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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004623
Title: Evaluation of the performance and knowledge of youth and middle-aged population of Zahedan about diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Health Nursing, Community Nursing Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
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Background and Aim: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic metabolic diseases nowadays. Moreover, if no measurement is done to prevent, control, and treat it, there will be many problems for the community. This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16) using independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA at the significant level of α = 0.05. Results: The mean of knowledge score was 3.38 ± 12.49 of 20 and the mean score of performance was 3.85 ± 0.91 of 5, and both were at an average level. Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA analyzed the relationship between the mean score of knowledge and performance of the subjects with literacy, marital status, and gender; however, there was only a significant correlation between knowledge and literacy (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The mean score of knowledge and performance of the subjects was moderate regarding diabetes. Since there is a direct relationship between a person’s knowledge of an issue and his or her insight and performance, it is hoped to raise the awareness about diabetes and improve individuals’ performance through such methods as conducting health and medical education sessions on diabetes mellitus and imaging fatal outcomes on the individual.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004615
Title: Effects of Vitamin D3 on methotrexate-induced jejunum damage in rats by the utilization of immunohistochemical study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
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Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to highlight the effects of fixed dose of Vitamin D3 at two different durations on the immunohistochemical expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and caspase-3 induced by methotrexate (MTX) in the jejunum of rats. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine albino rats of both sexes, weighing 150–250 g were randomly divided into seven groups (seven animals each) as follows: Control 1 and control 2 (I.P. normal saline) daily for 14 and 21 days, respectively; Vitamin D3 groups (500 IU/rat/day) orally for 14 and 21 days, respectively; MTX a single dose (20 mg/kg, I.P) for 4 days; Vitamin D3 (500 IU/rat/day) once daily for 14 days and MTX (20 mg/kg I.P) which injected only at day 10; and Vitamin D3 (500 IU/rat/day) orally for 21 days and MTX (20 mg/kg I.P) which injected only at day 17; then, the jejunum was removed and used to investigate the expression of iNOS and caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry study. Results: The histochemical score of iNOS and caspase-3 protein in jejunum was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in MTX-treated group compared to control 1, control 2, and Vitamin D3 for 14 and 21 days; moreover, further increment in the histochemical score in Vitamin D3 administered for 14 or 21 days and single dose of MTX at day 10 or 17, respectively, compared to MTX-treated group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that Vitamin D3 plays a synergistic role with MTX by increasing the expression of inducible NO and caspase-3 in rats’ jejunum.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004616
Title: Production and purification of killer toxins associated with new record of four Debaryomyces species in Iraq
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, Basra University, Basra, Iraq
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Background: Ecological killer yeasts have been less studied compared to laboratory and domesticated killer yeasts. Killer yeasts secrete so-called killer toxins that inhibit close sensitive yeasts. These toxins assumed to be tools for studying ability as antifungal and antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from different regions in Basrah Province using CHROMagar Candida, VITEK, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for morphology, biochemical, and genetic identification beside of determined gene expression for strains purification and identification killer toxin for the best strains which produced high production of killer toxin in fermentation medium. Results: The results of this study showed that a record of four ascomycetes species belongs to genus Debaryomyces for the 1st time in Iraq. Biochemical and VITEK tests were used for identification as well as a molecular study represented by PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS1)-ITS2 region rDNA gene was conducted for more accurate discrimination between morphological alike species. Total RNA samples were extracted from yeast colonies and the expression of L-A, M1, and M2 genes was measured by real-time PCR. The highest gene expression was for Debaryomyces vindobonensis (DV), while the lowest was for Debaryomyces fabryi. The killer toxins were purified using Sephadex G75 and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; then, killer assay was performed against clinical isolates showing that the zone of inhibition was less against bacteria. Conclusion: D. vindobonensis had the highest gene expression for killer toxins K1, K2, and K28 as well as had a high antimicrobial activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004617
Title: Effect of two intracanal medicaments in the apical seal – A dye extraction study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of Calcium hydroxide and Triple antibiotic paste as intra canal medicament. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the analyze the effect of Calcium hydroxide and Triple antibiotic paste used as intracanal medicament. Materials and Method: In this study, 30 freshly extracted single rooted teeth were used. Access opening and Cleaning and Shaping were done for all 30 teeth. 30 teeth were divided into 3 groups. In Group A ( control group), cleaning and shaping was done in 10 teeth and no intracanal medicament was given. In group B, Calcium hydroxide was used as an Intracanal medicament and in Group C, Triple antibiotic paste was used as Intracanal medicament. Temporary filling was given for all 30 teeth. After One week, cleaning and shaping was again done for all these teeth and obturation was done. The teeth were immersed in India ink and the dye penetration was observed under 10X stereomicroscope. Result: The dye penetration level was found to be 21.05 in group A, 25.35 in group B and 27.15 in group C. There was no significant difference between group B and C. There was significant difference(P = <0.05) present between group A and B (P = 0.019) and group C and A (P = 0.032). Conclusion: From this study, we can conclude that dye leakage was present in all the three groups, but was found to be more when triple antibiotic paste was used as an intracanal medicament.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004618
Title: A case report on management of complex partial seizure with diabetes-associated coronary artery disease overview by clinical pharmacist
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India
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A case study of a 51-year-old male patient was presented to the cardiology ward with complaints of chest pain, breathlessness, giddiness, and headache. His electrocardiogram detected sinus arrhythmia, abnormal Q-wave, poor R-wave progression, and inverted T-wave in anterior leads and echocardiogram showed coronary artery dysfunction and his coronary angiogram exhibited single-vessel disease. Electroencephalogram of the brain exhibited background alpha 8–10 Hz, eye movement’s artifacts, and brain magnetic resonance imaging scan showed small vessel ischemia in bilateral periventricular region and centrum semiovale. The patient had a medical history of seizure which was characterized by sudden loss of consciousness for 2–3 min along with giddiness and dimness of his vision. Hence, the patient was prognosed with complication of diabetes-associated coronary artery disease complaints of complex partial seizures. The patient was incessantly monitored for 1 week duration and prescribed with his regular medications. The patient remained stable, discharged from the hospital with advised for a regular follow-up until 3 months period. The patient was directed to clinical pharmacist services to acquire counseling on the medications, lifestyle modifications, physical exercises, stress management, ketogenic diets, strict medication adherence, and regular follow-up visits. The patient had improved from his condition drastically insisting an imperative need of clinical pharmacist services in such complex disease association, the clinical pharmacist intervention proved providing a better health outcome in the patient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004620
Title: Interarch ratio for the posterior teeth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Bolton analysis is used to determine the tooth size discrepancies in the overall teeth and the anterior teeth. Nowadays, with the frequent inclusion of the second molar in the orthodontic treatment, the posterior tooth material discrepancies have become more important as it can create finishing difficulties. The aim of this present study was to derive a ratio for posterior teeth to identify these posterior tooth material discrepancies. Materials and Methods: Twenty ideal casts of subjects with Class 1 occlusion having ideal alignment, overjet, and overbite were selected for the study. The mesiodistal widths of the posterior teeth were measured on both the sides and recorded. The posterior tooth ratio was obtained by dividing the sum of mandibular posterior teeth by maxillary posterior teeth and ratio was derived. Results: The mean value was found to be 106.57 with a standard deviation of 2.43. Conclusion: The posterior tooth ratio of 106.58 ± 2.43 which we have obtained in this study can be used to determine the posterior interarch tooth material discrepancy including the second molar.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004621
