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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004951
Title: Phytochemical screening and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Rumex nervosus
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Natural Science, College of Teachers Education and Educational Leader ship, Abbiyi-Addi College, P.O.Box 11, Abbiyi-Addi, Tigray, Ethiopia.
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Introduction: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are constantly generated in the human body through exogenous and endogenous pathways and alter the structure and function of cellular components and responsible for oxidative stress diseases. Antioxidants are both natural and synthetic sources prevent the tissue damage by scavenging free radicals. Objectives: The objective present study has been carried phytochemical screening with different organic leaves extracts of Rumex nervosus and the evaluates the in-vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of ethyl acetate leaves extracts of R. nervosus. Methods: Organic leaves extracts of R. nervosus extract were obtained by serial exhaustive solvent extraction method and further subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activities of ethyl acetate leaves extracts of R. nervosus were evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results: Phytochemical analysis of ethyl acetate leaves extracts of R. nervosus showed the presence of a maximum number of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, carbohydrates, amino acids, and proteins. The ethyl acetate leaves extracts of R. nervosus exhibited significant dose-dependent DPPH radical scavenging activities with 64.95% inhibition at a concentration of 100 µg/ml with IC50 values of 68.62 µg/ml. Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethyl acetate leaves extracts of R. nervosus shown significant DPPH radical scavenging activity due to the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic compounds and might be served as a potential source of natural antioxidants, for development of therapeutic antioxidant drugs helpful in preventing the destructive process of various oxidative stress diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004943
Title: Klippel-Feil syndrome – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nad
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Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a rare congenital disease characterized by the congenital fusion of any two cervical vertebrae. The syndrome occurs in heterogeneous group of patients unified only by the presence of a congenital defect in the formation or segmentation of the cervical spine. KFS results in limited movement of the neck. KFS is sometimes identified by the shortness of the neck but not all people with this disorder have a visibly shortened neck. This review was done to gain knowledge of the causes, symptoms, and treatment for KFS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004944
Title: Interarch and intra-arch relationship of anterior teeth with periodontal conditions
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 6
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Introduction: The aim of this research to study the interarch and the intra-arch relationship of the anterior teeth with periodontal conditions. This study is done to know the relationship between the orthodontic anomalies which is assessed using the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) and periodontal conditions assessed by the plaque index (PI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI). Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between the intra-arch and interarch relationships of the anterior teeth as assessed by the IOTN and the ICON, and some parameters of periodontal conditions, i.e., hygiene, inflammation, disease severity, and treatment need. Materials and Methods: The three parameters of the intra-arch relationship on both dental arches (displacement of contact point, crowding, and spacing) and the four interarch relationship (overjet, overbite, and crossbite) are assessed with IOTN and are correlated with the periodontal condition, PI and the GBI. Results: A significant correlation was found between parameters of intra-arch and interarch relationship and the indices of periodontal conditions such as PI and GBI. Conclusion: This study provides valuable indication on the usefulness of making orthodontic treatment on the ground of preservation of periodontal condition.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004946
Title: Review on: Anticancer drug-induced adverse drug reactions in oncology patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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According to the WHO, cancer is the uncontrolled abnormal cell growth which spreads and affect almost distant part of the body. The abnormal cell growth often invades surrounding tissue and can metastasize to distant sites. Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally and has estimated which has 9.6 million deaths in 2018. Conventional chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, radiation, and surgery are the main approach to cancer treatment involves highly complex regimens and hence leads to increased susceptibility to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). According to the WHO, ADR is defined as any response to a drug which is noxious, unintended, and occurs at doses used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy. ADRs are major global problems that lead to major clinical problems, human suffering, and increased cost for its treatment management. This review focuses on chemotherapeutic agents which are highly toxic and have narrow therapeutic index in nature, thus makes onco-pharmacovigilance necessary.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004947
Title: Knowledge and attitude of patients regarding choice of selecting of fixed partial dentures and implant
