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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004852
Title: Estimation of salivary pH and flow rate in menstruating and menopausal women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Saliva being the most available and non-invasive biofluid of the human body, permanently “bathes” the oral cavity, and is trying to cope with an ever-changing milieu. Oral cavity acts as a mirror of our body’s health; thus, it acts as a diagnostic window in both healthy and diseased conditions. The different phases in women’s life are menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause, the hormone fluctuations during these phases act as a significant factor which attributes in altering the specific salivary proteins, minerals, lipids, or some combination of these. This research studies the effects of menopause on saliva and dental health. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the salivary flow rate and pH in normal menstruating women and in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Saliva sample was collected using spitting method from 25 menstruating and 25 menopausal women. The pH of the saliva was analyzed using a pH paper. Graduated centrifuge tube was used to measure the unstimulated salivary flow rate. Results: There is a marked decrease in salivary pH and flow rate in postmenopausal women. Conclusion: There is a noticeable decrease in salivary pH and flow rate in postmenopausal women which, in turn, can lead to dental problems. This study has shown the importance of preventive dentistry with aging in females.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004851
Title: Scenario of spurious and substandard drugs in India
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, Jagadguru Sri Shivrathreeshwara Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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India has a bigger problem of spurious and substandard drugs, which result in life-threatening issues, financial loss of consumer and manufacturer, and loss in trust on health system fake, and unacceptable medications are a consuming issue. It is inadmissible in light of the fact that the transformation of credible medication into unsatisfactory medication may cause assortment of unfavorable impacts from mild (allergic responses, weariness, and gastrointestinal surprise) to direct (disarray, spasms, dermatitis, and laziness) and to severe (cerebral edema, unconsciousness, intracerebral drain, and harming) perilous responses. Along these lines, comprehension of the considerable number of methods for misleading and substitution is important to correct this illicit demonstration and expanding shoppers' well-being. India is the biggest producer of nonexclusive medications and likely 12–25% of the prescriptions provided all around are tainted, unsatisfactory, and fake. Be that as it may, at present, countrywide review is lead for misleading medications by focal medication standard control association for the sake of Directorate general of Health administration, Ministry of Health and Family welfare, legislature of India. India has made some preventive strides in the nation to battle against the low quality of administrative association drugs for ensuring and advancing the general well-being, late examinations on false medications, guidelines for making a move on tests of medications pronounced deceptive or not of standard quality in the light of upgraded punishments under the medications and beautifying agents (revision) act and future investigation plan.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004850
Title: Free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory potential of Acalypha indica mediated selenium nanoparticles
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The main aim of the research is to find the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties of Acalypha indica mediated selenium nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: The plant extract was collected and dried up and made powdered and mixed with water which is centrifuged to synthesize the selenium nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were assessed for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties by albumin denaturation assay and α, α-diphenyl-β- picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay. Results and Discussion: From the synthesized selenium nanoparticles, both the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities showed a good percentage of inhibition. Conclusion: The selenium nanoparticles may provide a great implication in future studies for its potential activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004849
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and attitude on dental post-operative complications in diabetes among general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the stud was to study the knowledge, awareness, and attitude on dental post-operative complications in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted with 100 people within age groups of 19–45 years. The questionnaire was circulated through the survey planet. It contains about 11 questions consisting of various complications that would arise postoperatively in dental treatment from uncontrolled diabetes in 100 people, and the knowledge and awareness was assessed. Results were collected and analyzed by statistics. Results: It was observed clearly that people were aware of diabetes but not about their after effects. They were clear about some basic consequences but not about the complications which occur due to it. Nearly half of the population were not aware of the complications. Conclusion: It was noted that the knowledge about diabetes and its common effect are known to people, whereas post-surgical complications are less known to people and more awareness is needed for the betterment of the people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004795
Title: Dermatoglyphic study using recent technique in hypertensive individuals of both sexes in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, A.C.S Medical College and Hospital, Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute (Deemed to be University), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim and Objective: The aim of the present study is to compare the dermatoglyphic patterns between normal and hypertensive individual using fingerprint detector instrument in both male and female patients. Materials and Methods: Persona fingerprint reader and its software were used for the study. Twenty-five normal and 25 hypertensive male individuals were selected. Twenty-five normal and 25 hypertensive female individuals were selected. Ten fingers of every individual were recorded and compared. The various patterns were compared and analyzed. Results: In normal males, central pocket loop, plain arch, and tented arch were statistically significant. In normal females, the loop was statistically significant. In hypertensive males plain arch, true whorl was statistically significant; in hypertensive females, tented arch was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: Noninvasive diagnostic tools to rule out certain diseases using dermatoglyphics are on the increase. The fingerprint reader used in the present study is non-expensive and non-time consumable. Like glucometer and sphygmomanometer, the fingerprint reader can be used as screening test in normal clinical practice. This study will alarm the society about the forthcoming hypertension disease in future. Physician can alert the public of future procurement of disease and prevent its early onset.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004797
