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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004931
Title: Experience of ragging among dental students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Students experience abuse, bullying, and harassment at educational institutions as a regular phenomenon, it is faced not only by dental students but also other health-care professionals. Ragging is one kind of teasing which is done by seniors to junior. It occurs mostly in the college. Ragging indulges the student in trouble. It involves abusing and harassing the newcomer of the college. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the perception about ragging among dental undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 1st year dental students of 2018 batch of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India. A self-administered questionnaire which assessed perceptions regarding ragging among dental students was the tool of data collection. Results: Most of the male (97%) and female (95%) participants did not experience ragging. About 45% of males and 58% of females responded in case of complaining about ragging, they will approach the dean, 30% of males and 20% of females responded in case of complaining about ragging, they will approach the Anti-Ragging Committee. Conclusion: Overall, awareness of ragging is not adequate. A prior education of students is utmost necessary. The provision of prior support for students may help to reduce anxiety among newcomers. There is a need to develop awareness among these students about various aspects of ragging and legal action against it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004874
Title: Efficacy of ibuprofen gel phonophoresis on shoulder dysfunction postmastectomy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy for Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
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Background: Postmastectomy pain can be severe enough to cause long-term disabilities and interfere with sleep, the performance of daily activities, including the use of the affected arm and leading to shoulder frozen shoulder. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the efficiency of ibuprofen gel versus phonophoresis on shoulder dysfunction postmastectomy. Patients and Methods: A randomized, controlled study with the pretest-posttest design was performed; 50 patients were 3–6 months to postmastectomy and aged 40–55 years (at the time of surgery). Patients were randomly as- signed into two groups: Group A underwent ibuprofen gel phonophoresis and Group B was treated with conventional therapy and topical application of ibuprofen gel. All treatment interventions were applied at a frequency of three sessions per week for 8 weeks. The participants were recruited from the National Cancer Institute in Cairo to be treated in the outpatient clinic, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, at the period between December 2018 and October 2019. Results: Outcome measures were taken with Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) that was developed to evaluate the shoulder pain and disability and shoulder range of motion (ROM): Active ROM of shoulder flexion, abduction, and external and internal rota- tion was measured by a digital goniometer, before the treatment, and 8 weeks after the intervention. The comparison among the two groups revealed that there was a significant decrease in pain, disability, and total percentage of SPADI of Group A compared with that of Group B (P > 0.001); also, there was a significant increase in shoulder ROM of Group A compared with that of Group B (P > 0.001). Conclusions: It was concluded that ibuprofen gel phonophoresis has greater efficacy than conventional therapy in the rehabilitation of patients with shoulder dysfunction postmastectomy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004877
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness regarding needlestick injury among dental practitioners in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the understanding regarding the needlestick injury among dental practitioners. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of needlestick injury among dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on a questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called SurveyMonkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental practitioners in Chennai participated in the study. Results: As an overall result, most of the participants are not aware of needlestick injuries and its danger in dentistry. Participants had a lack of knowledge about this injury. Conclusion: As a conclusion, the awareness of needlestick injury has to be improved among dentists. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them aware and be highly caution with needlestick injury.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004878
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice on biomedical waste management among dental students in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In dentistry, the biomedical wastes (BMWs) are produced from plastic, mercury, glass, latex, cotton, amalgam waste, X-ray processing solutions, chemicals, lead foils, disinfectants, dental casts, and impressions, waste sharps such as surgical needles, blades, extracted teeth, human tissues, discarded, expired medicines, and dental materials. These materials are known as pose high-risk wastes because they are contaminated with saliva and blood which have disease spreading microbes. Aim: The aim of the stud was to determine the understanding regarding BMW management among dental students. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of BMW management among dental students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on a questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called SurveyMonkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students (3rd year, 4th year, and interns) who currently pursuing in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai participated in the study. Results: As an overall result, most of the participants are not aware of BMW management and its usage in dentistry. Participants had a lack of knowledge about BMW management. Conclusion: As a conclusion, the awareness of BMW management has to be improved, aiming the budding dentists. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them be wise in this topic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004879