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Edentulous state, a consequence of tooth loss, can be attributed to caries, periodontal disease, or injury which not only affects the appearance but also the functioning and thereby having a great impact on psychological and social well- being of the individual. Thereby an impending pressure to have a restoration mimicking, the natural has become predominant; and hence various replacement treatment modalities such as complete dentures, removable partial dentures, fixed partial dentures (FPD), and dental implants have been advocated. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners regarding choice of selecting FPD or Implant. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of patients regarding choice of selecting FPD or implant. A total of 50 patients participated in this survey and successfully completed. This study highlights the knowledge and attitude of patients regarding choice of selecting FPD or a dental implant. Results: From our study, it was found that 38% of patient prefer to replace missing tooth for esthetics and 66% patients choose implant as a treatment of choice. About 48% of patient feels that FPD is less time consuming than implant because of the time duration and also because implant is a surgical procedure. Conclusion: From our study, we conclude that majority of patients choose implant as a treatment of choice. Some patient feels that FPD is less time consuming than implant because of the time duration and also because implant is a surgical procedure.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004948
Title: Awareness and knowledge about periodontal plastic and esthetic surgery among undergraduate students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nad
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Introduction: Mucogingival defects, including gingival recession, occur frequently in adults, have a tendency to increase with age, and occur in populations with both high and low standards of oral hygiene. Gingival recessions present complex soft-tissue pathology, with a multiple etiology and a high prevalence which increases with age. They are defined as an exposure of the root surface of the teeth as a result of the apical migration of the gingival margin beyond the cementoenamel junction. Aim: The aim of the survey is to assess the degree of awareness and knowledge about periodontal plastic and esthetic surgery among undergraduates. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted to assess the degree of awareness and knowledge about periodontal plastic and esthetic surgical procedures among 100 interns in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. All participants were provided with a pre-structured questionnaire comprising 15 questions related to periodontal plastic and esthetic surgical procedures, and answering was completely self-based. The questions were divided into three segments: (a) Basics of mucogingival procedures, (b) surgical procedures and techniques, and (c) indications for mucogingival procedures. The possible options chosen by the participants were tabulated and the percentile for each question was represented using pie charts. Results: Among the 100 participants, 96% of students were aware of mucogingival or periodontal plastic and esthetic surgical procedures. About 60% of students were aware of the techniques of periodontal plastic and esthetic surgical procedures and 62% of the participants were aware of the indication of these surgical procedures. Conclusion: The most widely accepted treatment modality for cases of gingival recession is the surgical correction of the defect. Mucogingival procedures or periodontal plastic surgery involves the correction of soft-tissue defects involving the periodontium and frenum. Advancements and better techniques would help in improving periodontal health and also help correct defects in esthetic regions. Moreover, it is also important that we are aware of the various techniques used for the treatment of these soft-tissue abnormalities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004949
Title: Awareness and knowledge of various treatment options for replacement of missing teeth in patients at Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nad
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Introduction: Common oral conditions will have some effect on well-being and quality of life. Complete or partial edentulism is one of the causes for patients visiting a dentist. Loss of teeth results in difficulty in mastication, speech, loss of facial support, and esthetics. Apart from these complications, tooth loss also results in psychological stress to the patients and decreased social interaction because of embarrassment which is associated with denture wearing. To avoid these complications, missing teeth should be replaced immediately. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of treatment options available for replacement of missing teeth and giving awareness of the treatment options for a replacement for those patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire was going to be designed and distributed to 250 patients visiting Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. Questionnaire includes the personal details of patients, i.e., age, sex, education and also about to know the awareness, knowledge of patients to replace the missing teeth, and preference of treatment options. The data were collected and statistically analyzed and results obtained. Results: About 58% of patients were aware of removable partial denture, 46% of patients were aware of fixed partial denture, 38% of patients were aware of implants, and 80% of patients were aware of complete denture. The results observed in our study showed that awareness of patients about removable and complete denture prosthesis is high compared with fixed prosthesis. Conclusion: Awareness of complete dentures and removable partial denture among patients is high compared with a fixed partial denture and dental implants. This lack of awareness is more in developing nations like India, where there is a lack of education and awareness among people about treatment options for the replacement of missing teeth. Hence, measure should be taken to improve awareness

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004950
Title: Review on acute on chronic liver failure