Title: Role of tissue-engineered stem cells in regenerative endodontics – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of this study was to review the role of tissue-engineered stem cells in the field of regenerative endodontics and to understand the significance of stem cells in regeneration of dental pulp. Stem cells are primitive cells that can regenerate and differentiate into any type of cell or tissue, wherein they are inoculated. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are the cells that reside in the cell-rich zone of the dental pulp. They can be engineered and contain the potential to become dental pulp. Thereby, they can be used for revitalizing any non-vital tooth.By the process of tissue engineering, the DPSCs can be used in regeneration. Stem cells have the potential to renew themselves for long periods through cell division and under certain physiologic conditions such that they can be induced to become cells with special functions. The induced cells mimic the native cells both morphologically and functionally. In general, stem cells are multipotent cells that play a key role in tissue development and regeneration. They specifically replace the odontoblastic cells that have undergone necrosis due to cariogenesis and other challenges. Stem cells are also secreted factors that provide nutrition and oxygen to the dental pulp cells, thereby enhancing pulp vascularization and improving the vitality of pulpal tissues.Regenerative endodontic procedures are designed to replace the damaged structures. The dental pulp is primarily made of ectomesenchymal components, containing neural crest-derived cells, which displays plasticity and multipotential capabilities. The dental pulp is a remarkable site of stem cells. Collecting stem cells from dental pulp are a non-invasive practice that can save tooth and help in regeneration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004798
Title: Awareness of the hazards of tobacco usage and assessment of nicotine dependence among outpatient population of a dental college in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to understand and analyze the awareness of the hazards of tobacco usage and assessment of nicotine dependence among the outpatient population of a dental college. Background: The use of tobacco and tobacco products has increased drastically in recent decade. People consume tobacco without realizing its hazards, and the main reason for the addiction is due to nicotine, which is the main chemical content present in tobacco. Hence, it becomes necessary to make people aware of the hazardous nature of using tobacco products. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by selecting 100 patients from the outpatient population of a dental college. The participants were given a questionnaire containing 13 questions and the nicotine dependency level was analyzed using the Fagerstrom scale; the level of awareness was analyzed through statistical analysis. Results: The study revealed that 95% of participants were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and chewing tobacco and only 5% were unaware of it. Nicotine dependency levels revealed that 8% of the participants had a very high level of nicotine dependence. Conclusion: From the research, it was estimated that almost more than half of the population who consume tobacco and smoke tobacco were aware that it is hazardous and causes cancer. However, proper awareness and the intensity of hazardous must be stressed such that consumers do not become negligent and consume it despite knowing the hazards.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004799
Title: Systematic review on the physiological effects of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Stem cells are becoming one of the vital sources of all tissue engineering procedures in recent days. This is mainly due to the differentiation potential of these cells. Pluripotent adult stem cells are rare and generally small in number, but they can be found in umbilical cord following the birth of a fetus, blood, and adipose tissues. Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells, which have been used in treating several conditions including liver cirrhosis, chronic limb ischemia, and final stage of heart failure. Stem cells isolated from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are a type of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), widely used for various purposes. They are also investigated for regenerative treatment. They are isolated from the remains of dental pulp tissues of physiologically shedding human deciduous teeth. Thus, these types of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth are easy to access and are a purely non-invasive procedure. SHEDs are mesenchymal stem cells that are multipoint in nature; however, they possess distinct properties when compared to other mesenchymal cells. These types of stem cells exhibit a higher proliferative rate than bone marrow-derived cells and possess greater osteogenic differentiation potency than human dental pulp stem cells. SHEDs are first identified by Miura et al. in the year 2003. SHEDs are a heterogeneous population of multipotent cells that are isolated from dental pulp tissues remained in exfoliated deciduous teeth. SHEDs possess high proliferation potency and are capable of differentiating into any type of cell wherein they are induced. These cells are able to differentiate into dental pulp cells as well as other cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, and neuronal such as cells and endothelial cells. This article reviews the techniques of isolation and basic characteristics and significance of SHEDs. The intracellular signaling involved in the regulation of stem cell and differentiation ability of SHED is discussed in detail. Finally, the regenerative and therapeutic applications of SHEDs are also described.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004800
