge, attitude, and awareness of oral hygiene using a pre-tested questionnaire. A sample size of 100 students inclusive of 67 females and 33 males was used. Questions based on the dental knowledge and attitude toward oral hygiene were asked to the students. The questionnaire consisted of a basic 11 questions and appropriate responses were recorded. Results: About 98% of the nursing students do care about their oral hygiene. Moreover, about 90% of the students are aware of the advantages of good oral hygiene. About 66% do realize that refusing to go to a dentist does have an influence on their oral hygiene. Yet, only 33% go to a dentist for a regular checkup. Conclusion: This study concluded that even though the participants are aware of the certain consequences of bad oral hygiene, sufficient steps are not being taken by the nursing students to improve their oral hygiene.