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Liver failure is the deterioration of liver function which can develop as an acute liver failure with known or unknown chronic liver disease or acute decompensation of an end-stage liver disease which manifests with international normalized ratio ≥1.5, hepatic encephalopathy, coagulopathy, jaundice, and ascites in a patient with chronic liver disease associated with a high rate of 28 days mortality and it is called as acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF). In a study of 1049 ACLF patients, acute etiology includes alcohol 35.7%, hepatitis viruses (A, B, E) 21.4%, sepsis 16.6%, variceal bleeding 8.4%, drugs 5.75, and cryptogenic 9.9%. Alcohol is the most common cause of chronic liver disease 56.7% followed by hepatitis viruses and cryptogenic. The prognosis is measured by the different scoring system of the liver which includes a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, and sequential organ failure assessment score; consortium organ failure score (CLIF-C OFs) was develop as (CLIF-C ACLFs) to assess organ failure in ACLF patients which show to have higher accuracy compare to MELD score and Child-Pugh scores, and reduction of diagnostic error and show improvement by 28% at 28-day and 90-day mortalities. ACLF treatment has a different medical approach, including intensive care, hepatologist, infection control team, and transplant for an effective therapeutic result. General supportive care specific therapy for the disease, complications, and liver transplant are needed in treatment of ACLF. Liver transplant is the most effective treatment in ACLF. Few studies showed efficacy and safety in reducing short-term mortality in ACLF patients by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor which is likely to be an alternative treatment apart from liver transplant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004952
Title: Gingerol effects on 1-methyl-4 phenyl pyridinium-induced Parkinson’s disease cellular model oxidative stress through mitochondrial membrane dysfunction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Bharat University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background of Study: 1-methyl-4 phenyl-pyridinium (MPTP), a neurotoxin inhibits mitochondrial membrane complex mechanism, causes Parkinson’s diseases. MPTP has the ability to generate more debris, neuronal death. The main aim of the study to determine the neuroprotective effects of gingerols against MPTP (neurotoxin) result s cell death (programmed) SK- N-SH cells. Gingerol is an active compound of ginger, which possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including potent antioxidant anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic. Materials and Methods: Analyzing the following parameters such as MTT assay for cell death and cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (ATP), increased/decreased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, TBRAS levels, and biochemical activities were estimated. The gingerol was treated with (neuroblastoma) cell line to know the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generations, and other cellular reaction. Results: Data revealed that gingerol has the neuroprotective effect against MPTP due to its antioxidant properties, level of mitochondria function was maintained, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties in the cell line also studied.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004953
Title: Possible antidepressant potential of a cognitive enhancer Polygonum minus based on its major chemical constituents in leaf part
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Discipline of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang, Malaysia.
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The current review is related to the potential of Polygonum minus leaf part against depression. Depression is worldwide largest problem which can cause the imbalance of neurotransmitters of brain, around 322 million people are living with this disorder according to latest survey of the World Health Organization. There is a need to find more options for the treatment of depression to cure it and to overcome or reduce the side effects of already existing treatment options. The phytomedicine can play an important role to discover the new targets against any disease. P. minus leaf has many beneficial constituents. Antidepressant potential of its major constituents has been explored in this up to date review, all data regarding this purpose have been collected from Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, and PubMed. Our observations show that the leaf part of P. minus has large potential to become an antidepressant option in future, due to the presence of flavonoids specifically which are involved in memory-enhancing activity and increasing the level of neurotransmitters in brain according to their reported effects. Based on the observation of the current review, an experimental screening on antidepressant activity of P. minus leaf part is strongly recommended.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004954
Title: Product quality review on pharmaceutical dosage forms
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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The product quality review (PQR) is basically an annual review to determine whether there are potential improvements in the pharmaceutical product’s system or production or improvements to the product requirements and manufacturing processes. The PQR is an assessment designed to satisfy the requirements of various good manufacturing (cGMP) regulatory bodies. A good manufacturing practice ensures that goods are reliably manufactured and regulate in compliance with quality standards. It is intended to mitigate drug errors and also she risks associated with pharmaceutical product manufacturing. This article gives information regarding the contents of the PQR and documentation process. It also centers on the United States and European Union legislation and regulatory standards with comparative estimation of resemblances and variances of circumstances related with the drug product manufacturing in these two countries. The article also gives information regarding the trend analysis and the types of trends that can be plotted using statistical tool which is used in pharmaceutical industry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004955
Title: An update on recently studied antioxidant and antiangiogenic phytomedicinal plants: A new gateway toward anticancer research
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Discipline of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang, Malaysia.