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of forensic odontology among dental students in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the understanding of forensic odontology among dental students. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of forensic odontology among dental students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called SurveyMonkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students in Chennai participated in the study. Results: As an overall result, most of the participants are not aware of forensic odontology and its benefits in dentistry. Participants had lack of knowledge and awareness of this field. Conclusion: As a conclusion, the awareness of forensic odontology has to be improved among the dentists. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them aware and be highly knowledgeable in forensic odontology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004880
Title: Mechanism and physiological effects of acupuncture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Acupuncture is an ancient traditional Chinese medicine which is based on traditional theories and concepts. Several attempts have been made to figure out the mechanism of acupuncture, and literature reveals that there are many aspects from which acupuncture mechanism can be viewed upon. Aim: This review aims to compile the theories and concepts on mechanism of acupuncture from various concepts.Conclusion: This article throws light on different views on mechanism of acupuncture, explaining the “miracle cure” by acupuncture needles based on traditional facts (namely the five-element mechanism) based on biophoton emission and Bonghan channels

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004881
Title: Beta-carotene – A versatile antioxidant in oral cancer: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to understand the significance of beta-carotene as an antioxidant in oral cancer. Objective: The objective of the study was to summarize the importance beta-carotene in oral cancer. Background: Carcinogenesis being a multistep process offers unique opportunity for its prevention. Beta-carotene and retinoids are one of the most promising agents against cancers. Fruits and vegetable phytochemical extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Beta-carotene is found abundantly in fruits and vegetables and can be consumed every day due to its ease of availability. It is available as capsules and tablets. It plays a major role in preventing common cancers such as breast cancer, oral cancer, colorectal cancer, and cervical cancer. It can affect carcinogenesis in early stages through antigenotoxic action. From a clinical point of view, beta-carotene serves as an ideal agent to be used in chemoprevention. 5–10 servings of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables daily are an appropriate strategy for significantly reducing the risk of chronic diseases and to meet their nutrient requirements for optimum health. Beta-carotene is used to prevent oral leukoplakia substantially due to its lack of toxicity. It prevents cellular damage by slowing down the oxidative stress induced by free radicals produced by the oxidizing agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004917
Title: Awareness of various types of retrograde filling material among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 6
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Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of various types of retrograde filling material among dental students. Background: Apical surgery is considered a standard oral surgical procedure. It is often a last resort to surgically maintain a tooth with a periapical lesion that cannot be managed with conventional endodontic retreatment. The main goal of apical surgery is to prevent bacterial leakage from the root canal system into the periradicular tissues by placing a tight root-end filling following root-end resection. Periradicular surgery involves the placement of a root-end filling following root-end resection, to provide an apical seal to the root canal system. Historically, several materials have been used to achieve this seal. Hence, this study is done to assess the knowledge of dental students on various root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was self-formulated and was delivered by hand and collected on completion. The medium of answering the questionnaire was English. All the responses were kept anonymous. The questionnaire contained 15 questions which were framed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice on denture magnets among dental practitioners. The questions were related to the types of root-end filling materials, advantages, disadvantages, etc. One hundred students were randomly selected to complete the questionnaire. The responses to each of the questions were entered into the Microsoft Excel sheet and summarized through the pie chart. Results: About 73% of the students were aware of the retrograde filling materials used in dentistry and 27% were unaware. About 45% of the students were aware of biodentine which is a recent advance in root-end filling materials, but majority of them were unaware of bioceramics. About 77% of the students were unaware of the different brands of composite resin used as retrograde filling materials. Conclusion: This survey shows that the dental students have a fairly rough knowledge about various types of root-end filling materials used. Yet some of them were unaware of the recent advances in retrograde filling materials such as bioceramics and biodentine, and only a very few were aware of the brands of composite resins used as retrograde filling material. Most of them had good knowledge regarding the ideal properties of root-end filling material, but they did not have enough knowledge about the individual properties of various root-end filling materials.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004921
