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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005058
Title: Circulating microRNA (143, 21) as biomarker for prostate cancer
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Al- Qadisiyah, Al Diwaniyah, Qadisiyyah Province, Iraq.
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Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second utmost widespread cancer in men and major male cancer in the economically developed countries. Although, several tumors of prostate mature gradually are restrained in the prostate without reducing the patient’s life quality. While other tumors are violent, spread rapidly and thus should be diagnosed at initial stages. Regardless of its false negative and false positive rates, test of the prostate-specific antigen is only extensively accessible PCa test diagnostics and screening. Therefore, the establishment of predictive biomarkers capable of distinguishing between indolent and aggressive PCa would reduce the risk of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. One promising approach is the utilization of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the diagnosis and prognosis of PCa patients. Objective: The aim of present study is to examine whether the PCa, and BPH, patients have distinctive concentration of miRNA-21 and miRNA-143, which might lead to discover noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity. Materials and Methods: A case– control study has been conducted and based on three groups, first group include 50 patients with PC. The second group was 50 patients who have benign hyperplasia who were observation in Thi-Qar Oncology Center who were included in this study, whereas, the third group contained 50 healthy (non-BHO and non-PCa) volunteers. Venipuncture was used to collect samples of blood from these group’s volunteers. The collection of 3 ml blood was carried out in plain non-EDTA tubes to clot. Further, centrifuges were utilized to separate the serum and then stored at ‒20°C which was further used to identify free miRNA-143 and miRNA-21 qPCR. Results: The levels of miR-21 and mi-143 in the control group were constant and equal to 1. miR-21 was significantly highest in prostatic cancer and followed by BPH, 6.40 versus 2.28, respectively, and the level of significance was high (P < 0.01). While miR-143 was significantly lowest in prostatic cancer 0.12 when compared with both control and BPH groups (P < 0.001); though, no significant variance was found among the miR-143 of control group and BPH group having a ratio of 1 versus 1.11 (P = 0.140), correspondingly. As soon as, the analysis of receiver operator characteristic curve was done and outcomes showed that the miR-21 cutoff value was >4.513 with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy levels of 88.0%, 90.0%, 89.8%, 88.2%, and 89.0%, respectively, while miR-143 cutoff value was ≤0.264 with sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy levels of 78.0%, 98.0%, 79.6%, 96.1%, and 88.0%, respectively. Conclusion: We can get a diagnostic biomarker with high sensitivity and specificity, using a combination of these two miRNA and miRNA-21 which show high sensitivity, and miRNA-143 which show high specificity (88.0 and 89.0), respectively, and area under curve (0.88 and 0.92), respectively. This could possibly complement one another in an indicative test while enhancing sensitivity when related to the miRNAs individually.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005050
Title: Comparison of curcumin’s cytotoxicity on B16 and Madin- Darby canine kidney cell lines using methyl tetrazolium assay and flow cytometry assay to evaluate the percentage of cell growth and apoptot
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Clinical Immunology, Jabber Ibn Hayyan Medical University, Najaf, Iraq
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Background: A great interest now is focused on using of plant extract for many human diseases. One of the most noticeable plant extracts is curcumin which have been used for a variety of maladies such as cancers, immunological, neural, rheumatological, and cardiac diseases. Curcumin is approved to be used in many researches in treatment of cancers (like malignant melanomas) due to its cytotoxic effect on malignant cells. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line is used for studying of cell biology as these cells are highly similar to normal human cells in vitro, while B16 cell line is used as a model for malignant melanoma for in vitro study. Aim of this Study: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relative toxicity of curcumin on B16 cell line compared to MDCK cell line. Materials and Methods: Graduated concentrations of curcumin were used to demonstrate dose-dependent cytotoxicity on B16 and MDCK cells. After incubation of curcumin with both cell lines in 96 tissue culture plate, methyl tetrazolium assay and flow cytometric assessment were done to evaluate the percentage of cell growth and apoptotic cells, respectively, for both B16 and MDCK cell line. Results: There are significant differences of curcumin-cytotoxicity between B16 and MDCK cell line at lower doses of curcumin. Conclusion: Curcumin has less cytotoxicity on MDCK cell line at lower doses than on B16 cell line suggesting that curcumin can be used as anti- cancer drug with minimal side effect on normal cell in the smallest therapeutic doses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005055
Title: Evaluation of antioxidant and anticholesterol activity of crude acetone fruit extract of Sambucus nigra
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Sambucus nigra commonly known as “elderberry” is a widespread medicinal shrub which is used as an ingredient in herbal tea, as a food flavoring agent, as a dietary supplement in many parts of the world. S. nigra is proved to possess antitumor potential, antibacterial activity, antidepressant potential, antidiabetic property, antidiuretic, and hemostasis properties. The aim of this study is to determine whether S. nigra possesses antioxidant and anticholesterol property. Materials and Methods: Dried fruit of S. nigra was purchased from herbal care center and crushed and 14.36 g of the crushed powder is mixed with 30 ml of crude acetone and left in room temperature for almost 24 h. The crude extract was tested for antioxidant and anticholesterol properties with the help of different assays. Results: The crude extract of S. nigra was proved to possess a good level of antioxidant and anticholesterol activity in this study. Conclusion: The findings of the study support the view that medicinal plants are promising sources of potential antioxidant and antihypercholesterol that may be effective for therapy of disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005051
Title: Study the correlation between P-selectin and endotoxin with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, visfatin, migration inhibitory factor, and soluble thrombomodulin in female Iraqi atherosclerosis pat
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq
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Background: Atherosclerosis (AS), it is a prolonged inflammatory illness, including together the native and adaptive immune systems; it controls the beginning and development of the injuries, and possibly devastating thrombotic problems. We designed this study to examine the relationship of P-selectin (SELP) and endotoxin (ET) with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), visfatin (VF), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and soluble thrombomodulin (STM) in Iraqi AS patients, and to determine the power of this association. Materials and Methods: Serum levels of SELP, ET, LBP, VF, MIF, and STM were measured by ELISA technique in 42AS patients, the age range within 50–74 years and 42 healthy controls, the age within 48–71 years, matched sex, and ethnic background were selected accurately for comparison. Results: Serum SELP, ET, LBP, VF, MIF, and STM concentrations were raised in the AS cases than those without AS (P < 0.01), Pearson’s correlation analysis exhibited that sera SELP and ET concentrations indicated an important positive association with all studied parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that a SLEP has the best discrimination among the individual AS markers with area under the curve 0.9421 (95% confidence interval 0.8975–0.9868; standard error 0.02280; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Serum studied parameter levels could provide additional information about the risk factors of developing AS disease and may be used as predicators for AS growth also may be used in manufactured of new therapy agents to reduce or prevent AS disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005004