Title: Relationship between the nurses’ observance of professional ethics and quality of nursing care from the patients’ point of view
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Community Nursing Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
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Introduction and Aim: The observance of professional ethics is an integral part of the nursing profession. The mission of the nursing is to provide the highest level of the health care and rehabilitative services to ensure, maintain, and promote community health. Given that, nurses are the largest group of health-care providers in hospitals and health-care centers and they have a significant impact on the health-care quality and also the observance of ethical standards is an effective factor for improving the nurses’ performance and increasing the quality of their care; therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the nurses’ observance of professional ethics and quality of nursing care from the patients’ point of view in the Ali Ebne Abitaleb Hospital of Zahedan, Iran. The professional ethics questionnaire developed by Maarefi et al. and Quality Patient Care Scale was used to collect the data, and its validity and reliability were confirmed by a study conducted by Khaki et al. Descriptive statistics (such as mean and standard deviation), the Spearman correlation coefficient, and independent t-test were used for data analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16. Results: In total, 188 subjects participated in the study, of whom 165 included in the study and 72 excluded from the study. Of the 165 patients, 95 (57.6%) were female and 70 (42.4%) were male. There was a significant correlation between the nurses’ observance of professional ethics and quality of nursing care from the patients’ point of view. Thirty-eight (64.4%) of the patients who reported a poor score for the nurses’ observance of professional ethics were somewhat satisfied with the quality of nursing care and 21 (36.5%) were satisfied. Furthermore, 96 (90.6%) of patients who reported a good score for nurses’ observance of professional ethics were satisfied with the quality of nursing care and 10 (9.4%) were somewhat satisfied and P = 0.001 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study showed that nurses got a good score from the observance of professional ethics and patients were satisfied with the quality of nursing care. Training programs for nurses, meeting the needs of them, and creating a safe environment by considering the shift and other needs of the nurses can improve the quality of nursing care and thus the nurse will pay more attention to the patient’s needs and ethics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004622
Title: Graphene nanoflakes as a nanobiosensor for amino acid profiles of fish products: Density functional theory investigations
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Education-Qurna, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq
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Background: Using density functional theory (DFT) investigations, we investigate graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) as a new nanobiosensor for amino acids detection in fish products. The adsorption features of three classes (lysine, methionine, and threonine) of amino acids close to GNFs-surface are considered and investigated by using Gaussian software. The geometric properties, energetic properties, global reactivity descriptors, and electrostatic potential counter map have been considered to see the order of the adsorption strength in the systems and good understanding of nature of the interactions in amino acids/GNFs process. Methodology: The computational model of GNFs consists of 24 carbon atoms with 12 hydrogen atoms in ends. The GNF is a nanostructure with high aspect ratio, and the greater area of contact, which can enhance the chemical reactivity of biomolecules. The non-covalent interaction of amino acids with the GNFs would change the electrical conductance of GNFs-based sensors by charge transfer between GNFs and amino acid adsorbed through the local chemical reactivity and cause efficient detection of a variety of biomolecules and more development in biomedical applications. Results: The results show that GNFs with large adsorption energy and significant charge transfer through the adsorption of amino acid can exploit as a nanobiosensor. The developing field for applications of nanobiosensors was for the reason that same length order of magnitude scales of several of the fundamental building blocks of life with the nanoscale material. Conclusions: The adsorption behavior of three different types of amino acids in fish products on the GNFs has been studied using DFT investigations. The adsorption energy values, nearest atom distance, and partial charge analysis establish the energetic and physical nature of adsorption on GNFs. The total energy and adsorption energy values suggest that GNFs are potential nanobiosensor as adsorption surface for amino acids. The electronic changes have been observed through highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, and energy gap. The molecular electrostatic potential plots conclude that there is charge transfer between the GNFs and the amino acids. The reliable conclusions shown in this study will encourage the experimentalists to explore and use these nanomaterials as an amino acid carrier and to immobilize the amino acid that can lead to useful to proposal novel generation of biosensors based on GNFs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004624
Title: Hydrogel: A novel biomaterial of yesterday, today, and tomorrow – A review
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, School of Bio Sciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Hydrogels are a novel, inexpensive, biodegradable, biocompatible, three-dimensional polymeric structured material with enhanced swelling capacity in water. Moreover, these materials reveal physiochemical properties (such as drug loading and biostability), specific functionalities (such as self-healing, shape memory, and optoelectronic properties), and have the capability to response various environmental stimuli. Hence, it is being applied for various biomedical fields which include as a scaffold in tissue engineering, carrier for drug delivery, wound dressing (as fillers for lumpectomies after breast cancer ionic skins), and food and agricultural industry. This review covers the finished and ongoing biomedical applications of hydrogel materials that are used and currently being developed for medical applications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004625
Title: Efficacy of Epley’s maneuver versus Brandt and Daroff exercise in population with vertigo
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to the efficacy of Epley’s maneuver versus Brandt and Daroff exercise in population with vertigo. Background: Vertigo is a sensation of feeling off balance. Vertigo is usually due to a disturbance in the vestibular system. Physical therapy plays an important role in reducing vertigo and nystagmus in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Epley’s maneuver procedure was effective in treating BPPV. Brandt Daroff exercise was designed to make the central nervous system to provoking position, and they knock out the debris out of the canal, which is effective in treating BBPV. Hence, this study is comparing the efficacy of these two techniques in treating BPPV. Methodology: A total of 30 subjects were selected and divided into two groups: Group A subjects were treated with Epley’s maneuver procedure and Group B subjects were treated with Brandt Daroff exercises. Outcome measure is dizziness handicap inventory (DHI). Dix-Hall pike test is performed to know nystagmus and was reduced or not. Result: On comparing both groups of their pre- and post-test values of DHI Group A shows lesser mean value (11.8) than Group B (22.2) where P < 0.001 which is highly significant. Conclusion: The study shows that the Epley’s maneuver is more effective and less time-consuming technique in treating the BPPV.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004626
Title: Awareness of the effects of yoga and meditation as stress busters among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this survey is to create awareness of yoga and meditation as stress busters among the dental students. Introduction: Yoga is a mind-body practice technique that combines physical poses, controlled breathing, and meditation or relaxation. Yoga may help reduce stress, lower blood pressure, and lower heart rate. Moreover, the best thing in this is almost anyone can do this, depending on their body conditions and time requirements. Yoga is considered as one of many types of complementary and integrative health approaches. Yoga brings together physical and mental disciplines that may help achieve peacefulness of body and mind. Materials and Methods: An online survey consisting of 10 questions on awareness on yoga and meditation among dental students was prepared and distributed. Data were collected and statistically analyzed. This study involved a sample of 100 participants. Result: Awareness on Yoga and Meditation as stress busters was created among dental students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004627
Title: Potential of the methanol extract from Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis as an antihypertensive agent possibly through the interference of glutathione S-transferase
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Ponorogo, Ponorogo, East Java, Indonesia.
