Journal Menu

Issues

Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
  Scopus Indexed ( link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100202909&tip=sid&clean=0)
Indexed in
NCBI NLM Catalogue,
SCOPUS, EMBASE (Elsevier),
SCIMAGO, CAS,
ROAD, CABI, Google Scholar,
Open J-Gate, Biblioteca,
Science Central,
Index Scholar, Indian Citation Index,
 AYUSH Research Portal, 
Indexed Copernicus, EBSCO, PSOAR,
Ulrichs Directory of Periodicals, etc.

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005134
Title: Coronaviruses seven outbreaks associated with OC43, 229E, severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV1, NL63, HKU1, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq.
View Article

Background: Coronaviruses (CoVs) responsible for seven outbreaks during a period of six decades. Started with infection of hCov-229E at 1966 and hope to stop with severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV2 at 2020. They have a wide range of host animal and can transmit to human causing illness mainly concerned with respiratory tract infections. They originated from animal reservoirs such as bats, Chinese ferret masked palm civets, raccoon dogs, and domestic cats and can transmit the infection to human. Methodology: CT imaging, CBC, CRP, liver function, and coagulation assays were used as primary tests for suspected patients whose confirmed using real-time PCR assay along with serological test such as rapid test, ELISA, and other techniques based on antiviral specific Abs. Results: The results reveal symptoms of patients ranged from rhinorrhea, fever, cough to wide range of upper respiratory tract infections, and, occasionally, lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia and bronchiolitis. The results of diagnosis showed that CT imaging is helpful along with CBC and CRP assays as a primary screening test. The real-time PCR assay was the gold standard and sometime gives false negative may be due to inefficiency of sample collection and must be confirmed with a rapid test of ELISA IgM and IgG, especially after symptoms development. Wide range of antiviral was used for treatment success to cure the CoVs infections. Conclusions: CoVs seem to be having tendency for animal-human transmission along with targeting a special type of cells like those of respiratory tract to cause asymptomatic to severe infections easy to treat with prominent antiviral agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005106
Title: A prospective study on the knowledge of cervical cancer among female college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among Women. Cervical cancer ranks as the number one cancer among Indian females which accounts for 35% of all cancers in women. Objective: The Present study aims to access the female college students in Chennai. The high mortality rate is due to late stage reporting of the disease. Early detection of clinical features and treatment thereafter can reduce the mortality rate. Methods: A Study was a prospective cross-sectional study method. Sampling is done by prevalence sampling procedure. Women who satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in the study. A Questionaire was developed to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among the female college students. Results: In this study we intended to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and prevention among 100 professional college female students with a mean age of 18 years.All the respondents were single. Majority of the respondents were not aware about the cervical cancer.PAP smear testing, and human papilloma virus vaccine in 2019. Manifestations of most cancers stigma had been defined in terms of experienced(enacted)stigma, Such as isolation orverbal stigma, and expected (fear of)stigma,need to a most cancers diagnosis be disclosed. Conclusion: The examine results provide perception at the know-how and attitudes that physicians around Mangalore, India, have inregard to HPV and the potential for an HPV vaccination implementation application. This organization of health practitioner individuals has now not formerly been surveyed and shows new ways to approach a ordinary HPV vaccination program in India. Stigma was a feared final results of a most cancers analysis and defined as a barrier to screening, early analysis and remedy seeking for girls with symptoms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005107
Title: A review – The phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Tephrosia maxima
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute (Deemed to be University), Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
View Article

Tephrosia maxima is found in India, Sri Lanka, and East Africa. The different parts of the plant such as leaves, seeds, and root of this plant have been used in ayurvedic medicine. These plant parts have been used in the treatment of different disorders. It has various active compounds. The present objective of the study is to discuss the various phytoconstituents and their pharmacological activities of the plant against numerous disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005108
Title: Comparison of reticulocyte count by two manual methods
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India *Corresponding author: Dr. M. P. Brundha, D
View Article