Title: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of one ayurvedic formulation Drakshadi Lehyam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: The present study deals with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of one ayurvedic formulation Drakshadi Lehyam, which is prescribed for liver-related diseases. Materials and Methods: The medicine was procured from the standard ayurvedic vendor and subjected to GC-MS analysis following standard protocol. Results: It was observed that some important medicinal molecules such as cyclohexanamine, N-3-butenyl-N-methyl-, cyclopentane, 1-acetyl-1, 2-epoxy-, 4H-Pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, benzoic acid, heptane diamide, N,N’-di-benzoyloxy-, p-hydrazinobenzamidoxime, hexanediamide, N,N’-di-benzoyloxy-, Benzoic acid, ethyl ester, coumarin, 2-Amino-4- tert-butylphenol, cyclopentan-1-al, 4-isopropylidene-2-methyl-, 1-Adamantanamine, N,N-dimethyl-, Tetradecanoic acid, 1,1-Diphenyl-4-phenylthiobut-3-en-1-ol, 1H-2-Indenone,2,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-3-(1-methylethyl)-7a-methyl, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 1-Heptatriacotanol, cis-13-Octadecenoic acid, Octadecanoic acid, benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxy-2- nitro-, methyl ester, 3-(3-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-l-alanine, and hexadecanoic acid, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-1,2-ethanediyl ester were present, which are indicative of the medicinal role of Drakshadi Lehyam. Conclusions: The medicinal roles of the majority of the molecules do represent the medicinal properties of Drakshadi Lehyam as a potent liver tonic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005005
Title: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of one ayurvedic Rasayana formulation Narasimha Rasayanam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: The present study deals with the Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC MS) study of one Ayurvedic Rasayana formulation, Narasimha Rasayanam. Materials and Methods: The GC MS of Narasimha Rasayanam was performed by standard protocol. Results: It is observed that some compounds such as cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxamide, N,N’-di-benzoyloxy-, benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-, octanediamide, N,N’-di-benzoyloxy-, N-cyclohexyl-3,4- methylenedioxyamphetamine, benzaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy- and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester do show some medicinal roles which augur well with the claim of Ayurveda toward the function of this formulation. Conclusion: The knowledge of the molecules present in this Rasayanam throws some light on the mechanism of action of this health tonic used for vigor and good health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005006
Title: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of one Ayurvedic medicine Ashtachurnam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: The present deals with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of one Ayurvedic digestive formulation, Ashtachurnam. Materials and Methods: Ashtachurnam was procured from standard Ayurvedic vendor from Chennai and was subjected to GC-MS analysis following standard procedure. Results: Some important biomolecules such as cycloheximide, piperine, 1-heptatriacotanol.,beta.-sitosterol, Thymol, and n-decanoic acid with medicinal values were found in the GC-MS profile. Conclusion: The types of molecules present in the GC-MS indicate their overall medicinal role correlating to Ashtachurnam.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005007
Title: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of one Ayurvedic formulation avipathi churnam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: The study envisages finding the molecules present in one Ayurvedic medicine, Avipathi churnam, which is prescribed to treat digestive disorders by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Materials and Methods: Avipathi churnam was procured from standard Ayurvedic medicine vendor at Chennai, India, and was subjected to GC-MS analysis following standard procedures. Results: The GC-MS profile shows the presence of some important biomolecules of medicinal importance such as cis-5,8,11-Eicosatrienoic acid, methyl ester, 6,6-Dimethyl-2-(2-methyl-allyl)-1,6-dihydropyrimidine- 4-Carbonitrile, 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol.,alpha.,alpha.,4-trimethyl-, acetate, 2(1H)-Isoquinolinecarboximidamide, 3,4-dihydro-.,beta.-ylangene, Caryophyllene oxide, 7-Methyl-Z-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, 12-Hydroxy-14-methyl-oxa- cyclotetradec-6-en-2-one.,beta.-sitosterol, 9, 19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, acetate, (3.beta.)-, Ursodeoxycholic acid, Butyl 9.cis., and 11.trans.-octadecadienoate which augur well with the medicinal properties of Avipathi churnam. Conclusion: The GC-MS analysis results indicate the medicinal efficacy of Avipathi churnam as a good digestive formulation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005008
Title: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of one Ayurvedic formulation, dantyarishtam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: The study aims at understanding the types of molecules present in one Ayurvedic formulation, Dantyarishtam by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Materials and Methods: Dantyarishtam was procured from standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and was subjected to GC-MS analysis by standard procedure. Results: The GC-MS profile indicated the presence of some important biomolecules of medicinal importance such as heptanoic acid, L-Isoleucine, ethyl ester, Ethyl hydrogen succinate, 4-Ethyl hydrogen itaconate, 3-(3,3-Dimethyloxiran-2-yl)-2,2-dimethylpropionic acid, ethyl ester, pentanoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, acetic acid, (3-methyl-2-nitrophenyl)methyl ester, Benzeneethanol, 4-hydroxy-, 2,5-di-tert-Butylaniline, Disulfide, di-tert-dodecyl, Methyl 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoate, octadecanoic acid, 3-Hydroxy-4-decenoic acid, 9-(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)oxy-, 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl ester, and Z-10-Methyl-11-tetradecen- 1-ol propionate. Conclusion: The biomolecules present do have medicinal roles which represent the role of Dantyarishtam as a potent digestive formulation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005009
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of one ayurvedic formulation, Devadarvyarishtam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: The present study aims at the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of one Ayurvedic liver tonic, Devadarvyarishtam. Materials and Methods: Devadarvyarishtam was procured from a standard Ayurvedic vendor from Chennai and was subjected to GC–MS analysis following standard procedures. Results: It was observed that some molecules of extremely important liver tonic function were indicated in the GC–MS report. Conclusion: It is clear from the results that Devadarvyarishtam is a potent liver tonic medicine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005010
