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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005296
Title: Antibacterial Effect of Hekla Lava and Calcium Hydroxide against Strains of Enterococcus faecalis
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most prevalent microorganisms found in the root canal. Antibacterial efficacy of any new medicament can be checked against this organism to evaluate its potential to kill the same bacteria in root canal system. This study compares efficacy of two medicaments against strains of E. faecalis in vitro. To determine the antibacterial effect of Hekla lava and calcium hydroxide against strains of E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: The extracts of calcium hydroxide and Hekla lava were prepared in vitro. The antibacterial effect of the extracts against E. faecalis was evaluated using the agar diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using the microdilution method. Results: Hekla lava showed inhibition zone of 35.5 ± 1.05 and 44.83 ± 0.98 after 24 h and 48 h, respectively, against E. faecalis. Conclusion: Extracts of calcium hydroxide and Hekla lava both had an antibacterial effect against E. faecalis strains during the first 24 and 48 h. Hence, Hekla lava can be used as an alternative for intracanal medicament.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005295
Title: Anesthetic efficacy of articaine in irreversible pulpitis – A review of literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Technical and Medical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of this review is to provide the detailed description about anesthetic efficacy of articaine in irreversible pulpities. The objectives are to review the literature through electronic search and hand articles regarding various local anesthetic agents used in endodontic treatment. Endodontic infections occur as a result of progression of caries or other mechanical or chemical injuries or the pulp. The chronic pulpal infections are mostly treated with root canal treatment. The first and foremost step in non-surgical endodontic treatment is anesthetizing the tooth to be treated. Various local anesthetic agents have been used in endodontics with various anesthetizing techniques for better results. Although various new local anesthetic agents are commercially available, only lidocaine is widely used in daily practices which in certain cases are used in endodontic practices for pulpal anesthesia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005294
Title: Saliva - an alternative tool in detection of coronavirus disease-19
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Dr. MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai - 600 107, Tamil Nadu, India.
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In December 2019, Wuhan Province had witnessed a cluster of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 cases. It was found that the genetic sequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been shown to be 79.6% identical to that of SARS-CoV and 96% identical to bats coronavirus. The incubation period of this disease is 14 days and patients can either be symptomatic or asymptomatic. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test has been followed as the gold standard method in diagnosing this disease by collecting the sputum or nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal secretion by swab-based method. This procedure has many limitations and also subjects health-care professionals to great risk as they are in close contact with the patients while collecting the samples. To overcome this hazard, saliva can be used as a diagnostic tool in identification of the cases. Salivary collection is a non-invasive and easier procedure. There are studies which have proven the detection of COVID-19 in saliva. Saliva can also be provided by patients themselves without any help from others. This will be an easier method of collecting samples which will be convenient for both the patients and the health-care professionals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005281
Title: Estrogenicity and dental composite – A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha dental college, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The biocompatibility of dental materials is an important consideration for the patient, clinician, laboratory technician, and manufacturer. Ideally, a dental material that is to be used in the oral cavity should be harmless to all oral tissues, gingiva, mucosa, pulp, and bone. Furthermore, it should contain no toxic, leachable, or diffusible substances that can be absorbed into the circulatory system, causing systemic responses, including teratogenic or carcinogenic effects. This review highlights to correlate the estrogenicity and composite resin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005282
Title: Using photodynamic therapy in root canal system – A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Micro-organisms do play in pulpal and periapical infection. Success of endodontic treatment aims at effective eradication of bacteria from the root canal space. This in turn prevents further microbial recolonization. Persistent microbial colonies in the root canal lead to failure of the endodontic treatment. With the advent of photodynamic therapy (PDT), a novel invasive approach is aimed at complete disinfection of root canal with elimination of bacteria. Therefore, this paper aims to highlight the efficiency of PDT in endodontics by reviewing the literature published in journals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005280
Title: Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Epigallocatechin Gallate – In Animal model
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a new material suitable for various clinical situations in endodontics, such as perforation repair, retrograde filling, pulp capping, and others. Because it is a new material, its properties should be analyzed before routine clinical use. Thus, this study evaluated the biocompatibility of EGCG in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 15 male rats. Two incisions were made on the dorsal region of each animal for the introduction of four tubes. One tube was empty, one was filled with different concentrations of EGCG, one was filled with sodium hypochlorite, and the last tube was filled with saline. After 7, 14, and 30 days, the animals were sacrificed, and the specimens were submitted to histotechnical preparation. The histologic section was stained with hematoxylin‑eosin and analyzed using light microscopy. Scores were established according to the inflammatory process and were statistically compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test (P < 0.05). Results: The analysis of the histologic sections evidenced a non‑significant or mild presence of inflammatory reaction in the connective tissue in contact with the saline tube and the tube containing 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% of EGCG, which was different from the tube containing sodium hypochlorite. The connective tissue was moderately inflamed at 7 days when in contact with EGCG; however, at 14 and 30 days, the inflammatory process was mild or no significant. Conclusions: EGCG was biocompatible with tissue after the 14th day.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005279
Title: Comparative evaluation of canal transportation and centering ability of WaveOne Gold and EndoSequence Reciprocating File systems using cone-beam computed tomography
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare canal transportation and the centering ability of EndoSequence Reciprocating (Brasseler, USA) and WaveOne Gold (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) file systems using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four distal mandibular first molar uncalcified canals with at least a 19-mm length, a canal curvature of 15°–30° (the Schneider method), and a mature apex were selected. Canals were randomly divided into two groups of 12 teeth, and canal preparation with the EndoSequence Reciprocating and WaveOne Gold file systems was performed according to the manufacturers’ instructions. CBCT images were taken before and after instrumentation in the same position. Apical transportation was calculated in the distances of 2, 4, and 6 mm from the apex. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to statistically analyze the data. Results: Apical transportation was less in EndoSequence Reciproc than WaveOne Gold at all three distances from the apex, but there was no statistically significant difference except at 4 mm distance mesiodistally. The canal centering ability was more for EndoSequence Reciproc compared to WaveOne Gold, but there was no statistical difference between the two. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, EndoSequence Reciproc showed less apical transportation and better canal centering ability, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two file systems except for mesiodistal transportation at 4 mm from the apex.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005278
Title: Awareness regarding immunoglobulin therapy among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In our immune system, immunoglobulin in blood plasma is known for its antibacterial and antiviral properties and commonly used to treat patients with autoimmune diseases. These people are generally vulnerable to various infections and inflammations with severely affected immune system, whereby the immunoglobulin treatment is highly recommended. Route of administration for the immunoglobulin treatment can be either through intravenous or subcutaneous among patients that are incapable to make antibodies. Intravenous route of administration is targeted for immediate release which lasts for only few hours while subcutaneous is intended for prolonged release for few days due to the deposition of the fatty acid layer. Aim: This study aims to determine the understanding regarding the immunoglobulin therapy among dental students. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of immunoglobulin therapy among dental students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called SurveyMonkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, participated in the study. Results: As an overall result, majority of the participants are aware of immunoglobulin therapy. Conclusion: As a conclusion, majority of the dental students within the study were aware of the term immunoglobulin. However, this study was limited to one particular institute which is Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, and only 100 participants. Further study should be conducted in a larger scale area and sample size to get a proper overview regarding this topic within the general public concerning the new advent technologies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004802
Title: Effect of beta-sitosterol on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in liver of high-fat diet and sucrose-induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the effect of β-sitosterol on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in high-fat diet and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Experimental design: Adult male Wistar rats were used and divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Group II: Type-2 diabetic rats; Group III: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with β-sitosterol (20 mg/kg b.wt/day, orally for 30 days); and Group IV: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg b.wt/day, orally for 30 days). After 30 days of treatment, animals were anesthetized; liver tissues were dissected out and used for the assessment of glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) enzyme activities which were studied by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: The activity of glucose-6-phosphatase, glycogen phosphorylase, and PEPCK was significantly raised (P < 0.05) in type-2 diabetic rats. Conversely, glucokinase and glycogen synthase activities were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in type-2 diabetic rats. Oral administration of the plant sterol (β-sitosterol) could effectively normalize the detrimental changes caused by high diet induction to that of the control and standard drug metformin. Conclusion: The present study shows that β-sitosterol regulates carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the liver, thereby β-sitosterol may have therapeutic potential candidate for the management of type-2 diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004817
Title: Beta-sitosterol improves the antioxidant enzyme activity in liver: High-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic experimental study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Changes in lifestyle, such as high-calorie diet intake and lack of exercise, have increased the global prevalence of obesity and diabetes. The major pathophysiological event contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is the target tissues to insulin action. β-sitosterol (24-ethyl cholestene-3-ol), a naturally occurring plant sterol, ubiquitously found in many plants such as wheat germ, rice bran, flax seeds, peanuts, soybean, and pumpkin seeds. It has been reported to elicit multitude of bioactivities including antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic activity. Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the effect of β-sitosterol on antioxidant enzymes in high-fat diet-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Experimental Design: Adult male Wistar rats were used and divided as Group I: Control; Group II: Type-2 diabetic rats; Group III: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with β-sitosterol (20 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]/day, orally for 30 days); and Group IV: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg b.wt/day, orally for 30 days). After 30 days of treatment, animals were anesthetized; liver tissues were dissected out and used for the assessment of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], glutathione-S-transferase [GST], and glutathione reductase [GR]). Results: SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GR enzyme activity was found to be significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in type-2 diabetic rats when compared with control animals. Oral administration of the plant sterol could effectively improve the activity of these enzymes (P < 0.05) to that of the control and standard drug metformin. Conclusion: The present study shows that β-sitosterol exhibits antidiabetic activity by facilitating antioxidant enzymes in the liver.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004852