Title: A survey study of gender-related anxiety and fear on dental care among the patients visiting Saveetha Dental College and Hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the dental anxiety and fear on dental care among the patients visiting Saveetha Dental College. Introduction: Dental fear is an important issue in the practice of dentistry because it interferes with both provision and receipt of dental care. Gender is one of the most commonly reported factors in the extant literature that is associated with differences in dental fear. Dental fear and anxiety toward dental treatment is an undeniable and unfortunate expression. Anxiety and fear before dental treatment to be done is one of the reasons for avoiding dental treatment. Anxiety and fear before dental treatment to be done is one of the reasons for avoiding dental treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample size for this study is about 200 participants, of which 100 were males and the other 100 were females. A set of questionnaires is being created related to the dental anxiety and fear, the questionnaire was circulated among the patients visiting the Saveetha Dental College and the responses were obtained. All the data were compiled together and analyzed. Results: The results obtained at the end of the study were graphically represented and analyzed between male and female subjects. A consistent finding is that dental fear is more prevalent and severe among females than males. However, the reasons underlying these gender differences in dental fear are not clear. Conclusion: With an already established relationship between higher rates of dental problems and women, it is seen that they often find the need to visit a dentist. From the present study, it can thus be concluded that dental anxiety and fear is more commonly found in females than in males.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00004801
Title: Determination of benidipine and chlorthalidone content in tablets using stability-indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography technique
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Sciences and Humanities, Division of Chemistry, Vignan’s Foundation for Science, Technology and Research University (Vignan’s University), Vadlamudi, Guntur - 522 213, Andhra Pradesh
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Objective: In this study, quick and reliable stability-indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was established for the quantitation of benidipine and chlorthalidone simultaneously in tablet preparations and bulk. Materials and Methods: Chlorthalidone and benidipine are separated using an Agilent C18 column with a mobile phase containing 60% NaH2 PO4 buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.0) and 40% methanol. Optimized flow rate and detection wavelengths are 1 ml/min and 262 nm, respectively. Results: Linearity curves were straight over concentration ranges of 4–12 µg/ ml for benidipine and 12.5–37.50 µg/ml for chlorthalidone. Quantification limit was 0.0.543 µg/ml for benidipine and 0.299 µg/ml for chlorthalidone. The percent recoveries were 100.23–100.66% for benidipine and 99.88–100.13% for chlorthalidone. The relative standard deviation precisions were 0.092% and 0.214% for benidipine and chlorthalidone, respectively. Force-induced degradation studies had shown that the method developed can be employed to evaluate benidipine and chlorthalidone in the presence of possible degradants. Conclusion: Method was suitable to assay benidipine and chlorthalidone in tablets and can be used in stability studies and quality control analysis of benidipine and chlorthalidone.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004802
Title: Effect of beta-sitosterol on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in liver of high-fat diet and sucrose-induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the effect of β-sitosterol on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in high-fat diet and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Experimental design: Adult male Wistar rats were used and divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Group II: Type-2 diabetic rats; Group III: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with β-sitosterol (20 mg/kg b.wt/day, orally for 30 days); and Group IV: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg b.wt/day, orally for 30 days). After 30 days of treatment, animals were anesthetized; liver tissues were dissected out and used for the assessment of glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) enzyme activities which were studied by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: The activity of glucose-6-phosphatase, glycogen phosphorylase, and PEPCK was significantly raised (P < 0.05) in type-2 diabetic rats. Conversely, glucokinase and glycogen synthase activities were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in type-2 diabetic rats. Oral administration of the plant sterol (β-sitosterol) could effectively normalize the detrimental changes caused by high diet induction to that of the control and standard drug metformin. Conclusion: The present study shows that β-sitosterol regulates carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the liver, thereby β-sitosterol may have therapeutic potential candidate for the management of type-2 diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004803
Title: Free radical scavenging potential of Argyreia nervosa leaf extract: An in vitro analysis
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India
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Background: Argyreia nervosa (AN) belongs to the family Convolvulaceae, used in Ayurvedic medicine, and has immense remedial values. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of AN. Materials and Methods: AN ethanol extract prepared and examined for their antioxidant potential by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radical scavenging, DNA sugar damage, and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods. Results: The antioxidant activity of AN extract was found to be a high value at the concentration of 150 µg/ml compared to 50 and 100 µg/ml concentrations. DPPH free radical, nitric oxide, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays showed strong antioxidant activities with an increase in the concentration of ethanol extracts of AN. Conclusion: The present in vitro study clearly shows that the ethanolic extract of AN has the potential free radical scavenging activity due to its antioxidant capacity and hence it can be used as one of the medicinal herbs against various diseases including against liver toxicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00004804
Title: Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial, evaluation of new naproxen derivatives
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq
