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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004634
Title: Rapid wound healing by the dermal differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, VRR Institute of Biomedical Science, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: During radiotherapy, trauma and burns tissue responses to injury and homeostasis is lost. By leaving behind the scar tissue, the injured tissue results in angiogenesis, epithelization, and granulation tissue formation. The objective of the present study is to isolate, characterize, and differentiate bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) from dermal precursors. Therefore, it can be utilized to retain tissue homeostasis. Materials and Methods: Two Wistar albino rats weighing 80 g were used for BMSCs isolation using the gradient centrifuging method. Isolated BMSCs were characterized and differentiated to dermal precursors. Immunocytochemistry was performed with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Results: Isolated BMSCs were characterized by spindle-shaped morphology and plastic adherence property. BMSCs on flow cytometry exhibit positive CD90 and negative CD34 cells. About 70–80% confluence second passage cells were added with “bone morphogenetic protein-4” and keratinocyte growth supplement media for dermal differentiation. Dermal precursors were stained with DAPI immunostaining. Conclusion: Dermal precursors may serve as an important identity to the bone marrow population. This therapeutic potential of differentiated dermal precursors can assist dermatologists and surgeons to accelerate wound closure and decrease healing time.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004629
Title: To study the relationship between right- and left- handedness and prevalence of dental caries in the left and right quadrants of dentition
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental caries reflects the oral hygiene status of an individual. Proper brushing is very essential to maintain a healthy oral cavity. Left handers have a tendency to brush the right side of the teeth more vigorously than the left side and it is vice versa for the right handers. Hence, the aim of the study is to evaluate the changes in dental caries status among left- and right-handedness and to find out if there is a relationship in the prevalence of dental caries between - and left- handedness. Materials and Methods: A total of 35 left- and right-handed individuals each are included in the study. An intraoral examination is done to assess the presence or absence of dental caries in the patient’s mouth based on G. V. Black’s classification. The findings are tabulated and statistically evaluated. Results: There was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference between right-handedness and left-handedness and the prevalence of dental caries although there was an upward trend in the presence of dental caries in the right side for the right-handed individual and vice versa for the left-handed individual. Conclusion: From the above study, it can be concluded that there is not much of a difference in the efficacy of maintaining the oral hygiene in terms of dental caries between right- and left-handed individuals. Since there was a difference in the mean between the dental caries in the right- and left-handed individuals, a larger sample size might probably bring out a statistically significant value.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004630
Title: Perception of medical students toward cadaveric dissection in teaching institution – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the perception of medical students toward cadaveric dissection in teaching institutions. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 students from Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, were included for the survey. The students reaction toward cadaveric dissection was analyzed using a questionnaire. Data acquired from the questionnaire were assessed. The requisite explanation was provided to the students about the objective and relevance of the study before they filled the questionnaire. Results: From the results obtained from the survey, we can conclude that though the students felt apprehensive toward dissection, in the beginning, they later found dissection to be the best method to learn anatomy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004631
Title: Cross-reactivity studies of Ligustrum robustum with Corylus avellana pollinosis for clinical significance
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, Andhra Pradesh, India
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Background: Pollen from different tree and grass species represents the greatest inducers of allergic reactions worldwide. Several proteins in Ligustrum pollen have already been characterized as allergens causing sensitization and the development of allergic symptoms in atopic individuals. Aim: Our study includes the cross-reactivity between pollen extracts of Ligustrum robustum with Corylus avellana for clinical significance. Materials and Methods:Immunological and biochemical characterization was carried out for the purified glutathione S-transferase (GST) compound which was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The cross-reactivity studies among allergens and relevant species were evaluated by ELISA inhibition assays. Results: In biochemical assays, c-GST was not enzymatically active, whereas l-GST demonstrated high enzymatic activity. Immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies level did not show significant raise after incubation neither in the VT20 nor in the Cor a1 group, while significant raise is observed with IgE antibodies. Conclusion: No cross-reactivity between l-GST-specific Abs and c-GST was observed. In contrast, GST-specific IgE clearly recognized GST in VT20.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004632
Title: Determination of anti-shigellosis activity of the soybean leaves (Glycine max (L.) Merill) ethanol extracts on Shigella dysenteriae ATCC13313
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang 45363, West Java, Indonesia
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Objective: This study was purposed to assess the anti-shigellosis activity of the soybean leaves (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) ethanol extracts on Shigella dysenteriae ATCC13313. Materials and Methods: The dried soybean leaves were extracted using 70% ethanol by a maceration method. Phytochemical analysis was performed by the standard assays and the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of the leaf extracts was conducted using the solvent system methanol: chloroform (in 4:1 ratio). The leaf extracts were then evaluated for the antibacterial activity against S. dysenteriae ATCC 13313 using the agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the leaf extracts were determined using a microdilution method followed by subinoculated the MIC’s result to the surface of solid medium. Results: The phytochemical analysis affirmed the presence of flavonoid, polyphenols, monoterpenoid, and sesquiterpenoid in the extract. For the TLC profiling of the soybean leaf extracts confirmed that it contained terpenoid as nonpolar substances. The anti-shigellosis activity of the extract reflected the moderate inhibition against S. dysenteriae ATCC 13313 and confirmed by the MIC-MBC values with the same range from 5% to 10% w/v. Conclusion: The soybean leaf ethanolic extract could be developed as a potential anti-shigellosis agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004633