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Background: Hypertension is a condition, in which a patient’s systolic blood pressure reaches ≥140 mmHg and/or the diastolic blood pressure reaches ≥90 mmHg. The disease is generally treated using synthetic chemical drugs such as angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In Indonesia, especially the island of Java, people often use medicinal plants called Jamu (herbs) to treat hypertension. One of the most often used medicinal plants to treat hypertension is cantaloupe (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis) or Blewah in Javanese. However, thus far, the mechanism of how cantaloupe reduces blood pressure is still unknown. Materials and Methods: This research aimed to investigate the working mechanism of cantaloupe in reducing blood pressure through an in silico approach. Results: An enzyme activity analysis showed that the methanol extract from cantaloupe inhibited the activity of ACE in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the mapping analysis of the interaction between the bioactive compounds and their target proteins, using the STITCH and STRINGdb databases, suggested that L-glutathione (GSH) (reduced) interacted with proteins that are members of the superfamily of GSH S-transferase (GST). Conclusion: This protein family acts in detoxification and radical scavenging. Thus, the possible working mechanism of cantaloupe in reducing blood pressure is through the detoxification and radical scavenging pathways by GST.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00004628
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of one medicinal plant, Aristolochia indica
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Verification of the herbal plants by latest scientific tools toward understanding the molecular mechanism underlying their medicinal role is the need of the hour. Methods: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of water extracts of the leaves of one herbal plant, Aristolochia indica was undertaken by standard procedures and its medicinal activity was verified with the biomolecules present in it. Results: The presence of some important biomolecules such as 2-propenoic acid, ethenyl ester, oxalic acid, cyclobutyl ethyl ester, phosphoric acid, 2-chloroethenyl dimethyl ester, pentanoic acid, 2-methylcyclohexyl ester, cis-, butylphosphonic acid, butyl cyclohexylmethyl ester, octadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, acetic acid, cesium salt and 2-Fluoro-6-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid, 4-nitrophenyl ester, and some others indicate represents the medicinal roles of this plant as is reported ethnopharmacologically. Conclusions: The results and discussion above clearly indicate that the various molecules present in A. indica leaf extracts do have medicinal roles ascribed to it and further work in this regard is on.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004653
Title: The relaxation effect of ethanolic extract of Biwa leaves (Eriobotrya japonica) on the histamine-1 receptor in isolated guinea pigs tracheal
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Padang Bulan, Medan 20155, Indonesia
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Background: Eriobotrya japonica or Biwa (family of Rosaceae) is one of the traditional medicines that used for bronchitis and cough. Objective: The aims of the study were to investigate the relaxation effect of the ethanolic extract of E. japonica leaves on the isolated guinea pig tracheal induced by histamine and its mechanism on phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE-3), nitric oxide, and prostaglandin. Materials and Methods: The study of the relaxation effect of the ethanolic extract (1–8 mg/mL) on the contraction of histamine 4.6 × 10−4 M was conducted in vitro using isolated guinea pig tracheal organ in the Krebs solution. Mechanistic evaluation was carried out by organ pre-incubation using theophylline, L-NAME, and acetosal. Results: The results showed that the ethanolic extract of E. japonica leaves produced a relaxation effect on histamine-induced contraction on guinea pig isolated tracheal and it was concentration-dependent manner. Relaxation percentages at the extract concentration of 8 mg/ml reached 43.24 ± 7.09%. The mechanism of the relaxation effect of the extract is mediated through PDE-3 inhibition, the prostaglandin pathway, and the nitric oxide pathway. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of E. japonica leaves showed a relaxation effect on histamine induced-contraction mediated through PDE-3 inhibition, prostaglandin, and nitric oxide pathway.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004654
Title: Biophysicochemical study of propolis and its clinical and radiographic assessment in dental pulpectomy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: School of Dentistry, Autonomous University of Yucatan, Calle 61 A No 492-A por Avenida Itzaes y Calle 90, Colonia Centro, CP 97000, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico
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Background: A variety of materials are being used for dental pulp treatments, including sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide, sometimes causing cytotoxicity, irritation, and root resorption. Propolis is a natural alternative, has been reported to exhibit antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and antitumoral activities. Objective: The objective of the study was to study the biophysicochemical properties and clinical performance in pulpectomies of commercial propolis. Materials and Methods: The clinical and radiographic response was assessed in 36 temporary teeth (TT), using ethanolic extracts of propolis. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl was used as a qualitative measure of antioxidant activity while antimicrobial activity was evaluated with Gram-positive bacteria by agar diffusion method. Results: Initially, 36 TT showed acute periradicular abscess, 28 TT (77.7%) showed pain, either acute or chronic, and 16 (44.4%) exhibited periapical radiolucent lesion. After 1 week of treatment, 30 TT (83.3%) were considered clinically successful, while 6 (16.7%) were assessed as dubious. After 2 weeks and a second treatment with propolis, 100% were considered clinically successful. After 4 weeks, 7 TT (43.8%) with initial radiolucent lesion improved, and after 12 weeks, a total of 13 (81.3%) did, and 7 TT presented radiographical success. Conclusions: Clinical and radiographic success was mainly attributed to the antioxidant activity of propolis and to a lesser extent to its antibacterial properties. Ethanolic extracts exhibited activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, it is suggested that propolis’ regenerative potential can be related to the presence of calcium and silicon.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004655
Title: Antifungal activity of juice and decoction of cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata)
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activities of juice and decoction of cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata) against Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Decoction was done by boiling fresh cabbage leaves until it reached a temperature of 90°C for 30 min. For the juice, it was prepared using blender and pasteurized for 30 min at 65–70°C. Both of the samples were diluted to serial dilutions and tested against the standardized C. albicans inoculum with final fungal concentrations of 103 cfu/mL using the agar diffusion method. To measure the antifungal strength of both samples, clotrimazole was used as a comparative antifungal agent. Results and Discussion: Among the juice and decoction of cabbage leaves, all concentrations of juice in dilutions ranging from 80% to 20% w/v produced inhibitory zones against C. albicans; meanwhile, the decoction showed no antifungal activity at all. The antifungal strength of the juice was 1:232.49 compared to clotrimazole. Conclusion: The juice blend of cabbage leaves in concentrate may have potential antifungal roles that can be utilized in candidiasis infection.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00004656
Title: Quality and safety of traditional medicines: Current regulatory scenario in India
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Traditional medicines (TMs) play an important role in maintaining public health, especially for those living in remote and rural areas. It is reported that 80% of the Indian population living in the rural sector depend primarily on the TMs. A well-structured regulatory control mechanism yet to be implemented in most of the developing countries. In India, the authority has given special attention to the safe use of TMs and to sustain its quality as well as safety among users. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules, 1945, is the law that regulates the TMs in India and is being amended many times. The act speaks the provisions related to the regulation pertaining to the manufacture and other activities such as manufacturing, packaging, labeling, standards, and sale of TMs. To manufacture good quality indigenous medicines in India, good manufacturing practices have been made mandatory by incorporation of revised Schedule T in the act. The present review highlights the current regulatory situation of TMs in India and the various approaches adopted in Indian regulation to ensure its quality and safety among the users.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004715
Title: Biosorption efficiency of plant powder of Annona squamosa