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Cancer is among the most severe cause of population mortality. Discovery and development of new potent anticancer agents are necessary to prevent a global cancer crisis. Oxidative stress and angiogenesis are considered as major causative factors for cancer. In this review, recently studied phytomedicinal plants regarding their antioxidant and antiangiogenic activities along with their phytochemical constituents are discussed briefly, which can provide the new options for the treatment of drug- resistant cancer as well. Information on new antioxidant and antiangiogenic plants was collected from 2019 published work by Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The reviewed plants possess potential as anticancer treatment due to their strong antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004956
Title: A review on curcumin – Antidepressant bioenhancer activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dr. M. G. R. Educational and Research Institute (Deemed to be University), Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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A depressive disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disorder, which affects 21% of the world population. The presently using drugs can impose a variety of side-effects, including cardiac toxicity, hypopiesia, sexual dysfunction, body weight gain, and sleep disorder. During the past decade, there is a growing interest in the therapeutic effects of natural products on mental disorders. Curcumin, the principal curcuminoid found in spice turmeric, has recently been studied for its active role in the treatment of various central nervous system disorders. Curcumin demonstrates neuroprotective action in Alzheimer’s disease, tardive dyskinesia, major depression, epilepsy, and other related neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. The present review attempts to discuss some of the potential protective role of curcumin in animal models of major depression, tardive dyskinesia, and diabetic neuropathy. These studies call for well planned for pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on curcumin for its potential use in neurological disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004957
Title: Esthetic assessment of the effect of gingival exposure in smile of patient among the general public
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: The smile plays an important role in facial expression. Facial attractiveness and smile esthetics are strongly related to each other. An attractive, well-balanced smile is a highly regarded treatment objective, along with creating a functional occlusion. The aim is to assess the esthetics by studying the influence of gingival exposure in the smile of patients. Materials and Methods: The study included 100 individuals. Color photograph of a smiling female changed on the computer, displaying the different gingival exposures, from 5 mm of gingival exposure to 5 mm of upper lip incisor coverage was assessed by laypersons. The individuals were asked to rate the attractiveness of the smiles with altered gingival display. Statistics was done in SPSS software. Results: About 19% of laypersons have chosen 0 mm as the best smile which is no gingival exposure during smile. About 18% felt 1 mm as the best smile which is little amount of gingival exposure. About 8% felt −1 mm as the best smile which covers some portion of central incisors. About 1% felt −5 mm as the best smile. Age or gender did not show any sort of variation. Conclusion: The perception of laypersons in evaluating gingival display may be different from that of orthodontists. There is influence of gingival exposure in smile and thus contributing to esthetics. Therefore, it is important for public to participate in the decision-making process of prosthodontic treatment planning.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004958
Title: A survey on students’ perception on challenges in learning preclinical prosthodontics
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Prosthodontics is a broad subject, with gaining starting directly from the time the undergraduate student joins the course till the completion of his/her 4 years college education. Conventional undergraduate dental instruction in India draws in understudies in classrooms and research facility settings amid the initial 2 years of their preclinical preparing, with the clinical subjects being presented in the third and last year, trailed by 1 year of rotatory entry level position. Aim: This study aims to assess the perception of challenges in learning preclinical prosthodontics. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared and submitted to the dental students and the resultant data were analyzed using statistical software. This study consists of 100 undergraduate dental students. Results: From this study, 48% of the participants think that it is difficult to learn theory in prosthodontics in the 1st year. In that, 41% of students think that it is difficult for the 1st year students to learn because of no prior sensitization to theoretical terms. About 40% of the students think that it is difficult and 20% of them think that it may be difficult to learn practical procedures in preclinical prosthodontics. Conclusion: The students communicated a requirement for early clinical introduction to enhance the student’s comprehension of the preclinical parts of the subject. We prescribe early clinical introduction and dynamic showing learning techniques for showing learning of preclinical prosthodontics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004959
Title: Attitude of pedodontists toward pedodontic specialty education