Title: A questionnaire-based survey on post-insertion complications and gag reflex in complete dentures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Gagging is a normal protective reflex designed to protect the airway and remove irritant material from the posterior oropharynx and upper gastrointestinal tract. Gagging is one of the complications faced by the dentist and the patient during a dental procedure. It can be due to physiological or psychological factors. The stimulation of the gagging reflex, or more accurately, the vomiting reflex, is a special problem in prosthodontic service. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional investigation was conducted at Saveetha Dental College. The patients underwent prosthodontic treatment such as complete denture experiences gag reflex and the questionnaire was distributed among students as they notice the patient complaints after post-insertion of complete denture. The sample of the study was conducted among 100 students. A self-structured questionnaire pre-tested was designed to verify the prevalence of gag reflex. The questionnaire was asked about the severity of the gag reflex, history of any medically compromised condition, ill-fitting denture, burning sensation, and systemic disorder related to gag reflex. The severity of gag reflex problem for each study subject depends on patients own remark. Results: About 71% were found that patient is with the problem of gag reflex whereas 29% did not have any gag reflex, 60% were medically compromised patients, and 40% were not medically compromised, 55% complaints of burning sensation due to complete denture wear and 45% does not have any burning sensation due to complete denture, 64% has ill fitting of denture whereas 36% do not have ill fitting of the denture. About 63% of complaints of overextended denture and 37% do not have any overextension of denture. About 65% of agrees with gag reflex is associated with systemic disorders whereas 35% says no as they do not have any relation between systemic disorders with a gag reflex. Conclusion: Gag reflex can be the most common problem encountered during prosthodontics treatment and its being annoying for complete denture wearers. Treating the patient according to their own remark on gagging would make their wear of prosthesis would be comfortable.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004922
Title: Anatomy of the incisive canal in the Indian subjects
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: The nasopalatine canal (NPC), also known as the incisive canal or anterior palatine canal, is a long slender passage present in the midline of the anterior maxilla that connects the palate to the floor of the nasal cavity. The canal continues in the oral cavity as a single incisive foramen posterior to the central incisor teeth and in the nasal cavity as the foramina of Stenson, which are usually two in number. The nasopalatine duct cyst occurs in the NPC or incisive canal, and it may be difficult to decide on a radiograph whether radiolucency in that area is a cyst or a large incisive foramen. Aim: This study aims to estimate the anatomical morphology of incisive canal in the Indian subjects. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 human skulls are taken for the estimation from the department of anatomy to calculate the morphology, anteroposterior, and mesiodistal dimensions. Results: The predominant morphology of the incisive canal in Indian subjects was ellipsoid, oblong, and pear shaped: Ellipsoid – 27 subjects, oblong – 12 subjects, and pear – 11 subjects. The average location of the incisive canal from the posterior nasal spine was 46.9, anterior nasal spine was 8.2 mm, the anterior-posterior dimension of the canal was 8.2 ± 2.07 mm, and mesiodistal dimension was 4.6 ± 2.4 mm. Conclusion: The present study highlighted important variability observed in the anatomy and morphology of the incisive canal.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004923
Title: Awareness about dental trauma management among parents
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: One of the most important oral health problems is dental trauma which causes pain and distress. It can be a minor enamel chip to extensive maxillofacial damage involving the supporting structures and displacement or avulsion of teeth. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the awareness of parents concerning the management of traumatic tooth. Materials and Methods: The study was carried in parent in the age group of 25–45 years old. Both male and female parents were taken in study. About 100 parents were taken in this survey. The questionnaire is taken to both the illiterate and literate parents. About 15 questions were asked to parents. All questions in the questionnaire were close ended. To help the respondents make quick decision, they were given alternative choices, which resemble real situation with dental trauma. All returned questionnaires were coded and analyzed. Results: Majority of parents about 80% have said that they do not have any knowledge about the trauma management. About 10% of parents said that they have knowledge about dental trauma management. Moreover, the source of knowledge was internet. Conclusion: From this study, it is understood that parents have very low knowledge about the management of dental trauma. Only few parents have sound knowledge about dental trauma management. The awareness programs and camp should be conducted to provide knowledge to the parents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004924
Title: Awareness of impression procedures in implant dentistry among dental interns and clinicians
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The replacement of missing teeth is an increasing concern among the population due to functional and esthetic reasons. Along with the increase in demand for replacement, the need for fixed and permanent replacement is also increasing widely. The use of implants is increasing among the population due to its long term and fixed properties in spite of its high price. Aim: The purpose of this survey was to determine the awareness of various impression techniques used in implant dentistry among the dental interns and practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted among 100 dental interns and practitioners among the South Indian population. A set of 10 questions was created and the questionnaire was distributed. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding the awareness of impression techniques used in implant dentistry. The information was collected from the clinicians and recorded. A comparison of the answers from the collected data was made. Results: There was found to be an awareness of 100% in the impression techniques. However, the awareness of splinting and non-splinting techniques was less (80%) when compared to the open and closed tray techniques (100%). The reason could be the limited use of these practically among the dental interns and a use of these clinically would bring about a full awareness of these techniques as well. Conclusion: A positive response is seen on the basic impression techniques that include open and closed tray techniques, whereas the impressions taken on a multiple implant case with some modifications are yet to be more familiarized. As regards, short hands-on courses can help in teaching the shortcomings of impression techniques for various cases and hence to increase the knowledge on these topics of implant dentistry which is flourishing in the present day.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004925