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis study of one Ayurvedic medicine, Madhukasavam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The present study aims at knowing the presence of biomolecules present in one Ayurvedic medicine, Madhukasavam, by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. Materials and Methods: Madhukasavam was procured from a standard Ayurvedic medicine vendor ant Chennai and was subjected to GC–MS analysis by standard procedure. Results: Important biomolecules such as phenyl-beta-D-glucoside, eucalyptol.,alpha-methyl 4-O-methyl- D-mannoside, pentanoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, phenylethyl alcohol, L-alpha-terpineol, 2-furanethanol.,beta-ethoxy-, Quinolin-2-ol, 6-methoxy-4-methyl-, 3-(3,3-Dimethyloxiran-2-yl)-2,2-dimethylpropionic acid, ethyl ester, decane, 5-ethyl- 5-methyl-,(1Ar-(1aalpha,4abeta,8as(*)))-4a,8,8-trimethyloctahydrobenzo (c)cyclopropa(d)pyran-2,4-dione, n-hexadecanoic acid, trans-geranylgeraniol, and N,N-dimethyl-4-nitroso-3-(trimethylsilyl)aniline were shown in the GC–MS profile, which have far-reaching medicinal roles. Conclusion: This is evident that the molecules do represent the medicinal role of Madhukasavam as a digestive formulation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005011
Title: Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy fingerprinting and in silico molecular docking analysis of secondary metabolites from Anethum graveolens L. seeds for anti-inflammatory activity
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Siddha Regional Research Institute (Under CCRS), Kuyavarpalayam - 605 013, Puducherry, India.
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Background: Anethum graveolens, belongs to the family Apiaceae, is used traditionally as a popular aromatic herb and spice that has a very long history of use going back to more than 5000 years. Previous studies showed that A. graveolens has antimicrobial, analgesic, gastric mucosal protective, antisecretory effects, smooth muscle relaxant, hypolipidemic, and many other effects. In Traditional Siddha literatures, this medicinal plant is mentioned as Sadhakuppai and indicated for anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of various secondary metabolites of A. graveolens L. using molecular docking method. Materials and Methods: The secondary metabolites of ethanol extract of A. graveolens seeds (EAGS) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The three- dimensional (3D) structures of secondary metabolites were downloaded from PubChem database and the 3D structure of target proteins was downloaded from Protein Data Bank database. Docking studies were performed using Molegro Virtual Docker. Results: All the ligands were able to dock effectively and also form hydrogen bonds with the target proteins. Hence, it can be inferred that the phytochemicals present in EAGS were found to possess appreciable anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: Among these five ligands, Apiole was the only molecule which docks effectively with all the selected inflammatory proteins. Apiole constitutes about 60% in EAG. Hence, it can be inferred that apiole may be the active principle which is responsible for anti-inflammatory action of A. graveolens.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005012
Title: Knowledge awareness and practice among parents regarding the usage of crowns in pediatric dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamalle High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the understanding regarding the usage of dental crowns in primary tooth among parents. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of the usage of dental crowns in primary tooth among parents. Materials and Methods: A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive parents from the area of Thiruverkadu, Chennai, participated in this study. A cross-sectional observational online-based study was conducted. Questionnaire was constructed in SurveyMonkey website with dichotomous responses and multiple-choice questions. Results: Results of the present study indicated that the overall knowledge and attitude scores of parents toward the restoration of primary tooth with crowns were above the average. The awareness regarding the importance of crown on a primary tooth was quite good also as it was of satisfactory level. Conclusion: Overall knowledge and attitude of parents toward crowns for primary tooth are just above the average. Health-care professionals should do more awareness campaigns, especially in rural areas to explain the importance of crown in a child instead of losing his/her primary tooth due to caries. The importance of a primary tooth should be explained to every parent and parents-to-be. Every parenting program should include a small portion of primary dental care topic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005013
Title: Knowledge and awareness among school teachers regarding the management of dental trauma in Virudhunagar district
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the understanding regarding the management of dental trauma among school teachers in Virudhunagar district. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of the management of dental trauma among school teachers in Virudhunagar district. Materials and Methods: A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive school teachers from the area of Virudhunagar, Chennai, participated in this study. A cross-sectional observational online-based study was conducted. Questionnaire was constructed in SurveyMonkey website with dichotomous responses and multiple-choice questions. Results: Results of the present study indicated that the overall knowledge and attitude scores of school teachers toward the management of dental trauma were below the average. The awareness regarding importance in managing dental trauma in primary school students was poor also as it was not unsatisfactory level. Conclusion: Overall knowledge and attitude of school teachers toward the management of dental trauma in children were poor. Health-care professionals should do more awareness campaigns especially in rural areas to explain the importance managing dental trauma in a child and helping them safe the tooth instead of losing his/her primary or permanent tooth due to fractures. Every school teacher should attend a training section or a course in this field. This should be made as mandatory by the government.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00005014
Title: Cilnidipine-induced photosensitive reaction: A rare case report
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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A 55-year-old female who was newly diagnosed with hypertension and Parkinson’s disease presented with the complaints of hyperpigmented scaly plaques on her left forearm and elbow, which she claimed to have developed after receiving 10 days of her medications – Tab. cilnidipine 5 mg, Tab. rasagiline 0.5 mg, and Tab. trihexyphenidyl 2 mg. She was diagnosed with photosensitivity reaction to drugs. Among the drugs she received, cilnidipine may cause photosensitivity reaction as it belongs to the dihydropyridine class, which is photoliable and is known to cause phototoxic skin reactions. However, this reaction is rare in the case of cilnidipine when compared with other calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine and diltiazem. Clinicians should be vigilant regarding such rare reaction occurrence. The causality for the suspected adverse drug reaction was found to be possible and the severity was found to be moderate (level 3) reaction, using Naranjo criteria and the World Health Organization probability scale; and Modified Hartwig and Siegel scale, respectively. We report a case of a patient who developed photosensitivity reaction after receiving cilnidipine, which subsided on dechallenging.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005015
Title: Phytochemical screening and in vitro anti-dandruff activities of bark extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica)
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Aksum University, Axum, Ethiopia.