Title: A review on regorafenib as multikinase inhibitor
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Combating with cancer is one of the key medical challenges of our society. Conversely, existing chemotherapeutic advances are not adequate to maintain a life expectancy of cancer affected sufferers. Therefore, translational research can pave the novel prospect to treat cancer in a fundamental way. In that connection, the present study on regorafenib a multikinase inhibitor, this is having a great impact on colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. Regorafenib a new molecular entity kinase inhibitor, which inhibits multiple membrane-bound and intracellular kinase involved in a wide range of normal cellular functions and in pathological processes such as oncogenesis, tumor angiogenesis, and maintenance of the tumor microenvironment. They are used in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer. Regorafenib inhibited Hep 3B, PLC/ PRF/5, and Hep G2 cells and showed reduced cell growth at a concentration of 1–5 µM. It also inhibited cell migration in RJ 345, RJ 348 MCF 7, and MDAMB-231 at a concentration of 0.5/5 µM; cell apoptosis action in HT-15, HT-29, DLD-1, and HCT-116 cells at a concentration of 1–10 µM; and proliferation action in other CRC cell lines and markedly slowed tumor activity. The activity of regorafenib in multiple kinases such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1, 2, and 3, TIE2, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 inhibits at a concentration of 4–311 nM; and oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), KIT, RET, and mutant forms of BRAF at an IC50 value 1.5–28 nM thereby its pharmacological activity with respective biological targets was evaluated. It displays antimetastatic activity, which may contribute to its efficacy in patients with metastatic CRC.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00004635
Title: Burn wound healing activity of Aloe vera powder in gel dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Indonesia
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of burn healing of Aloe vera (AV) powder in gel dosage form. Materials and Methods: The powder of AV was formulated into the base of gel containing variations in the concentration of carbomer and sterilized by gamma radiation. The gel preparations of AV were evaluated including organoleptic, pH, viscosity, and sterilization of gel. A burn healing evaluation was performed by making a wound with a hot plate on the skin of rabbits. Then, 600 mg of AV powder gel was applied to the burn wound. After that, the presence of erythema and width contraction of the burns was observed for 15 days after gel administration. Results: The result showed that the formulation containing 2.5% of carbomer and 20% of AV powder has the best physical stability. The gel preparations also did not show a significant difference in organoleptic, pH, and viscosity measurement after sterilization. The AV powder gel can increase the rate of healing process with the high percentage of burn wound contraction (60% after 7-day storage). Conclusion: It can be concluded that the gel of AV powder can increase the wound healing process of burns as well as safe as to be used as a topical dosage form.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004636
Title: Use of various disclosing dyes to differentiate composite from tooth structure
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study the effect of various dyes, namely, methyl violet, carbol fuchsin, and plaque disclosing agent (erythrosine) for evaluating their efficacy as a composite disclosing agent. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate a clinically discernible change in composite resin restorations when compared to that of the natural tooth surface that contains enamel for re-restorations or post-orthodontic treatments. Background and Reason: Marginal leakage, fractured restorations, post-operative sensitivity, and secondary caries are often reasons for the removal and replacement of the existing composite restorations. Since these restorations are tooth colored, what is usually an esthetic advantage becomes a problem as there may be inadvertent removal of sound tooth structure. Even post-orthodontic treatment, some amount of the tooth structure is lost while removing the composite on the teeth that were used to bond the brackets. Developing a disclosing solution to differentiate between the composite restorations and the tooth will be advantageous for both the dentist and the patient. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four extracted caries-free anterior teeth were used for the study and were restored with composite. They were divided into three groups; A (methyl violet), B (carbol fuchsin), and C (disclosing solution) based on the dyes used and spectrophotometric analysis was done. Results: Carbol fuchsin was found to be the most effective in dyeing the composite material.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004637
Title: Awareness of contraception and sexually transmitted diseases among the general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In the present-day world, awareness and practice of contraception is very important. In a developing country like ours, it is of paramount importance due to the exponential population increase. In the Indian society, even among the educated population, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are never discussed openly and are considered taboo. Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is methods or devices used to prevent pregnancy. Planning, provision, and use of birth control is called family planning. Birth control methods have been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods only became available in the 20th century. Apart from taboos, people also believe in various traditional practices which may not be effective at all. Aim: This study aims to assess the awareness and knowledge of contraceptives and STDs among the general population. Materials and Methods: The sample size of the study is 55, with a random mix of males and females (30 males and 25 females) in a varied range of ages 25–65. Conclusion: From the study, it can be concluded that the overall awareness of contraception and STDs is 57%.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004638
Title: Establishment of medication error reporting system among community pharmacists
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Introduction: Medication errors (MEs) are a leading cause of adverse drug reaction, drug toxicity causing death, or serious physical injury. MEs may occur at any stage of medication utilization process such as prescription, transcription, dispensing, administration, and procurement and can lead to undesirable health consequences. Aim: This study aims to establish and inculcate the culture of ME reporting system among community pharmacist and assess the nature and extent of MEs. Methodology: A prospective observational study conducted in private community pharmacies. Prescriptions of the study participants were reviewed on a daily basis, the identified MEs were documented in the suitable documentation form and also database for easy retrieval of data. Results: Out of 868, 514 study participants were enrolled during the study. A total of 1416 MEs were identified in 514 enrolled study participants. Errors were found to be more, with prescription errors of 1242 (87.71%) and procurement errors of 157 (11.08%). The personnel involved in error were physicians (493 [78.01%]) and patients (79 [12.50%]). Class of drugs such as analgesics and antipyretics was majorly involved in MEs (705 [49.78%]) and the potential causation that leads to error was regular practice among physician (513 [73.81%]) and peak hours workload among pharmacist (60 [8.63%]). The majority of errors were Category C (1248 [88.14%]). Conclusion: The reporting system was inculcated in the community settings to monitor and prevent the MEs. The study finding indicated that MEs occur in all levels of drug treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004639