Title: Awareness of osteoporosis among post-menopausal women in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to study the awareness of osteoporosis among post-menopausal women in Chennai. Background: Osteoporosis is a health condition that weakens bones, making them fragile and more likely to break. It develops slowly over several years and is often only diagnosed when a fall or sudden impact causes a bone to fracture. Women also lose bone rapidly in the first few years after menopause. Women are more at risk of osteoporosis than men, particularly if the menopause begins early before the age of 45 or they have had their ovaries removed. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire (Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale) based study was conducted among 50 post-menopausal women who volunteered were taken for the study. Moreover, the corresponding data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: It is evident from the study that the awareness of osteoporosis among post-menopausal women is very low. About 67% of them never heard of osteoporosis before and 33% of the population had already heard of osteoporosis. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is a common disease among women especially post- menopausal women. However, the awareness of osteoporosis among women population is very low; hence, there is an immediate need to create awareness of osteoporosis among women.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004926
Title: Awareness among dental students about hepatitis B infection – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 6
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Hepatitis B is the most serious type of viral hepatitis. The hepatitis B viral transmission occurs in the dental setting mainly due to the improper use of the safety measure by the dentists. This review is to evaluate the hepatitis B infection-related awareness among the dental students. There is a need for improving the knowledge among the students regarding the spread of the infection through the saliva contact. The most serious complication of hepatitis is fulminant hepatitis, and it can also cause hepatocellular carcinoma. The awareness and importance regarding the hepatitis B vaccination are reviewed under this topic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004927
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental practitioners on management strategies of pediatric fracture – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Fractures in children are an important public health issue and a frequent cause of emergency room visits. The purpose of this descriptive epidemiological study was to identify the most frequent pediatric fractures. Fractures are extremely common in the pediatric age group, representing a major public health problem. The lifetime risk of sustaining a fracture in childhood is approximately 42–64% in boys and 27–40% in girls, with remarkable variation in the estimates worldwide. Even though several genetic, endocrine, or systemic illnesses that affect bone metabolism may cause fractures, the majority of children with fractures are otherwise healthy. Several factors have been analyzed for their role in determining fracture risk. Aim: The aim is to analyze about the awareness among dental practitioners on management strategies of pediatric fracture. Objective: This survey is done to analyze the awareness among dental practitioners on management strategies of pediatric fracture. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was initiated from a randomly chosen population of 100 dental practitioners. A simple random sampling technique was used to identify the samples. Informed consent was obtained from the participants, and confidentiality of the records was ensured. The survey was conducted using paper and pen method. The survey instrument used was a pretested questionnaire comprising of ten questions eliciting responses pertaining to the awareness among dental practitioners on management strategies of pediatric fracture. Results: In this survey, 100% of the dental practitioners are aware of pediatric fracture. About 60% of dental practitioners say that pediatric fracture is rare. About 70% of the dental practitioners say incomplete fracture is common among dental practitioners. Only 20% of dental practitioners are aware of the clinical and radiographic features of pediatric fracture. Only 27% of dental practitioners are aware of Salter-Harris fracture classification. Only 22% of the dental practitioners are aware of management strategies of pediatric fracture. About 11% of dental practitioners say that closed reduction would be the treatment of choice for pediatric fracture management. Only 3% of the dental practitioners are aware of prefabricated acrylic splints in the management of pediatric fractures. Only 3% of dental practitioners are aware of the advantages of prefabricated acrylic splints. Only 11% of dental practitioners are aware of the advantages of closed reduction compared to an open reduction in the management of pediatric fracture. Conclusion: In this survey, the awareness among dental practitioners on management strategies of pediatric fracture is not sufficient. Hence, it can be improved by attending more conferences related to it and reading more articles relevant to pediatric fractures and its management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004928