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Introduction: Malassezia globosa has been linked to several skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, folliculitis, and pityriasis vesicular and atopic dermatitis. Although several synthetic anti-dandruff drugs used for the treatment of M. globosa- related dandruff, most of them are not effective due to the development of antifungal resistance. Azadirachta indica is widely used medicinal plant used in traditional by many people in among the globe for curing the both infectious and non-infectious diseases. Objective: The objective of the present study was to conduct the phytochemical screening and evaluation of in vitro anti-dandruff activities of bark organic extracts of neem (A. indica) using different solvents; diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water. Materials and Methods: Young stem (bark neem) was extracted with solvents of varying polarity, namely, diethyl ether, chloroform, acetone, and ethanol. The in vitro anti-dandruff activity of the extracts was evaluated against multidrug-resistant species of M. globosa and Malassezia restricta. Results: The ethanolic bark extract of A. indica was shown 5.25 g/100 g of percentage yield following 3.84 g, 1.13 g, 2.37 g, and 3.00 g of extracts of aqueous water, diethyl ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate, respectively, which were obtained. As a result, the highest zone of inhibition was obtained in ethanol solvent 14 mm (8.57 ± 3.4) at 100 μg/ml. Besides, 12 mm (7.57 ± 2.6), 11 mm (7.28 ± 2.9), 10 mm (7.00 ± 2.5) and 9 mm (5.85 ± 2.0) for aqueous, ethyl acetate, chloroform and diethyl ether, respectively. The phytochemical screening of ethanolic bark extract of A. indica revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids (azadirachtin), flavonoids (sodium nimbinate), tannins (salannin) and phenolic compounds, terpenoids (nimbin, nimbolinin and nimbidin) and steroids (nimbidol) responsible for anti-dandruff activity against two malassezia species such as (M. globosa and M. restricta). Conclusion: The present results indicate that infected persons can be used neem as antifungal agents. The polar (ethanol and aqueous water) extracts have a more secondary metabolites and potential source of antifungal agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005016
Title: Current regulations for obtaining marketing authorization in Singapore
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Therapeutic Products Branch (TPB) performs the evaluation for therapeutic products to ensure that they meet the required standards for quality, safety, and efficacy for use in patients in Singapore. A registered drug product is the one that is approved by the Drug Control Authority (DCA) for sale/use in Malaysia. The objective is to ensure that therapeutic substances approved for the local market are safe, effective, and quality and for therapeutic and also cosmetic products and to ensure the regulatory marketing authorization of HSA and NPRA. For HAS, there are two categories of product registration applications for therapeutic products – new drug application (NDA) and generic drug application (GDA). For NPRA, product evaluation process is of two categories, full evaluation and abridged evaluation. It explains the overview of the marketing authorization of the HSA and NPRA. NPRA also handles courses and provides training to drug regulatory personnel from the other countries. HSA is to ensure that they meet the required standards for quality, safety, and efficacy for use of patients in Singapore. NPRA also handles courses and provides training to drug regulatory personnel from the other countries, for example, from Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005017
Title: Anti-staphylococcal effect of red roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyx decoction as an Indonesian folk medicine beverage
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM 21 Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363.