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: In this present study, plant powder of Annona squamosa was utilized as a biosorbent for the removal of methyl orange present in the industrial waste. Methodology: The influence of pH, adsorbent dose was determined and the reduction in dye was measured using spectrophotometer. Results: Maximum efficiency of 70% removal was achieved at 1 g dose of adsorbent and minimum of 47% was found at at 0.5 g. Also the effect of pH was studied and the result revealed that maximum of 70% dye removal occurred at acidic pH condition and in neutral and basic condition it was found to be 30%. Conclusion: The results exhibited that the Annona squamoa powder can be used as effective, eco-friendly, low cost adsorbent for removal of methyl orange.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004716
Title: Epidemiology of breast cancer: A case series
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women and represents the second leading cause of cancer death among women (after lung cancer).The proportion of breast cancer is rising in India. Incidence rates are high in more developed countries, whereas rates are lower in less developed countries but increasing. Aim: This is a retrospective study of 90 breast cancer patients <70 years of age treated in a single center from April 2018 to April 2019. The aim is to assess the known risk factors that modulate the development of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from medical records. Variables such as age, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index (BMI), family history, and usage of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) were analyzed in relation to outcome. All data were recorded in MS Excel sheet. Results: The maximum number of cases (58.8.4%) belonged to age group of ≥50 years. The maximum number of cases falls under lower parity/nulliparity. There was no data in the records on the duration of breastfeeding to determine its association with breast cancer. Postmenopausal women (37 cases) with increased BMI are evident to show its risk. Most of the cases (80%) did not have positive family history. About 93.3% of cases not associated with intake of OCP. Conclusion: Increase in age contributes to maximum number of cases. Parity and breastfeeding are inversely proportional to breast cancer. In postmenopausal age group, BMI is increased. Positive family history is present in few cases, which shown familial breast cancer accounts less than of all breast cancer cases. The intake of OCP shows no association with breast cancer. This study has several limitations of being a descriptive study and it described only the collected data.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004717
Title: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension with papilledema – A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterized by increased intracranial tension (ICT) with symptoms and signs of headache and visual disturbances (including blindness) due to raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure, however, without any underlying cause, ventricular enlargement or space-occupying lesion. The characteristic findings include papilledema which is usually bilateral. IIH can rarely present with unilateral papilledema. Here, we report a 30-year-old male, with headache and transient visual loss in his both eyes. Examination revealed the presence of bilateral optic disc edema. A Lumbar puncture (LP) revealed elevated opening pressure with normal cerebrospinal fluid biochemical parameters. Neuroimaging showed partial empty sella with no evidence for an alternative cause for intracranial hypertension, thus confirming the diagnosis of IIH. The patient managed medically, but in view of persisting symptoms and signs, theco-peritoneal shunt was done followed by which he showed significant improvement in symptoms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004718
Title: A case report on sarcoidosis in a patient presenting with parotid enlargement
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Sarcoidosis is a chronic disease affecting multiple organs. It commonly affects patients between 20 and 40 years with a slight female predominance. The prevalence is higher in Afro-Americans and in Scandinavian Race and rare in Asians. Its prevalence varies by the organs involved, severity of the disease, clinical course as well as among the population and race. In India, sarcoidosis diagnosis is usually delayed to its rarity even in patients with typical symptoms. In this case study, a 30-year-old female presented with complaints of bilateral swelling of the eyelid and parotid glands also complained of dry eye and dry mouth which was suggestive of Sjogren syndrome and was later diagnosed with sarcoidosis and treated for the same.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004719
Title: Prevalence of anemia in cancer patients of a district hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Anemia is a common problem in cancer patients, especially in developing countries and among aged patients. Aim: This study was done to assess the prevalence of anemia in cancer patients diagnosed in our hospital over a period of 1 year. Methodology: The study group was identified from patients whose surgically resected specimens were sent to our pathology department for histopathology. Results: In this study, females were found to have higher prevalence of cancer than men and carcinoma breast was the most common malignancy in which surgical management was performed. Women were more commonly anemic than men (76% vs. 64%) and the most common malignancy associated with anemia were lymphoma (76%) followed closely by colorectal cancer (74%). Conclusion: Identifying and treating anemia in cancer patients will improve quality of life in these patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004720
Title: Histopathological analysis of vesiculobullous skin lesions from a tertiary care hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pathology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Vesiculobullous lesions are one of the predominant groups of skin lesions. Various types of pathologic processes can lead to the development of vesiculobullous eruptions over the body. Each entity in this group has distinct clinical features which help in their categorization. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analytical study was conducted in the department of pathology from January 2018 to December 2018, where 16 patients were diagnosed with a vesiculobullous lesion of the skin. These cases were clinically and histopathologically analyzed. Results: Majority of the patients presented in the age group of 52 years. Female patients exceeded male patients. In this study, there were 9 cases of non-infectious bullous pemphigoid group of disease comprising the largest group (56.25%), 4 cases of pemphigus vulgaris (25%), 1 case of pemphigus foliaceus (6.2%), and 2 cases of pustular psoriasis (12.5%). Conclusions: From this study, we conclude that the histopathological features of vesiculobullous skin lesions form the primary diagnostic modality in the management, where the facility for immunofluorescence techniques is unavailable.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004721
Title: Biomedical waste management
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Biomedical waste is created in each social insurance office. It is significant that this biomedical waste be arranged in a legitimate way as to avert the pollution of the earth. This biomedical waste transfer requires fundamental advances, for example, taking care of, isolation, sanitization, stockpiling, and transfer. The transfer of this biomedical waste must be in a sheltered and secure way. The fundamental target of this paper was to evaluate the learning in regard to biomedical waste administration in a clinic. Strategies: An investigation was directed from April 1, 2019, to April 30, 2019, in Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chromepet, Chennai. A survey of 10 addresses dependent on learning of bio- restorative waste definition, steps, and the executives. Results: It can be said that there is great learning among the workforce of Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital. Standard preparing and checking are as yet required to improve the learning about biomedical waste and its transfer. Conclusion: Proper collection and segregation of biomedical waste are important. There is a need for education awareness to the hazards associated with improper waste disposal. Lack of knowledge to the concept of waste management is a major stymie to the practice of waste disposal.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004722
Title: Role of polyherbal formulation on diabetes-induced changes in carbohydrate metabolism
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India (Affiliated to Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Background: The changes in carbohydrate metabolism are the most important manifestations of diabetes mellitus (DM). Due to the potential adverse effect of allopathic drugs, herbal formulations usage is increasing day by day. Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of the polyherbal formulation of flaxseed, fenugreek, and Jamun seed on the diabetes-induced changes in carbohydrate metabolism in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into seven groups. Diabetes was induced by using streptozotocin-nicotinamide. The effect of PHF is more prominent when compared with individual herbs and are similar to control. Conclusion: This study concluded that the polyherbal formulation has the efficacy to manage DM and have the ability to restore the changes that occur in carbohydrate metabolism during DM.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004723