Title: Knowledge on various types of orthodontic treatment among general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Orthodontic braces are a fixed appliance used in orthodontics to correct the alignment of teeth. There are various types of orthodontic braces available in the market, namely, self-ligating braces, ceramic braces, traditional braces, Invisalign braces, and lingual braces. Even though there are various types of braces, knowledge about these braces are still questionable. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness of various types of orthodontic treatment among the general population. Materials and Methods: The population chosen was the patients visiting Saveetha Dental College. The questionnaires were distributed to a total of 100 participants. The population chosen was between 18 and 30 years, as above 30 years, their need and perception of orthodontic treatment may vary. We have included a total of 21 questions in a survey, in which the first six questions were to evaluate the basic awareness of general, orthodontic treatment. The next set of ten questions was used to evaluate the knowledge of various types of orthodontic appliances, and the last five questions were the pictorial representation based on the various types of orthodontic appliances which were used to evaluate the subjects perception toward esthetics and comfort. Results: Most of the subjects felt that orthodontic treatment would improve aesthetics. About 18% of the population felt the treatment would improve chewing efficiency. Moreover, 11% of the population felt the treatment would improve speech. However, the majority of the subjects were not aware of the benefits that can be achieved with orthodontic braces. Conclusion: Even though the knowledge about conventional orthodontic treatment was present among most of the general population, the awareness about contemporary appliances such as the clear aligners, self-ligating brackets, and lingual appliances was considerably less. We feel that more awareness measures need to be taken up to enlighten our patients regarding the recently trending appliances.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004929
Title: Knowledge on partially edentulous condition among transgenders in Chennai city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Partial edentulism is a condition where one or more teeth are missing but never all. The consequences of not replacing missing tooth/teeth include supra eruption of the opposing tooth/teeth, mesial drifting of adjacent tooth/ teeth, inability to talk properly, changes in facial features, and sinus expansion which lead to chronic headache finally temporomandibular disorders. Studies strongly suggest that dental caries and periodontal diseases were the major causes of tooth loss in early childhood and adolescence. Transgender community does not bother about their oral health because of their lower socioeconomic status and negligence in society. Hence, this study aims at creating awareness among the transgender to avoid the above consequences. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey had been designed and was used for the study. The descriptive survey was conducted for 96 transgenders who were about 30–50 years old. Results were entered into Microsoft Excel SPSS version 20, and analyzed. Results: Most of the transgender aware of the partial edentulism state while 47% were not aware of the partial edentulism state. This implies that transgender has a good knowledge about partial edentulism. About 65% of transgender communities were aware of the treatments of partial edentulism while 35% were not that much aware of the treatments for the condition. Conclusion: The knowledge on awareness of partial edentulous condition is good but the practice and the attitude toward the replacement of missing teeth/tooth is relatively considered to be poor.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004930
Title: Knowledge of oral hygiene measures in patient with dental implants
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The purpose of a prosthodontic treatment is to replace a certain number of lost or damaged teeth to achieve a functional and esthetic rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system. Tooth decay, gingival inflammation, and periodontal disease are quoted as the most common biological complications of fixed prosthodontic appliances. It is well known that these conditions are caused by bacteria settled in the dentogingival plaque accumulated due to insufficient oral hygiene in patient with fixed prosthodontics appliances. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of oral hygiene measures in patient with dental implants. Materials and Methods: In this study, patients rehabilitated with dental implants visiting and rehabilitated in Saveetha Dental College were taken in the study, about 50 patients were taken in this study, the age group from 20 to 50 years was taken in the study. Both males and females were included in the study. The questionnaire was framed on the basis of assessing the awareness about hygiene maintenance for their implants. About 10 questions were asked to the patients who had rehabilitated with dental implants. The questionnaire involves brushing technique, types of brushes used for implants, does the patients were using mouthwash and floss for maintenance of implants, and also patients were asked about whether they were using any special aid for implants. Results: About 80% of patients said that they are aware of oral hygiene measures needed for implants, and mostly, they got awareness through their dentist; likewise, 10% of patients were not aware of the need of hygiene measure in maintaining the dental implants. They also said that implants required only the common measures taken for oral health maintenance. Conclusion: The group of patients taken in the study has low awareness of dental implant hygiene maintenance and consequences. The knowledge of the maintenance of dental implant in patients is insufficient. The same conclusion can be drawn regarding the application of this knowledge.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004932
Title: Awareness of blood donation among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Human blood is an essential element of human life and there are no substitutes to blood as yet. Thus safety and availability of blood and blood products is an important issue of concern. Blood can save millions of life. The requirement of blood and blood products in a country depends on the population, health-care structure, prevalence of conditions requiring regular transfusions, such as hemophilia and thalassemia; however, the problem regarding a permanent shortage of blood is observed in blood services all over the world. Volunteer blood donors account for less than half of the blood supply in developing countries; and few countries have mobilized efforts to encourage voluntary blood donation. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and blood donation practices among college students. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 male students participated in this study. The questionnaire used in this study had a total of 20 questions, of which 17 assessed knowledge about blood donation, two assessed the practice of blood donation, one assessed the attitude based on blood. The responses were collected and analyzed. Results: Majority of students were aware of their blood group, but 80% of the students did not have much idea about the volume of blood that can be donated. Many people were aware of suitable age for blood donation (60%). Percentage of people who were unaware of normal blood pressure is 56%, minimum hemoglobin level was 50% and common diseases transmitted through blood transfusion were 78%. Least number of people was aware of how often can an individual donate blood (40%) and amount of blood collected during blood donation process. Majority of students were unaware of the contraindications of blood donation. This shows the poor knowledge on blood donation. About 74% of students have not donated blood and 82% of students were ready to encourage relatives to donate blood. Conclusion: This study shows a lack of knowledge about blood donation among college students; therefore, knowledge and awareness of blood donation has to be imparted.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004934