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Objective: The study was purposed to investigate the antibacterial effect of red roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyx decoction on Staphylococcus sp. growth inhibition that could be useful to overcome staphylococcal infection. Materials and Methods: The calyxes of the roselle were extracted using the decoction method by boiling fresh red roselle calyxes until the temperature reached 90°C for 30 min. The antibacterial effect of the decoct was tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 11784, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 13228, Staphylococcus warneri ATCC 3340, and Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC 3342 using the agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration value (MIC) was done using the agar macrodilution method. The antibacterial of the decoct then compared to tetracycline Hydrochloride (HCl). Results: The roselle decoct possessed the antibacterial activity with broad spectrum against all tests Staphylococcus in dilutions ranging from 0.41 to 0.81% w/v, except the MIC against S. aureus 11,748, reached the highest MIC value at 0.81–1.62% w/v. The anti-staphylococcal comparison values of roselle decoct against tetracycline HCl were S. aureus (1:5.67), S. epidermidis (1:1.10), S. warneri (1:1.24), and S. xylosus (1:5.04). Conclusion: This study indicated clear evidence supporting the red roselle calyx in the decoct preparation use in treating staphylococcal infection-related to bacteria.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005049
Title: Estimating of some heavy metals in the river water east of Kufa, the province of Najaf
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical, Kufa Technical Institute, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Najaf 54003, Iraq
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Background: Water is the most important element in nature; human will cannot continue to live without water for a simple time, water is very important to human needs so it should be free from chemicals and microorganisms and toxic substances in quantities that lead to health risks the, and water pollution occurs as a result of the increase in the development of cultural and artistic and technological preparation as a result of an increase in population and the misuse of land, which led to a high level of pollution and reach a critical stage in the present day. Moreover, the World Health Organization reports that approximately 5000 million people worldwide suffer annually from problems with the use of contaminated water. Materials and Methods: This study was done to learn how much the Kufa river water polluted in the province of Najaf with some heavy metal elements, where five sites were selected for the study within 6 months, from October 2018 to April 2019, the experimental method has been followed in this study. Results: After collecting water samples from five sites in Kufa river and carrying out the process of digestion and measuring the level of concentrations of elements which was recorded as zinc concentration ranged between 0.0466–0.0045 mg/L, cadmium concentration between 0.0045–0.0005 mg/L, and copper concentration between 0.264–0.044 mg/L. The results show that all concentrations of heavy metals i.e., zinc, cadmium and copper in the studied samples is within the limits permitted according to local and international determinants. And conclude it through the present study that the river of Kufa water in the east of the province of Najaf containing heavy elements such as zinc, cadmium, copper, and in varying quantities and within the allowable level by the World Health Organization and local, while the presence of lead concentration element was higher than the permissible limits by the World Health Organization and local standards, this is a river of Kufa water consumption and animal and vegetable. Conclusions: We conclude that the Kufa river water in Najaf, Iraq Province, polluted our environment with some heavy metals and as especially the element of lead because the concentration is higher than the permissible limits of the World Health Organization and local measures, making the water unfit for human, animal, and agricultural consumption.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005052
Title: Clinical and sonographic features in ovarian torsion and their relevance in surgical intervention
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gyanecology, Panimalar Medical College Hospital & Research Institute, Varadharajpuram, Poonamallee, Chennai - 600 123, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Ovarian torsion accounts for 2.7% of gynecological emergencies. Early diagnosis can prevent irreversible damage to ovary. The main objective of this study was to analyze the clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics of surgically proven cases of ovarian torsion. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case review of 16 women with surgically confirmed ovarian torsion at Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute between March 2017 and February 2018. Results: The total number of patients with ovarian torsion in our study was 16. About 74.75% of cases were in the reproductive age group. Acute onset of abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom in all the patients (100%). The next common symptom was nausea and vomiting in 50% of patients. Fever was seen in 25% of patients. Duration of symptoms was more than 3 days in 10 (62.5%) patients and <24 h in 6 (37.5%) patients. In all the patients, ultrasound was done and suspicion of ovarian torsion was noted in the few cases and the remaining confirmed with torsion. Out of 16 patients, 6 patients underwent laparoscopy while 10 patients underwent laparotomy. Cystectomy was done in 7 patients, salpingo-oophorectomy was done in 7 patients, total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy done in only one case, and oophoropexy done in one patient. Histopathological examination was done in all cases. The most common pathology was serous cystadenoma, no pathology was detected in one specimen. Torsion was confirmed in 10 specimens. Conclusion: Even though the diagnosis of ovarian torsion is challenging, careful analysis of presenting symptoms supported by pelvic ultrasound findings can guide surgical intervention, which is the mainstay of the treatment of torsion to address the pathology and to preserve reproductive function.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005053
Title: Data loggers used in pharmaceutical industries – A brief review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Data loggers are electronic devices that are used to monitor, record, and collect various environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and location. This review includes brief information about data loggers: Different types of data loggers, different parts of data loggers, operation of data loggers, and also about some manufacturers of data loggers along with their different models and intended purpose of use. Data loggers are usually used in laboratories and industries to monitor the temperature and humidity in the storage areas. Apart from this, they are also used in transportation containers of perishable goods for remote monitoring during transportation. The information from the data loggers are time stamped and hence cannot be manipulated. This makes the data loggers a reliable source of information.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005054
Title: A survey on the treatment timing and modalities for white spot lesions among various pediatric dentists in India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of white spot lesions (WSLs) in various practice settings and patient populations in India and to gather information about the treatment timing and modalities for WSLs used by the pediatric dentists in India. Methodology: The survey was done by developing a 10 question multiple-choice digital questionnaire and sharing it to various pedodontists across the country through social media. Results: A total of 104 active pediatric dentists responded. Majority of them were treating WSLs before, during, and after orthodontic treatment, the most commonly used treatment modality were resin infiltration, fluoride toothpastes, and rinse. Conclusion: The prevalence of WSLs differs from one region to another across the country and also differs in various types of practices. There is no standard treatment protocol among the pediatric dentists for treating WSLs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005056
Title: Phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content of crude ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum verum – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cinnamomum verum is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. Bark of this tree is used for making medicines. It is also used in treating diabetes, infections, and reducing body weight. Cinnamomum species are prepared from dry dark of the tree of genus Cinnamomum indigenous to South and Southeast Asia and China. Materials and Methods: The study aims at determining the phytochemical components, antioxidant activity, and estimation of total phenolic content of a small evergreen tree, C. verum. Results: The ethanolic extract of this herb showed a significant number of phytochemicals, antioxidants, and a good content of total phenol. Conclusion: The results suggest that the crude ethanolic extract of C. verum could be used as source of diverse bioactive compounds.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005057