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In this work, naproxen derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of naproxen with H2 SO4 using methanol to give ester (1). Compound (1) was synthesized by reaction of naproxen with hydrazine hydrate give 2-(6-methoxynaphthalen- 2-yl)propanehydrazide (2), compound (2) treatment with acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, α-cyanoethylacetate, phenyl isothiocyanate, 4-nitro phenyl isothiocyanate, 4-chlorophenyl isothiocyanate, malic anhydride, succinic anhydride, and phthalic anhydride gave compounds (2a-i). Compound (2) reaction with 4-phenylphenacylbromide gives N’-(1-([1,1’- biphenyl]-4-yl)-2-bromoethylidene)-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)propanehydrazide (3), compound (3) reaction with hydrazide and phenyl hydrazide gives 6-([1,1’-biphenyl]-4-yl)-3-(1-(6-methoxynaphthalene-2-yl)ethyl)-N-phenyl or 1,2,4-triazin-4(5H)-amine (3a-b), and compound (4) reaction naproxen with thionyl chloride gives 2-(6-methoxynaphthalen- 2-yl)propanoyl chloride. Compound (4a-c) reaction compound (4) with secondary amine (piperidine, dicyclohexylamine, and diphenylamine) gives 2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-1-(alkyl-1-yl) propan-1-one-(4a-c). All naproxen derivatives have been characterized by 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and mass spectroscopy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004805
Title: Beneficial role of aspirin as antioxidant agents
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jabir Ibn Hayyan Medical University, Al Najaf Al Ashraf, Iraq
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Background: Aspirin which is an acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is used widely for the secondary prevention of cardiac diseases such as ischemic cerebrovascular events. This beneficial role is due to the antiplatelet aggregation action in the body that prevents arterial platelet thrombi formation. Furthermore, it has been assumed that ASA is able to prevent cerebrovascular accidents by its action as neuroprotective effect through a direct action on brain tissue. It has been also postulated that aspirin and mainly its metabolite SA prevent the oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial study, in which 100 individuals have been selected from Al Sader Teaching Hospital in Al Najaf Al Ashraf, Iraq, divided into two groups: Group A contains 60 individuals used aspirin and Group B contains 40 individuals not use aspirin, ferritin (FER) concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in serum, which were estimated as antioxidant parameters to show the oxidation state in both groups, then Group A was subdivided into subgroups to show the effect of ages and duration of aspirin use on the state of oxidation. Results: It was observed that there is a significant increase in MDA with a significant decrease in FER, GSH, and SOD in Group B when compared with Group A and significant increase in MDA with a significant decrease in FER, GSH, and SOD in subgroups toward advanced age and low duration for use aspirin. Conclusion: Aspirin has antioxidant action and its usage to reduce oxidative stress, especially to aged individuals, is very important to prevent oxidative damage to the cardiovascular system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004806
Title: Cytokine responses to multidrug-resistance – Salmonella Typhi in patients with typhoid fever in Najaf province
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Health, College of Health and Medical Techniques-Kufa, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Babylon-Najaf Street, Najaf 54003, Iraq
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Background: Salmonella Typhi is an individual Salmonella serovar that reasons “typhoid fever,” a main public health difficult in developing countries. The purpose of the research was to study antibiotic resistant and estimation concentration interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) level in typhoid patient. Materials and Methods: The study included 90 patients aged between 10–60 years, “blood samples were cultured directly on brain heart infusion broth.” These specimens were collected from patients in Najaf Province during the studied period. All specimens were cultured on the S-S agar plates and incubated at 37°C under aerobic condition for 18–24 h. Several morphological, cultural, and biochemical tests were made to identify bacterial isolates. The results showed that Salmonella Typhi constitute 15 isolate of all isolates. Results: The results of antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that the isolates of Salmonella Typhi exhibited sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, moderate sensitivity for trimethoprim, while absolute resistant to ampicillin and piperacillin. Patients with typhoid fever had higher serum levels of IL (IL-6 and IL-12) and IFN-γ.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004807
Title: GC-MS profiling of the chemical compounds in the spikelets of the genus Taeniatherum Nevski
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Iraq
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Background: Taeniatherum Nevski belonging to the Poaceae family, it is an annual herb represented by two species (T. crinitum (Schreb.) Nevski and T. crinitum (Simonkai) Nevski) in Iraq. These two species are known as useful spring forage plants. The present article is offered profile about the chemical compounds in the spikelets of two Iraqi Taeniatherum Nevski Species (T. crinitum (Schreb.) Nevski and T. asperum (Simonkai) Nevski) by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, as a tool for chemotaxonomy, 91 compounds are identified. Seven compounds are identical between the two species, whereas 84 are confined to one species than to another. Materials and Methods: This article outlines the differences in phytochemical constitutions of two species of the genus Taeniatherum in Iraq by the GC-MS technique. Results: Twenty-seven different compounds are recorded in T. crinitum, whereas 64 compounds in T. asperum. The chemical composition is similar with respect to only 7 compounds. This study also observed the presence of 28 peaks in T. crinitum and 79 peaks in T. asperum. Hence, the results showed that the two species of the genus Taeniatherum can be easily separated using chemotaxonomic techniques. Conclusion: The present study has proven its assisting in the classification of species studied by means of chemotaxonomic techniques, especially the GC-MS technique, which represents a direct and fast analytical approach for the identification of phytoconstituents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004808
Title: Antimicrobial resistance profile among Enterococcus species isolated from patients with cystitis
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Hilla City, Nader, Iraq