Title: Exercise pattern among undergraduate dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Exercise is an activity that improves or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. Physical exercise promotes health in a variety of physiological and psychological ways in both adolescents and adults. There are various factors that affect the exercise habits of college students. Some of these factors include sleep habits, diet, social life, homework, and other extracurricular activities. Aim: This study aims to determine the exercise pattern among undergraduate (UG) dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was administered through an online survey and spread among 100 UG dental students to determine the exercising pattern among the students and thereby to understand the various factors that affect the exercise habits of the UG dental students. Results: On the basis of the results obtained, it was found that majority of the UG dental students do not exercise regularly. Only 10–20% of the selected population have a regular exercising habit. Conclusion: Although college students are aware of some of these influencing agents, they do not always take the necessary steps to change their habits. The present study suggests that establishing exercise skill and habit should be listed as one of the core educational goals for students in university.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004935
Title: A survey on knowledge, attitude, and perception of antibiotic resistance and usage among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Prescribing antibiotics by dental practitioners have become an important aspect of the daily dental practice. Dentists have been reported to prescribe 10% of all common antibiotics. Antibiotics are often prescribed for shorter durations as a substitute of definitive treatment in case of odontogenic infections. The use of antibiotics for all endodontic infections has been deemed unnecessary and application of alternative treatment option has been suggested. Most patients either overuse the medication, do not complete the full course, self-medicate, or purchase over-the-counter drugs by supplying a previous prescription. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and perception of antibiotic resistance and usage among undergraduate dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was distributed among 200 undergraduate dental students belong to the third year, final year, and internship in Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: Knowledge about antibiotic resistance and their pattern of prescription, awareness about usage, and perception about cause and management of this issue. The questionnaire contained 17 questions of both multiple-choice and closed-ended questions. Some questions also allowed multiple answers. Data were collected and statistical analysis was done to obtain the survey results. Results: Twenty-four students (62%) reported that excessive antibiotic usage leads to resistance. One hundred and sixty students (80%) prescribe antibiotics on a daily basis with amoxicillin (95%) being the most commonly prescribed drug. Majority of the students 66% (n = 132) prescribed antibiotics for an average of 3 days. More than 90% of students reported that rational use of antibiotics and avoiding self-medication can help curb this issue. Conclusion: This survey was able to assess the knowledge, attitude, and perception of undergraduate students toward antibiotic resistance and provided an overview of this topic. Most undergraduate dental students are aware of the prevailing concern over antibiotic resistance, but there is a need to set guidelines and spread awareness among the public as well.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004936
Title: Faculty perception on the use of iPads in teaching dental topics
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nad
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Introduction: In many states across India and even different countries, people consider iPad as a source of learning tool. As per the total population across the world, it has been proved that the use of iPads is more among primary and secondary school students. Since iPads are compact, they can be used as high-end device for learning needs of students. Aim: This study is to know about the faculty perception on the use of iPads in teaching dental topics. Materials and Methods: A survey is employed by preparing a questionnaire comprising 13 questions focused on the use of iPads in teaching profession. The questions were addressed by the target population of this study, the dental teaching faculty in survey planet, which was used as an online tool to answer and submit the questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed. Results: The survey results reveal that the respondents have differences in their opinions in using iPads as a teaching aid or tool. Conclusion: This survey shows different opinions regarding the use of iPads among different participants due to various reasons like perception of the skill required and disadvantages like students distraction during study time. This survey gives an insight into the student’s attitude in using iPads as their learning tool.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004937