Title: A mini voyage on the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dr. M. G. R. Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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An array of recently published manuscript globally has proposed the stages of different pathogenic pathways in multiple sclerosis (MS). These researches were focused on both biopsy and autopsy. Based on the review, data on clinical, imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid suggest that most of the cases were disseminated encephalomyelitis rather than MS pathogenesis. Cognitive impairment is a common and disabling feature of MS. It may contribute to withdrawal from work than physical disability. The article delivers the importance for early diagnosis and management of disabilities in MS, before it develops an irreversible entry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00005059
Title: Synthesis and characterization of 3,3’-(disulfanediylbis(methylene))bis(1-(4-bromophenyl)-4- (4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-2-one)
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry Sciences, Educational Directorate of Thi-Qar, Iraq
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Aim: This study includes the synthesis and diagnosis of the 3,3’-(disulfanediylbis (methylene))bis(1-(4-bromophenyl)-4-(4- chlorophenyl)azetidin-2-one)2d. Methods: This compound was ready through the reaction of the 3,3’-disulfanediyldipropionic acid with the appropriate 4-bromo-N-(4-chlorobenzylidene) aniline 1d. Results: The structure of those azetidin-2-one was diagnosed on the premise of the spectral data: Infrared (IR); proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR); carbon-13 NMR ( 13 C-NMR); and mass. Conclusion: This work approved the synthesis of 3,3’-(disulfanediylbis(methylene))bis(1- (4-bromophenyl)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-2-one) compound from 3,3’-disulfanediyldipropionic acid and appropriate Schiff’s bases using POCl 3 and Et 3 N in CH2Cl 2 under N2 atmosphere and characterization of these compound by IR, mass, (2D-NMR experiments) 1 H-NMR, and 13 C-NMR spectra.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005060
Title: Effectiveness of physiotherapy techniques in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, School of Physiotherapy, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioral symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This disorder is characterized by cognitive, motor, perceptual, and behavioral disorders that cause the difficulties in child development. There is a shortage of physiotherapy work in the area of psychiatry. Physical therapy has not worked frequently in ADHD to be little included in interdisciplinary teams for the treatment of them, therefore, need studies to identify possible changes of the disorder so that the physiotherapist intervenes. Children with ADHD may also have additional problems such as sleep and anxiety disorder. Through the physiotherapy, these problems can be reduced. Moreover, body technique has much more to contribute in mental health care and stress that physiotherapy can play a significant role in improving their mental health. Therefore, it is essential to assess the significance of physiotherapy techniques in children with ADHD. Methodology: The comparative experimental design was conducted among the sample of 30 ADHD affected children and was divided into two groups. Group A: Control group: Treated with psychology and educational psychology. Group B: Experimental group: Treated with psychology educational psychology and physiotherapy program. Outcome Measures: SNAP-IV questionnaire was used to measure the ADHD symptoms before and after the treatment. The result of this study shown that there was significant improvement in the symptoms of ADHD in the subjects of both Group A and Group B, but more significant improvements were noted in the subjects of Group B. Conclusion: The study concludes that the psychology and educational psychology are as effective as physiotherapy program in reducing the symptoms of ADHD. However, the combination of both psychology educational psychology and physiotherapy program shows better improvements than the psychology and educational psychology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005061
Title: A review on diabetes mellitus – An annihilatory metabolic disorder
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru - 560 035, Karnataka, India.
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to the impairment of insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. DM is a metabolic disorder, which occurs more habitually worldwide. It is indicated by hyperglycemia with low insulin-directed glucose by target cells. DM is associated with two specific types, type I and type II. Type I DM is due to damage of β-cells of pancreatic islets. In type I DM, the body fails to produce the insulin and the person requires to administer the insulin. This is also termed as juvenile diabetes. Type II DM is due to the imperfection of β-cell function genetically. In type II DM, the cells fail to use the insulin properly. This is termed as adult-onset diabetes. At present, accessible therapy for DM includes insulin and oral hypoglycemics. These drugs act by increasing the insulin secretions in the pancreas or by decreasing plasma glucose concentration by decreasing gluconeogenesis. The present review is to focus on pharmacological and physiological aspects of diabetes, complications, and drug therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005062
Title: Designing chemistry, manufacturing, and controls components of regulatory submissions for ASEAN countries
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysore, Karnataka, India
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The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) pharmaceutical market has experienced strong growth and an increase in the global standard of living that has made it an area of interest for companies looking to explore new business opportunities. Hence, having the drug approved for sale in various countries at the same time is difficult for the companies. This article summarizes and simplifies the criteria for marketing applications, i.e., the essential aspects of marketing applications in various ASEAN using countries, the procedure for preparing and evaluating the chemistry, manufacturing, and control (CMC) specifications for filing an application in the ASEAN market. The regulatory environment has similar characteristics, but the requirements and process for drug registration differ from country to country. One of the regulatory authorities, primary challenges, is to ensure that the pharmaceutical products are produced according to that country’s regulatory requirements. Documentation in the ASEAN region can be submitted in the format ASEAN. While ASEAN format is compulsory from 2009, the member countries have their own registration process specification, such as administrative documents and labeling. This paper is intended to provide a comparative analysis of the drug regulatory requirement for generics in two of the ASEAN countries that are Indonesia and Vietnam.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005063
Title: Prevalence of aging diseases in Iraqi elderly
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Basic Science, Dentistry College, Al-Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq.
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Background: Aging comes about from the effect of the accumulation of a wide assortment of molecular and cellular damage over the time. This promotes a progressive lessening in physical and mental capacity, a developing risk of disease, numerous chronic diseases, and pathological conditions. Various investigations were to assess the relationship between the magnitudes of the problem submitted to the concerned officials to enhance shadowing of non-communicable disease (NCD). Methodology: Male and female patients were selected, based on an exclusion (systemic rheumatic diseases, malignancy, gout, thyroid disease, pregnancy, and medications: Thiazide, calcium, Vitamin D, steroid, and bisphosphonate) and inclusion (Iraqi consenting men and women, aged from 35 to >65 years) criteria. The study was conducted with an outpatient of convenient sample size of (5, 50) male and female attended consultation units of Al- Naaman Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. Samples are selected in the month of July 2018 and using random sampling techniques, separate lists were prepared for rural and urban areas. The study depends on the WHO classification for diseases category to affirm the diagnosis. Results: Outcome of the present study shows that most of the disease burden in an old age is due to NCDs, risk factors of atherosclerosis due to dyslipidemia and diabetes, and the remaining elderly disease were due to renal failure and these conditions are imperative targets for the development of health promotions policies. Strategies to reduce the burden of mortality and disability in older age by enabling healthy behaviors and controlling metabolic risk factors can, therefore, start early in life and should continue across the life. Conclusions: Behaviors also remain important in older age. Strength training to maintain muscle mass and good nutrition with multiple vitamins, especially B-complex, which act coenzyme needed in metabolic pathway can both help to preserve generation and maintenance cognitive function, delay care dependency, and reverse frailty. Global strategy and action plan on aging and health are required.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005064
Title: Comparison of biofilm gene (gtf-B) and antibiotics resistance of Streptococcus mutans from dental caries in diabetic and non-diabetic patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Basra, Iraq.