Title: A comparative analysis of the effect of ayurvedic tablets – G32 tablets and chlorhexidine in patients with gingivitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the effect of chlorhexidine and G32 tablets in gingivitis patient. Introduction: Gingivitis is one of the most common periodontal diseases. Inflammation of gingiva is called gingivitis. Major cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene can cause dental plaque. Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces of the tooth, which in turn can form into dental calculus-hardened form of dental plaque. Major treatment for gingivitis is to remove the cause of the disease, basically remove the plaque and calculus. Scaling is one of the major modes of treatment for treating gingivitis. Along with the oral hygiene instructions, some additional aids are also prescribed to maintain oral hygiene such as mouthwash, floss, G32 ayurvedic tablets, gum paint, and astringent. G32 tablets are a commercially available ayurvedic formulation, known to be antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, astringent, anodyne, styptic, deodorant, aromatic, and healing agent. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients were divided into three groups with gingivitis: Group A – control, Group B – chlorhexidine, and Group C – G32 tablets. Patient’s gingival index and plaque index (PI) were recorded before prophylaxis. Ultrasonic scaling was done. Thirty patients were prescribed nothing, 30 patients were given chlorhexidine, and 30 were given G32 tablets. Patients were recalled for review after 1 week. Gingival index and PI were recorded and were compared with pre-operative scores. Results: Statistically, there is no significant difference but clinically there is different. Gingivitis was reduced in chlorhexidine > G32 tablets > control. Conclusion: Hence, it can be concluded that G32 tablets can be used as additional aid in treating gingivitis adjunct to scaling and oral prophylaxis with its lack of side effects compared to chlorhexidine. It is as effective as chlorhexidine. It can prove to be useful in various special groups who have difficulty in mechanical oral hygiene practices. It can be used as effective tool to treat gingivitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004640
Title: Role of collagen in wound healing
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of this review article is to understand the role of collagen in wound healing. Collagen, being a protein of the extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the process of wound healing. It acts as a scaffold at the site of injury forming a bed for inflammatory cytokines and other growth factors to initiate wound healing process. The objective of this study is to understand the role of collagen in wound healing process and also the use of collagen dressings to improve and fasten healing mechanisms. Literature search was done using PubMed search engine. All articles published until 2019 will be reviewed. The terms “wound healing,” “collagen,” and “collagen in wound healing” were used to obtain apt reference articles for the following review. Collagen has a role by means of its wide-ranging functions, scientifically proven to be effective exogenously. Its endogenous functions by means of dressing are yet to be proven.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004641
Title: Awareness and knowledge of periodontal plastic and esthetic surgery among undergraduate students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the survey is to assess the degree of awareness and knowledge of periodontal plastic and esthetic surgery among undergraduates. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted to assess the degree of awareness and knowledge of periodontal plastic and esthetic surgical procedures among 100 interns in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. All participants were provided with a pre-structured questionnaire comprising 15 questions related to periodontal plastic and esthetic surgical procedures and answering was completely self-based. The questions were divided into three segments: (a) Basics of mucogingival procedures, (b) surgical procedures and techniques, and (c) indications for mucogingival procedures. The possible options chosen by the participants were tabulated and the percentile for each question was represented using pie charts.Results: Among the 100 participants, 96% of students were aware of mucogingival or periodontal plastic and esthetic surgical procedures. About 60% of students were aware of the techniques of periodontal plastic and esthetic surgical procedures and 62% of the participants were aware of the indication of these surgical procedures. Conclusion: The most widely accepted treatment modality for cases of gingival recession is the surgical correction of the defect. Mucogingival procedures or periodontal plastic surgery involves correction of soft tissue defects involving the periodontium and frenum. Advancements and better techniques would help in improving periodontal health and also help correct defects in esthetic regions. Moreover, it is also important that we are aware of the various techniques used for the treatment of these soft tissue abnormalities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004663
Title: A survey on evaluation of students’ perception in anatomy teaching methodologies
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the perception of students on various anatomy teaching methods.Objective: The study was conducted with the aim to assess the opinion regarding curriculum, teaching methods, and assessment techniques in human anatomy among the medical students. Materials and Methods: The survey comprises 50 medical students who had passed their 1st year at Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The questionnaire will be designed regarding present anatomy syllabus, various available teaching sources, and assessment techniques. The students will be explained about the questionnaire and asked to respond fearlessly. The questionnaire will be collected back from students and the results will be analyzed. Results: The majority of the students felt the curriculum can be taught in the present 1 year duration. The best method of learning is the chalkboard and dissection hall teaching. Students agreed for multimedia teaching methods for better understanding. The majority of students opined the best method of assessment is part of ending tests. Students favored descriptive and short note questions with multiple-choice questions as the examination pattern. The use of visual aids is the best solution for problems in histology and embryology. Students favored teacher’s notes as the best source of study material. Conclusion: From the results, it can be interpreted that the proper utilization of newer technologies along with the traditional teaching methods will certainly lead to a better understanding of gross anatomy and will eventually improve students’ performance. Hence, the advanced teaching methodologies help in learning anatomy in a better and an easier way.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004664