Title: Failures in fixed partial denture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Rehabilitation performed with a fixed partial denture (FPD) is one of the most accepted and desired by patients. However, it is a long procedure and generates high expectations from the patient. Once the professional knows the factors that create dissatisfaction or contribute to failures, the dentist could minimize them and thus meet that all the patient’s need and establish the most appropriate planning. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of failures/ clinical complications of the prosthesis after 1 year. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients were included in the study. Clinical and radiographic evaluations of the prosthesis were performed. Data were tabulated and patients with failure in prosthesis were calculated in percentage. Results: A total of six patients had failures out of 30 patients examined. In same patients who had clinical failures, they also had failures in the radiographic examination. About 20% of patients examined had failures in FPD after 6 months of insertion. Altogether, five clinical failures were observed and the most common was dental caries in two cases (6.6%), followed by gingival recession in one case (3.3%), the presence of pocket (3.3%), and one case of cementation failure (3.3%). Radiographic examination showed that from the total number evaluated, five patients (16.6%) had some kind of failure. Conclusion: Patients were satisfied after the observation period of 6 months 1 year. The main failures detected were: Crown cementation failure and ceramic fracture; gingival recession and periodontal pocket; and manufacture and cementation of short intraradicular post with increased diameter and crown cervical misfit.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004938
Title: Awareness about pulpoperiodontal lesions among dental students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 6
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Introduction: Infections can be transmitted from the pulp to the periodontium and vice versa. When the pulp tissue is healthy or vital, the chances for a bacterial invasion and subsequent periodontal breakdown are negligible. When there is a necrotic pulp with a periodontal breakdown, it occurs due to the Gram-negative bacteria colonizing the necrotic pulp. In case of multirooted teeth, when there is a vital pulp in one canal and necrotic pulp in another, there still exists a periodontal breakdown. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the awareness of the treatment of pulpoperiodontal lesions among the undergraduate dental students. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire-based survey. The questions were framed based on the following: Types of pulpoperiodontal lesions, diagnosis of these lesions, and the management of these lesions. The participants were undergraduate students of a city-based dental college. The printed versions of the questionnaires were distributed to the participants of this study and the responses were collected. There were a total of 500 participants in this study who all were volunteers. The results were collected and statistical analysis was done. Results: More than 55% of the respondents were aware of all these pathways of communication. About 80% of the respondents were aware of all these pathways Simon’s classification of endo-perio lesions. Only 20% of the participants were aware of the most common bacteria associated with endo-perio lesion. Conclusion: The survey reveals that many students are not aware of the bacterial source of infection in pulpoperiodontal lesions. There also exists a lack of clarity in the sequence of treatment for different lesions. Hence, further awareness must be created in this regard.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004939
Title: Awareness of age estimation using teeth among dental practitioners and students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Age is an important factor for all the human beings whether it is living or dead. It is useful for day-to-day life works such as educational purpose, governmental purpose, job purpose, medical purpose, crime investigation, court of law, clinical practices, research, and reconstructive identification purpose in case of dead individuals. Of many procedures for age estimation such as chronological age, bone age, mental age, and others, dental age estimation is considered to be an important procedure as tooth development shows less inconstancy than other developmental features or in relation to chronological age and also teeth are most tough and resilient part of the skeleton. High survivability of teeth exposed to severe physical factors, such as fire and water immersion, makes assessment of developing teeth the method of choice in forensic age estimation. Aim: This study aims to assess the level of the awareness of age estimation techniques using teeth among dental practitioners and students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective population survey was conducted among dental practitioners were assessed in dental colleges, Chennai. The questionnaire was designed and adapted to suit the local context. A self-administered, structured questionnaire written in English and validated through a pilot survey included 15 closed-ended questions on knowledge, awareness, and practice of age estimation using teeth among dental students and practitioners. The survey was conducted among dental practitioners (n = 100) – convenient sample size selected with reference to the previous studies. They were visited by a single investigator or by requesting them to attend online survey link, and all available and willing participants were given the questionnaire on the day of the visit. The responses were analyzed and evaluated. Results: This study conducted among dental practitioners (n = 100) regarding their awareness about age estimation using teeth, revealed general lack of knowledge, poor attitude, and lack of practice prevailing among this sample size, but their interest to enrich their knowledge is never fading. Conclusion: These studies have revealed that it is important to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. It is also important in India as more and more child and adolescent abuse cases being reported. Their accurate age estimation becomes forensic odontologist prerogative. This can be applied in various conditions of Indian judiciary till Indian population, special studies are developed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004940
Title: Awareness about various types of root canal sealers among dental students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tami Nadu, India