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The pedodontic specialty education programs are based on the university certificate and the hospital certificate. A basic curriculum and instruction level broadly representative of the specialty is required in each setting. Pedodontists perception toward instruction during their training in orthodontics, dentistry for the handicapped, general anesthesia, premedication, research experience, treatment planning, and patient education is not well documented and needs to be explored. Aim: This study aims to study the attitude of pedodontist with regard to specialty education. The main objective was to correlate the attitude of pedodontists toward their specialty education. Materials and Methods: This method of study is a questionnaire with the five bipolar descriptive used to indicate degree of satisfaction perceived toward inquiry areas developed from guidelines for specialty education. The major topics covered were patient education, behavior management, restorative dentistry, pulp therapy, and interceptive orthodontics. Results: About 40% of the pedodontists showed highly satisfied and mildly satisfied in the academic pedodontics in topics such as ability to evaluate literature and working knowledge of basic pedodontic literature. About 83–85% of the pedodontists showed highly satisfied and mildly satisfied response for the techniques such as voice control, hand over mouth exercise, restraints, positive reinforcement, and basic child psychology. Conclusion: The survey indicated positive satisfaction levels in relation to behavior management, restorative dentistry, pulp therapy, traumatic injury and interceptive orthodontics, reduced satisfaction levels in the areas of prevention/patient education and child sedation, and significantly lower satisfaction levels for pedodontists in the treatment of the special child, hospital dentistry, and conducting experimental and clinical research.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004960
Title: Awareness of coronavirus among dental students – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Infection prevention and control measures are critical to prevent the possible spread of this virus in health-care facilities. Therefore, health care workers should be aware of all procedures concerning prevention of and protection from it. Aim: The aim of this study is to improve the knowledge of the dental students and evaluate their awareness of coronavirus. Methodology: A questionnaire was made consisting of 10 questions covering various fields and aspects of coronavirus and 100 dental students were interviewed to evaluate their knowledge. Results: Based on the results calculated, 93% of students were aware of the coronavirus outbreak. About 53% of students were aware that it is a RNA virus while 47% chose DNA. On asked about origin of virus, 57% chose zoonotic, 33% chose human, and 10% chose avian source. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that students participated in the study showed average knowledge and positive attitude toward coronavirus. Still, there are few lacunae in the knowledge and attitudes requiring improvement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004961
Title: KAP on caries status in upper limb deformity patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Dental caries is defined as tooth decay or cavities. It produces acid and destroys the teeth and the dentin. Caries is caused due to improper oral hygiene and oral health. Upper limb deformity patients are patients due to the failure of the formation of limbs or also caused due to accidents. Materials and Methods: This survey was made by providing around 10 questions to each of the 30 patients who were taken from general hospitals and ward in and around Chennai to find the caries status in upper limb deformity patients. Results: The results show that 93.5% are aware of dental Caries, whereas the other 6.5% were not aware of dental caries. Among them, 44.8% have visited the dentist to treat dental caries and 55.2% have neglected it and have not visited the dentist. Conclusion: According to this survey, there is still some sort of unawareness of dental caries and dental health. Awareness of dental health and oral hygiene should be created.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004962
Title: Historical perspectives of mushroom cultivation in the world
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Aksum University, Axum, Tigray Region, Post Box No 1010, Ethiopia.
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“Mushroom is a macro fungus with a distinct fruiting body, which can be either epigeous or hypogeous and large enough to be seen with naked eye and to be picked by hand”. Their use as food and traditional medicines is probably as old as human history itself because the importance of mushrooms in history was evidenced by the fact that the desert truffle (Terfezia arenaria) was described in the Bible as “bread from heaven” and also “manna of the Israelites.” China and Japan have long experience in the utilization of edible mushrooms both as food and as traditional medicine. China is still leading the world in mushroom production. However, how the artificial cultivation of mushrooms has evolved is not well recorded. Nonetheless, there are some sources of information which give clues on the commencement of their artificial cultivation. According to Liu (1958), references on mushroom utilization as natural foods in Chinese records can be traced back to the Chou Dynasty (900 B.C.) and Chang (1977) had written that the first mushroom to be cultivated was Wood Ear (Auricularia auricula-judae, 600 AD) during the Tang Dynasty (618–907). Gayley (1938) had also tried to collect the few available data on the early cultivation of the white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and she suggested that it must have been started sometime between 1678 and 1707 (in the 1600s) in France. Similarly, the cultivation of paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) (Bull. Ex Fr.) Singer was deduced by Gruen (1964) and Chang (1972) to have begun in China, in the Nanhua Temple by the vegetarian Buddhist monks in 1822.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004963
Title: Developing lipid-based drug delivery system in a quality by design approach – A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru - 560035, Karnataka, India