Title: Estimation of salivary pH and flow rate in menstruating and menopausal women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Saliva being the most available and non-invasive biofluid of the human body, permanently “bathes” the oral cavity, and is trying to cope with an ever-changing milieu. Oral cavity acts as a mirror of our body’s health; thus, it acts as a diagnostic window in both healthy and diseased conditions. The different phases in women’s life are menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause, the hormone fluctuations during these phases act as a significant factor which attributes in altering the specific salivary proteins, minerals, lipids, or some combination of these. This research studies the effects of menopause on saliva and dental health. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the salivary flow rate and pH in normal menstruating women and in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Saliva sample was collected using spitting method from 25 menstruating and 25 menopausal women. The pH of the saliva was analyzed using a pH paper. Graduated centrifuge tube was used to measure the unstimulated salivary flow rate. Results: There is a marked decrease in salivary pH and flow rate in postmenopausal women. Conclusion: There is a noticeable decrease in salivary pH and flow rate in postmenopausal women which, in turn, can lead to dental problems. This study has shown the importance of preventive dentistry with aging in females.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004851
Title: Scenario of spurious and substandard drugs in India
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, Jagadguru Sri Shivrathreeshwara Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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India has a bigger problem of spurious and substandard drugs, which result in life-threatening issues, financial loss of consumer and manufacturer, and loss in trust on health system fake, and unacceptable medications are a consuming issue. It is inadmissible in light of the fact that the transformation of credible medication into unsatisfactory medication may cause assortment of unfavorable impacts from mild (allergic responses, weariness, and gastrointestinal surprise) to direct (disarray, spasms, dermatitis, and laziness) and to severe (cerebral edema, unconsciousness, intracerebral drain, and harming) perilous responses. Along these lines, comprehension of the considerable number of methods for misleading and substitution is important to correct this illicit demonstration and expanding shoppers' well-being. India is the biggest producer of nonexclusive medications and likely 12–25% of the prescriptions provided all around are tainted, unsatisfactory, and fake. Be that as it may, at present, countrywide review is lead for misleading medications by focal medication standard control association for the sake of Directorate general of Health administration, Ministry of Health and Family welfare, legislature of India. India has made some preventive strides in the nation to battle against the low quality of administrative association drugs for ensuring and advancing the general well-being, late examinations on false medications, guidelines for making a move on tests of medications pronounced deceptive or not of standard quality in the light of upgraded punishments under the medications and beautifying agents (revision) act and future investigation plan.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004850
Title: Free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory potential of Acalypha indica mediated selenium nanoparticles
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The main aim of the research is to find the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties of Acalypha indica mediated selenium nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: The plant extract was collected and dried up and made powdered and mixed with water which is centrifuged to synthesize the selenium nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were assessed for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties by albumin denaturation assay and α, α-diphenyl-β- picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay. Results and Discussion: From the synthesized selenium nanoparticles, both the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities showed a good percentage of inhibition. Conclusion: The selenium nanoparticles may provide a great implication in future studies for its potential activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004849
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and attitude on dental post-operative complications in diabetes among general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the stud was to study the knowledge, awareness, and attitude on dental post-operative complications in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted with 100 people within age groups of 19–45 years. The questionnaire was circulated through the survey planet. It contains about 11 questions consisting of various complications that would arise postoperatively in dental treatment from uncontrolled diabetes in 100 people, and the knowledge and awareness was assessed. Results were collected and analyzed by statistics. Results: It was observed clearly that people were aware of diabetes but not about their after effects. They were clear about some basic consequences but not about the complications which occur due to it. Nearly half of the population were not aware of the complications. Conclusion: It was noted that the knowledge about diabetes and its common effect are known to people, whereas post-surgical complications are less known to people and more awareness is needed for the betterment of the people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004795
Title: Dermatoglyphic study using recent technique in hypertensive individuals of both sexes in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, A.C.S Medical College and Hospital, Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute (Deemed to be University), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim and Objective: The aim of the present study is to compare the dermatoglyphic patterns between normal and hypertensive individual using fingerprint detector instrument in both male and female patients. Materials and Methods: Persona fingerprint reader and its software were used for the study. Twenty-five normal and 25 hypertensive male individuals were selected. Twenty-five normal and 25 hypertensive female individuals were selected. Ten fingers of every individual were recorded and compared. The various patterns were compared and analyzed. Results: In normal males, central pocket loop, plain arch, and tented arch were statistically significant. In normal females, the loop was statistically significant. In hypertensive males plain arch, true whorl was statistically significant; in hypertensive females, tented arch was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: Noninvasive diagnostic tools to rule out certain diseases using dermatoglyphics are on the increase. The fingerprint reader used in the present study is non-expensive and non-time consumable. Like glucometer and sphygmomanometer, the fingerprint reader can be used as screening test in normal clinical practice. This study will alarm the society about the forthcoming hypertension disease in future. Physician can alert the public of future procurement of disease and prevent its early onset.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004797
Title: Role of tissue-engineered stem cells in regenerative endodontics – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of this study was to review the role of tissue-engineered stem cells in the field of regenerative endodontics and to understand the significance of stem cells in regeneration of dental pulp. Stem cells are primitive cells that can regenerate and differentiate into any type of cell or tissue, wherein they are inoculated. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are the cells that reside in the cell-rich zone of the dental pulp. They can be engineered and contain the potential to become dental pulp. Thereby, they can be used for revitalizing any non-vital tooth.By the process of tissue engineering, the DPSCs can be used in regeneration. Stem cells have the potential to renew themselves for long periods through cell division and under certain physiologic conditions such that they can be induced to become cells with special functions. The induced cells mimic the native cells both morphologically and functionally. In general, stem cells are multipotent cells that play a key role in tissue development and regeneration. They specifically replace the odontoblastic cells that have undergone necrosis due to cariogenesis and other challenges. Stem cells are also secreted factors that provide nutrition and oxygen to the dental pulp cells, thereby enhancing pulp vascularization and improving the vitality of pulpal tissues.Regenerative endodontic procedures are designed to replace the damaged structures. The dental pulp is primarily made of ectomesenchymal components, containing neural crest-derived cells, which displays plasticity and multipotential capabilities. The dental pulp is a remarkable site of stem cells. Collecting stem cells from dental pulp are a non-invasive practice that can save tooth and help in regeneration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004798
Title: Awareness of the hazards of tobacco usage and assessment of nicotine dependence among outpatient population of a dental college in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to understand and analyze the awareness of the hazards of tobacco usage and assessment of nicotine dependence among the outpatient population of a dental college. Background: The use of tobacco and tobacco products has increased drastically in recent decade. People consume tobacco without realizing its hazards, and the main reason for the addiction is due to nicotine, which is the main chemical content present in tobacco. Hence, it becomes necessary to make people aware of the hazardous nature of using tobacco products. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by selecting 100 patients from the outpatient population of a dental college. The participants were given a questionnaire containing 13 questions and the nicotine dependency level was analyzed using the Fagerstrom scale; the level of awareness was analyzed through statistical analysis. Results: The study revealed that 95% of participants were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and chewing tobacco and only 5% were unaware of it. Nicotine dependency levels revealed that 8% of the participants had a very high level of nicotine dependence. Conclusion: From the research, it was estimated that almost more than half of the population who consume tobacco and smoke tobacco were aware that it is hazardous and causes cancer. However, proper awareness and the intensity of hazardous must be stressed such that consumers do not become negligent and consume it despite knowing the hazards.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004799
Title: Systematic review on the physiological effects of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Stem cells are becoming one of the vital sources of all tissue engineering procedures in recent days. This is mainly due to the differentiation potential of these cells. Pluripotent adult stem cells are rare and generally small in number, but they can be found in umbilical cord following the birth of a fetus, blood, and adipose tissues. Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells, which have been used in treating several conditions including liver cirrhosis, chronic limb ischemia, and final stage of heart failure. Stem cells isolated from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are a type of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), widely used for various purposes. They are also investigated for regenerative treatment. They are isolated from the remains of dental pulp tissues of physiologically shedding human deciduous teeth. Thus, these types of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth are easy to access and are a purely non-invasive procedure. SHEDs are mesenchymal stem cells that are multipoint in nature; however, they possess distinct properties when compared to other mesenchymal cells. These types of stem cells exhibit a higher proliferative rate than bone marrow-derived cells and possess greater osteogenic differentiation potency than human dental pulp stem cells. SHEDs are first identified by Miura et al. in the year 2003. SHEDs are a heterogeneous population of multipotent cells that are isolated from dental pulp tissues remained in exfoliated deciduous teeth. SHEDs possess high proliferation potency and are capable of differentiating into any type of cell wherein they are induced. These cells are able to differentiate into dental pulp cells as well as other cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, and neuronal such as cells and endothelial cells. This article reviews the techniques of isolation and basic characteristics and significance of SHEDs. The intracellular signaling involved in the regulation of stem cell and differentiation ability of SHED is discussed in detail. Finally, the regenerative and therapeutic applications of SHEDs are also described.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004800