Title: To study the hemoglobin percentage among individuals with oral submucous fibrosis to find out if there is relationship between percentage of hemoglobin and grade of oral submucous fibrosis in indiv
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic, progressive condition affecting most of the parts of oral cavity with high malignant transformation rate which is induced by areca nut chewing, nutritional deficiencies, immunological processes, and genetic predisposition. The study showed that hemoglobin plays an important role in promoting OSMF. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the role of hemoglobin percentage in individuals with OSMF and find out the relationship between hemoglobin percentage and grade of OSMF. Objective: The purpose of the study was to estimate the levels of hemoglobin among patients with OSMF and to evaluate its relation with a grade of OSMF. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Saveetha Dental College. It comprises 30 individuals diagnosed with OSMF. The values of hemoglobin percentage and grade of OSMF and burning sensation were assessed. The results were then analyzed. Results: The OSMF patients showed lower levels of hemoglobin. Furthermore, the percentage of hemoglobin decreases as the grade of OSMF increases. Conclusion: The study indicates the need for the assessment of hemoglobin level in oral precancerous condition which helps in initial diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004665
Title: Assessment of clinical-pharmacological activities of drugs and biopharmaceuticals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
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With advances in modern pharmaceutical sciences, the processes of discovery and development of new therapeutic drugs have changed dramatically, resulted in an extraordinary improvement in potential prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Patents for biologic agents first marketed in the early 1980s are now beginning to expire, paving the way for non-proprietary agents to enter the market. However, there are fundamental differences between biologics and traditional pharmaceuticals that preclude the extrapolation of existing regulatory processes for traditional generic agents to these new biologic products. At present, many new classes of vaccines are being developed to prevent infection and to treat cancers and chronic diseases. The benefits for disease treatment and prevention will result from a better understanding of disease pathogenesis and expanded knowledge of immune mechanisms, the molecular structures of drugs, biologics, and biotechnology. This review provides both a conceptual approach and specific information about each phase of clinical development before licensure of a drug. It also describes the design of post-marketing studies and examines how recent advances in pharmaceutical sciences increased demand for safer and more effective drugs have changed the processes, in which drugs are developed and approved.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004666
Title: Gestation trophoblastic disease – A comprehensive review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is one of the rarest forms of pregnancy-related tumors, which is curable. It is classified as hydatidiform mole,  gestation trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), choriocarcinoma, and placental site trophoblastic tumor. It appears from the placenta which is abnormal. The epidemiological status of gestation trophoblastic diseases varies from different countries. The signs and symptoms include extreme uterine size, bleeding in the vagina, and increase in the β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level. The differential diagnosis was made based on metastasis, low levels of serum hCG to confirm the disease. Treatment depends on different individuals with their different symptoms. Ideally, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are preferred the management of GTD.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004667
Title: Effect of Withaferin-A on aging induced behavioral and non-enzymatic antioxidant impairment in Wistar albino rat
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Withaferin-A (WA) on aging mediated changes on behavior, non-enzymatic antioxidant levels, and oxidative stress (OS). Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into Group I – young (3 months), Group II – aged (24 months), Group III – aged rat supplemented with WA (50 mg/kg b.w once in a day for 30 days), and Group IV – young rat supplemented with WA (50 mg/kg b.w). At the end of the 30th day, animals were subjected to behavioral analyses, and the striatum (ST) and substantia nigra (SN) were dissected out and subjected to various analyses. Results: The aged rat demonstrated increased catalepsy and akinesia, reduced motor activity (P < 0.001), markedly increased reactive oxygen species, and reduced non-enzymatic antioxidant levels (P < 0.001), which were significantly reversed after the supplementation of WA. Conclusion: The present data clearly signify the neuroprotective role of WA on ST and SN from aging induced behavioral impairment through repressing the OS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00004668
Title: Biologically active compounds in Sepia pharaonis fish (Ehrenberg, 1831) ink extract from Chennai seacoast isolated by gas chromatography
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, ACS Medical College, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: The aim of the study is to perform gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) of Sepia pharaonis ink extract (SPIE) and enlighten the world of the bioactive components present in it. Objective: The objectives of this study were to analyze and quantify the various compounds present in the S. pharaonis fish ink extract and to characterize the compounds present in the SPIE with their uses and potentiality. Materials and Methods: S. pharaonis fish crude ink extract was taken from ink sac of cuttlefish and subjected to lyophilization. The black residue was used in performing the GC–MS procedure. N-hexane was used as a solvent for SPIE. Results: Various compounds such as dopamine, beta-carboline, palmitamide, erucylamide, and stearamide were identified. A total of 22 compounds were identified. Conclusion: The compounds identified were having antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory action, etc. SPIE can be useful in treating various diseases of human beings. The ink sac discarded normally with precious ink can be preserved in the mere future and used in various health ailments.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004669
Title: Comparing and analyzing the techniques of diagnostic tools used for dental implant placement