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Background: Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora; they are the common causes of nosocomial urinary tract infections. Enterococci show increasing rates of resistance against antimicrobial agents other than vancomycin. The current study aims to highlight the resistant profile among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from patients with cystitis. Material and Methods: During a period from January 2019 to July 2019, a total of 604 urine specimens were collected from patients who complain cystitis to urology consultant at Al-Sadiq Hospital in Hilla city, Iraq. The samples were cultured directly on m-EI chromogenic agar and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. All the recovered isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm their diagnosis using species specific primer pairs targeting D-alanine- D-alanine ligases for E. faecalis (ddl-faecalis) and E. faecium (ddl-faecium). Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute-2019. Results: Cultural (by m-EI chromogenic agar) and PCR diagnosis revealed that 79 of isolates were E. fecalis and 10 of isolates were E. faecium. Furthermore, the results showed a high incidence of infection in females than males (71.92% and 28.08%, respectively). The current study showed that the Enterococcal cystitis was common among people aged 40–49 years who were 26.96%. High level of resistance expressed for rifampin was 82 (92.1%), 78 (87.6%) for erythromycin, 75 (84.2%) for tetracycline, and 42 (47.1%) for vancomycin. Low level of resistance was displayed among 39 (43.8 %) for penicillin, 36 (40.4 %) for doxycycline, 35 (39.3%) for ampicillin, 32 (35.9%) for ciprofloxacin, 27 (30.3%) for levofloxacin, and 25 (28.0%) for chloramphenicol. Conclusion: The presence of a high percentage of resistance to various antibiotics and proper treatment requires strategies to control and prevent the release of resistant strains.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004809
Title: Extraction of antioxidants from fruit containing citrus and using them in inhibition of different types of bacteria
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Jabir Ibn Hayyan Medical University, Najaf, Iraq *Corresponding author: Moha
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Background: Antioxidants are molecules that can slow down or prevent oxidation of other molecules in vivo. There are several types of antioxidants which naturally occur inside the human body, or what can be obtained by consuming food and other drugs. Citrus (orange, lemon, pomegranate, citrus, etc.) contains a group of vitamins (C and E), which are the most powerful antioxidants used to kill underdeveloped bacteria. Materials and Methods: Three types of bacteria where identified in stool sample taken from admitted patients to Al-Yarmouk Hospital in Baghdad city (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus). Samples of oranges, lemons, pomegranates, and citrus have been imported from local markets and the crusts are dried and ground for the purpose of extracting and determining the concentrations of active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, tannins, soaps, and alkaloids; determining vitamin concentrations (C and E), and determining the biological efficacy of the extracts using an α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl test. Three different concentrations were prepared for each of the tannin, which was fined from pomegranate, lemon, and citrus. The biological effect of the tannin extract was evaluated on three types of bacteria. Results: The results showed that the tannin extract from citrus fruit has a higher bacterial inhibition zone than pomegranate extract. The biological efficacy of orange extract (Vitamin C) was also shown to be highly inhibitory when compared with tannin extract in lemons and citrus. Conclusion: Our findings conclude that these fruits are good sources of antioxidant and antibacterial compounds. The finding of the inhibition capacity of citrus species obtained from our study could be a good motivation to use them more widely in pharmaceutical researches and use them as antibacterial and antioxidant products.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004810
Title: Hematological and thyroid hormones study in hemodialysis patients in Holy Karbala Province
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Alsafwa University College, Karbala, Iraq
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Background: Hemodialysis (HD) defined as the spread of particles in solution through a semipermeable membrane along with an electrochemical concentration gradient. The main purpose of HD is to restoration the intracellular and extracellular fluid environment characterized by normal kidney functions. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of HD on some hematological parameters and the relationship of chronic kidney failure with thyroid hormone. Materials and Methods: The study included 100 voluntaries divided into two groups, 70 HD patients, the duration of disease ranges between 1 and 10 years and 30 healthy individual, as control, with age range between 22 and 60 years. Results: The results were shown decrease mean concentration of red blood cell, hematocrit %, and hemoglobin in HD patients (3.7 × 106 ± 0.6, 9.7 × 106 ± 1.6, and 29.9 × 106 ± 5.9), respectively, as compared with control (4.9106 ± 0.38, 42.04 ± 3.9, and 14.6 ± 1.6), while the results appear increase in total count of white blood cell (8.2 × 103 /µl ± 2.6) in patients than in control (7.8 × 103 /µl ±1.9). Furthermore, the results appear that there is elevated level of ferritin and C-reactive protein in HD patients 1183.5 ± 989 ng/ml and 3.042 ± 3.3 mg/dl as compared with control 29.2 ± 12.3 ng/ml and 0.4 ± 2 mg/dl, respectively. There were lower concentrations of T3 and T4 (1.28 ± 0.5 nmol, 81.8 ± 2.4 nmol) when compared with control (2.0 ± 0.9, 148 ± 3.2). Conclusion: This study concluded that there is a defect in hematological parameters in HD patients who lead to severe anemia. Chronic renal failure is associated with multiple disturbances in thyroid metabolism characterized by low serum free and total T4 and T3 levels. High serum ferritin is not a reliable indicator of iron overload, but may instead represent the presence of inflammation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00004811
Title: Synthesis and characterization of Cu (II), Co (II), Ni (II), Au (III), complexes with (Z)-1-(4-((3-chlorobenzylidene) amino)phenyl)ethan-1-one ligand
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Science University of Anbar, Anbar, Iraq