Title: Preliminary phytochemical, physicochemical screening of Argyreia nervosa, and its therapeutic implications
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Argyreia nervosa is commonly known as Elephant creeper, Woolly Morning-Glory. (English) Vriddhadaru, Samundrasok (Sanskrit) belongs to family-Convolvulaceae, traditional plant claimed as more therapeutic value. Objective: The present study was carried out to highlight physicochemical and phytochemical screening of. A. nervosa, and it was analyzed using various solvent such as ethanol, methanol, chloroform, N-hexane, aqueous, and hydroalcohol. Materials and Methods: Leaf and root of A. nervosa, extracted with different solvent. Results: The phytochemical screening of various extracts of leaf and root of A. nervosa, revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins. Hydroalcoholic extract showed high extractive value when compared to aqueous and other solvents. Conclusion: Knowledge of preliminary phytochemical analysis will facilitate the isolation of active compound and drug discovery program.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004724
Title: Computed tomography evaluation of olfactory fossa depth by Keros’ classification
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Radiodiagnosis, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, India
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Background: The aim of the study was to assess the olfactory fossa (OF) profundity as per the Keros’ order utilizing registered tomography (Computed tomography [CT]) on pre practical endoscopic sinus medical procedure (pre-functional endoscopic sinus surgery) and decide the variety in the OF profundity in the number of inhabitants in Pondicherry. Settings and Design: This investigation was led in our organization from June 2018 to January 2019. Patients >18 years old experiencing CT sweep of paranasal sinuses (PNS) were incorporated into the investigation. Materials and Methods: Coronal PNS CT sweep investigations of 400 patients were looked into technique: The profundity of OF was estimated from vertical tallness of sidelong lamella. Factual Method: Results were dissected by sexual orientation and afterward utilizing autonomous example t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The mean profundity of OF was 5.59 ± 1.36 mm. Measurably noteworthy contrast was found in the mean profundity of OF among guys and females yet not among right and left sides. Among the all out 800 sides, Keros type I was seen in 16.13%, type II in 77.38%, and type III in 6.5%. Type III Keros was more on the right (7%) than left (6%) side, more in females (7.78%) than guys (5.45%), and more among females on the correct side (8.89%). Asymmetry in OF profundity between different sides was seen in 61% of subjects. Conclusion: Prevalence of the risky sort III OF, despite the fact that low, is critical particularly among guys and on the correct side. In this way, pre-operative evaluation of OF profundity must be done to decrease iatrogenic intricacies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004725
Title: Clinico-epidemiological profile of primary immunoglobulin A nephropathy – An institutional experience in South India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, India
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Background: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most well-known essential glomerulonephritis around the world. Guess relies on the class of IgAN. There is just a couple of concentrates to report the commonness or clinicopathological range of primary IgAN in India. Goals: The aim of the study was to examine the center epidemiological profile of essential IgAN. Methodology: The examination included renal biopsies analyzed to have essential IgAN, gotten by the Department of Pathology, St. John’s Medical College, Bengaluru, during a time of 10 years from January 2004 to December 2013. The investigation was both review (January 2004–April 2012) and imminent (May 2012–December 2013). The clinical information and research facility discoveries were recovered from the Medical Records Department of St. John’s Medical College and Hospital, Bengaluru, in all cases. The histological segments were checked on alongside the immunofluorescence discoveries, and the applicable clinical information was examined. Results: Out of 123 cases considered, age gathering ran from 4 years to 70 years with the biggest frequency in the 20–30 years age gathering (35%) and a normal time of 32.74 years, guys prevailed (70.7%) with a male: female proportion being 2.4:1. Hypertension was found in 48 (39%) cases, hematuria in 53 (43%) cases, and proteinuria in 51 (42%) cases. Conclusions: The occurrence of IgAN was 2.4 occasions more typical in guys than in females. Haas Class IV was the most widely recognized class. Hematuria was the most well-known clinical introduction. This investigation requires for early intercession methodologies just as screening programs, not exclusively to distinguish and treat the patients, yet additionally for a superior comprehension of the elements which lead to this fast and early movement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004726
Title: Therapeutic effects of fenugreek, jamun, and flaxseed
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India (Affiliated to Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Since the herbs are naturally occurring, high therapeutic effect and less or no side effect, the belief in herbal medicine is increasing throughout the world. In the future, these herbal medicines will be a better alternative for current allopathic drugs that exhibit severe side effects. The main objective of the present study is to explore the beneficial effect of three natural seeds that are widely used for the various ailments. The herbal formulation in Ayurveda is based on two concepts: one is the use of a single individual herb and another one is the use of more than one herb. The polyherbal formulations contain several medicinal herbs in a single formulation to attain extra beneficial effect. In many polyherbal formulations, especially in antidiabetic formulations, fenugreek, and jamun seeds are commonly present. Recently, the flaxseed is gaining attention in the food industries and the treatment of many diseases. Since these three herbs are widely used, the therapeutic applications of these three herbs are reviewed and presented in this article. This will be beneficial for the researches in the field of drug development and alternate therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004727
Title: Androgenetic alopecia – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is one of the most widely observed causes in the back of dermatological talk. Inside the procedure, for the most current couple of years our thoughtfulness regarding the pathophysiology of AGA has improved, and this has cleared course for higher unequivocal and unwavering decisions. Dermoscopy/trichoscopy has made as a useful unequivocal contraption for AGA. While the real treatment decisions keep up on topical minoxidil, essential finasteride and hair transplantations are continuously underneath appraisal. Keep up on being topical minoxidil, essential finasteride and hair transplantations, continuously huge current modalities are underneath appraisal. Unequivocal illustrative and fix suggestions have moreover been made on proof-based absolutely benchmarks. AGA is the most extensively investigated non-cicatricial alopecia that prompts the dynamic scaling down of the hair follicle. Scalp terminal hairs are changed over into vellus hairs, on a very basic level in light of parts: Natural propensity and hormonal enlistment. The repeat and conventionality of AGA are increments with age. The start of AGA is self-evident, and when this pathology drives, the anagen degree truncates, and the telogen stage stays strong. The shedding quarter changes from influenced individual to unending and is dependably most extraordinary set aside on the vertex in men, while women with AGA through and tremendous lose hair diffusely over the crown. Topical minoxidil and oral finasteride (5-alpha-reductase type II inhibitor) are the most perfectly grand degree meds for AGA and are at present the fundamental sustenance and drug the board The Food and Drug Administration-mentioned meds for AGA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004728
Title: Ideal incubation temperature for varying sized tissues during tissue processing