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to compare a radiographic technique to a clinical technique in different available clinical conditions. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare a radiographic technique to a clinical technique to measure the accuracy and ease of using as a diagnostic tool for dental implant placement. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 individuals with missing both anterior and posterior teeth were selected for the study. These patients who are interested in undergoing an implant treatment were subjected to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and clinical bone mapping technique. The readings from these techniques were being compared for accuracy and ease of using as a diagnostic tool. Results: Alveolar ridge dimension was measured from three reference points, which is 2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm from the alveolar crest. According to the results obtained from the study, there is approximately 2–4 mm difference between the values from the bone mapping and CBCT technique. Conclusion: There is a difference between radiographic and clinical method of diagnosis for implant placement. However, detailed three-dimensional information of the surgical site before implant placement can be obtained from CBCT.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004670
Title: An in vitro evaluation of curcumin oral gel antimicrobial efficacy against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Periodontology, Priyadarshini Dental College and Hospital, Thiruvallur, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objectives: Evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of turmeric, a rhizome of Curcuma longa in the form of Curenext ® Oral Gel against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia and compare its efficacy with tetracycline. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity of C. longa gel was screened using disk diffusion method with tetracycline as a positive control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeter around both the organisms. Results: The gel at different concentrations showed antibacterial efficacy against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia. The maximum zone of inhibition was obtained at 2% concentration of curcumin which is 10.3 mm diameter against P. gingivalis and 11.4 mm against P. intermedia. Conclusion: We conclude that C. longa Oral Gel can be used as a prophylactic adjunctive natural agent for the management of the periodontal disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004701
Title: Evaluation of children’s perception of behavior management techniques used in pediatric dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Behavior management techniques are widely used in dental practice while dealing with children. This helps the dentist to work efficiently and effectively and also to complete the treatment in a short duration. There are a number of behavior management techniques which are commonly used. This study aims at finding out which method of management is most preferable to children and which method is least favorable. The aim of this study is to evaluate the children’s perception of behavior management techniques used in pediatric dentistry. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 200 children aged 7–12 years, who were randomly selected. All the children had no prior dental experience. The children were given explanations and descriptions about five different behavior management techniques used in pediatric dentistry and were asked to rate it on a scale of 1–10. The results were then tabulated and analyzed. Results: Positive reinforcement was the most accepted by all children while hand-over-mouth exercise and voice control were equally unfavorable methods of behavior management across both sexes. Conclusion: It is important to consider the attitude and opinion of the child while planning treatment. This will help the dentist gain the trust and cooperation of the child, thereby allowing the dental team to efficiently administer dental care.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004702
Title: Arch width in normal occlusion, crowding, and spacing
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and objectives: An ideal model analysis is a study that helps to appreciate the occlusion and dentition from all three dimensions, to analyze the degree and severity of malocclusion, and to derive the diagnosis and plan for treatment. An orthodontist must acknowledge the fact that a thorough knowledge of arch width is essential for a stable, functional, and esthetic treatment result. The aim of this study was to analyze the arch width and its difference in normal occlusion, crowding, and spacing with the objective to include arch width as important criteria in model analysis of treatment planning. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 pre-treatment casts including 30 casts of normal occlusion or tooth positions, 30 casts with crowding, and 30 casts with spacing were used in the study and the arch width was found. Results: There was a significant difference between the arch width in normal occlusion, crowding, and spacing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004703
Title: Antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed persons – A short review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of ketamine in depressed patients, which makes it a valuable research tool to identify the response and develop the next generation of fast-acting antidepressants. A growing body of preclinical research suggests that brain glutamate systems may be involved in the pathophysiology of major depression and the mechanism of action of antidepressants. The review aims to assess the treatment effects of a single dose of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist in patients with depression. The NMDA antagonist ketamine, fast-acting antidepressants, has consistently shown antidepressant effects within a few hours of its administration. The ketamine can exert their antidepressant effects within hours or a few days of their administration. It is a better understanding of the presumed mechanisms associated with these rapid antidepressant effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004730
Title: Relationship between lower incisor crowding and mandibular symphysis dimensions – A CBCT study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship and determine if there is any correlation between mandibular incisor crowding and the mandibular symphysis dimensions. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 55 patients (28 females ad 27 males) who reported for orthodontic treatment with crowding. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the patients were obtained and viewed using Galileos Viewer software. The records were assessed for the amount of mandibular crowding, alveolar bone thickness, symphysis height, and symphysis width. The amount of mandibular incisor crowding was measured at the level of incisal edges and was categorized as having mild, moderate, and severe crowding. Results: There are no significant differences in the dimensions of the symphysis such as the alveolar bone thickness, symphysis height and width when comparing male to female subjects. The amount of crowding did not influence the dimension of the symphysis. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between alveolar bone thickness, symphysis height, and width in male and female. There was significant relationship between incisor crowding and symphysis dimensions. Mandibular incisor crowding is correlated to the symphysis bone dimensions. The amount of incisor crowding and bone thickness should be taken into consideration when diagnosing to achieve stable treatment results.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004731