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Background: Schiff bases are considered privileged ligands, as condensation between aldehydes and amines makes them easy to prepare also in the synthetic design, stereogenic centers, or other chirality elements can be introduced. Schiff base ligands can combine and stabilize with several different metals in different oxidation states, allowing Schiff base metal complexes to be used for a wide range of useful catalytic transformations. The reaction in ethanol of 4-aminoacetophenoneand 3-chlorobenzaldehyde resulted in the formation of Schiff base (Z)-1-(4-((3-chloro benzylidene)amino)phenyl)ethan-1-one. Ligand contact with different di- and trivalent metal ions were observed and ligand complexes are prepared from the reaction of two ligand (Z)-1-(4-(3-chlorobenzylidene) amino) phenyl) ethan-1-one equivalents with one mole of metal salt as the central ion. Physicochemical and spectroscopic methods were put in place to confirm bonding mode and over all complex structure. These results lead to the preparation of four coordinate complexes, and we suggested the structure of the complexes from the above discussions is tetrahedral except Au complex which is square planar geometry. IR, UV, NMR, mass, conductivity, elemental study, and magnetic susceptibility characterized the ligand and its complexes. Materials and Methods: The reaction in ethanol of 4-aminoacetophenone and 3-chlorobenzaldehyde with molar ratio (1:1) in absolute ethanol with just a few drops of acetic acid resulted in the formation of Schiff base (Z)-1-(4-((3-chlorobenzylidene)amino) phenyl) ethan-1-one. Results: The complexes were prepared from the reaction of the ligand L with metal chloride salts (M) in a 2:1 mole ratio heated under reflux in ethanol, where M= Co+2 , Ni +2 , Cu+2 , and Au+3 . IR, UV, NMR, mass, conductivity, elemental study, and magnetic susceptibility characterized the ligand and its complexes. These results lead to the preparation of four coordinate complexes: [Co(L)2 (Cl)2 ], [Cu(L)2 (Cl)2 ], [Ni(L)2 (Cl)2 ], and [Au(L)2 (Cl)2 ]Cl. Conclusion: we concluded that the structure of the complexes from the physicochemical and spectroscopic methods is tetrahedral except the Au+3 complex which is square planar geometry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004812
Title: Approved drug product lifecycle management for US generic submission
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Introduction: Product lifecycle management is a business strategy that pharmaceutical manufacturers use to maintain revenue streams from their leading drug products. Post approval changes are an integral part of pharmaceutical product life cycle management. To ensure the safety of the innovations, product lifecycle management (PLM) will be included as a strategy for prolonging the stay of product in the market. Objectives: This study envisages about the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls (CMC) changes across the product lifecycle. Discussion: Level of changes is categorized as major, moderate and minor based on its effect on product quality and performance. Before submitting a PAS, if the change to be made is major, a prior approval from FDA is required. Approved drug PLM for the US generic submissions includes: Post-approval changes, risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, amendments and supplements, post-marketing periodic safety reports and field alert report. Conclusion: Changes are inevitable in pharmaceutical industry in fact they are very much necessary for the continuous quality improvement of the product. The applicant should think back the impact of the change on the quality attributes of the final product and should report the changes for an approved ANDA for regulatory authorities in a timely manner to be in compliant with FDA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004813
Title: Aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones resistant genes among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Hilla City, Iraq
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Lab Technology, AL-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq
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Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the majority of usual infectious diseases all over the world. It is characterized as the bacterial infection of urinary tract tissues and it is assumed that global prevalence of UTIs is 250 million yearly. UTIs involve ranges of prevalence involving cystitis and pyelonephritis described by the finding of microbes in the tract of urine, medically; UTI is classified as complex or simple. Simple UTI usually affects people who are healthy and has no abnormalities in the structural of urinary tract or its nervous system. The current research aims to test dominant aminoglycosides (AGs) resistant and fluoroquinolones resistant genotypes among local uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) obtained from the patient with cystitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six isolates of AGs-fluoroquinolones resistance UPEC recovered from patient with cystitis were submitted for genotypic detection of AGs and fluoroquinolones resistance genes by conventional polymerase chain reaction. The AGs resistant gene include acc(3)-IIa and acrD while fluoroquinolones resistant gene include gyrA, gyrB, and parC. Results: The result showed that acc(3)-IIa gene was detected in 16 (28.57%) while acrD gene was founded in 27 (48.21%) of UPEC. The presence of fluoroquinolone genes was 32 (57.1%), 33 (58.9%), and 37 (66.0%) for gyrA, gyrB, and parC genes, respectively. Conclusion: The conclusion can be summarized as non-extensively drug-resistant or pandrug-resistant of UPEC were recorded while high resistance to levofloxacin although is it begins to prescribed in the past 5 years while the resistance to amikacin still same as recorded in that past 5 years. The present research infers the finding of acc(3)-IIa and acrD gene as a major mechanism of AGs resistance among UPEC and the presence of mutate gene gyrA, gyrB, and parC for fluoroquinolone resistance leads to emergence resistant strains of UPEC.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004814
Title: Preparation and evaluation of proniosomal gel containing diphenhydramine HCl
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Alkafeel, Iraq
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Background: Niosomes are vascular systems used as safe and useful carriers for delivering both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These vesicles are considered as drug delivery systems, which are designed using non-ionic surfactants. Niosomes are designed by mixing of biocompatible and biodegradable non-ionic surfactant (usually spans and tweens) and cholesterol with dispersion in aqueous media. It is composed from a bilayer of non-ionic surfactant with two extents, one of them is hydrophilic and the other is hydrophobic. The purpose of the present study is to prepare diphenhydramine HCl (DPH HCl) proniosomal gel that is capable to convert into niosomal forms on hydration and delivering drug in extended time. Materials and Methods: Proniosomal loading DPH HCl formulas were prepared by coacervation method. Sorbitan esters (Span 20, Span 40, Span 60, and Span 80) and their ethoxylated derivatives (Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60, and Tween 80) were used in the preparation of proniosomal formulations. The prepared formulations were evaluated for physical manifestation, pH, shape, vesicles size, entrapment efficiency (EE), and in vitro drug release. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to examine the compatibility between medicine and other ingredients. Results: Results showed that the most prepared niosomal formulations were in the nanosize range and exhibited uniformity in the sizes of the vesicles with higher EE (68.6%–97.83%). FTIR studies indicated that there was no interaction between DPH HCl and other formulation materials of niosomal formulations. The prepared formulations containing Tween surfactants revealed higher release rates when compared with Span formulations. According to the results, niosomal formulation could be formulated for DPH HCl as transdermal delivery system. Conclusion: The above results indicated that DPH was well prepared as proniosomal gel with high EE using coacervation technique. Proniosomal formulation as a drug delivery system seems to be possible with DPH HCl and could act as alternative for delivering the drug with prolonged release at the site of action, in addition to avoid the side effects of drug by the other routes of drug administration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004815