Aim: This study aims to compare the conventional method and paper hole method for counting reticulocytes. Introduction: Reticulocytes are the immature cells formed during erythropoiesis. It can be seen in the peripheral blood. It appears slightly larger than a mature erythrocyte and has remnants of RNA within the cell. Reticulocyte count helps to analyze the specific cause of anemia. Materials and Methods: The blood samples were collected from the clinical laboratory of Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences. The counting of the reticulocytes was performed using two methods, conventional and paper hole method in the Department of Pathology at Saveetha Dental College. The data were collected and tabulated. Results: The results revealed that the paper hole method of counting the reticulocytes is more efficient as it takes lesser time to count the cells. Conclusion: The results from the present study show that the paper hole method can be used on cases where time is a major factor. The paper hole method is more efficient compared to the conventional method when time is a factor.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005109
Title: Awareness on uterine fibroids among menopausal women – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: Uterine fibroids are the most common benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. The pathophysiology of uterine fibroids remains unknown, even though it is hypothesized that each fibroid is derived from a mutation in a single smooth muscle cell. Uterine fibroids are the most common neoplasm affecting women, and it has been contended that they occur in 70% of women by the onset of menopause. Despite the prevalence and significant impact of fibroids, public awareness about these uterine fibroids is extremely low. Hence, our present study aims for the amount of awareness present about uterine fibroids among menopausal women. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire survey was done among the 50 menopausal women in Chennai comprising 20 standardized questions. The questions covered all aspects of uterine fibroids including the term, prevalence, risk factors, complications, symptoms, and treatment. All the data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: The survey participants were between 40 and –55 years of age. In our population, about 58% of the participants previously heard of the term uterine fibroids. In our study, 30% of menopausal women are diagnosed with uterine fibroids in their lifetime and they also afraid of its future occurrence. Participants who already diagnosed with uterine fibroids had shown a little higher knowledge about the symptoms and treatment then the participants who are not diagnosed with uterine fibroids. Conclusion: Although our study showed, the majority aware of uterine fibroids many in our population showed some misconceptions about uterine fibroids. Survey results further suggest that there needs improved awareness and education.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005110
Title: Addiction toward video games among dental students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze whether there is an addiction toward videogames among dental students. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in Chennai among randomly selected dental students using a questionnaire. The question was related to addiction to videogames. Results: In the present study, dental students play video games among the 100 dental students. About 80% of the students were having the habit of playing videogames, nearly about 45% videogames for about 2 h or even more than that time. An equal percentage of them tried to overcome their addiction and other half of them did not take the initiative to come out of their addiction. The daily tasks of the students were also skipped very often for 25% and 25% had never skipped the tasks. Conclusion: From the study conducted, we can conclude that dental students are addicted toward video games. Dental students, due to the heavy workload, stress they play video games, and finally, they end addicted toward video games.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005111
Title: Knowledge and awareness of rotary instrumentation in endodontics among general dentists – A questionnaire- based survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Background: A rotary instrument is used to remove or reduce tooth matter and to shape teeth during endodontic procedure. Rotary instrument includes burs and endodontic files. Various brands of rotary instruments are currently available in the market which includes Dentsply Protaper, Mtwo, Endostar, K3 XF files, and Hero Shaper. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of endodontic instrumentation among general dentists. A questionnaire-based study was conducted among general dentists which includes various questions on rotary endodontics to assess their awareness of rotary endodontics. Materials and Methods: A sample of 100 general dentists was included in the survey practicing in Chennai.A self-administrated questionnaire was prepared in English to assess the knowledge and practice of the use of rotary instrumentation in endodontics. The participants were asked to mark the most appropriate answer which they felt to be significant. The participants were encouraged to approach the investigator in case of any clarification. Results: A total of 100 general dentists participated in the study, of which 87% were aware of rotary instrumentation in endodontics and 13% were not aware of rotary instrumentation in endodontics. Our study shows that about 58% of general dentists have attended continuing dental education (CDE) program regarding rotary instruments in endodontics and 42% have not attended any CDE program on rotary endodontics. Nearly 37% of general dentists are aware of rotary instrumentation through dental workshops, 32% know about rotary instruments through other dentists, and 27% of the general dentists are aware of rotary instrumentation through literature articles on rotary endodontics. Conclusion: Our study concludes that most of the general dentists were aware of rotary instrumentation in endodontics. However, majority of the dentists though they are aware and do not use rotary instruments in their daily practice. Decrease in working time was the advantage observed by most of the dentists and cost is the main disadvantage according to the dentists. Therefore, more knowledge is required for the dentists so that rotary instruments can be used in their daily practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005112
Title: Antiproliferative activity of vanilla stem extract on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Porur, Chennai - 600 116, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Background: Cancer is one of the major health problem faced by developing countries. Breast cancer was found to be the second foremost reason of the death worldwide. Many of the existing anticancer drugs have serious side effects. In the current scenario, the use of herbal extract as anticancer drugs is increasing. In India, some orchids were used as medicine, one such an orchid is Vanilla planifolia. Hence, attempt has been made to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of ethanolic extract of stems of V. planifolia (ESVP) against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The antiproliferative effect of ethanolic ESVP against MCF breast cancer cell line was estimated by the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-- tetrazolium bromide assay. Various concentrations of ethanolic ESVP were subjected to the study which includes 7.8 mcg/mL, 15.6 mcg/mL, 31.2 mcg/mL, 62.5 mcg/mL, 125 mcg/mL, 250 mcg/mL, 500 mcg/mL, and 1000 mcg/mL. The IC50 value was calculated. The effect of extract on the cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometry. All experiments were performed in triplicates and statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5 version 5.01. Results: The MCF-7 cell viability with various concentrations of ethanolic ESVP 7.8 mcg/mL, 15.6 mcg/mL, 31.2 mcg/mL, 62.5 mcg/mL, 125 mcg/mL, 250 mcg/mL, 500 mcg/mL, and 1000 mcg/mL was found to be 82.17%, 74.285%, 66.99%, 58.71%, 50.43%, 43.67%, 35.52%, and 27.30%. The IC50 value was found to be 125 mcg/ml. The cell viability activity was found to be dose dependent. In vanilla stem extract-treated MCF-7 cells, 16% cells showed apoptosis. It was higher than the control. G0/G1 stage showed 50.72% and S phase showed 12.3% and 17.42% of cells in G2/M phase. Conclusions: There was a significant antiproliferative activity observed in ethanolic ESVP against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005113
Title: Nitrosamine impurities: The European policy review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru - 570 015, Karnataka, India.
View Article