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Introduction: Root canal sealer is necessary to seal the space between the dentinal wall and the obturating core interface, fill the voids and irregularities in the root canal, and lateral and accessory canals and provide a fluid impervious seal. Aim: he aim of this study was to assess the awareness of various types of root canal sealers among dental students. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire consisted of questions with multiple responses for each question. The participants were undergraduate students of a city-based dental college. The printed versions of the questionnaires were distributed to the participants of this study and the responses were collected. There were a total of 500 participants in this study who all were volunteers. The results were collected and statistical analysis was done. Results: More than 95% of our participants were aware of the use of root canal sealers. Zinc oxide eugenol and calcium hydroxide-based sealers were chosen as most commonly used by the participants. Conclusion: The awareness of the use of sealers is high among the participant group. Still, further awareness must be created about the properties of individual sealers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004941
Title: Emerging techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of oral candidiasis – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 6
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Oral candidiasis is a fungal infection caused mostly by the species Candida albicans along with other causative agents such as Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The three main groups of candidiasis are acute, chronic, and angular. The treatment involves antifungal drugs such as nystatin, miconazole, and amphotericin B. The recent advances in elucidating the interaction between the candida organism and the environment are cellular and molecular mechanism. Polymerase chain reaction analysis, recombinant antigen technique, and candida biofilm communication have found the existence of oral candidiasis. Traditional and innovative treatment modes are done to manage oral candidiasis. This review is done to learn about the advanced and emerging technique in the diagnosis and treatment of oral diagnosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004942
Title: Knowledge of drug prescription among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The act of indicating one or more drugs to be taken by the patient, its dosage, and the interval of the treatment is known as prescribing. It is a dynamic and individualized clinical process. Cultural, social, economic, and promotional factors can influence the pattern of prescription. Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are in influenced by a variety of factors. Aim: This study aimed to find knowledge of drug prescription among dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective population survey was conducted among final year dental student was assessed, in a Private Dental College, Chennai. The questionnaire was designed and adapted to suit the local context. A self-administered, structured questionnaire written in English and validated through a pilot survey included ten close-ended questions on knowledge, awareness, and practice of drug prescription among final year dental students. A total of 100 students were included in the study. The following factors were assessed: The most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization (WHO) Guide to Good Prescribing. The survey was conducted with a convenient sample size selected with reference to the previous studies. Students were visited by a single investigator or by requesting them to attend online survey link, and all available and willing participants were given the questionnaire on the day of the visit. The responses were analyzed and evaluated. Result: Majority of students have the habit of prescribing paracetamol, followed by Ibuprofen. Amoxicillin was the common brand prescribed. Eighty percentages of students were unknown with the WHO guidelines while 58% of the students know for how long the drug had to be given and 88% of the students know about the route of drug administration. Conclusion: This study shows that the level of knowledge of drug prescription among the dental students is moderate. The knowledge of pharmacology among 4th -year students in the dental college has gaps that could affect patient safety. More studies are needed to determine whether this issue affects the quality of patient care and the effectiveness and safety of treatments. Since prescribing accurately is extremely important, it is necessary to develop therapeutic guidelines, and to provide pharmacological therapy courses. The implementation of educational programs, including the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing and Patient Safety Curriculum Guide, would be beneficial in helping students develop prescribing skills.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004945
Title: Awareness about fibroid among Indian women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Uterine fibroids are the most common benign growths which grow in the muscular wall of the uterus. They range from very tiny to larger than a cantaloupe. Occasionally, this can cause the uterus to grow to the size of 5-month pregnancy. Fibroid can occur as one or more in number. Mostly fibroid growth itself will not cause symptoms, size and location cause pain and other symptoms in women. Aim: The aim of the study is to find the awareness about fibroid among population. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study is done among women population age group falls between 18 and 60. The study is conducted to the normal women around the particular area. About 50 women were taken in this study, questions were asked before test their awareness about uterine fibroid. This study is conducted for both the educated and the illiterate women. This questionnaire involves causes, symptoms, complication, investigation, and also the treatment of the uterine fibroid. Results: About 8% of the people told that the fibroid occurs in the age below 20, and about 80% of the people told that the fibroid occurs in the age between 20 and 35, and 2% of people said that the fibroid occurs in the age above 35. Most of the people answered that the source of information is media and fewer said the neighborhood and many know about fibroid by the occurrence in their family. Almost all people think that fibroid occurs in the families. Conclusion: Adequate health education programs should be planned throughout the year and should be widely spread. The study points to the insufficient knowledge of women about uterine fibroid and negative influence of low knowledge.