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Reports concluded that about 40% of all new chemical drug molecules have issues with solubility and permeability which results in minimizing the bioavailability of drug. Amidon and his fellows classified the drugs under Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS), based on solubility and permeability characteristics. Among all the classes, class IV drugs show low solubility and permeability in spite of their good therapeutic activity which challenges the formulator. To overcome the issues of class IV drugs, a novel technique called lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDSs) came into limelight. In this formulation technique, a lipophilic drug is mixed with suitable oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant mixture. This article mainly emphasizes on the application of quality by design concepts in the development of LBDDSs for BCS class IV drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004964
Title: Effectiveness of chlorhexidine on patients with periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Chlorhexidine is a gold standard against which other antiplaque and antigingivitis agents are measured. Chlorhexidine is available in various forms such as digluconate, acetate, and hydrochloride salts which are sparingly soluble in water. It is dicationic at pH levels above 3.5. It prevents plaque accumulation, hence, it is a antiplaque and antigingivitis agent and reduces the adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis to epithelial cells. It can be bacteriostatic or bactericidal depending on the dose. Most important unique property of chlorhexidine is its substantivity. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the role of chlorhexidine European Pharmacopoeia (EP) in patients with periodontitis. Gingivitis and periodontitis are the two major inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium. Their primary etiology is bacterial plaque, which can initiate destruction of the gingival tissues and periodontal attachment apparatus. Gingivitis is inflammation of the gingiva that does not result in clinical attachment loss. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 samples were taken. Test group had 10 samples with individuals with periodontitis. Control group had 10 samples. Loss of attachment, pocket depth, and gingival index were taken before the non-surgical periodontal therapy. Mouthwash was prescribed to the patients. The indices were repeated after 15 days and 30 days and were compared. Results: The pre-operative value of probing depth was in the range of 1.16–1.83 mm and post-operative value in the range of 0.32–1.03 mm, pre-operative value of loss of attachment was in the range of 1.0–1.5 mm and post-operative value in the range of 0–0.91 mm, and pre-operative value of gingival index was in the range of 0.92–1.03 and post-operative value in the range of 0.32–0.96. Through statistical analysis, it was conferred that there was reduction in pocket depth and gingival index (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse provides antimicrobial activity during oral rinsing. This is used along with regular tooth brushing/flossing to treat gingivitis that causes red, swollen, and easily bleeding gingiva. Chlorhexidine belongs to a class of drugs known as antimicrobials. It works by decreasing the amount of bacteria in the mouth, helping to reduce swelling and redness. This study focuses on the effect of chlorhexidine EP on patients with periodontitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00004965
Title: Development and validation of UPLC method for separation and determination of rivaroxaban and its related substances in bulk drugs
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Science and Humanities, New Generation Materials Lab, Vignan’s Foundation for Science Technology and Research University (Deemed to be University), Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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An ultra-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection was developed for the determination of related substances in rivaroxaban in active pharmaceutical ingredient. The determination of related substances in rivaroxaban is highly significant as this would tolerate more effective generation of clinical data. The chromatography analysis was performed at 30°C using a gradient mobile phase consisting of buffer (0.01 N potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate with pH 4.8) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50% (v/v) using variable wavelength ultraviolet–visible detector set at 240 nm. Rivaroxaban and related impurities (A, B, and C) were eluted in a gradient at a steady flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with retention times around 5.6 min (rivaroxaban), 2.4 min (Imp A), 8.8 min (Imp B), and 3.6 min (Imp C) with asymmetry factor 1.2 (rivaroxaban), and linearity correlation coefficients in the range of 0.25–1.5 ppm for all impurities. Regression coefficient was 0.999 for all the impurities, while recovery from samples was 96.4–98.6 % (Imp A), 96.3–96.6 % (Imp B), and 95.7– 98.5% (Imp C) for rivaroxaban impurities, respectively. Relative standard deviations of method precision were <1% for total impurities in rivaroxaban. Specificity/selectivity characteristics were established and confirmed that the absence of interference of related impurities with respect to rivaroxaban analyte peak. From the above parameters indicated that the present developed method is most precise, accurate, reproducible, and specific for the determination of rivaroxaban related impurities in drug substance for routine analysis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004967
Title: New drugs and clinical trials rules 2019 – A regulatory look
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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India was a preferred destination for clinical trials (CTs) just a few years ago. A young, highly educated workforce concentrated in a few urban areas, a very huge population, and prevalence of all major diseases. Unfortunately, cases of alleged unethically and improperly performed trials have occurred in isolation. These incidents made the community of patients believe that they are gullible and treated like guinea pigs. There has been a negative association with the country’s clinical research. The major concerns raised were about the consent process in clinical studies, justifiable compensation for death or serious injury to the trial participants, and alleged exploitation of Indian subjects in CTs. This led to a sharp decrease in the number of CTs licensed by India’s Drug Controller General. The government has, therefore, taken several steps to resolve the deficiencies in the existing regulations pertaining to CTs in India and has approved the New Drugs and Clinical Trials Rules, Gazette, 2019, and these rules will apply to all NDs, new research medicines for human use, CTs, bioequivalence test, bioavailability study, and the Ethics Committee. The new rules will, with immediate effect, replace “Part XA” and “Schedule Y” of Drugs and Cosmetics Rules.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004968