Nitrosamines belong to the family of carcinogenic impurities, which are formed by various chemical reactions. They are listed under Class 1 impurities as given in ICH M7 (R1). The presence of nitrosamines above acceptable limits is considered to produce carcinogenic effects on the human body. Regulatory attention toward nitrosamines is due to the incident that occurred in 2018, the presence of these impurities in blood pressure medicines known as “Sartans” which lead to a product recall. The European Commission has made few manufacturing changes which are required for these medicines along with a Q&A addressing the nitrosamines, particularly for market authorization holders. The present study highlights that the effect of nitrosamines on human health also provides the regulatory requirements as per ecological momentary assessments latest guidelines.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005114
Title: Impact of molecular response time achievement on survival of chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia patients treated by imatinib
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Hematology and Medical Oncology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University – Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia
View Article

Background: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is the most common myeloproliferative disorder. BCR-ABL, the CML cell, contains oncogene makes tyrosine kinase protein which causes cells to grow and reproduce out of control. Recently, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, namely, imatinib had high efficacy in CML treatment. Importantly, quantification of BCR-ABL transcripts is the most sensitive method to monitor molecular response at deeper levels than the hematologic and cytogenetic response to achieve an excellent outcome. Objective: We described the molecular response, time achievement, and the impact on survival in CML patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective medical record of 143 BCR-ABL positive chronic phase CML patients have been treated by imatinib 400 mg. The hematological response was determined and the molecular response was assigned by BCR-ABL quantification. The time to achieve major molecular response (MMR) was defined by ≤0.10% ratio of BCR-ABL to ABL control gene and its impact on median survival. Results: In our study, the median age at presentation was 45 years (range 12–73 years). Male to female ratio was 2:1. Patients achieved MMR on 12, 18, and 24 months were 8 (5.5%), 26 (18.2%), and 26 (18.2%), respectively. Patients achieved MMR in <24 months have longer median survival 83.8 (77.4–90.8) months compared to 58.9 (51.7–66.2) of those who failed to achieve it in 24 months, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Our data have shown time to MMR achievement had an impact on survival. The patients that did not achieve MMR had a poorer clinical outcome. Early recognition and prompt treatment of these patients can improve outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005115
Title: Oral and maxillofacial manifestations of chronic kidney diseases – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) involves an irreversible loss of renal function. Renal failure can result in large spectrum of oral manifestations such as uremic stomatitis, dry mouth, taste change, mucosal petechiae and ecchymosis, renal osteodystrophy, and periodontal diseases. The dental management of CKD patients may be complex due to the medications taken by the patient for inadequately functioning kidney. The article aims to provide a knowledge of oral and maxillofacial manifestations of CKD. A literature review was done by collecting 35 articles from 2000-2017 on oral and maxillofacial manifestations and its association with Chronic kidney diseases. The objective of the study was to understand the various dimensions of CKD and its association with oral and maxillofacial manifestations which helps in easy identification and holistic treatment. The growing change in lifestyle and trends results in increased chronic renal diseases in the present-day scenario. Hence, a thorough understanding of the oral manifestations would enable the oral physicians to help the patients in need, as in few cases, oral physicians may be the first person to diagnose such patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005116