Title: Molecular characterization of Rotavirus infection among children with acute gastroenteritis in Al-Najaf AL-Ashraf City, Iraq
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Education for Girls, Kufa University, Kufa, Iraq
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Background: Rotavirus A belongs to the Reoviridae family and it is a non-enveloped virus, consisting of 11 segments of double- stranded RNA and encoding six structural viral proteins (VPs) and six non-structural proteins (NSPs). It is classified into 35 G and 50 P types on the basis of VP7 (glycoprotein) and VP4 (protease sensitive) protein, respectively. RVA genotypes G1P, G2P, G3P, G4P, G9P, and G12P are commonly found worldwide. This study aimed to determine the genetic characterization of Rotavirus infection among children under 5 years suffering from gastroenteritis. Methodology: Two-hundred stool samples were collected from children under 5 years old whom admitted and hospitalized AL-Zahraa Teaching Hospital in AL-Najaf Al-Ashraf city during the period from February 2018 to February 2019. The primary detection of Rotavirus infection was carried out using rapid test, while real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used for genotypic detection of Rotavirus infection using structural gene (VP6 and VP7) and non-structural genes (NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, and NSP5). Results: The results of the primary detection of Rotavirus infection showed that of 200 gastroenteritis infections, only 68 (34%) samples gave positive results to Rotavirus infection. The results of RT-qPCR revealed that of 27 samples, only 21 (77.8%) samples gave positive results for the amplification of VP7, while all samples 100% gave positive results for the amplification of VP6, where the Ct value was a range between 10–39 and 10–38, respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that 44.4%, 33.3%, 100%, 51.9%, and 25.9% gave positive results for the amplification of NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, and NSP5, respectively. Conclusion: Rotavirus represented a main cause of diarrhea among children less than 5 years where vp6, vp7, and nsp3 genes were wide distribute among Rotavirus infection while nsp2 and nsp5 genes reported a low percentage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004816
Title: Effect of freezing on chemical composition and nutritional value in meat
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Jabir Ibn Hayyan Medical University, Najaf, Iraq.
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Background: Meat is a highly nutritious and important nutrient because it contains important nutrients to sustain and grow human body tissues such as proteins, fats, vitamins, and nutrients which must be preserved in several ways and from these methods is the process of freezing. Freezing is one of the best and most important methods used to conserve meat as a fast- spreading food because it preserves most of its natural properties and keeps its quality, inhibits the reproduction and growth of microorganisms, and lowers its water activity and microbial enzymatic activity frozen state and some undesirable changes in taste and color, which reduces the quality of frozen meat by converting its water content to ice crystals at −18°C or less. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of duration of storage in the freezing state on the chemical composition and microbial content of different types of meat. The four types of meat (cows, buffalo, sheep, and chicken) were purchased from the local market in the province of Baghdad. Materials and Methods: Meat was chopped into small cubes dimensions of 5 cm × 5 cm × 5 cm and placed in bags of polyethylene and marked with signals clear and stored at a temperature (−18°C) for a period of 1, 2, and 3.4 months. Chemical analysis (protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrate, and moisture) was conducted and estimated the number of total bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, and coliform bacteria every 30 days. Results: The results of the chemical analysis of meat showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in chemical composition between the frozen meat and fresh meat; the results show the occurrence of a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in each of the percentage of moisture, protein, and fat in all kinds of meats in this study, which were stored for 1, 2, 3, and 4 months on the temperature (−18°C) when compared with the fresh meat. While the results indicate that the freeze of meat for 1, 2, 3, and 4 months led to a significant percentage of ash in the four types of frozen meats when compared with the percentage of the ash in the fresh meat. The percentage of the ash takes to rise with prolonged storage at freezing on temperature (−18°C) where it recorded the highest values when continuing the storage of meat in freeze for 4 months. The effect of duration of storage in freeze on microbial content in the meat, the results indicate the occurrence of a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of total bacteria and psychrotrophic bacteria and coliform bacteria in frozen meat for 1, 2, and 3.4 months, as increasing the duration of storage in freeze there is a decline in number of bacteria compared to its number in fresh meat. Conclusion: Keeping the meat in a freezing state does not prevent the occurrence of certain changes in the chemical composition of the meat, and then freeze it works on inhibition of the growth and reproduction of bacteria that cause damage and spoiling meat.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004817