Title: A survey study of gender-related anxiety and fear on dental care among the patients visiting Saveetha Dental College and Hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the dental anxiety and fear on dental care among the patients visiting Saveetha Dental College. Introduction: Dental fear is an important issue in the practice of dentistry because it interferes with both provision and receipt of dental care. Gender is one of the most commonly reported factors in the extant literature that is associated with differences in dental fear. Dental fear and anxiety toward dental treatment is an undeniable and unfortunate expression. Anxiety and fear before dental treatment to be done is one of the reasons for avoiding dental treatment. Anxiety and fear before dental treatment to be done is one of the reasons for avoiding dental treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample size for this study is about 200 participants, of which 100 were males and the other 100 were females. A set of questionnaires is being created related to the dental anxiety and fear, the questionnaire was circulated among the patients visiting the Saveetha Dental College and the responses were obtained. All the data were compiled together and analyzed. Results: The results obtained at the end of the study were graphically represented and analyzed between male and female subjects. A consistent finding is that dental fear is more prevalent and severe among females than males. However, the reasons underlying these gender differences in dental fear are not clear. Conclusion: With an already established relationship between higher rates of dental problems and women, it is seen that they often find the need to visit a dentist. From the present study, it can thus be concluded that dental anxiety and fear is more commonly found in females than in males.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00004801
Title: Determination of benidipine and chlorthalidone content in tablets using stability-indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography technique
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Sciences and Humanities, Division of Chemistry, Vignan’s Foundation for Science, Technology and Research University (Vignan’s University), Vadlamudi, Guntur - 522 213, Andhra Pradesh
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Objective: In this study, quick and reliable stability-indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was established for the quantitation of benidipine and chlorthalidone simultaneously in tablet preparations and bulk. Materials and Methods: Chlorthalidone and benidipine are separated using an Agilent C18 column with a mobile phase containing 60% NaH2 PO4 buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.0) and 40% methanol. Optimized flow rate and detection wavelengths are 1 ml/min and 262 nm, respectively. Results: Linearity curves were straight over concentration ranges of 4–12 µg/ ml for benidipine and 12.5–37.50 µg/ml for chlorthalidone. Quantification limit was 0.0.543 µg/ml for benidipine and 0.299 µg/ml for chlorthalidone. The percent recoveries were 100.23–100.66% for benidipine and 99.88–100.13% for chlorthalidone. The relative standard deviation precisions were 0.092% and 0.214% for benidipine and chlorthalidone, respectively. Force-induced degradation studies had shown that the method developed can be employed to evaluate benidipine and chlorthalidone in the presence of possible degradants. Conclusion: Method was suitable to assay benidipine and chlorthalidone in tablets and can be used in stability studies and quality control analysis of benidipine and chlorthalidone.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004803
Title: Free radical scavenging potential of Argyreia nervosa leaf extract: An in vitro analysis
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India
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Background: Argyreia nervosa (AN) belongs to the family Convolvulaceae, used in Ayurvedic medicine, and has immense remedial values. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of AN. Materials and Methods: AN ethanol extract prepared and examined for their antioxidant potential by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radical scavenging, DNA sugar damage, and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods. Results: The antioxidant activity of AN extract was found to be a high value at the concentration of 150 µg/ml compared to 50 and 100 µg/ml concentrations. DPPH free radical, nitric oxide, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays showed strong antioxidant activities with an increase in the concentration of ethanol extracts of AN. Conclusion: The present in vitro study clearly shows that the ethanolic extract of AN has the potential free radical scavenging activity due to its antioxidant capacity and hence it can be used as one of the medicinal herbs against various diseases including against liver toxicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00004804
Title: Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial, evaluation of new naproxen derivatives
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq
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In this work, naproxen derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of naproxen with H2 SO4 using methanol to give ester (1). Compound (1) was synthesized by reaction of naproxen with hydrazine hydrate give 2-(6-methoxynaphthalen- 2-yl)propanehydrazide (2), compound (2) treatment with acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, α-cyanoethylacetate, phenyl isothiocyanate, 4-nitro phenyl isothiocyanate, 4-chlorophenyl isothiocyanate, malic anhydride, succinic anhydride, and phthalic anhydride gave compounds (2a-i). Compound (2) reaction with 4-phenylphenacylbromide gives N’-(1-([1,1’- biphenyl]-4-yl)-2-bromoethylidene)-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)propanehydrazide (3), compound (3) reaction with hydrazide and phenyl hydrazide gives 6-([1,1’-biphenyl]-4-yl)-3-(1-(6-methoxynaphthalene-2-yl)ethyl)-N-phenyl or 1,2,4-triazin-4(5H)-amine (3a-b), and compound (4) reaction naproxen with thionyl chloride gives 2-(6-methoxynaphthalen- 2-yl)propanoyl chloride. Compound (4a-c) reaction compound (4) with secondary amine (piperidine, dicyclohexylamine, and diphenylamine) gives 2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-1-(alkyl-1-yl) propan-1-one-(4a-c). All naproxen derivatives have been characterized by 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and mass spectroscopy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004805
Title: Beneficial role of aspirin as antioxidant agents
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jabir Ibn Hayyan Medical University, Al Najaf Al Ashraf, Iraq
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Background: Aspirin which is an acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is used widely for the secondary prevention of cardiac diseases such as ischemic cerebrovascular events. This beneficial role is due to the antiplatelet aggregation action in the body that prevents arterial platelet thrombi formation. Furthermore, it has been assumed that ASA is able to prevent cerebrovascular accidents by its action as neuroprotective effect through a direct action on brain tissue. It has been also postulated that aspirin and mainly its metabolite SA prevent the oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial study, in which 100 individuals have been selected from Al Sader Teaching Hospital in Al Najaf Al Ashraf, Iraq, divided into two groups: Group A contains 60 individuals used aspirin and Group B contains 40 individuals not use aspirin, ferritin (FER) concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in serum, which were estimated as antioxidant parameters to show the oxidation state in both groups, then Group A was subdivided into subgroups to show the effect of ages and duration of aspirin use on the state of oxidation. Results: It was observed that there is a significant increase in MDA with a significant decrease in FER, GSH, and SOD in Group B when compared with Group A and significant increase in MDA with a significant decrease in FER, GSH, and SOD in subgroups toward advanced age and low duration for use aspirin. Conclusion: Aspirin has antioxidant action and its usage to reduce oxidative stress, especially to aged individuals, is very important to prevent oxidative damage to the cardiovascular system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004806
Title: Cytokine responses to multidrug-resistance – Salmonella Typhi in patients with typhoid fever in Najaf province
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Health, College of Health and Medical Techniques-Kufa, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Babylon-Najaf Street, Najaf 54003, Iraq
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Background: Salmonella Typhi is an individual Salmonella serovar that reasons “typhoid fever,” a main public health difficult in developing countries. The purpose of the research was to study antibiotic resistant and estimation concentration interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) level in typhoid patient. Materials and Methods: The study included 90 patients aged between 10–60 years, “blood samples were cultured directly on brain heart infusion broth.” These specimens were collected from patients in Najaf Province during the studied period. All specimens were cultured on the S-S agar plates and incubated at 37°C under aerobic condition for 18–24 h. Several morphological, cultural, and biochemical tests were made to identify bacterial isolates. The results showed that Salmonella Typhi constitute 15 isolate of all isolates. Results: The results of antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that the isolates of Salmonella Typhi exhibited sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, moderate sensitivity for trimethoprim, while absolute resistant to ampicillin and piperacillin. Patients with typhoid fever had higher serum levels of IL (IL-6 and IL-12) and IFN-γ.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004807
Title: GC-MS profiling of the chemical compounds in the spikelets of the genus Taeniatherum Nevski
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Iraq
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Background: Taeniatherum Nevski belonging to the Poaceae family, it is an annual herb represented by two species (T. crinitum (Schreb.) Nevski and T. crinitum (Simonkai) Nevski) in Iraq. These two species are known as useful spring forage plants. The present article is offered profile about the chemical compounds in the spikelets of two Iraqi Taeniatherum Nevski Species (T. crinitum (Schreb.) Nevski and T. asperum (Simonkai) Nevski) by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, as a tool for chemotaxonomy, 91 compounds are identified. Seven compounds are identical between the two species, whereas 84 are confined to one species than to another. Materials and Methods: This article outlines the differences in phytochemical constitutions of two species of the genus Taeniatherum in Iraq by the GC-MS technique. Results: Twenty-seven different compounds are recorded in T. crinitum, whereas 64 compounds in T. asperum. The chemical composition is similar with respect to only 7 compounds. This study also observed the presence of 28 peaks in T. crinitum and 79 peaks in T. asperum. Hence, the results showed that the two species of the genus Taeniatherum can be easily separated using chemotaxonomic techniques. Conclusion: The present study has proven its assisting in the classification of species studied by means of chemotaxonomic techniques, especially the GC-MS technique, which represents a direct and fast analytical approach for the identification of phytoconstituents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004808
Title: Antimicrobial resistance profile among Enterococcus species isolated from patients with cystitis
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Hilla City, Nader, Iraq
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Background: Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora; they are the common causes of nosocomial urinary tract infections. Enterococci show increasing rates of resistance against antimicrobial agents other than vancomycin. The current study aims to highlight the resistant profile among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from patients with cystitis. Material and Methods: During a period from January 2019 to July 2019, a total of 604 urine specimens were collected from patients who complain cystitis to urology consultant at Al-Sadiq Hospital in Hilla city, Iraq. The samples were cultured directly on m-EI chromogenic agar and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. All the recovered isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm their diagnosis using species specific primer pairs targeting D-alanine- D-alanine ligases for E. faecalis (ddl-faecalis) and E. faecium (ddl-faecium). Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute-2019. Results: Cultural (by m-EI chromogenic agar) and PCR diagnosis revealed that 79 of isolates were E. fecalis and 10 of isolates were E. faecium. Furthermore, the results showed a high incidence of infection in females than males (71.92% and 28.08%, respectively). The current study showed that the Enterococcal cystitis was common among people aged 40–49 years who were 26.96%. High level of resistance expressed for rifampin was 82 (92.1%), 78 (87.6%) for erythromycin, 75 (84.2%) for tetracycline, and 42 (47.1%) for vancomycin. Low level of resistance was displayed among 39 (43.8 %) for penicillin, 36 (40.4 %) for doxycycline, 35 (39.3%) for ampicillin, 32 (35.9%) for ciprofloxacin, 27 (30.3%) for levofloxacin, and 25 (28.0%) for chloramphenicol. Conclusion: The presence of a high percentage of resistance to various antibiotics and proper treatment requires strategies to control and prevent the release of resistant strains.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004809
Title: Extraction of antioxidants from fruit containing citrus and using them in inhibition of different types of bacteria
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Jabir Ibn Hayyan Medical University, Najaf, Iraq *Corresponding author: Moha
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Background: Antioxidants are molecules that can slow down or prevent oxidation of other molecules in vivo. There are several types of antioxidants which naturally occur inside the human body, or what can be obtained by consuming food and other drugs. Citrus (orange, lemon, pomegranate, citrus, etc.) contains a group of vitamins (C and E), which are the most powerful antioxidants used to kill underdeveloped bacteria. Materials and Methods: Three types of bacteria where identified in stool sample taken from admitted patients to Al-Yarmouk Hospital in Baghdad city (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus). Samples of oranges, lemons, pomegranates, and citrus have been imported from local markets and the crusts are dried and ground for the purpose of extracting and determining the concentrations of active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, tannins, soaps, and alkaloids; determining vitamin concentrations (C and E), and determining the biological efficacy of the extracts using an α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl test. Three different concentrations were prepared for each of the tannin, which was fined from pomegranate, lemon, and citrus. The biological effect of the tannin extract was evaluated on three types of bacteria. Results: The results showed that the tannin extract from citrus fruit has a higher bacterial inhibition zone than pomegranate extract. The biological efficacy of orange extract (Vitamin C) was also shown to be highly inhibitory when compared with tannin extract in lemons and citrus. Conclusion: Our findings conclude that these fruits are good sources of antioxidant and antibacterial compounds. The finding of the inhibition capacity of citrus species obtained from our study could be a good motivation to use them more widely in pharmaceutical researches and use them as antibacterial and antioxidant products.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004810