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and perception toward dental care among pregnant women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: Dental care is an extremely important part of leading a healthy life. Bad oral hygiene can cause many problems in the body, which can lead to painful and harmful diseases. Pregnancy involves complex physical and hormonal changes that have a significant impact on almost every organ system, including the oral cavity. They need to maintain their oral hygiene as any infection in them can transfer to their fetus. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire which consisted of 20 questions was prepared to enhance the knowledge of pregnant women on the aspects of dental health during pregnancy period. The survey was conducted with the help of a digital platform such as survey planet and was transmitted to 100 pregnant women with the help of social media. Results and Discussion: Result shows that 53% of pregnant women are aware of the fact that maintaining proper oral hygiene prevents complications in child development. About 41% knows that the right period of undergoing dental treatment is the second trimester. About 44% agrees that improper oral hygiene leads to premature birth and low birth weight. Conclusion: The obtained results show that majority do not know how to maintain oral hygiene during pregnancy. They also do not know salient facts about oral health during pregnancy. This calls for an awareness program which will impart knowledge to them, for their and their baby’s healthy future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005117
Title: Awareness of menstrual disturbances among women working night shifts in information technology
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: The aim of this study was to create awareness of menstrual disturbances among women working night shifts in information technology (IT). Introduction: Menstruation involves complex interactions of inflammation and vascular mechanisms to stabilize the endometrium and allows a regulated loss of endometrial tissues and blood. When this becomes abnormal, it can cause menstrual disturbances. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among randomly selected women working night shifts in IT using a questionnaire. The questions were related to knowledge and awareness of menstrual disturbances. A total of 20 closed-ended questions were included in the study. Results and Discussion: A percentage of 59 agree to the fact that night shifts can affect their menstrual cycle. About 52.5% consider painful periods as the main indication of a menstrual disturbance, whereas 29% think that irregular periods are what menstrual disturbances are. Moreover, the remaining 18.5% consider both as consequences of menstrual disturbances. Conclusion: The women who participated in the survey are only slightly aware of how working night shifts can affect their menstrual cycle.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005118
Title: Effectiveness of gluteal and knee muscles strengthening in improving pain and disability in females with flexible flat foot
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, School of Physiotherapy, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Kelambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
View Article

Background: Pes planus causes impaired plantar load distribution, excessive stresses on foot, ankle, knee, and hip joints. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of gluteal and knee muscle strengthening on navicular drop, pain, and disability in females with flat foot. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was conducted on females between 20 and 30 years of age with u/l flat foot, consisted of a total of 30 subjects with 15 subjects equally divided into two groups using simple random sampling with random allocation. Group A was given conventional foot intrinsic strengthening exercises and Group B was given gluteal and knee muscle strengthening exercise program for 8 weeks along with contrast bath therapy. Pre-and post-intervention assessment which includes navicular drop test, foot function index, and modified sphygmomanometer assessment of gluteal and knee muscle strength of all the subjects was recorded. Results: Both the groups showed a significant improvement in navicular drop and foot function index (P < 0.05) on performing paired t-test. Paired t-test for Group B modified sphygmomanometer test showed significant improvement in hip and knee muscle strength (P < 0.05). An unpaired t-test on post-test mean results of A and B revealed navicular drop test and pain, disability, and total foot function index scores having better improvement in Group B than A (P < 0.05). Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that there was a significant effect of gluteal and knee muscle strengthening on flat foot.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005119
Title: Serum ferritin level affects T lymphocyte CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8 ratio in transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University – Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia.
View Article