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Background: Dental caries is a widespread disease even in developed countries in the human of oral cavity. The dental biofilm consists of various bacteria and some strains of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) have specific virulence factors for compete with another strains, this study investigates the relationship between diabetic and non-diabetic patients to determine three aims: In the first aim, to isolate and diagnosis of S. mutans from dental caries infection; in the second aim, for detection some of virulence factors; and in the third aim, the relationship between biofilm formation of S. mutans with gtf-B gene and antibiotics resistance against S. mutans isolates. Materials and Methods: The samples were identified depending on the biochemical test system of analytical profile index (API) Strep and Vitek system. Also, all isolates of S. mutans were determined for the virulence factors; biofilm formation using tissue culture plate method; determination of the gtf-B biofilm gene using Polymerase Chain Reaction and antibiotic sensitivity test. Results: A total of 100 bacterial isolates were identified from dental caries, which represent 50 diabetics and 50 non-diabetic patients for different ages. They were admitted to the dental clinics in Basra city. Bacterial isolates were identified according to biochemical tests, API 20 Strep and Vitek system. S. mutans have been proposed as the main etiological agent of dental caries in diabetic patients comparing with non-diabetic patients. S. mutans was highest percentage (40%), followed by Streptococcus sobrinus (20%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (14%), and Lactobacillus spp. (10%). Moreover, S. mutans from diabetic patients was significant difference in the age group of 50–60 years from non-diabetic patients. In the second aim (for detection some of virulence factors): The results showed that S. mutans isolates of dental caries of diabetic patients were significant differences (P ˂ 0.05) from non-diabetic patients according to detect of virulence factors. These virulence factors were included 85% of hemolysin, 90% of bacteriocin production, 95% of glucan production, and 100% of biofilm formation. Moreover, these virulence factors were very important factors for association with pathogenicity of S. mutans. In the third aim (the relationship between biofilm formation of S. mutans with gtf-B gene and antibiotics resistance against S. mutans isolates): Molecular study by PCR technique was used for the detection gtf-B gene, this gene was found as predominance in 20 (100%) of S. mutans in diabetic at significant differences (P ˂ 0.05) comparing with non-diabetic patients. In addition, this gtf-B gene produced glucosyltransferase which was responsible for the pathogenicity of S. mutans by the formation of biofilm and resistance of S. mutans trend five antibiotics (amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline, and gentamycin). Conclusion: We can conclude from our study that S. mutans isolates from dental caries of diabetic patients were resistance for most antibiotics. The main reason of resistance was related with biofilm producing and producing of glucosyltransferase enzyme with express of gtf-B gene in these isolates.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005065
Title: Influence of adhesive system on shear bond strength between composite and Biodentine or mineral trioxide aggregate with different surface treatments
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Al-Iraqia University, College of Dentistry, Baghdad, Iraq
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Background: The operative therapy with deep carious lesions drawing close to the pulp and its associated dentinal tissues has been created a significant challenge as the risk of pulp exposure elevated. Treatment modalities have been aimed to preserve the vitality of pulp with minimally invasive preparation. Within the accelerated demand of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or Biodentine, the restoration used for final cover of the tooth grew to become an essential matter, some of dentists may have been utilized amalgam as a final filling and others may rely on glass ionomer cements (resin modified and metal modified glass ionomer cements) or composite resins. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of a composite resin with white MTA or Biodentine using two different bonding systems, first with only self- etching adhesive bond and the second with acid etch and adhesive bond. Materials and Methods: Forty specimens had been prepared through the usage of acrylic blocks as a cylindrical white MTA (pro-root) and Biodentine (Septodont) had been mixed and stuffed in every prepared acrylic blocks. Results: Statistical analysis showed a highly significant difference between MTA and Biodentine. Conclusions: Biodentine had been extraordinary shear bond strength to composite resin materials in contrast to MTA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005066
Title: Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on SIgA and periodontal health for diabetic type II patients with chronic periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq
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Background: An association between diabetes mellitus (DM) type II and alterations in the levels of Salivary secretory IgA (SIgA) in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 50 males with an age range from 35 to 45 year’s old who were grouped into three groups: The first group (control group) composed from 25 subjects with healthy gingival. The second group (baseline group) composed from 25 subjects had DM type II with chronic periodontitis. The subjects in the second group treated periodontally by non- surgical periodontal treatment which represent to post-treatment group (third group). The clinical parameters, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) have been recorded for the periodontitis group at the baseline and after 2 weeks following the non-surgical treatment. While for the control group, only PI, GI, and SIgA were recorded. After unstimulated saliva collections were completed, the levels of salivary IgA were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: There was a significant reduction in salivary IgA levels, PI, GI, and PPD after non-surgical periodontal therapy, whereas a decrease in the level of CAL after periodontal therapy was not statistically significant correlation of SIgA with the clinical parameters before and after treatment showed that PI was significantly and negatively associated with SIgA post-treatment. However, PPD and CAL showed positive and significant association with reduction of SIgA level after treatment. Conclusion: Our study showed increased levels of salivary IgA in diabetic patients with periodontal disease compared with the healthy controls. The less severe the periodontal involvement, the more dependable was the reduction in IgA concentration following non-surgical periodontal therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005067
Title: Antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacilli isolated from different clinical samples in Al-Sader Medical City
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Kufa, Iraq.