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Tissue processing describes the steps required to take an animal or human tissue from fixation to the state where it is completely infiltrated with a suitable histological wax and can be embedded ready for section cutting on the microtome. Tissue processing involves dehydration, clearing, and wax infiltration of the fixed specimen. Most modern fluid-transfer processors employ raised temperatures, effective fluid circulation, and incorporate vacuum/pressure cycles to enhance processing and reduce processing times. Aim: The aim of this study is to identify the ideal incubation temperature for varying sized tissues during tissue processing. Materials and Methods: A total of seven fixed tissue are cut into 0.25 cm, 0.50 cm, and 1 cm and a total of 21 samples were obtained. They were processed in an incubator at varying temperatures of 32°, 35°, 40°, 42°, 45°, 50°, and 52°C. The tissues were dehydrated in alcohol and acetone, cleared in xylene and finally in filtrated in paraffin wax. Two observers scored based on the intensity of staining, integrity of tissues, cytoplasmic details, nuclear details, and presence or absence of background staining as scoring criteria. Kappa statistics were done to check inter- observer reliability and it was found to be significant. Results: 0.25 cm-sized specimens integrity of tissues, cytoplasmic staining, nuclear details, and absence of nuclear staining were better by 75% at temperatures 32°C and 35°C. Integrity was 75% at 40–45°C, but background staining was 50% above 40°C for 0.25 cm-sized specimens. Integrity of tissues, cytoplasmic staining, nuclear details, and absence of nuclear staining were better by 50% at temperatures 32°C, 35°C, and 40°C for 0.50 cm-sized tissues. At 40°C nuclear detail, cytoplasmic staining and nuclear staining were reduced to 25% for 0.50 cm-sized tissues. Integrity of tissues, cytoplasmic staining, nuclear details, and absence of nuclear staining were better by 55% at temperatures 35°C, 40°C, and 42°C for 1 cm-sized specimens. The tissues showed distortion above 50°C. Conclusion: According to our study, the ideal temperature for rapid tissue processing would be 35°–42°C for small specimens as it shows good tissue integrity, cytoplasmic staining, nuclear details, and absence of background staining.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004729
Title: Awareness on paleo diet among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The point of this examination is to create awareness about paleo diet among dental students. The Paleolithic diet is also called as the paleo diet which is based fundamentally on sustenances attempted to be accessible to paleolithic people. The paleo diet is the most advantageous way you can eat on the grounds that it is the just dietary methodology that works with your hereditary qualities to enable you to remain lean, solid, and enthusiastic. Research in science, organic chemistry, ophthalmology, dermatology, and numerous different orders demonstrates that it is our cutting edge diet, brimming with refined substances, trans fats what’s more, sugar that is at the foundation of degenerative infections. At its most fundamental, driving a paleo way of life implies that you are devouring substances found in nature. Following a paleo diet implies that you are eating principally fish, grass sustained field, raised meats, vegetables, natural products, roots, and nuts. It rejects grains, vegetables, dairy items, salt, refined sugars, and prepared oils. It leads to enhancements in body’s organization and digestion when contrasted with the western eating regimen. The reason for following a paleo way of life is to accomplish better well- being, expand your cross fit preparing, and to look great. The examination was led in different dental schools in Chennai. Materials and Methods: The dietary propensities, way of life, and dozing designs were evaluated in 100 students. A poll with respect to the eating routine and way of life of the understudies was readied and they were approached to fill the survey with awareness, and the outcomes were based on the rate. Results and Conclusion: The study shows that 72% of students are aware about paleo diet. In spite of the knowledge, 48% of the participants often consume foods with high sugar content and 45% of them consume rarely. In this manner, it demonstrates that individuals nowadays have an awful nourishment and are keen on paleo diet. 74% of the participants are aware that paleo diet is essential for the modern generation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004738
Title: Neuroprotective effects of the novel ethylthiadiazole derivatives (LHT 4–15) in male rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Institute, Belgorod State University, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod 308015, Russia
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Introduction: The study was to investigate the ethylthiadiazole derivative with the (code LHT 4–15) for the presence of neuroprotective effects. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on male rats of the Wistar line. The animals were simulated with total cerebral ischemia with preliminary administration of LHT 4–15 compounds in doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 60 min. The degree of neurological deficiency and the behavioral status of the animal was studied. In the experiment, five groups of rats (n = 10) were isolated: (1) intact, (2) pseudo-operated, (3) with total cerebral ischemia, (4) with total cerebral ischemia and 60 min LHT 4–15 in a dose of 25 mg/kg, and (5) with total cerebral ischemia and a preliminary dose of 50 mg/kg in 60 min. In the work, a pathology model was used in which a temporary occlusion of two common carotid arteries was performed for 4 min, with preliminary coagulation of two vertebral arteries. The protocol of the study included the following stages: Modeling of cerebral ischemia; evaluation of the electroencephalogram level of the animal; and assessment of behavioral status (2 days) and neurological deficit at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after modeling pathology. The blood of rodents was investigated in the contents of s100b and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Results: The introduction of LHT 4–15 at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg limited the development of neurologic deficits (P < 0.05). After 1 day, the average neurological ball in the group with the administration of LHT 4–15 at a dose of 25 mg/kg was 1.8 ± 0.11, and when 50 mg/kg was administered 0.7 ± 0.09. In the behavioral test “elevated cross-shaped labyrinth” of a group of rats with cerebral ischemia and preliminary administration of LHT 4–15 at a dose of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, they showed themselves more actively compared to the control group. This manifested itself in an increase in horizontal and vertical activity, which was reflected in more racks and stilts. The estimated research behavior declined, but insignificantly (P < 0.05). When assessing the motor activity of animals in the actinometry test with infrared (IR) monitoring of the IR Actimeter activity, a group of rats with the administration of LHT 4–15 at a dose of 25 mg/kg showed an activity slightly higher than the group administered with the compound at a dose of 50 mg/kg. Groups of animals with the preliminary administration of LHT 4–15 at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg were more active, developed a high speed, and passed a longer distance. The rest time in these groups is lower in comparison with the control (P < 0.05). When analyzing the level of S100b and NSE in animals of the group with cerebral ischemia, with a preliminary introduction of 2-amino-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole glee-cyclizine at a dose of 50 mg/kg there was a decrease in the levels of markers in Virginia even below the level of the control group (P > 0.05). Correction of ischemic injury 2-amino-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole a glycylglycine showed a statistically significant increase in resistance of neurons in the frontal lobe and CA1 region of the hippocampus to hypoxia and ischemia, a significant decrease in the number of dead neurons and the high activity of reparative processes. Conclusion: The data obtained from the neurological deficit and in the behavioral tests of the experimental groups confirm the theory of the presence of ethylthiadiazole derivatives under the LHT code 4–15 neuroprotective properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004739
Title: Study of immunotoxic properties of the drug substance – Rapitalam
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Institute, Belgorod State University, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod 308015, Russia
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Introduction: On the basis of the Research Institute of “Pharmacology of living systems,” Belgorod conducted preclinical study of mGluR4 receptor modulator Rapitalam, which is a drug for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the immunotoxic properties of the drug substance to Rapitalam. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in C57BL/6 mice. The study determined the effect of single and course use of Rapitalam on humoral immunity (B-cells), cellular immunity (T-cells), and the effect on non-specific immunity. Results and Discussion: Evaluation of immunotoxicity in single and course use showed that the Rapitalam in the studied doses does not affect the antigen-induced formation of hemagglutinins and hemolysins in the studied animals. Course use Rapitalam does not affect the delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction, rosette formation reaction, as well as the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Conclusions: With a single and course use of Rapitalam in the studied doses, there is no immunotoxic effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004740
Title: Antihypoxic and anxiolytic effects of novel 3-hydroxypyridine derivatives in experiments
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Institute, Belgorod State University, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod 308015, Russia