Background: Chronic blood transfusions and hemolysis are the major causes of secondary iron overloading transfusion- dependent beta-thalassemia. Iron overload can cause several organ complications including immune alteration. Infection due to immune alteration is number two leading cause of mortality in thalassemia. Research on the correlation of ferritin as iron overload marker and T lymphocyte subsets alteration in adult thalassemia patients are still rare and require further study. Objective: The objective of the study was to study the correlation of iron overload and T lymphocyte subsets CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8 ratio in adult transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia. Methods: The study was cross-sectional observational analytic study conducted on 36 subjects with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia diagnosed by clinical examination and laboratory high-performance liquid chromatography followed up at Hematology Clinic, Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia. Ferritin serum was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay method, while CD4, CD8 counts, and CD4/CD8 ratio were assessed by flow cytometry with antigen for CD3/CD4/CD8. Results: There were 36 subjects, 21 males and 15 females with median age of 23 (range 18–48). The mean ferritin serum was 5137.8 ± 2433.5 ng/ml while CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8 ratio were 695.56 ± 25.17; 822.4 ± 360; and 0.95 ± 0.42, respectively. The analysis of correlation showed that there is correlation of ferritin and CD4 (r = ‒0.34, P < 0.05), ferritin and CD8 (r = 0.43, P < 0.05), and ferritin and CD4/CD8 ratio (r = 0.34, P < 0.05). Conclusion: In this study, there was a correlation between ferritin serum and CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8 ratio. An increase of ferritin in iron overload will decrease CD4, increase CD8, and decrease CD4/CD8 ratio.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005120
Title: Management strategy for an advanced head of pancreas carcinoma patient with obstructive jaundice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University – Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia
View Article

Background: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is still considered incurable, with overall survival 3–5 months and 5-year survival 3% in advanced stage. Obstructive jaundice often complicates head of pancreas carcinoma. Strategy for bile diversion and chemotherapy regimen choices is needed to prolong survival and good quality of live. Case: Male, 64 years old, with abdominal discomfort and jaundice. Abdominal CT scan showed caput pancreas mass 43 mm ×39 mm attached to common mesenteric artery. The FNAB showed adenocarcinoma pancreas well differentiated. The diagnosis of PC adenocarcinoma well-differentiated T3N1M0 Stage III was made. Metal stent placement by ERCP to diverse bile. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin for six cycles, results in stable disease. The patient still has good performance status (PS 0-1), so second line chemotherapy regimen with 5- fluorouracyl, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin were given for 6 cycles. In month 15, the patient wished for oral chemotherapy, and capecitabine was given. His condition deteriorated with peritoneal metastase. The patient passed away in month 26 due to pneumonia and sepsis. Discussion: In locally advanced PC, resectability assessment is important. With mesenteric artery contact, resection is impossible. Endoscopic placement of a metallic biliary stent is strongly recommended for diversion. First-line chemotherapy of gemcitabine carboplatin can be given for fit patients. In refractory stage, second-line 5-fluorouracyl, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin significantly extend overall survival. Conclusion: Management strategy in advanced pancreatic carcinoma is important due to the poor prognosis nature. Bile diversion and prompt chemotherapy regimen choice can prolong survival and improve patient’s quality of live.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005121
Title: Mechanisms of intrinsic antibiotic resistance in enterococci
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Velachery Main Road, Chennai - 600 100, Tamil Nadu, India.
View Article

Enterococci are considered as serious nosocomial pathogens as they are likely to exhibit resistance effectively to all antibiotics meant for clinical use. The most predominant species encountered frequently among human infections includes Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be either intrinsic or acquired through mutation of the intrinsic genes or horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants. This paper reviews the mechanisms of intrinsic resistance in enterococci.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005122
Title: Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Anogeissus leiocarpa
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Aksum University, Post Box. No 1010, Axum, Tigray Region, Ethiopia.
View Article