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Background: Over the past two decades, antibiotic resistance has increased significantly in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and in many cases has been linked with increased mortality and health-care costs. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) and various Enterobacteriaceae including Klebsiella, and Escherichia coli can cause severe and often deadly infections those are frequently reported in the hospitals and clinics. This study aimed to investigate the resistance patterns of GNB commonly encountered in our hospital as well as the outcome of the infection caused by these bacterial agents. Materials and Methods: The samples were processed from a culture and sensitivity test. The isolates were identified primarily by conventional method and then confirmed by Vitek 2 compact system, also antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed using the Vitek 2 compact system. Results: A total of 293 samples were collected from adult patients admitted to AL-Sader Medical City, Najaf, Iraq, from July 1, 2019, to January 7, 2020. The Gram-negative isolates were collected from clinical samples that included urine, wound swab, ear swab, sputum, and pus. Urine specimens accounted for a majority 163 (55.64%) of the clinical samples which yielded GNB, followed by wound swab 75(25.59%), ear swab 29 (9.89%), sputum 22 (7.51%), and pus 4 (1.37%). E. coli was the predominated bacteria 150 (51.19%) followed by P. aeruginosa 59 (20.13%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae 50 (17.06%). The remaining 34 (11.59%) of isolates included Proteus mirabilis 15 (5.11%), A. baumannii 10 (3.41%), and Enterobacter spp. 9 (3.07%). E. coli was leading microorganism isolated from pus 4 (100%) and urine 119 (73.0%); P. aeruginosa was dominant bacteria isolated from ear swab 18 (62.06%) and wound swab 26 (34.66%); and Klebsiella pneumoniae was common microorganism isolated from sputum 9 (40.90%). GNB were showed variable resistant to different types of antibiotics, but E. coli and K. pneumoniae were exhibited high resistance to ceftazidime (CAZ) 119 (58.62%) and 43 (21.18%); cefepime (FEP) 89 (60.13%) and 30 (20.27%); and ceftriaxone (CRO) 74 (62.18%) and 25 (21.00%), respectively. All members of GNB were shown high resistant to CAZ 203 (19.80%), FEP 148 (14.44%), and CRO 119 (11.61%) compared with other types of antibiotics. Out of 293 GNB, 119 (40.61%) isolated were exhibited MDR microorganisms (MDROs). Conclusions: We can conclude from our study that most GNB were isolated from urine samples. E. coli was the predominated bacteria followed by P. aeruginosa. GNB were showed variable resistance to a different type of antibiotics, but all members of GNB were shown high resistance to CAZ 203 (19.80%), FEP 148 (14.44%), and CRO 119 (11.61%). The isolates were exhibit multi-drug resistant microorganisms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005068
Title: The evaluation of γ1 34.5-ICP34.5 herpes simplex virus 1 immunogenic as anti-cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Hilla, Iraq.
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Background: The hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) is commonly used in drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity studies. They are also non-tumorigenic and have high proliferation rates. HepG2 cells have adherent properties and grow as monolayers in small aggregates. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are tumor markers which have expression in many tumor cell lines like HepG2 and using the γ1 34.5 herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) as immunogenic to decrease the concentration of this as anti-tumor therapy in vitro and increased the immune response in vivo. Materials and Methods: We propagation one type of tumor cell line hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) in RPMI medium 10% FBS, detection of the concentration of tumor marker AFP, and CEA in HepG2 cell line; then, we detected the ability of γ1 34.5 HSV-1 as immunogenic as anti-tumor therapy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay and mCherry assay. Results: The expression results of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and CEA tumor markers on appropriate hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines by ELISA were 5% and 58% for CEA and AFP, respectively. The current results, showed the ability of the γ1 34.5 HSV-1-immunogenic decreased the concentration of AFP and CEA tumor markers in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line from 97% to 13% and from 0.092% to 0.035%, respectively. The results of immunogenicity after injection the immunogenic HSV-1 (γ1 34.5) from the titration 2.3 × 106 PFU/ml in mice through the estimate the concentration of total IgG in serum by ELISA were found increased the total IgG from 0.20% to 0.25% after the second dose and 0.29% after used the HSV-1 wild type. The result of γ1 34.5-infected cell protein 34.5 HSV-1 immunogenic injected in mice muscle was showed an increase in antigen virus after replication in the muscle of mice through the fusion of secondary antibody (red color) by mCherry assay. Conclusion: We were found that the γ1 34.5 HSV is valuable therapeutic option for decreasing the AFP and CEA in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and have ability to increase the immune response against wild type of HSV-1.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005075
Title: Comparison of antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil extract and hydrogen peroxide with 3% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of commercially available irrigants, hydrogen peroxide, and a herbal product, tea tree oil extract comparing with 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a control against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined by using the disc diffusion test with the mediums and microorganisms such as tea tree oil extract, hydrogen peroxide, 3% NaOCl, absolute ethanol, E. faecalis cultures, C. albicans cultures, and Mueller–Hinton agar. The disc diffusion test was performed in Mueller– Hinton agar plates. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h and the zone of inhibition was recorded and was statistically analyzed. Results: Tea tree oil extract showed zones of inhibition, suggesting that they had antimicrobial properties. Tea tree oil extracts showed significantly greater (almost same) zones of inhibition than hydrogen peroxide. Henceforth, research should be directed toward the use as an irrigant in root canal treatment. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that tea tree oil extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of tea tree extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal irrigant.