Title: Hematological and thyroid hormones study in hemodialysis patients in Holy Karbala Province
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Alsafwa University College, Karbala, Iraq
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Background: Hemodialysis (HD) defined as the spread of particles in solution through a semipermeable membrane along with an electrochemical concentration gradient. The main purpose of HD is to restoration the intracellular and extracellular fluid environment characterized by normal kidney functions. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of HD on some hematological parameters and the relationship of chronic kidney failure with thyroid hormone. Materials and Methods: The study included 100 voluntaries divided into two groups, 70 HD patients, the duration of disease ranges between 1 and 10 years and 30 healthy individual, as control, with age range between 22 and 60 years. Results: The results were shown decrease mean concentration of red blood cell, hematocrit %, and hemoglobin in HD patients (3.7 × 106 ± 0.6, 9.7 × 106 ± 1.6, and 29.9 × 106 ± 5.9), respectively, as compared with control (4.9106 ± 0.38, 42.04 ± 3.9, and 14.6 ± 1.6), while the results appear increase in total count of white blood cell (8.2 × 103 /µl ± 2.6) in patients than in control (7.8 × 103 /µl ±1.9). Furthermore, the results appear that there is elevated level of ferritin and C-reactive protein in HD patients 1183.5 ± 989 ng/ml and 3.042 ± 3.3 mg/dl as compared with control 29.2 ± 12.3 ng/ml and 0.4 ± 2 mg/dl, respectively. There were lower concentrations of T3 and T4 (1.28 ± 0.5 nmol, 81.8 ± 2.4 nmol) when compared with control (2.0 ± 0.9, 148 ± 3.2). Conclusion: This study concluded that there is a defect in hematological parameters in HD patients who lead to severe anemia. Chronic renal failure is associated with multiple disturbances in thyroid metabolism characterized by low serum free and total T4 and T3 levels. High serum ferritin is not a reliable indicator of iron overload, but may instead represent the presence of inflammation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00004811
Title: Synthesis and characterization of Cu (II), Co (II), Ni (II), Au (III), complexes with (Z)-1-(4-((3-chlorobenzylidene) amino)phenyl)ethan-1-one ligand
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Science University of Anbar, Anbar, Iraq
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Background: Schiff bases are considered privileged ligands, as condensation between aldehydes and amines makes them easy to prepare also in the synthetic design, stereogenic centers, or other chirality elements can be introduced. Schiff base ligands can combine and stabilize with several different metals in different oxidation states, allowing Schiff base metal complexes to be used for a wide range of useful catalytic transformations. The reaction in ethanol of 4-aminoacetophenoneand 3-chlorobenzaldehyde resulted in the formation of Schiff base (Z)-1-(4-((3-chloro benzylidene)amino)phenyl)ethan-1-one. Ligand contact with different di- and trivalent metal ions were observed and ligand complexes are prepared from the reaction of two ligand (Z)-1-(4-(3-chlorobenzylidene) amino) phenyl) ethan-1-one equivalents with one mole of metal salt as the central ion. Physicochemical and spectroscopic methods were put in place to confirm bonding mode and over all complex structure. These results lead to the preparation of four coordinate complexes, and we suggested the structure of the complexes from the above discussions is tetrahedral except Au complex which is square planar geometry. IR, UV, NMR, mass, conductivity, elemental study, and magnetic susceptibility characterized the ligand and its complexes. Materials and Methods: The reaction in ethanol of 4-aminoacetophenone and 3-chlorobenzaldehyde with molar ratio (1:1) in absolute ethanol with just a few drops of acetic acid resulted in the formation of Schiff base (Z)-1-(4-((3-chlorobenzylidene)amino) phenyl) ethan-1-one. Results: The complexes were prepared from the reaction of the ligand L with metal chloride salts (M) in a 2:1 mole ratio heated under reflux in ethanol, where M= Co+2 , Ni +2 , Cu+2 , and Au+3 . IR, UV, NMR, mass, conductivity, elemental study, and magnetic susceptibility characterized the ligand and its complexes. These results lead to the preparation of four coordinate complexes: [Co(L)2 (Cl)2 ], [Cu(L)2 (Cl)2 ], [Ni(L)2 (Cl)2 ], and [Au(L)2 (Cl)2 ]Cl. Conclusion: we concluded that the structure of the complexes from the physicochemical and spectroscopic methods is tetrahedral except the Au+3 complex which is square planar geometry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004812
Title: Approved drug product lifecycle management for US generic submission
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Introduction: Product lifecycle management is a business strategy that pharmaceutical manufacturers use to maintain revenue streams from their leading drug products. Post approval changes are an integral part of pharmaceutical product life cycle management. To ensure the safety of the innovations, product lifecycle management (PLM) will be included as a strategy for prolonging the stay of product in the market. Objectives: This study envisages about the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls (CMC) changes across the product lifecycle. Discussion: Level of changes is categorized as major, moderate and minor based on its effect on product quality and performance. Before submitting a PAS, if the change to be made is major, a prior approval from FDA is required. Approved drug PLM for the US generic submissions includes: Post-approval changes, risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, amendments and supplements, post-marketing periodic safety reports and field alert report. Conclusion: Changes are inevitable in pharmaceutical industry in fact they are very much necessary for the continuous quality improvement of the product. The applicant should think back the impact of the change on the quality attributes of the final product and should report the changes for an approved ANDA for regulatory authorities in a timely manner to be in compliant with FDA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004813
Title: Aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones resistant genes among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Hilla City, Iraq
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Lab Technology, AL-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq
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Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the majority of usual infectious diseases all over the world. It is characterized as the bacterial infection of urinary tract tissues and it is assumed that global prevalence of UTIs is 250 million yearly. UTIs involve ranges of prevalence involving cystitis and pyelonephritis described by the finding of microbes in the tract of urine, medically; UTI is classified as complex or simple. Simple UTI usually affects people who are healthy and has no abnormalities in the structural of urinary tract or its nervous system. The current research aims to test dominant aminoglycosides (AGs) resistant and fluoroquinolones resistant genotypes among local uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) obtained from the patient with cystitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six isolates of AGs-fluoroquinolones resistance UPEC recovered from patient with cystitis were submitted for genotypic detection of AGs and fluoroquinolones resistance genes by conventional polymerase chain reaction. The AGs resistant gene include acc(3)-IIa and acrD while fluoroquinolones resistant gene include gyrA, gyrB, and parC. Results: The result showed that acc(3)-IIa gene was detected in 16 (28.57%) while acrD gene was founded in 27 (48.21%) of UPEC. The presence of fluoroquinolone genes was 32 (57.1%), 33 (58.9%), and 37 (66.0%) for gyrA, gyrB, and parC genes, respectively. Conclusion: The conclusion can be summarized as non-extensively drug-resistant or pandrug-resistant of UPEC were recorded while high resistance to levofloxacin although is it begins to prescribed in the past 5 years while the resistance to amikacin still same as recorded in that past 5 years. The present research infers the finding of acc(3)-IIa and acrD gene as a major mechanism of AGs resistance among UPEC and the presence of mutate gene gyrA, gyrB, and parC for fluoroquinolone resistance leads to emergence resistant strains of UPEC.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004814
Title: Preparation and evaluation of proniosomal gel containing diphenhydramine HCl
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Alkafeel, Iraq
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Background: Niosomes are vascular systems used as safe and useful carriers for delivering both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These vesicles are considered as drug delivery systems, which are designed using non-ionic surfactants. Niosomes are designed by mixing of biocompatible and biodegradable non-ionic surfactant (usually spans and tweens) and cholesterol with dispersion in aqueous media. It is composed from a bilayer of non-ionic surfactant with two extents, one of them is hydrophilic and the other is hydrophobic. The purpose of the present study is to prepare diphenhydramine HCl (DPH HCl) proniosomal gel that is capable to convert into niosomal forms on hydration and delivering drug in extended time. Materials and Methods: Proniosomal loading DPH HCl formulas were prepared by coacervation method. Sorbitan esters (Span 20, Span 40, Span 60, and Span 80) and their ethoxylated derivatives (Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60, and Tween 80) were used in the preparation of proniosomal formulations. The prepared formulations were evaluated for physical manifestation, pH, shape, vesicles size, entrapment efficiency (EE), and in vitro drug release. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to examine the compatibility between medicine and other ingredients. Results: Results showed that the most prepared niosomal formulations were in the nanosize range and exhibited uniformity in the sizes of the vesicles with higher EE (68.6%–97.83%). FTIR studies indicated that there was no interaction between DPH HCl and other formulation materials of niosomal formulations. The prepared formulations containing Tween surfactants revealed higher release rates when compared with Span formulations. According to the results, niosomal formulation could be formulated for DPH HCl as transdermal delivery system. Conclusion: The above results indicated that DPH was well prepared as proniosomal gel with high EE using coacervation technique. Proniosomal formulation as a drug delivery system seems to be possible with DPH HCl and could act as alternative for delivering the drug with prolonged release at the site of action, in addition to avoid the side effects of drug by the other routes of drug administration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004815
Title: Molecular characterization of Rotavirus infection among children with acute gastroenteritis in Al-Najaf AL-Ashraf City, Iraq
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Education for Girls, Kufa University, Kufa, Iraq
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Background: Rotavirus A belongs to the Reoviridae family and it is a non-enveloped virus, consisting of 11 segments of double- stranded RNA and encoding six structural viral proteins (VPs) and six non-structural proteins (NSPs). It is classified into 35 G and 50 P types on the basis of VP7 (glycoprotein) and VP4 (protease sensitive) protein, respectively. RVA genotypes G1P, G2P, G3P, G4P, G9P, and G12P are commonly found worldwide. This study aimed to determine the genetic characterization of Rotavirus infection among children under 5 years suffering from gastroenteritis. Methodology: Two-hundred stool samples were collected from children under 5 years old whom admitted and hospitalized AL-Zahraa Teaching Hospital in AL-Najaf Al-Ashraf city during the period from February 2018 to February 2019. The primary detection of Rotavirus infection was carried out using rapid test, while real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used for genotypic detection of Rotavirus infection using structural gene (VP6 and VP7) and non-structural genes (NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, and NSP5). Results: The results of the primary detection of Rotavirus infection showed that of 200 gastroenteritis infections, only 68 (34%) samples gave positive results to Rotavirus infection. The results of RT-qPCR revealed that of 27 samples, only 21 (77.8%) samples gave positive results for the amplification of VP7, while all samples 100% gave positive results for the amplification of VP6, where the Ct value was a range between 10–39 and 10–38, respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that 44.4%, 33.3%, 100%, 51.9%, and 25.9% gave positive results for the amplification of NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, and NSP5, respectively. Conclusion: Rotavirus represented a main cause of diarrhea among children less than 5 years where vp6, vp7, and nsp3 genes were wide distribute among Rotavirus infection while nsp2 and nsp5 genes reported a low percentage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004816
Title: Effect of freezing on chemical composition and nutritional value in meat
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Jabir Ibn Hayyan Medical University, Najaf, Iraq.