Title: Knowledge and attitude toward physical fitness among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Physique of the body tells the condition of health. The regular maintenance of the body by practicing certain physical activity provides energetic and stress-free life. Some professions need regular physical activity not only for the fitness but also to prevent the occupational musculoskeletal disease. Hence, this study was conducted among dental professional students including dental technicians, under and post-graduates who are more prone to physical pain due to their work posture. Materials and Methods: About 100 students were involved in the study. The study was conducted among dental college students of the different course in Saveetha Dental College. The questionnaire involves about 18 questions mainly based on time spent on regular exercise, type of exercise, purpose of doing exercise, etc. Results: The obtained result shows that dental students between the age group between 23 and 26 years were preferred of going to gym. In which about 20.8% of the dental students were going to gym, 43.8% preferred walking, and others running. About 17.7% believes physical fitness is not required for dental profession. Conclusion: It was noted that the knowledge and attitude of physical fitness among dental students were high but were not followed due to laziness or lack of time, etc. Although the research was conducted among under- and post-graduates and also dental technicians, it is necessary for every person to maintain a good physical fitness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004732
Title: Toxicity, sources, mechanism, health effects and production of free radicals by arsenic and lead – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Siddipet, Telangana, India
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Arsenic and lead are found naturally in the earth crust and are widely distributed in the territory. All humans are vulnerable to low levels of these elements; but, above-average levels of exposure to these heavy metals are related to the smelting of copper. Combined chronic lead and arsenic poisoning were diagnosed in a 33-year-old Korean woman following consumption of a Korean herbal medicine prescribed for hemorrhoids. The patient had malaise, severe difficulty walking, arthralgia, edema, and abdominal pain with diarrhea. Investigation showed anemia along with basophilic stippling, fragmentation, and an elevated reticulocyte count. Arsenic and lead exposure to biological systems may lead to oxidation stress which may cause DNA damage, protein modification, lipid peroxidation, and others. In this survey, the vital procedure related to the toxicities of these individual heavy metals was the production of reactive oxygen species. This review provides a complete account of recent updates of arsenic and lead exposure, sources, effects, relevant biomarkers, and mechanism involved in heavy metal toxicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004754
Title: Argyreia nervosa reduces alcohol-induced altered levels of oxidative stress in the liver Wistar male albino rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to the initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants, and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases. Argyreia nervosa, a medicinal herb, has been shown to have a high value of antioxidant property; it is traditionally used in the treatment of gonorrhea, strangury, chronic ulcer, skin disease, bowel complaints, appetizer, pain killer, brain tonic, and aphrodisiac. Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of A. nervosa on oxidative stress makers and antioxidant enzymes in the liver of alcohol- induced liver of male rats. Materials and Methods: A. nervosa leaf extract oral doses (100 and 300 mg/kg body weight) were given once in a day for 8 weeks to ethanol-induced rats. At the end of the experimental period, liver tissues were dissected out and assessed for various parameters. Results: In alcohol-induced rats, the reactive oxygen species such as H2 O2 . Lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical levels were also found to be raised compared to control. Conversely, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were found to be reduced. Oral administration of A. nervosa leaf ethanolic extract could effectively normalize the abnormal levels of these oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant enzymes altered by alcohol-induced liver toxicity. Conclusion: This preliminary study concludes that A. nervosa leaf extract has a potential hepatoprotective effect which can be used as a potential herbal medicine for the treatment of liver diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004755
Title: Influence of dietary and oral habits on dental status of children in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the influence of dietary and oral habits on the dental status of children in Chennai. Introduction: Infants’ teeth begin to erupt around the age of 6 months. The American Academy of Pediatrics considers early childhood caries to be the number one chronic disease affecting young children. Dental caries in infants or early childhood caries is often referred to as baby bottle tooth decay. The decay may be so severe that the affected tooth may need extraction. Increased risk for dental caries has been affirmed to be associated with an excessive intake of sugar by an expert panel of the World Health Organization. An inadequate amount of fluoride may increase an infant’s risk for early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted with 500 school children aged between 3 years and 12 years in Chennai city on the relationship between lifestyle and dental status of the children. Results: The study proves that 13% of the children have their snacks in the morning and evening, and 30% have only in the morning. The frequency of brushing was analyzed and was found that 78% of them brush only in the morning. The children of age 12 years, 63% of them had more Class 1 caries and children of age group of 6–12 years, 45% have other caries such as Class 3 and Class 4. Conclusion: The above study proves that there is more relationship between the lifestyle of a child to his dental status. The children who eat more snacks and brush once in a day are more prevalent to caries than the children who eat less snacks. This study can be very helpful for all the children in benefitting their dental hygiene and reduce the risk of developing caries in the future. Reason: To know how lifestyle is related to the dental status of a child so there can be the prevention of dental caries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004756
Title: Evaluation of nutritional awareness among pregnant women – A cross-sectional questionnaire study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A healthy diet is important at all times in life, but particularly during pregnancy. The pregnancy diet must provide sufficient energy and nutrients to mother as well as the needs of the growing fetal. Aims and Objectives: The aims of the study were to evaluate the nutritional awareness of women during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire has been prepared and distributed to 100 pregnant women of different trimester. The resulting data have been analyzed using statistical software. Result: About 90% of pregnant women are aware of the importance of following nutritional diet. Conclusion: From this survey, we can conclude that pregnant women have sufficient knowledge of nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates, calcium, and iron and they go for regular health checkup.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004757