Title: Beta-sitosterol improves the antioxidant enzyme activity in liver: High-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic experimental study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Changes in lifestyle, such as high-calorie diet intake and lack of exercise, have increased the global prevalence of obesity and diabetes. The major pathophysiological event contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is the target tissues to insulin action. β-sitosterol (24-ethyl cholestene-3-ol), a naturally occurring plant sterol, ubiquitously found in many plants such as wheat germ, rice bran, flax seeds, peanuts, soybean, and pumpkin seeds. It has been reported to elicit multitude of bioactivities including antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic activity. Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the effect of β-sitosterol on antioxidant enzymes in high-fat diet-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Experimental Design: Adult male Wistar rats were used and divided as Group I: Control; Group II: Type-2 diabetic rats; Group III: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with β-sitosterol (20 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]/day, orally for 30 days); and Group IV: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg b.wt/day, orally for 30 days). After 30 days of treatment, animals were anesthetized; liver tissues were dissected out and used for the assessment of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], glutathione-S-transferase [GST], and glutathione reductase [GR]). Results: SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GR enzyme activity was found to be significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in type-2 diabetic rats when compared with control animals. Oral administration of the plant sterol could effectively improve the activity of these enzymes (P < 0.05) to that of the control and standard drug metformin. Conclusion: The present study shows that β-sitosterol exhibits antidiabetic activity by facilitating antioxidant enzymes in the liver.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004818
Title: Comparative study on efficacy of proprioceptive training versus technical training in prevention of recurrent ankle sprain among the professional football players
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. M. G. R. Educational and Research Institute, Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The objectives of the study are to compare the effectiveness of proprioceptive training versus technical training in prevention of recurrent ankle sprain among the professional football players. Background: In professional football players, the major cause was ankle sprain. The main purpose of this study was to find out the effectiveness and to compare the effectiveness of the proprioceptive training and the technical training immediately after the end of the treatment. After 3 months, the recurrent ankle sprain was prevented among the professional football players. Methodology: The study was an experimental and comparative study. A total of 30 football players were taken from Dr. M. G. R. Educational and Research Institute. The inclusion criteria were football players of between the age group of 18 and 35 years, previous history of at least one/more ankle sprain within a year with Grade I or Grade II, patient with below five score of visual analog scale (VAS). Players with recent fracture in any part of the body, any other pathology or weakness in lower limbs and any neurological disorders were excluded from the study. The outcome measure was measured using VAS, foot and ankle disability index (FADI) questionnaires. Procedure: The selected 30 samples were randomly divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Both groups were to do warm-up thoroughly by brisk walk on treadmill for 5 min and mild self-stretching for 5 min for ankle plantar flexors and dorsiflexors. Group A – received proprioceptive training on the wobble board bilaterally followed by unilaterally on the affected side 5 min in each session. Group B – received vertical jumps bilaterally and unilaterally for the affected leg 5 min in each session. Results: On comparing pre-test and post-test within Group A and Group B on VAS and FADI show highly significant difference mean values in both groups. However, the Group A is more effective than the Group B. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected at P ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: The proprioceptive training is more effective than the technical training in prevention of recurrent ankle sprain among professional football players.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004875
Title: Pharmacological review on diabetic neuropathy pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Pain is an unpleasant, sensory, emotional, and experience that affects the lifestyle of an individual. Pain includes normal tissue injury. Neuropathy pain or neuropathy is caused by nerve damage or disease affecting somatosensory nervous system. Neuropathy pain is often associated with pain caused due to normal painful stimuli (dysesthesia) or due to non-painful stimuli (allodynia). The pain may be continuous or episodic in nature. The episodic pain resembles to stabbing or electric shocks that are similar to the chronic pain state seen with tissue injury. It is tedious to differentiate the pain sensation. The general symptoms include the sharp pain due to pinprick, numbness, in area of neuropathy sensitive to chill, and burning sensation at feet. Many medications are available to manage and overcome neuropathy and its symptoms depending on the type of disease and the condition of health of the individual.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004876
Title: Understanding a pathology topic using the concept map – Survey report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Many articles described that concept mapping can be used as a useful tool for education, especially in science. It has been found that the primary grade children are capable of making the concept maps and can explain their work to others. Concept mapping plays a key role in the educational point of view. Concept maps improve classroom teaching and learning. Concept maps have been used by the authors of the recent BSCS (1990) blue version high school science text, biological science: A molecular approach, for both planning and writing the book. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 2nd year Bachelor of Dental Surgery Students of Saveetha Dental College. A comprehensive questionnaire was prepared which consisted of 14 questions and distributed through survey planet. A hundred responses were received and the collected data were calculated with statistics. Results and Discussion: Concept maps improve academic performance in problem-solving questions and students’ perception about the effectiveness of concept maps was overwhelmingly positive. For a 3% student, it takes more time as for some people concept map is a very difficult task, confusing, and needs more time. In our study, it shows 97% of students utilize less time to recollect all the points during exams. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the concept map can be a better option for understanding the pathology concept. It boosts the performance of the examinations in the pathology course. It is a powerful tool in learning and replaces long essays.