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Aim: The aim of the study was the study of the antihypoxic and anxiolytic effects of new derivatives of 3-hydroxypyridine. Materials and Methods: The antihypoxic activity of the studied derivatives of 3-hydroxypyridine was evaluated using a test system simulating in vitro hypoxia conditions in comparison with reference drugs mexidol and trimetazidine (at a dose of 1 µM). The anxiolytic effect of the studied substances was evaluated in comparison with the preparations mexidol (at a dose of 50 mg/kg) and phenibut (25 mg/kg) on the generally accepted tests “Elevated Cruciform Maze” and “Infrared Activity Monitor.” Results: On an in vitro hypoxia model, it was found that the connection under the laboratory code LHT-05- 16 significantly increases cell viability under hypoxia compared with the control group (78.49% ± 8.94% against 50.23% ± 15.34%, respectively, with P < 0.05); moreover, the test substance showed a more pronounced antihypoxic effect than the well-known antihypoxant mexidol (63.18% ± 2.87%, at P < 0.05). The anxiolytic activity of LHT-05-16 was determined, which was expressed in a statistically significant increase in the residence time of animals in the open arms of the maze (41% ± 3.27% vs. 28.6% ± 3.84%, at P < 0.05) and the number of visits in of them (3 ± 0.82 vs. 1.3 ± 0.67, with P < 0.05), as well as in a decrease in the severity of vegetative manifestations of anxiety in animals (acts of short-term grooming: 4 ± 1.25 with the introduction of LHT-05-16 vs. 6 ± 0.82 in the control group, at P < 0.05; defecation: 0.9 ± 0.57 vs. 3.1 ± 0.74, respectively, at P < 0.05) compared with the control group. The anxiolytic effects of LHT-05-16 turned out to be higher than that of mexidol (P < 0.05) and are comparable to the conventional anti-anxiety drug phenibut. Conclusion: As a result of the experiment, it was found that the substance LHT-05-16 has pronounced antihypoxic and anxiolytic effects due to the combination of 3-hydroxypyridine and L-lysine in its structure, which determines the prospects of its further study as a neuroprotective drug.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004741
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of exfoliative cytology among dentists and undergraduate students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of shed, desquamated cells from body surfaces or cells harvested by rubbing or brushing a lesional tissue surface. It is a quick and simple procedure and is an important alternative to biopsy in certain situations. They help in the early diagnosis of malignant tumors. In multiple or extensive lesions, the biopsy site can be identified. The aim of this knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) study is to check the knowledge of dentists and undergraduate (UG) students about exfoliate cytology and to check whether they apply it in their practice. Aim: The aim of this KAP study is to check the knowledge of dentists and UG students about exfoliative cytology. Materials and Methods: Two hundred dentists participated in the survey from Chennai city. The questionnaire was given manually, and responses were analyzed in Excel. The questionnaire included 14 questions. The initial questions were to test the dentists’ knowledge of the exfoliative cytology and its utilization. The remaining questions were to test their knowledge of the procedure, instruments, fixatives, and stains used in exfoliative cytology. Results: 200 dentists answered the questionnaire and among them 50 dentists were UG students. The questionnaire was collected and analyzed. The total number of patients seen by 200 dentists ranged from 0 to 20. All these dentists used to refer these patients to specialists. They have better knowledge and awareness of exfoliative cytology, but still they are not applying in their practice. Only 23% utilized it in their practice. About 93.33% of dentists know about exfoliative cytology and its procedure. About 43.12% of dentists know that saline should be used to remove the food and debris and 90.77% said that no disclosing agent should be used before the procedure. About 72.14% said that slough should be removed before the procedure. They had better knowledge of oral cyto brush (CDx) brush and 92.79% know that scalpel blade should not be used. About 32.12% and 47.25% of dentists know that alcohol, not formalin, should be used for fixative in exfoliative cytology. About 70.80% know that Papanicolaou staining must be done. About 96.45% of dentists know that exfoliative cytology can be used for screening carcinomas.Conclusion: KAP study to check the knowledge of dentists and UG students about exfoliative cytology concludes that dentists have a better knowledge of exfoliative cytology, but still they were not utilizing it in their practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004863
Title: A case report on nasal vestibulitis associated with preseptal cellulitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Nasal vestibulitis (nasal furunculosis) is a localized infection of the hair follicle. The most common pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, other Gram-positive organisms, and anaerobes. Infection in this area can spread locally even intracranially causing fulminant life-threatening conditions like septic cavernous sinus thrombosis. Here, I report a case of a 55-year-old female presented with a history of high-grade fever and right side nasal furuncle for 4 days, together with a rare association of bilateral periorbital (preseptal) swelling for 1 day. The female was hospitalized. Laboratory and radiological investigations were carried out to investigate any possible complication.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004864
Title: A review article on Vitamin D deficiency and its clinical effects
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Inadequacy of Vitamin D is a global issue and one of the world’s most prevalent endocrine diseases. Vitamin D is a vitamin that is fat-soluble and plays a crucial part in children’s physiology. Insufficient Vitamin D levels can lead to rickets and/or symptomatic hypocalcemia such as seizures or tetany. In adults, adequate concentrations of Vitamin D cause osteomalacia and osteoporosis. Writing confirmations demonstrate that low nutrient D levels are additionally related with expanded danger of falls, breaks, muscle torment, muscle shortcoming, cardiovascular risk, diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary disorder (pcos), diseases, tumors, and auto invulnerable issue moreover. Satisfactory admission of nutrient D is vital for all people of all ages gathering. Daylight presentation, sustenance fortress, and routine supplementation can just satisfy the lack of nutrient D. Vitamin D deficiency has become a global problem and it is overlooked by majority of population. We need to create awareness among the public and health-care providers regarding the significance of vitamin and its consequences of deficiency. This review provides information about the Vitamin D deficiency sources, its biological activities, physiological actions, metabolism, clinical benefits, its deficiency effects, and its supplementation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004866
Title: Hair fall due to air pollutants and increased atmospheric temperature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Hair loss is a common problem in men and women. Correct diagnosis of hair disorders is complex and requires evaluation of clinical presentation, history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. The current study includes hair fall due to air pollutants and dust particles that clog in the hair and be the major common cause of hair fall. There are evidences that dandruff is also one of the major common cause of hair fall. The current study tells about people who live in the urban areas are more affected with hair fall than those who live in the rural areas. People who sweat a lot have also increased tendency of hair fall due to dust and minute dust particles that open up the clogs and causes hair fall. Methodology: The study was a cross-sectional study. The subjects were 100 individuals with 18–25 years of age in an urban area of Kancheepuram district. The mode of data collection was online. The individuals were oriented on the data of knowledge; attitude, motivation, and valid questionnaire were collected from the individuals. Results: Among 100 individuals, 93.2% have hair fall and 6.8% does not have hair fall. Moreover, among 93.2% who have hair fall, 48.9% have continuous hair fall and 18% have occasional hair fall and 30.8% vary seasonally. Moreover, the major cause for the hair fall is because they live in a highly polluted area that is 63.9% of them. Conclusion: The major cause of hair fall is air pollutants and dust particles that clog in the scalp and get sticks to it and causes hair fall.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004867
Title: Carcinoid tumor of unknown origin with liver metastasis associated with carcinoid syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Backgroung: Carcinoids or neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are derived from diffuse neuroendocrine system, which is made up of peptide and amine-producing cells with different hormone profiles depending on their site of origin. Methodology: These are metastasizing; highly aggravating tumors are associated with characinoid syndrome. They are also named after the hormones they produce. Results: A 73-year-old female patient reported with abdominal pain weight loss and vomiting for about 1½ months. Conclusion: On further investigations showed focal lesions in liver, indicating metastasis of a NET origin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004868
Title: A review of inflammatory markers and metabolic syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Kudapakkam, Pondicherry, India (Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India).