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Background: Meat is a highly nutritious and important nutrient because it contains important nutrients to sustain and grow human body tissues such as proteins, fats, vitamins, and nutrients which must be preserved in several ways and from these methods is the process of freezing. Freezing is one of the best and most important methods used to conserve meat as a fast- spreading food because it preserves most of its natural properties and keeps its quality, inhibits the reproduction and growth of microorganisms, and lowers its water activity and microbial enzymatic activity frozen state and some undesirable changes in taste and color, which reduces the quality of frozen meat by converting its water content to ice crystals at −18°C or less. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of duration of storage in the freezing state on the chemical composition and microbial content of different types of meat. The four types of meat (cows, buffalo, sheep, and chicken) were purchased from the local market in the province of Baghdad. Materials and Methods: Meat was chopped into small cubes dimensions of 5 cm × 5 cm × 5 cm and placed in bags of polyethylene and marked with signals clear and stored at a temperature (−18°C) for a period of 1, 2, and 3.4 months. Chemical analysis (protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrate, and moisture) was conducted and estimated the number of total bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, and coliform bacteria every 30 days. Results: The results of the chemical analysis of meat showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in chemical composition between the frozen meat and fresh meat; the results show the occurrence of a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in each of the percentage of moisture, protein, and fat in all kinds of meats in this study, which were stored for 1, 2, 3, and 4 months on the temperature (−18°C) when compared with the fresh meat. While the results indicate that the freeze of meat for 1, 2, 3, and 4 months led to a significant percentage of ash in the four types of frozen meats when compared with the percentage of the ash in the fresh meat. The percentage of the ash takes to rise with prolonged storage at freezing on temperature (−18°C) where it recorded the highest values when continuing the storage of meat in freeze for 4 months. The effect of duration of storage in freeze on microbial content in the meat, the results indicate the occurrence of a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of total bacteria and psychrotrophic bacteria and coliform bacteria in frozen meat for 1, 2, and 3.4 months, as increasing the duration of storage in freeze there is a decline in number of bacteria compared to its number in fresh meat. Conclusion: Keeping the meat in a freezing state does not prevent the occurrence of certain changes in the chemical composition of the meat, and then freeze it works on inhibition of the growth and reproduction of bacteria that cause damage and spoiling meat.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004818
Title: Comparative study on efficacy of proprioceptive training versus technical training in prevention of recurrent ankle sprain among the professional football players
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. M. G. R. Educational and Research Institute, Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The objectives of the study are to compare the effectiveness of proprioceptive training versus technical training in prevention of recurrent ankle sprain among the professional football players. Background: In professional football players, the major cause was ankle sprain. The main purpose of this study was to find out the effectiveness and to compare the effectiveness of the proprioceptive training and the technical training immediately after the end of the treatment. After 3 months, the recurrent ankle sprain was prevented among the professional football players. Methodology: The study was an experimental and comparative study. A total of 30 football players were taken from Dr. M. G. R. Educational and Research Institute. The inclusion criteria were football players of between the age group of 18 and 35 years, previous history of at least one/more ankle sprain within a year with Grade I or Grade II, patient with below five score of visual analog scale (VAS). Players with recent fracture in any part of the body, any other pathology or weakness in lower limbs and any neurological disorders were excluded from the study. The outcome measure was measured using VAS, foot and ankle disability index (FADI) questionnaires. Procedure: The selected 30 samples were randomly divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Both groups were to do warm-up thoroughly by brisk walk on treadmill for 5 min and mild self-stretching for 5 min for ankle plantar flexors and dorsiflexors. Group A – received proprioceptive training on the wobble board bilaterally followed by unilaterally on the affected side 5 min in each session. Group B – received vertical jumps bilaterally and unilaterally for the affected leg 5 min in each session. Results: On comparing pre-test and post-test within Group A and Group B on VAS and FADI show highly significant difference mean values in both groups. However, the Group A is more effective than the Group B. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected at P ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: The proprioceptive training is more effective than the technical training in prevention of recurrent ankle sprain among professional football players.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004875
Title: Pharmacological review on diabetic neuropathy pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Pain is an unpleasant, sensory, emotional, and experience that affects the lifestyle of an individual. Pain includes normal tissue injury. Neuropathy pain or neuropathy is caused by nerve damage or disease affecting somatosensory nervous system. Neuropathy pain is often associated with pain caused due to normal painful stimuli (dysesthesia) or due to non-painful stimuli (allodynia). The pain may be continuous or episodic in nature. The episodic pain resembles to stabbing or electric shocks that are similar to the chronic pain state seen with tissue injury. It is tedious to differentiate the pain sensation. The general symptoms include the sharp pain due to pinprick, numbness, in area of neuropathy sensitive to chill, and burning sensation at feet. Many medications are available to manage and overcome neuropathy and its symptoms depending on the type of disease and the condition of health of the individual.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004876
Title: Understanding a pathology topic using the concept map – Survey report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Many articles described that concept mapping can be used as a useful tool for education, especially in science. It has been found that the primary grade children are capable of making the concept maps and can explain their work to others. Concept mapping plays a key role in the educational point of view. Concept maps improve classroom teaching and learning. Concept maps have been used by the authors of the recent BSCS (1990) blue version high school science text, biological science: A molecular approach, for both planning and writing the book. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 2nd year Bachelor of Dental Surgery Students of Saveetha Dental College. A comprehensive questionnaire was prepared which consisted of 14 questions and distributed through survey planet. A hundred responses were received and the collected data were calculated with statistics. Results and Discussion: Concept maps improve academic performance in problem-solving questions and students’ perception about the effectiveness of concept maps was overwhelmingly positive. For a 3% student, it takes more time as for some people concept map is a very difficult task, confusing, and needs more time. In our study, it shows 97% of students utilize less time to recollect all the points during exams. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the concept map can be a better option for understanding the pathology concept. It boosts the performance of the examinations in the pathology course. It is a powerful tool in learning and replaces long essays.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005283
Title: Effect of piperine on histopathological changes in cardiac tissue of experimentally induced diabetes rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The conventional drugs used are not able to cope to the multifactorial exhibit of type II diabetes. The administration of medicinal plants either alone or in addition to conventional drugs has been shown to address the causes of type II diabetes at various levels and improve the quality of diabetic patients. Aim: The present study was aimed to identify the effect of piperine on histopathological changes in cardiac tissue of experimentally induced diabetes rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain 150–180 days old with 180–120 g of body weight were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each: Group 1: Normal rats, Group 2: Type 2 diabetic rats, Group 3: Type 2 diabetic rats treated with piperine (40 mg/kg for orally for 30 days), and Group 4: Type 2 diabetic rats treated with metformin 50 mg/kg orally for 30 days. Histopathological studies were performed as per the standard method. Results: High-fat diet-induced type-2 diabetic animals showed an increased intestinal space. Piperine-treated diabetic animals improved the detrimental changes caused by high-fat diet induction and normalized the histoarchitecture to that of the normal control and metformin-treated animals. Conclusion: Our present finding indicates that piperine protects cardiac tissue from oxidative damage induced by high-fat diet and this might be due to antioxidant potential of piperine. Hence, it is concluded that piperine can be used as a one of the therapeutic drugs for the management of diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005284
Title: WHO pre-qualification of pharmaceutical product
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Pre-qualification program developed by the WHO is quite well suited to the requirements of developed countries. For instance, it determines particular conditions of stabilization/temperature and pediatric needs. These will not work in each country in the same way. Any enforcement bodies also have limited their expertise in the evaluation of pharmaceutical goods from these viewpoints. No other assessment framework takes into consideration the interests of developed countries in the manner that the WHO does. The WHO often tracks any changes (in terms of quality or production) that exist after the selection process of the drug. This is important if the consistent standard of the drugs provided to patients is to be assured. The WHO pre-qualification drugs mainly support societies needing medication for a key illness. This also helps authorities, quality assurance labs, suppliers, and supporters to fulfill their public health goals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005285
Title: Marfan syndrome – A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder associated with fibrillin-1 gene mutation. Mutations of transforming growth factor-beta receptor 1 and 2 genes are also identified in the recent years. Associated skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular features often lead to the diagnosis. In the case report, we describe a 27-year-old female patient who reported with the complaint of crowding of the upper and lower teeth. The orofacial features of dolichocephaly, long and narrow face, malar hypoplasia, mandibular retrognathia, high arched palate, and Class II malocclusion with cross bite led to the incidental diagnosis of the disorder. Further investigations showed systemic involvement of MFS using modified Ghent criteria. The patient was referred for further orthodontic treatment for the correction of malocclusion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005286
Title: Comparative evaluation of bacterial load on an electronic device at various time intervals following disinfection with two different disinfectants – A microbiological study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: In developing countries, hospital-acquired infection is a major concern as it is accounting to approximately to 25% of total health-care admissions. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the bacterial load on an electronic device at different time intervals following disinfection with two different disinfectants in the dental operatory. Materials and Methods: Hundred electronic devices from the dental hospital were randomly divided into two groups. Group A disinfected with 70% isopropyl alcohol and Group B disinfected with 2% glutaraldehyde solution. The devices were left in the dental operatory. Samples were collected from both the groups at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h to evaluate the bacterial load by culture method. Statistics Analysis: Repeated measures of analysis of variance were used with Bonferroni correction was used. Results: Mean colony-forming unit at 8th h was significantly higher than 0 h in Group A and Group B. (P ≤ 0.01). Group A showed significantly more bacterial colonies when compared to Group B at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h. Conclusion: About 2% glutaraldehyde showed better disinfection than 70% isopropyl alcohol at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Bacterial load was consistently increasing with time.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005287
Title: Knowledge and awareness about the transmission and management of dengue among general public
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dengue virus infection is increasingly recognized as one of the world’s emerging infectious diseases. Aim: This study aims to estimate the knowledge and awareness about the transmission and management of dengue among general public. Materials and Materials: A questionnaire has been prepared and distributed to 100 general public. There are no inclusion and exclusion criteria. The resulting data have been analyzed using statistical software. Results: There is a moderate knowledge and awareness about the transmission and management of dengue among general public. Conclusion: From this present survey, we concluded that the knowledge and awareness about the transmission and management of dengue among general public is moderate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005288
Title: Hypotonicity-induced human red blood cell membrane stabilization potential of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 160, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Annona muricata is a plant belonging to the family Annonaceae. It is known for its traditional medical uses. Herbal plants are used as herbal medicines which are used to cure many diseases. This study aims to prove the membrane stabilization potential of A. muricata. Materials and Methods: The plant A. muricata was purchased in a nursery in Chennai. It was allowed to grow for few days; the leaves were collected, washed, and crushed using mortar and pestle with acetone. Results: The aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata showed the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata. Conclusion: This study has analyzed the membrane stabilization potential of A. muricata.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005289