Background of the Study: A large number of populations use medicinal plants for their primary health care. Anogeissus leiocarpa plant was widely used in African traditional medicine and is well known for its antimicrobial activities against many pathogenic microorganisms for treating of many diseases. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanolic leaf extract of A. leiocarpa. Materials and Methods: The powdered A. leiocarpa leaf was taken to serial exhaustive solvent extraction from a low polar to a high polar solvent to ensure that wide polarity range of compounds was extracted. The in vitro antioxidant activities such as DPPH radical, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging, and superoxide radical scavenging assay were determined. All the analyses were done in triplicates and average values were taken. Results: The ethanolic leaf extract of A. leiocarpa leaf was showed that high yield value and maximum number of phytoconstituent were screened when compared to the other solvents. The in vitro free radical scavenging assays and half inhibition concentration efficiency of the ethanolic leaf extract of A. leiocarpa were increasing from super oxide, DPPH, and NO to hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Conclusion: The ethanolic leaf extract of A. leiocarpa has significant antioxidant properties and could serve as a good source of natural antioxidant, which may be helpful in preventing the destructive process of various oxidative stress- related disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005123
Title: Assessment of patients’ satisfaction level on quality of health care provided by dental hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: This study aims to compare the overall satisfaction level of males and females on completion of dental treatment. It aims to assess satisfaction levels in various categories such as ambience, treatment quality, communication with doctor, empathy, and overall satisfaction. Methodology: The study was conducted with 250 male and 250 female patients aged 30–60 years seeking dental treatment. Patients were provided with feedback forms asking to grade their overall experience based on their expectations and treatment satisfaction in the hospital. The gradings were P: Poor, A: Average, G: Good, and E: Excellent. Data were compared statistically between males and females. Results: On statistical analysis, there is no significant difference between male and female responses. However, individually, they have different expectations from a health-care organization. Studying these individual expectations of patients may lead to higher quality outcomes and better satisfaction, lower costs of care, greater patient understanding of health issues, and better adherence to the treatment process. Conclusion: There is not much difference in, gender based expectations of patients from a health care organizations. However these feedback surveys helps the clinician to learn about patient expectations and built a good patient clinician relation. Further, more studies can be carried to learn in detail on gender based expectations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005124
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice of road traffic safety among the dental students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: Road safety is important for all road users. Every year more than 1 million people are injured in road accidents in India. In recent years, the number of vehicles on roads has increased, as has the number of goods transported by road. This makes road safety even more important. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of road traffic safety among dental students. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional type of study, in which standardized structured questionnaire was prepared and given to dental students of various colleges. The sample size was about 250 and the duration study was 1 month. Results: The knowledge and awareness of the road traffic safety among dental students were found to be about 60%. Conclusion: The awareness of the road traffic safety among the dental students was satisfactory, and more awareness can be given through the social media.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005125
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practices among dental students about Trefoil system in implant dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Background: Trefoil is a dental implant surgical protocol for the mandibular arch. The process includes placing three implants using analog guided surgery in a precise location so that a pre-fabricated titanium bar wrapped in acrylic and teeth can be placed within 1 week of dental implant surgery. The Trefoil concept is meant to replace mandibular Snap-on dentures. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge, awareness, and practices among dental students about the Trefoil system in implant dentistry. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire-based survey was conducted on 200 students belonging to Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. The study consisted of ten questions regarding the awareness and knowledge of the usage of the Trefoil system used in implant dentistry. The questions were designed based on research articles and extensive studies on the Trefoil system. The data were entered into an excel sheet, and the percentage was calculate. Tables were drawn and graphs were constructed. The data were analyzed and produced. Results: In this study, it was found that 27% were aware of the existence of the Trefoil system in implant dentistry and 73% were unaware of this. When the awareness of the various companies manufacturing dental implants was questioned, it was found that 64% knew about Nobel Biocare, 22% knew about 3I, 12% knew about Straumann, and only 2% were aware of Astra. In this study, it was found that 82% were aware that the Trefoil system was used exclusively in the cases of edentulous mandibles, whereas the remaining 10% chose the option of edentulous maxilla, 5% chose partially edentulous maxilla and mandible, and 3% chose none of the above. Conclusion: The awareness of the Trefoil system is inadequate. The knowledge about this system needs to be improved. Hence, dental students need to be aware of the Trefoil system as it is more advantageous and effective when compared to the conventional systems due to its revolutionary and self-adjusting fixation mechanism.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005126
Title: Knowledge and attitude of patients regarding choice of selecting of fixed partial dentures and implant
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