Title: Effect of Viscum album on apoptotic signaling molecules in A431 human skin cancer cells in vitro
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Viscum album on apoptotic signaling molecules in A431 human skin cancer cells in vitro. Materials and Methods: A431 human skin cancer cells treated with V. album ethanolic extract (50 and 100 µg/ml) for 24 h. B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), phosphorylation of Bcl2 (p-Bcl-2), Bcl-extra large (Bcl-xL), and tumor suppressor p53 proteins were analyzed by Western blot method. Results: Control cells (A431 skin cancer cells) showed an increase in the levels of Bcl-2, p-Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL with concomitant decrease in the levels of p53 protein expression which was observed. V. album treatment to A431 cells at the doses of 50 and 100 µg/ml for 24 h significantly reduced the Bcl-2, p-Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL expression with an increase in the levels of tumor suppressor protein p53. Conclusion: This study concludes that V. album exhibits anticancer potential (melanoma) antiapoptotic and tumor suppressor proteins A431 human skin cancer cells, and hence, V. album can be served as one of the promising anticancer drugs for skin cancer. Further studies on the effect of V. album on further downstream signaling molecules involved in the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways are warranted to ascertain its clinical potential.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004758
Title: Detection of vancomycin resistance among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: To detect for Vancomycin resistance among clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Objective: A sum of 20 Clinical Isolates of S. aureus would be subjected for vancomycin resistance by MIC. Background: Over the phase decade, the unfolding outcome of Vancomycin-Inermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and heterogenous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) has come up with a challenge to diagnostic microbiologists to find these strains, and reseaches aim to understand the resistance mechanisms. Reason: Recent data show the these strains have been detected globally and in most of the cases, the cases are associated with glycopeptide treatment failure; nevertheless, to define the contribution of hVISA to glycopeptide treatment outcomes clearly, more vigorous clinical studies are required.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004759
Title: Tweed’s analysis of Class II patients among Chennai population – A research
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish Tweed’s cephalometric norms among the population in Chennai, and compare the average mean value of Tweeds analysis between male and female with Class II occlusion. Materials and Methods: The study size was decided to include 100 subjects within the range 16–30 years of age, with 50 male participants and 50 female participants with Class II molar relation. Lateral cephalograms of the selected subjects were produced at normal head positions, with the help of Radiology Department, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. The developed cephalograms were analyzed using Tweed’s diagnostic triangle. Results: The study shows no significant difference in the mean value between male and female participants, suggesting of similar growth pattern. However, the male samples presented a mean Frankfort-mandibular incisal angle (FMIA) (52.472) larger than the female sample (49.072) and presented a mean incisal mandibular plane angle (101.354) lesser than that of the female sample (104.336). Hence, the mean difference of 30 suggests that the male tends to have more proclination of lower incisor than the female subjects. This indicates the need for separate norms for male and female during diagnosis and treatment planning, as mean value of incisor mandibular angle for females was higher than that of males and the mean value of FMIA for males was higher compared to females. Conclusion: This study indicates necessity and need for separate norms for the diagnosis and treatment planning for the treatment of Class II malocclusion in male and female patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004760
Title: An update on Triphala: A potential anticancer ayurvedic herb to battle cancer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Cancer is one of the major causes of death in all over the world. Prevention of cancer through nutritional intervention has gained significant recognition in recent years. Recently, resistance to anticancer drug has been observed; therefore, more research is required to explore the anticancer potential of dietary and medicinal plant-derived substances. Triphala is one of the most important ayurvedic supplements in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine and is believed to have therapeutic efficacy for its anticancer properties. Aim: We aim to summarize available literature focused on the components of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Phyllanthus emblica) and discuss their effectiveness for its potential anticancer properties, particularly oral cancer. Methods: This study is based on pertinent papers that were retrieved by a selective search using relevant keywords in PubMed and ScienceDirect databases. Results: The components of Triphala are believed to cause restoration of the epithelium lining of the digestive tract and by exhibiting mild laxative properties facilitate passage of stool in the colon. Triphala is rich in polyphenols, Vitamin C, and flavonoids, which provide antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. It also contains various types of acids, such as gallic, chebulagic, and chebulinic, which additionally possess cytoprotective and antifungal properties. Conclusions: Triphala holds potential could be a valuable and effective addition to standard treatment of oral cancer. Supplementation of Triphala herbal formulations alone or along with other probiotics can be recommended in ongoing clinical studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004762
Title: Granulomatous conditions in the oral cavity – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Granulomatous diseases represent a unique form of the chronic inflammatory response with granulomatous diseases of the oral soft and hard tissues being an uncommon occurrence. When observed clinically, it presents a definite diagnostic dilemma due to the wide variety of possible etiologic diseases. Granulomatous diseases are also frequently observed due to a wide variety of infections. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes. Fibroblasts and collagen fibers are also seen immediately surrounding the lymphocytes. Granulomatous disorders comprise a large family of lesions that share a common histological feature: Granuloma formation. Therefore, an extensive clinical, microscopic, and laboratory evaluation is required to identify the source of the oral granulomatous disease. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to highlight the etiology, histopathological features, and differential diagnosis of various granulomatous diseases that affect the oral soft and hard tissues.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004763
Title: Preliminary phytochemical and physiochemical screening of Argyreia nervosa and its therapeutic implications
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India.