Title: Effectiveness of information booklet on knowledge and attitude of parents with adolescent girls regarding early marriage and early pregnancy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Child Health Nursing, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Early marriage is better known as child marriage it is defined as marriage carried below the age of 18 years, before the girl is physically, physiologically, and emotionally ready to shoulder the responsibilities of marriage and childbearing. The marriage of a young girl affects not only her life but also that of the children she will tolerate. Teenage pregnancy defined as before the age of 21, normally causes and consequences of teenage pregnancy. Aims: The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of information booklet on knowledge and attitude of parents with adolescent girls regarding early marriage and early pregnancy. Methods: An evaluative approach pre-experimental research design was conducted among 100 adolescent girl’s mother. Convenient sampling technique was used to select samples. Structured interview was used to collect demographic data, attitude, and knowledge questions. Pre-test was conducted to assess the knowledge of adolescent girl’s mother followed by administration of information booklet. After 7 days, post-test was conducted using same questionnaire. Results: The study finding revealed that after the administration of information booklet there was a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge scores among mothers of adolescent girls there by the hypothesis was accepted. There was a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge scores and the hypothesis was accepted. The calculated paired “t-test” value (t = 25.9091) was found to be statistically significant at P < 0.001. The Correlation value between attitude and knowledge is r = 0.662 which shows that there is positive correlation between them and was found to be statistically significant at P < 0.001. Conclusion: This clearly interferes that there is significantly improvement in the post-test level of knowledge regarding early marriage and early pregnancy among adolescent girl’s mother.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005290
Title: The effect of different desensitizing nanohydroxyapatite toothpastes on microhardness of dentin in extracted teeth
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a short exaggerated, painful response elicited when exposed dentin is subjected to certain stimuli. Desensitizing agents in the form of dentifrices are most widely used. Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HAP) is a recent advance in the management of DH. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of three different concentrations of hydroxyapatite toothpastes to conventional desensitizing toothpastes on the microhardness of dentin of extracted teeth. Materials and Methods: The in-vitro study was conducted on 50 extracted premolars which were randomly assigned to five groups, Group A – strontium chloride, Group B – 1% n-HA, Group C – 15% n-HA, Group D – 30% n-HA, and Group E (control) – 1000 ppm fluoride. Then, they were embedded in autopolymerizing polymethyl methacrylate acrylic resin blocks. The microhardness of specimens was measured using Vickers microhardness tester (Everone MH6) before the intervention. A 200 g load was applied for 10 seconds to three points per sample. Then, all the specimens were brushed with the respective toothpaste for 15 s each, twice daily for 15 days and their microhardness was measured again. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results: The microhardness parameter was significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in all the experimental Group A (strontium chloride), Group B (1% n-HAP), Group C (15% n-HAP), and Group D (30% n-HAP). In the control group (1000 ppm fluoride), the microhardness parameter did not show any significant difference. The post hoc (Bonferroni test) analysis shows more significant improvement in Group-C and -D than the other experimental groups Group-A and -B. Conclusion: Although all types of toothpastes were effective in increasing the microhardness of the extracted teeth 15% n-HA and 30% n-HA toothpastes are more effective in increasing the microhardness of extracted teeth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005291
Title: In vitro analysis of the antibacterial effect of cranberry extract on bacterial cultures obtained from cases of chronic periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon), a “Superfruit” (1) rich in bioactive flavonoids including flavonols, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, is known for its antioxidant property. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial effect of cranberry extract on periodontal pathogens cultured from plaque samples obtained from cases of untreated chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of cranberry ethanolic extract (5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml, and 20 mg/ml) and 0.2% chlorhexidine were determined by disc diffusion method. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained from untreated cases of chronic periodontitis using sterile paper points and inoculated in anaerobic brucella blood agar. Four wells of 5 mm diameters each were made on each plate, 50 µl of cranberry extract (5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml, and 20 mg/ml), 0.2% chlorhexidine, and distilled water were added into the respective wells of each plate. Plates were shifted to an anaerobic jar and incubated at 37°C for 24–48 h. The diameters of zones of inhibition were measured for all the wells using a Vernier caliper. Results: The zone of inhibition around chlorhexidine and cranberry extract was measured. Chlorhexidine showed a zone of inhibition of diameter 20 mm, whereas cranberry extract did not show any remarkable activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of cranberry did not have any antimicrobial effect on bacteria cultured from subgingival plaque obtained from patients with chronic periodontitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005292
Title: Career perception among dental students in a private dental college, Chennai, India – A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: These days the students have numerous career options, however, the choice of health-care profession overweighs the other professions due to altruistic values and service orientation. However, due to less dental job opportunities in India, and less recognition of dental qualification overseas, has created intense pressure on dental graduates. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the perception of dental students about their career in dental profession. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive survey. A customized questionnaire was administered to the study group of 320 undergraduate dental students regarding the reasons for choice of dental course, their perception regarding dentistry, potential barriers in dentistry, plans after undergraduation and satisfaction with current profession, income, and clinical practice. Results: Data were analyzed using counts and percentages. The study constituted of 27.5% males and 72.5% females participants. The most common reason for choosing dentistry was the inability to get medical seat. About 42.5% of the participants found the stream difficult. The participants planned to do postgraduation (62%) or work at private clinic (21%) after graduation. About 22.2% of the participants wanted to quit dentistry. Conclusion: Educational programs in colleges should be conducted to educate students on their career choice and employment opportunities so that they can choose the right career.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005293
Title: Comprehensive narrative review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Resorption is a condition, characterized by loss of dentin, cementum, or bone which is a consequence of either physiological or pathological processes. Root resorption is not only specific to trauma and chronic infections of pulp but also likely to occur as untoward sequelae after certain endodontic, periodontal, and orthodontic procedures. It may go unnoticed over many years as most cases of resorption are asymptomatic in nature. Therefore, early diagnosis of resorption is essential for limiting the harmful action of resorbing front in providing a successful management option to patients. This article mainly gives an insight on the etiopathogenesis, classifications, diagnosis, and management of various root resorptions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005297
Title: A comparative study to analyze the effect of pectoral major muscle versus pectoralis minor muscle stretching in improving lung expansion among young individuals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Breathing exercise is the common mode of exercise for the treatment of lung problems with all age group. However, the combined effect of stretching, along with breathing, can be beneficial. The purpose of the study is to compare the effect of pectoral major and minor muscle stretching along with breathing exercise in lung expansion with the young individual. Materials and Methods: A prospective experimental comparative study, 30 subjects age between 18 and 25 years, was randomized 15 subjects each into Group A and Group B. The subjects in Group A and Group B received the breathing exercise training and followed by baseline peak flow meter reading taken as an outcome measure; then, Group A randomly given pectoralis major stretching and Group B received pectoralis minor stretching for thrice a week for a total duration of 6 weeks. Results: After analyzing the paired t test result of the study we could find that there is a significant difference between the groups. Comparative analysis of pre-intervention means shown that there is no statistically significant difference between the groups. Comparative analysis of post-intervention mean shown that there is a statistically significant difference in means of chest expansion, FEV1, and peak expiratory flow rate. Conclusion: It is concluded that 6 weeks of comparative stretching for pectoralis major and minor muscle showed significant improvement in chest expansion and peak expiratory flow rate, in that particularly the pectoralis minor muscle showed the greater change in terms of lung expansion, so, therefore, the pectoralis minor stretching should be added as the adjunct to chest physiotherapy

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005298
Title: Periodontal disease status in oral cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy – clinical and microbiological evaluation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients undergoing radiotherapy in various cancer institutes within Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials And Methods: A total convenience sample of 30 adults aged between 32 and 60 years were selected, out of which 15 adults were diagnosed with oral cancer and 15 age and sex matched controls. Microbiological evaluation was done by colony count evaluation with the respective patient’s saliva under Macconkey Agar and Nutrient Agar. Result: The clinical attachement loss showed a significant increase (P= <.001) with group. But probing depth does not show a significant difference in between group A and B as significance level was 0.252. Similarly, OHI-S value also did not show a significant difference (P=0.74). The microbiological evaluation showed that the S.Mutans did not show a significant change (P =0.904). But Enteroccoci bacteria showed a significant increase of <0.0001 with an increase in the mean value between two groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005299
Title: Awareness of the impact of diet to control polycystic ovary syndrome among women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Technical and Medical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder that occurs in women between the age group of 18 and 44 years. It is characterized by many small fluid-filled sacs that are grown inside the ovaries. Diet and lifestyle changes are the primary treatment for women with PCOS, yet the optimal diet has not yet been determined. Reduction in insulin resistance has been suggested as the principal goal of PCOS treatment. The consumption of low glycemic carbohydrate food, high protein in meals, Vitamin D supplements, and micronutrients has beneficial effect on the women with PCOS. The aim of the study is to create awareness of the role of diet that prevents and controls polycystic ovary syndrome among women. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 100 women through an online method and the questions were prepared based on the diet that prevents and controls polycystic ovary syndrome. This was distributed through online SurveyPlanet. Data were collected and the results were analyzed. Results: The survey shows that 61.8% of women had an awareness of PCOS and 78.8% thought that PCOS can be controlled and preventing by natural food habits and 72.7% thought that diet plays a major role in PCOS, 60% thought that milk prevent PCOS, 69.1% thought that caffeine was bad for PCOS, 70.9% of them thought that PCOS can be caused by lifestyle changes. Conclusion: The role of diet plays an important role in controlling PCOS. Hence, by achieving and maintaining a healthy weight and eating healthy fats, lean proteins, and moderate amounts of low glycemic index, carbohydrates can help a person to manage PCOS. Women suffering from PCOS symptoms associated with menstrual irregularities or dysfunction and androgen excess, which significantly impacts their quality of life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005300
Title: Awareness of telemedicine among college students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Telemedicine is the remote delivery of health-care services over the telecommunications infrastructure such as health evaluations or consultations. Aim: Awareness of telemedicine among college students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared using survey planet based on the awareness of telemedicine among college students. Results and Discussion: 74.2% of participants agreed that telemedicine is remote diagnosis and treatment planning of patients. About 69.7% of the participants consider all three options as examples of telemedicine. Conclusion: The college students among whom the survey was distributed are only slightly aware of telemedicine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005301
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the use of resin cements for indirect restoration among general dentist and specialist – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Resin cements are also known as bonding cements. They adhere to both the internal surface of the restoration and the tooth structure. The adhesion mechanism of earlier resin cements was mostly micromechanical, but newer cements bond chemically to the tooth structure and restoration as well. The resin cements are more retentive than conventional luting cements, due to their high bond strengths to the tooth structure, but they require multiple steps, are difficult to clean up, and are high technique sensitive cements. No bonding agents are required for self-adhesive resin cements and simplify the cementation procedure. An understanding of cement performance is needed before selecting a material to use in a particular situation. Methodology: A questionnaire was designed on the use of resin cements for indirect restoration among general dentist and specialist, and a cross-sectional survey was carried out among the general dentist and specialist. The sample size is 220 participants. Fifteen close-ended questions were asked. Conclusion: Resin cement provide bonding to the tooth structure, and while self-adhesive cements offer extraordinary convenience, they should not be considered a substitute for traditional bonding cements in all situations. Just as self-luting cements have evolved into stronger dental materials that are -easier to use and can bond to tooth structure as well as the restorative material.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005302