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health problem with pro-inflammatory changes leading to cardiovascular disease at a very young age. Various studies have been conducted so far on the effect of various inflammatory markers such as serum uric acid, serum homocysteine, and highly sensitive C-reactive protein. Most of them have reported a positive correlation between these inflammatory markers and the various components of MetS such as abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile abnormalities such as elevated triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A review of the various studies confirms the role of these inflammatory markers in causing endothelial dysfunction and premature cardiovascular events. Various studies by Prabhakar et al. have reported a positive correlation between serum uric acid and MetS. In yet another study, a positive correlation between serum homocysteine and the components of (MetS) has been reported.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004869
Title: Abnormalities of liver function tests in a patient with tuberculosis on antituberculous treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Medicine, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India (Bharath Instit of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India)
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Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a noteworthy worldwide medical issue even though the causative living being was found over 120 years prior and profoundly compelling medications and antibody are accessible making TB a preventable and treatable malady. India is the most astounding TB load nation on the planet. It represents almost one-fifth of the worldwide weight of TB. Consistently, all-inclusive around 18 lakh people create TB, of which around 8 lakh are new smear constructive very irresistible cases and about 4.17 lakh individuals pass on of TB; consistently, two people kick the bucket each 3 min and around 1000 individuals pass on consistently. Methodology: Patients liver function will be assessed by measuring serum bilirubin, serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum proteins, and prothrombin time. Results: Out of 50 patients on anti-TB treatment, four patients had increased serum bilirubin, SGOT, and SGPT. All these four patients are chronic alcoholic. Conclusion: The management of drug-induced liver disease and active TB in these patients is difficult and the hepatotoxicity of anti-TB drugs is enhanced in transplant patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004870
Title: Awareness and risk factors of atherosclerosis among working professionals: A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Coronary heart disease is a disorder of the heart usually caused by a condition called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is one of the major and most frequent causes of heart arrest. Atherosclerosis is a group of disorders of heart and blood vessels in which development of plaque occurs inside these arteries. Plaque is made of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin. Atherosclerotic plaque within the coronary arteries is responsible for coronary artery disease, myocardial infraction, and acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including heart attack, stroke, or even death. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire-based survey which consists of 20 questions. A study was conducted among working professionals to asses the awareness and risk factors of atherosclerosis. The questionnaire was distributed through online survey planet link and it was circulated among 102 working professionals and the result was calculated statistically. Results: Hence, it is evident from the survey that majority of the population are unaware of the risk factor such as cholesterol, obesity, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) leads to atherosclerosis. Conclusion: From this survey, we can tell that 45% of the working professionals are only aware of the major risk factor LDL.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004871
Title: Mean value of mesiodistal width and height of primary anteriors of mandible among Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this research is to evaluate the mean value size of the mandibular primary anterior crown of children to document and provides a record of mandibular anterior deciduous crown sizes. Objective: Evaluation of the mean value size of the mandibular primary anterior crown of children is to document and provides a record of mandibular anterior deciduous crown sizes to ease the selection of crown size during clinical procedure for children who require such treatments. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a sample size of 21 pedodontic patients visiting Saveetha Dental College aged <7 years old. The height and width of anterior primary teeth were taken intraorally using k-files and measured with endo block. Moreover, mean value was calculated from the recorded measurement of central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines. Results: The mandibular incisors showed less variability in size than the mandibular canines. The greatest variability was seen in the mean height and width of the mandibular lateral incisors and mandibular canines. The mandibular lateral incisors showed the least variability of all the mandibular anterior teeth. Conclusion: This study highlighted mean value height and mesiodistal width of mandibular central incisors, mandibular lateral incisor, and mandibular canines in primary dentitions. This value is documented to ease the crown size selection during a particular treatment procedure.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00004891
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of leaf extract of one herbal plant, Tarenna asiatica (L.)
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: The objective of this study was to find the biomolecules present in the leaf aqueous extracts of one wild herbal plant, Tarenna asiatica (L.) by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. Methods: The GC–MS study of one leaf aqueous extracts of one wild herbal plant, T. asiatica was subjected to GC–MS analysis by standard procedures.Results: It was observed that some important biomolecule present in the GC–MS profile such as N-benzyl-2- phenethylamine, tridecanoic acid, methyl ester, pentanoic acid, phytol, 2-methylheptanoic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid, 2-naphthyl ester, 2(1H)-pyridinone, and 1-[2-deoxy-3,5-bis-O-(4-methylbenzoyl)-.beta.-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl]- had the medicinal roles which correspond well with medicinal roles of the plant as claimed ethnobotanically and by scientific reports. Conclusion: The GC–MS profile of T. asiatica clearly indicates the medicinal roles ascribed to it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005139
Title: The effect of mirror neuron therapy in Parkinson’s diseases - A systematic review of literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Mirror neuron system (MNS) represents one of the most important discoveries in the area of neuropsychology. The major functions of MNS include action understanding, imitation, and empathy, all of which are critical for an individual to be social. In Parkinson patient, the expressive qualities are lost and it can be modified using various techniques that have been mentioned in various literature, but the effect of mirror neuron in treating this features of Parkinson disease has not been much known. Aim: This systematic review aims to explore this core area and find out the available literature that focuses on the effectiveness of mirror neuron therapy in treating Parkinson. Methodology: We made a detailed electronic and manual search with the keyword and the studies were limited to not more than 10 years back, the results were synthesized and result and conclusion drawn. Results and Conclusion: The results of the systematic review showed that mirror neuron therapy is effective in treating Parkinson patients; A meta-analysis shall further explore the grey areas in the effectiveness of mirror neuron therapy for treating Parkinson’s disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 12, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005269
Title: Chicken pox appearing in previously vaccinated individuals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Sree Balaji Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Chicken pox is an intense, profoundly irresistible ailment brought about by varicella-zoster infection. It happens fundamentally among kids under 10 years old. One assault gives tough resistance and second assaults are uncommon. Varicella immunization (OKA strain) is accessible in the Indian market. Reports of varicella episodes in exceedingly vaccinated gatherings in the USA and Japan have likewise expanded worries about the adequacy of varicella vaccine. We went over three instances of chicken pox in kids who were at that point inoculated with varicella antibody one dose prevents 95% of moderate disease, prevents 100% severe disease, two doses of vaccine are more effective than one. Children are vulnerable to get after 6 years.