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Background: Argyreia nervosa commonly known as elephant creeper, woolly morning glory. (English) Vriddhadaru, and Samundrasok (Sanskrit) belongs to family Convolvulaceae, traditional plant claimed as more therapeutic value. Objective: The present study was carried out to highlight phytochemical screening of A. nervosa, and it was analyzed using various solvent such as ethanol, methanol, chloroform, N-hexane, aqueous, and hydroalcohol. Materials and Methods: Leaf and root of A. nervosa extracted with different solvents. Results: The phytochemical screening of various extracts of leaf and root of A. nervosa revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins. The hydroalcoholic extract showed high extractive value when compared to aqueous and other solvents. Conclusion: The present study concludes that A. nervosa extract can be used as one of therapeutic potential drugs for the treatment of various diseases due to its antioxidant properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004764
Title: 2019 Novel Coronavirus: A Review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Human coronavirus (CoV) is the one that causes respiratory illness. Nearly seven CoV types are found of which four have already identified by early 1960s. Recently, in the 20th century, two more new variety of CoV have been identified. It includes severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV. Presently now, one more virus 2019 novel CoV found arrived in the, Hubei province, Wuhan, China, as an outbreak of first incidence in 31st December 2019. The WHO is in constant work with Chinese authorities and research experts of the country to know about the virus. In this review, we discussed about the transmission, symptoms, prevention and treatment against this dreadful virus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004765
Title: Formulation and evaluation of polyherbal hair oil
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Dr. M. G. R. Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present work was aimed to formulate the herbal oil for the treatment of hair problems such as dry or flaky scalp and thinning of hair and is also used to promote hair growth, improve circulation of blood in the scalp, prevent dandruff, and add volume to the shaft. Materials and Methods: The various herbal ingredients are used in the formulation are: leaves of Azadirachta indica, leaves and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, leaves of Murraya koenigii, leaves of Bacopa monnieri, fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, and roots of Withania somnifera in coconut oil. Procedure for oil preparation is as follows: (1) Preparation of powder of all the herbs and (2) oil preparation. Results and Discussion: The formulation of polyherbal oil was reported to have antidandruff, hair thickening, hair fall control properties, and promote healthy and shiny hair growth. Formulated hair oil was evaluated for various parameters such as viscosity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value, and pH. Conclusion: It is concluded that the oil is beneficial in maintaining healthy and shiny hair growth, hair thickening, and providing protection from dandruff.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004766
Title: Alcohol-induced dose dumping: A comparative study of generic and innovator product
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Objective: The aim of the study is to compare the alcohol dose dumping between innovator and generic products. Alcohol- induced dose dumping (AIDD) can be described as the immediate unintended release of a large quantity of medication from a type of modified release dosage resulting from unintentional misuse or deliberate drug abuse. Materials and Methods: Experimental studies were done using antidiabetic extended-release tablets and dissolution profile was compared with the innovator. Each time period measured the percentage of drugs dissolved. Results and Discussion: Percentage drug release of test product shows similar pattern of release over the ethanol unit spectrum to that of innovator. Conclusion: Considering that the percentage of drug release from test product and innovator is identical, this analysis is considered acceptable.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00004767
Title: Turmeric oil mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its characterization using transmission electron microscopy and spectrophotometer
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Silver nanoparticles are being used in numerous technologies and incorporated into a wide array of consumer products that take advantage of their desirable optical, conductive, and antibacterial properties. The antibacterial properties are incorporated in apparel, footwear, paints, wound dressings, appliances, cosmetics, and plastics. It has got many diagnostic application too. Aim: The aim of this study was to synthesis silver nanoparticles using turmeric oil and its characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectrophotometer. Materials and Methods: The green synthesis of silver nanoparticle was done with the help of turmeric oil and 1 mM silver nitrate solution. The turmeric oil mediated silver nanoparticle was confirmed both visually and spectrophotometrically and the size and morphology was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Results and Discussion: Visually, it was observed that the color of turmeric oil was changed from yellowish to brownish-black, confirming the synthesis of nanoparticles was futher confirmed by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The size of the nanoparticles were between 2–20 nm as per TEM analysis. Conclusion: The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using turmeric oil was a better alternative to chemical synthesis since this green synthesis is pollutant-free and eco-friendly. Hence turmeric oil mediated silver nanoparticles may be used for its wide array of application in future research.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004768
Title: Comparative study on clove and garlic on relieving tooth pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Clove is an old spice that has been used from olden days for toothache due to its analgesic property. Garlic has an anti-inflammatory property; hence, it has the property to relieve tooth pain. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of clove and garlic in relieving tooth pain. Materials and Methods: Thirty volunteers with tooth pain were included in this study and divided into two groups. Each group consists of 15 participants. Group 1 was given clove for toothache and Group 2 was given garlic for toothache. The pain was measured using a pain scale. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: In Group 1, 54% of the population had shown an effective recovery after using the clove. About 66% of the participants had severe and very severe pain, but it had been reduced to 20% after using clove. In Group 2, only 33% of the population had shown effective recovery after using garlic. About 60% of the participants had severe and very severe pain, but it had been reduced to 20% after using garlic. Conclusion: From the above study, it is evident that both clove and garlic had a property to relieve tooth pain. However, the effectiveness of clove in relieving tooth pain was more compared to that of the garlic. However, both clove and garlic can control or relieve the tooth pain to some extent; the permanent solution or treatment has to be acquired by consulting a dentist.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004769
Title: Awareness of the effect of soporific drugs on physiological functions
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim was check the level of awareness of the harmful effects of soporific drugs on physiological functions. Introduction: Sleeping pills are generally hypnotics, meaning that they promote or extend sleep. Sleeping pills can have serious side effects if overused or abused. Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and depression are closely involved with changes in an individual’s daily routine, including sleeping habits. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared on the basis of physiological side effects observed after using drugs and was distributed among 50 people, of which 22 were men and 28 were women. Results and Discussion: Almost half of the populations was found to take soporific drugs without medical guidance. Women and people belonging to the middle age are the most prevalent users. People consuming the sleeping pills mostly complained of headache and dizziness. Depression was found to be one of the most important factors behind the consumption of sleeping pill by the people. Conclusion: Although the level of awareness of the side effects caused by the sleeping pills or soporific drugs was high, people still consume them due to lack of adequate sleep and other lifestyle-related factors.