Title: Antimicrobial activity of root canal irrigants against biofilm-forming bacteria
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to check the antimicrobial activity of the green tea extract and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), at different time intervals against a single species biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis. Introduction: Biofilm-forming microorganisms such as E. faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans are the primary etiological agents responsible for the development of necrotic pulp, periapical pathosis, and post-treatment disease following the root canal treatment. The increasing resistance of biofilm-forming bacteria against different antimicrobial compounds is a matter of concern. As these microorganisms responsible for biofilm-associated periapical infection cannot be eliminated by a host defense mechanism, it is necessary to treat them by chemical and mechanical debridement procedures which include irrigation of root canal with chemical and other alternative agents. Materials and Methods: The study was done using 12 freshly extracted single-rooted human premolars with intact tooth structure. These blocks of premolars were sterilized by autoclaving at 121°C for 20 min. The blocks are taken in microcentrifuge tubes, for which E. faecalis culture suspension is added. The blocks are contaminated for 1 week. Then, the blocks were washed with saline and then placed in test tubes filled with (NaOCl, 5.25%) and different concentrations of green tea extract (250 , 500, and 1000 ug ml). The blocks were sealed above and incubated at 37°C. After 5 days, the medicament was removed, and microbial growth has assessed and given CFU/ml. Results: The growth of the organism was checked by counting the colony forming units (CFU)The Green tea extract at 250 μg/ml showed 180 CFU/ml. At 1000 μg/ml concentration of the extract, there was no growth observed. With NaOCl, which was used as the standard,no growth was observed. Conclusion: The green tea extracts have shown considerable antibacterial activity against selected species biofilm when compared to NaOCl. Green tea extract can be used as an endodontic irrigant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005303
Title: Awareness of detox diet among college students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Detoxification or “detox” diets are short-term interventions designed to eliminate toxins from the body, promote health, and assist with weight loss. A typical detox diet involves a period of fasting, followed by a strict diet of fruit, vegetables, fruit juices, and water. Material and Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were designed based on the awareness of detox diet among college students. The questionnaire was distributed through online SurveyPlanet link, the study population included 100 college students. Results: 65% of the participants were aware of detox diet, 34% of the participants has taken a detox diet, 91% of the participants agreed that eating healthy aids in removing toxins, 78% of the participants accepted that detox diet helps to reduce weight, 27% of the participants responded that detox diet does not have side effects, 81% of the participants responded that detox diet helps in reducing stress levels. Conclusion: Detox diets are popular dieting strategies that claim to facilitate toxin elimination and weight loss, thereby promoting health and well-being. More awareness may be created on detox diet among college students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005304
Title: Understanding on recall act by comparison study between China and Brazil
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Ooty, Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India
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Recall occurs as a consequence of the safety concerns over a manufacturing defect in a product that may harm its user. The pharmaceutical products are suspected of being potentially harmful to users due to their defective quality, safety, or efficacy, they may be subjected to a recall. A recall is defined as the process of recovering or removing a pharmaceutical product from the distribution chain because of defects in the product, complaints of serious adverse reactions to the product or concern that the product is or may be counterfeit. Once the product is successfully placed in the market which after a period of time was found to pose risk to human health which is required to be recalled from the market to protect the health of the public, wherein the recall of the product consists of well-established written procedures and systems to record, access, investigate, and review the potential quality defects to safe guard the public health from the low quality or damaged products. The recall might be initiated by the manufacturer, wholesale dealer license holder. There should assessment consist of check on the effectiveness of the recall and an investigation of the reason for the recall as well as the remedial action taken to prevent a recurrence of the problem. The objective of the study is to assist in the identification of the nature of recall action and classification based on potential risk, the deficiency poses to patient/consumers and to comprehend the regulatory authority, enforcement, and inspection tangled to control the recall of the product.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005305
Title: Awareness of protocol for needle stick injury among dental students in Tamil Nadu
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: A needlestick injury is a percutaneous piercing wound typically set by a needlepoint, and sharp instruments or objects, commonly encountered by people handling needles in the medical setting. Such injuries are an occupational hazard in the medical community. Objective: The aim of our study is to assess and create awareness for the protocol for needlestick injury among dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire of 20 questions were asked through an online survey to dental students across Tamil Nadu. The questions assessed the knowledge and awareness about needlestick injury and its management. The collected data were statistically analyzed. Result: One hundred students participated in total. The age group was between 18 and 25 years. Females (69.4%) had more needlestick injuries than males (30.6%). About 66.7% of students said that there are no adequate training and awareness in the prevention/treatment of needlestick injuries. Nurses (87.5%) have more chances/exposure to needlestick injuries than physicians (12.5%). Conclusion: From the result obtained, it is concluded that more awareness is required to prevent needlestick injuries among dental students among Tamil Nadu.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005306
Title: Antibacterial effect of pomegranate peel extract against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans – In vitro study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Saveetha University, Chennai, India
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Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the antibacterial effect of pomegranate (PG) peel extract against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The bacterial cultures of E. faecalis and C. albicans were procured from the Microbiology Lab, Saveetha Dental College. The lyophilized cultures were rejuvenated using Nutrient Broth and 24 h culture broth was used for further studies. The assay is carried out by a well diffusion method. Nutrient agar (NA) was used to study antibacterial activity. The respective Petri dishes possessing NA were spread with specific cultures (E. faecalis and C. albicans) using a swab and wells were bored in each plate at the diameter of 6 mm each. The plates with the bacterial cultures were incubated at 37°C. Results: Results of the inhibition zone values for PG peel extract and sodium hypochlorite against E. faecalis and C. albicans are presented. The pomegranate peel extract and sodium hypochlorite showed high antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and C. albicans. Conclusion: In the present study, the extract of PG peel was screened for their antibacterial potential against E. faecalis and C. albicans. The antibacterial activity of PG peel extract on E. faecalis and C. albicans was stronger than sodium hypochlorite. These extracts can be used for endodontic irrigation since its effective against E. faecalis and C. albicans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00005307
Title: Efficacy of Stomatopod Chitosan and its Biosynthesis Silver Nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: In this article, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were extracted from exoskeletons of crustaceans by include three methods, namely, depolarization, bleaching, and demineralization. This method is simple, rapid, non-toxic, and sustainable and substitutes for the conventional physical methods. The study aims to find out the antibacterial activities and characterization of AgNPs. Materials and Methods: The biosynthesized AgNPs are analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. The assessment of antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, k. pneumonia, s. typhinium, b. subtilis and s.aureus. Results: Photoreduction of silver ions was analyzed by UV–visible spectra that showed a broad absorption band at 426 nm. Phytomolecules present in stomatopod extract responsible for bioreduction and capping of NPs were evident from FT-IR studies. Chitin NPs (CNPs) had more thermal stability than starter chitin in TGA. Particles size was analyzed by TEM which is ranged from 27 nm with spherical morphology. All the experimental data were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Student’s t-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Conclusions: The biosynthesis AgNPs exhibited significant antimicrobial activity toward human microbial agent. The CNP/AgNP exhibited significant increase in antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of 2% chitosan against Enterococcus faecalis was found to be significantly superior when compared to that of 2% chlorhexidine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005308
Title: Dentinal cleanliness following gutta-percha removal using xylene and D-limonene: A digital photography and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Endodontic retreatment is done in cases where primary endodontic therapy fails due to the presence of intra- and extra-radicular infections. Xylene is highly efficient in removal of obturating material. However, its toxicity has pawed a way to find alternatives like D-limonene. Aim: This study aims to compare the efficacy of xylene and D-limonene in removal of gutta-percha in round and straight canals using digital photography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Methodology: Forty single-rooted teeth with round and straight canals were selected. Root canals were cleaned and shaped till apical size#40. Canals were obturated using lateral condensation technique. After obturation, samples were divided into four groups and gutta-percha was removed using rotary instruments. In Group 1 (n = 10), the canals remain unfilled. In Group 2 (n = 10), gutta-percha removed without solvents. In Group 3 (n = 10), gutta- percha removed with xylene. In Group 4 (n = 10), gutta-percha removed with D-limonene. After gutta-percha removal, canals were irrigated, teeth longitudinally sectioned analyzed using digital photography after which eight teeth were evaluated using SEM with EDX analysis. Statistical analysis was done using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test. Results: SEM analysis showed highest open dentinal tubules in Group 1, followed by Group 3, Group 4, and Group 2. EDX analysis showed least zinc percentage in Group 3, Group 4, and Group 2, whereas in Group 1, it was found to be zero. Less surface was covered by root filling remnants in Group 2 (without solvents), Group 3 (xylene), and Group 4 (D-limonene). Fewer remnants were observed in the control group as compared to all the other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Although xylene was found to be an effective solvent when compared with D-limonene, its hazardous effects are indisputable. However, xylene helped in removing smear layer, thereby allowing irrigants to flow into dentinal tubules and preventing secondary infection.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005309
Title: Effectiveness of diversional therapy on patients who undergo first time surgery and previous experience in surgery
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Patients anticipating surgeries regularly experience huge uneasiness. Such uneasiness may bring about negative physiological signs, slower wound healing, and increased risk of infection and may complicate the induction of anesthesia and obstruct post-operative recuperation. To reduce patient anxiety, sedatives and anti-anxiety drugs are regularly administered before surgery. Accordingly, expanding consideration is being paid to an assortment of non-pharmacological intercessions for decrease of pre-operative nervousness, for example, diversional therapy such as reading books, meditation, and yoga. Aims: The study aims to assess the effectiveness of diversional therapy on patients who undergo 1st time surgery and previous experience in surgery. Materials and Methods: A quantitative research design was adopted with non-probability convenience sampling technique to select 100 patients undergoing surgery at Saveetha Medical College and Hospitals. Pre-test and post- test were done using beck inventory anxiety scale, demographic variables were collected by structured questionnaire and the diversional therapy was performed for 1 h twice a day for 7 days before surgery. The data were collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of descriptive and inferential statistics. In addition, Wilcoxon rank-sum test was performed to assess the effectiveness of the study. Results: The post-test finding of the study reveals that 47% had normal anxiety, 32% had mild anxiety, 10% had moderate anxiety, and 11% had severe anxiety among the surgery patients. Conclusion: The patient’s undergone 1st time surgery had decreased anxiety of about 50% after implementing diversional therapy and about 80% the previous experience surgery patients get anxiety level decreased after diversional therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005310
Title: Early detection of dental caries – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The shift in paradigm to minimally invasive dentistry has ascertained a preventive approach for the management of dental caries, demanding caries risk assessment, and its early detection. The most common methods for caries detection are visual and radiographic. The other non-invasive techniques for early caries detection, developed and investigated, are quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), DIAGNOdent, fiber-optic transillumination (FOTI), digital FOTI, tuned-aperture computed tomography, and electrical conductance. The diagnosis of early caries might be more accurately achieved with the combination of visual and other methods such as electrical conductance and QLF.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005311