Title: Extrinsic factors in regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalagiri, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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The dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus is a region associated with short-term, long-term memory, and spatial memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is well established in sub-granular zone (SGZ) of DG. The adult born neurons as a result of adult neurogenesis make synaptic contacts with nearby neurons and help in better learning and memory function. A better understanding of adult neurogenesis in DG help in devising therapies for many disorders associated with hippocampus. This review discusses about the influence of external factors in regulation of adult neurogenesis in SGZ of DG in mammals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004969
Title: Antimycotic and cytotoxic potential of Acalypha indica mediated selenium nanoparticle
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antimycotic and cytotoxic potential of Acalypha indica mediated selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). Materials and Methods: The plant extract was prepared using 1% A. indica as powder, with 30 mM of sodium selenite with 60 ml of distilled water. Then, the extract was kept in the laboratory shaker for few hours, then it was centrifuged and pellets were collected. Results and Discussion: The antimycotic activity of A. indica mediated SeNPs shows potent inhibition against Candida albicans. The cytotoxic effect analyzed using brine shrimps shows an increase in the percentage of lethality. Conclusion: The present study concluded that A. indica mediated selenium nanoparticle possesses both antimycotic and cytotoxic effect as it shows potent inhibition against C. albicans and brine shrimps.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004970
Title: Green synthesis of Phyllanthus niruri mediated silver nanoparticles and it is anti-inflammatory activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Phyllanthus niruri is a perennial tropical shrub, which has been used for a wide range of diseases. Medicinally active plants have proven to be the best reservoirs of diverse phytochemical for the synthesis of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory property of p.niruri by using protein denaturation assay. Materials and Methods: AgNP is synthesized using P. niruri and albumin denaturation assay was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property. Result: P. niruri mediated AgNP showed a marked anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: We concluded that P. niruri mediated AgNP has good anti-inflammatory activity at its high concentration which is equipotent when compared to the standard drug standard drug.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004971
Title: Antioxidant studies of one Ayurvedic medicine, Drakshadi Kashayam
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai - 600073, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The present study deals with the three antioxidant assays, namely, 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) by standard protocols for one Ayurvedic medicine, Drakshadi Kashayam which is used to cure a number of ailments. Materials and Methods: Drakshadi Kashayam was procured from standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai, India, and was subjected to GC-MS analysis following standard protocol. Results: It was observed that among the three assays, Drakshadi Kashayam indicated excellent results at very low concentrations in FRAP assay as compared to ABTS and DPPH assays which indicated moderate antioxidant activities of the medicine. Conclusion: These results clearly indicate the antioxidant potentials of Drakshadi Kashayam proving its medicinal efficacy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004972
Title: Antioxidant studies of one ayurvedic medicine, Mahanarayana Thailam
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai - 600 073, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: The present study deals with three antioxidant assays for one Ayurvedic medicine, Mahanarayana Thailam which is used to treat diseases such as arthritis, paralysis, facial palsy, hearing loss, tremors, wasting of muscles, insanity, oligospermia, female infertility, headache, psychosis, humpback, and eye diseases. Materials and Methods: 2,2’-azino-bis-3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were conducted following standard protocols. Results: Mahanarayana Thailam showed very good antioxidant potential at very low concentrations in FRAP assay as compared to ABTS and DPPH assays. Conclusion: These results clearly indicate the medicinal efficacy of Mahanarayana Thailam as a very good antioxidant formula.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00004973
Title: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of one ayurvedic Rasayana formulation, Brahma Rasayanam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: The present study deals with the Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of one ayurvedic Rasayana formulation, “Brahma Rasayanam,” which is a health rejuvenating tonic prescribed in Ayurveda. Materials and Methods: Brahma Rasayanam was procured from ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and subjected to GC-MS procedure by following standard protocol. Results: The GC-MS profile indicated the presence of some very important biomolecules such as 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 2H-Pyran-2-one, tetrahydro-6-nonyl-, n-hexadecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, and n-decanoic acid. Conclusion: The medicinal roles of the molecules represent that of Brahma Rasayanam itself, further work to standardize the medicine is warranted.