Title: Patient satisfaction from dental services provided by dental college and hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: The feedback on the satisfaction of patients with dental care provided by dental college and hospitals is essential for constant improvement of the service delivery process and outcome. The main objective of this study was to determine the level of satisfaction regarding the quality of dental care provided among patients at Dental Departments of Private Dental College and Hospital. Materials and Methods: Self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to outpatients reporting to a dental hospital for treatment. This questionnaire consisted of 18 items that estimated the quality of dental services provided by dental college and hospital. Results: Consecutive samples of 200 patients were enrolled in this study. They responded positively that majority, 134 (67%), of dental staff did not talk with each other while providing dental treatment; almost, 130 (65%), of dentists explained the procedure before starting the dental treatment; most, 124 (62%), of dentists did not criticize the oral health condition or compare it with others; overall, 123 (61.5%), of dentists were friendly with the patients; 122 (61%), of dentists, advised the dental treatment; and 121 (60.5%), of dentists, did not ask any personal questions during offering care. Overall, 118 (59%) were given complete dental treatment; 107 (53.5%) accepted that working hours of the college were suitable; 106 (53%) agree that the dental instruments used were sterilized, and 105 (52.5%) of them agreed that thorough dental examination was done. Conclusion: This survey provided a means of assessing the satisfaction of the patients currently receiving treatment at the dental college. The results could facilitate focusing on patient complaints and attending to the concerns of dissatisfied patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005312
Title: Software as a medical device: Need of the hour
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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The rapid increase in smartphone use in the 21st century led to the introduction of many stand-alone health and medical devices. “Software intended to be used for one or more medical purposes without being part of a hardware medical device is referred as software as a medical device.” The design and regulatory science of software as a medical device (SaMD) depend on the early stages of software development that helps to assign them to a different category of medical devices. Globally, there are tremendous technological innovations available that offered the opportunity to pursue a more efficient diagnosis and therapeutic solution compared to conventional approaches. The major benefits include tracking and altering the occurrence of a disease and improved health outcomes through rapid feedback, resulting in faster innovation. Apart from the advantages, there are some technological challenges faced by SaMD such as maintaining the confidentiality, availability, and integrity of patient data. The main objective is to provide the regulatory outline on the SaMD’s for safe and effective use by patients. The regulatory framework of both USFDA and EMA for software has been well structured when compared to other regulatory agencies. However, more focus needs to be paid to pre-market criteria and the road to regulatory approval. The present study highlights the regulatory requirements for registering the SaMD in USA and European countries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005313
Title: The fabrication of a bite registration wax using easily available waxes – Art wax
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics and Implant Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to fabricate a cost-effective wax for the main purpose of bite registration. Objective: The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) To prepare a bite registration wax. (2) To check the flow of the prepared wax. (3) To check the melting point of the prepared wax. Materials and Methods: In this study, a bite registration wax was prepared using pure paraffin and beeswax. Multiple parameters such as the flow, melting point, brittleness, and the dimensional stability were measured. Results: The flow of the created wax (ART wax) was slightly more than paraffin but substantially less than beeswax. The melting point was comparable to the commonly available waxes. The dimensional change was minimal after the bite registration record. Conclusion: This study suggests that a cost-effective bite registration wax can be fabricated using readily available waxes which lead to minimal or dimensionally stable wax for the use in bite registration records of the patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00005314
Title: A case report on mycophenolate mofetil-induced acute hepatitis in patient diagnosed with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and chronic calcific pancreatitis
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare disease condition caused by the formation of the autoantibodies against patient’s own erythrocytes. Clinical signs to identify the disease condition include generalized weakness, yellowish discoloration of skin, and tachycardia, and it is diagnosed by clinical laboratory evidence on direct antiglobulin test, indirect bilirubinemia, and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. AIHA is treated with corticosteroids as first-line therapy, splenectomy, or immunosuppressants as second-line therapy and azathioprine mycophenolate (Mycophenolate mofetil [MMF]) as third- line therapy. MMF is a pro-drug converted to mycophenolic acid in the human body which restrains the proliferation of both T and B lymphocytes by selective inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase for de novo guanine pathway for RNA and DNA synthesis. The prominent adverse drug reactions for MMF are leukopenia, fever, abdominal pain, anemia, dyspnea, and back pain. The elevation of serum hepatic transaminases due to MMF was rarely reported in the literature. There are few cases reports on MMF-induced hepatic abnormalities when it was used in organ transplantation patients. However, till date, there are no reports on MMF-induced hepatitis when it is given for AIHA. Here, we have presented a case of 36-year-old patient with MMF-induced acute hepatitis, who was previously diagnosed with AIHA and chronic calcific pancreatitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005316
Title: Comparative study of chamomile tea and lavender oil on sleep-deprived individuals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Sleep disturbances are the change in sleeping pattern or habits that can negatively affect health. Factors that cause problem during sleep or disturbances include physical disturbances such as headaches, arthritis, and depression. Sleep disturbance can be cured by various methods such as sleeping pills, melatonin supplements, and any therapy if the person is undergoing. Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to humankind which contains terpenoids and flavonoids. Lavender oil which is extracted from the flower has various benefits such as relief from depression, toothaches, nausea, skin irritation, hair loss, and cancer and also used as a sedative or sleep enhancer. Aim: This study aims to know the effect of chamomile tea and lavender oil on sleep-deprived individuals. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted among 30 people having sleep deprivation. They were divided into two groups. The duration of the study was 30 days. Group 1 was asked to consume chamomile tea twice a day and Group 2 was given aromatherapy by lavender essential oil or also applied on palms and sole of the feet every night. Results and Discussion: About 57% of individuals fell asleep after aromatherapy with lavender oil and 50% of individuals fell asleep after consuming chamomile tea. Results also show that lavender oil shows a better effect on increasing the number of sleeping hours when compared to chamomile tea. About 16% of individuals woke up once, 10% of individuals woke up twice, and 1% of individuals woke up thrice during sleep after aromatherapy. About 11% of individuals woke up once, 7% of individuals woke up twice, and 3% of individuals woke up thrice during sleep on consuming chamomile tea. Conclusion: As per the study, sleep-deprived individuals under aromatherapy with lavender oil shown better improvement in sleep than chamomile tea.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00005317
Title: Chromatographic analysis of water-soluble vitamins in food: Review
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Indonesia.
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Water-soluble vitamins consist of vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, nicotinamide, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid, and cyanocobalamin. This vitamin plays an important role in the body metabolism of energy. The intake of it is continuously necessary for normal body function. Water-soluble vitamins have different structure complexity, stability, chemical, and physical properties. Water-soluble vitamin shows different stability to light, pH, air, and heat, even some of them require stabilizers. Therefore, the method to determination water-soluble vitamins is required in various matrix samples. Analysis of water-soluble vitamins in various types of samples requires preparation techniques to obtain analyte contained in the sample matrix. This review discusses sample preparation techniques, including protein precipitation, acid hydrolysis, enzyme hydrolysis, solid-phase extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Furthermore, detection techniques using ultraviolet, fluorescence, diode array, and mass spectrometry detector, separation techniques, and simultaneous analysis methods by liquid chromatography for water-soluble vitamins have been discussed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005318
Title: A highly selective and sensitive bioanalytical technique for the determination of plazomicin in plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: An attempt has been made to develop and validate a simple, highly sensitive, and specific liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for the estimation of plazomicin (PM) in pharmaceutical and biological samples. Objectives: PM is a broad-spectrum synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic with distinguished activity against multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and is being established by Achaogen, Inc. as a first line treatment for resistant bacteria pathogens. The protein precipitation technique was employed for extracting the PM and sisomicin (SM) used as an internal standard. Results: The chromatographic analysis was achieved using the Limitlessness Lab Poroshell 120 EC-C18 2.1 mm × 50 mm (1.9 µm) with isocratic elution through mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate solution (pH 3.5; 20 mM):methanol:acetonitrile (20:20:60,% v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. The mass fragments of PM and SM were obtained with m/z 593.3–490.2 and 448.5–289.1, respectively, in positive mode MS. The method was subsequently validated over the concentration range of 1.00–14.00 pg/ ml with a regression coefficient (r2) of 0.9998. Conclusion: The method was validated with the possible quality control parameters as per bioanalytical method validation. This method can be successfully applied for the estimation of PM in pharmaceutical and biological samples.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00005319
Title: Semi-quantitative analysis of nucleic acids on agarose gels with choice of beverages as electrophoretic buffer
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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Introduction: The pH of beverages is known to be low and has, therefore, been involved in the increasing acidity incidence. Aim: In this study, we report on an efficient approach for rapid analysis of nucleic acid characterization by varying the cost- effective running buffers for agarose gel electrophoresis. Materials and Methods: Commercial DNA is used in electrophoretic analysis using a variety of beverages by optimizing its pH value. Results: Royal Stag drink has revealed that concentration, time, and voltage have little effect on nucleic acid research, although Peter Scot has reported high concentration and sensitivity in nucleic acid characterization. Conclusion: This approach has been simple, easy, and cost effective than using TAE or TBE as running buffers in electrophoresis of the agarose gel.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005320
Title: The influence of systemic diseases in prosthodontics treatment – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics and Implant Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Oral and general health have an integral relationship which has been recognized for the past two decades. The majority of the geriatric population are prone to various systemic diseases. A prosthodontist can play an important role in identifying and accordingly approaching the systemic disease systematically. Various treatment modifications can be done from the prosthodontics point of view for the patient’s optimal treatment. Most commonly affecting systemic diseases prevalent in the Indian population are hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, and osteoporosis. Patients with these conditions are seen very frequently in the dental practice. However, the majority of the practitioners are not aware of the treatment protocols to be followed in such cases. This review aims at amplifying the knowledge of prosthodontic care for the patients with various systemic disorders and thus providing the patient with the best outcome for the treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005321
Title: Efficacy of aspirin in cardiovascular system – A systemic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aspirin is a one size fits all drugs that have been used for a plethora of indications ranging from your day-to-day fever to osteoarthritis. This has been considered a magic drug by most of the researchers due to its multiailment curing properties. Aspirin causes several different effects in the body, mainly the reduction of inflammation, analgesia (relief of pain), the prevention of clotting, and the reduction of fever. Much of this is believed to be due to decreased production of prostaglandins (PGs) and TXA2. Aspirin’s ability to suppress the production of PGs and thromboxane is due to its irreversible inactivation of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. COX is required for PG and thromboxane synthesis. Aspirin acts as an acetylating agent where an acetyl group is covalently attached to a serine residue in the active site of the COX enzyme. This makes aspirin different from other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as diclofenac and ibuprofen), which are reversible inhibitors. However, still, concerns remain about its safety as it is also related with many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events such as intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, continued bleeding, and some types of cancers like colorectal cancer in spite of its role in treating the same. Hence, this study aims at stating the drug’s efficacy and its various beneficial and harmful effects if any, that is, posed by the drug.