In modern society, obesity is a common problem in children. The main reasons for obesity are lack of physical activity, improper diet, etc. Overweight children grow to be overweight adults. Obesity can decrease the lifespan of an individual. The main reason for obesity is change in the lifestyle and children leading a sedentary lifestyle. The treatment and precautions for preventing obesity starts from being an infant, a focus on healthy foods and encouraging physical activity. This review is intended to address the causes, risk factors, complications of obesity in children, and also throws an insight into its prevention and treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005127
Title: Design and characterization of bovine serum albumin and pectin microspheres loaded with mesalamine drug targeted to the colon
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Objective: The objective of this research is to design and characterize the bovine serum albumin and pectin microspheres used as carriers for the mesalamine drug targeting the colon to cure the ulcerative colitis decease. Materials and Methods: BSA/pectin mixture microspheres containing mesalamine drug were prepared by coacervation-phase separation technique. The size of the particles was carried out using optical microscopy. Entrapment efficiency was calculated and the in vitro release studies for the drug mesalamine were conducted using the USP dissolution apparatus. Infrared spectrum studies were conducted. Results: The parameters studied are percentage drug release, entrapment efficiency, size of the particles of the microspheres, and in vitro drug release of formulated microspheres. Conclusion: The results obtained in this research work clearly indicated that the microsphere carriers prepared for the carrying the mesalamine drug improved the adherence time of the mesalamine drug which results in curing the ulcerative colitis decease effectively.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005128
Title: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general population of Daegu, South Korea. A total of 50 people in the age group 15–70 years were selected using random sampling technique Informed c
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: Oral diseases are a major public health concern due to their higher prevalence and their effects on the individual’s quality of life. According to the World Health Organization, 80% of the global population suffering from oral diseases lives in developing countries, indicating that oral diseases are strongly correlated with low income. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general population of Daegu, South Korea. A total of 50 people in the age group 15–70 years were selected using random sampling technique Informed consent was obtained from each person. A self- constructed 13 multiple-choice questionnaire was distributed to all people. Results: The results of this study suggest that oral health awareness and practices among the study population are improved than the previous studies but still there is lack of awareness, thus, need to be improved.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00005129
Title: A review on current approaches of stability-indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method development and validation of antiviral drugs
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Anantapur - 515 721, Andhra Pradesh, India.
View Article

From the times of yore, people were trying to find safe and sound ways to treat viral infections. In the current scenario, due to the emerging of new viruses, the development of drugs for their treatment is also gaining equal importance. Before launching to the market, these drugs should undergo a validation process. Numerous approaches have been adopted for the quantitative measurement of antiviral drugs such as ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, capillary electrophoresis, and chromatographic techniques such as gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. In this review, we focused only on stability, suggesting reversed phase-HPLC approaches for the effective development and validation of different antiviral drugs such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, and non-influenza drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005130
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on obturators among dental students in dental colleges of Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: An obturator is a prosthesis used to close any congenital or acquired tissue opening primarily of the hard palate or contiguous alveolar structure. It basically acts as a framework for maxillary defects. Maxillary defects are created by surgical treatment of neoplasms, congenital malformations, and trauma. The extent of the resection of any existing tumor depends on the size, location, and potential behavior of the tumor. The size and location of the defects affect the degree of impairment and difficulty in rehabilitation. Aim: The aim of the survey is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice on obturators among dental students in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 3rd years, final years, and interns in dental colleges in Chennai. A survey administered questionnaire was prepared to access the knowledge attitude and practice of obturators. A sample size of 100 students was chosen. The questionnaire was distributed through the survey planet. The data was collected, and results were tabulated. Results: From the survey conducted, it was evident that 68% of them have heard of the term obturator and 35.7% of them have heard this term in their 3rd year of study, 75% of them have not come across any patient who needs any patient who needs an obturator, 86% of them have not recommended an obturator to anyone in their practice till now, 31.3% of them feel that the most probable chief complaint of such patients is and unaesthetic appearance, 6% of the students were aware of the treatment modalities of hemimaxillectomy, 57% of them have not seen any patient with facial prosthesis,64% were aware of the method of fabrication of an obturator, and 48.5% of them think that fabrication would take 3 days-1 week. Conclusion: This study concluded the awareness about obturators among dental students was moderate. This study provided a very good insight into the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the use of obturators among dental students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005131
Title: A review on neurodegenerative disorder – alzheimer’s disease
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru - 560 035, Karnataka, India
View Article

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common problems for old age people. Etiology of AD is not clear, but genetic factors play a major role in determining a person’s risk to develop AD. Twin and family studies confirm that AD has a genetic basis. AD genetics has been split into two broad categories: Early onset (EO) and late onset. EO-AD cases are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. In this form, dominant mutations in genes such as amyloid precursor protein, presenilin (PSEN)-1, and PSEN-2. Aging is the most obvious risk factor for developing AD. There is a genetic basis for AD, of course, this relation is not complete bit, it is significant. More than 1000 genes studied in relation with AD. Against the improvements in understanding different aspects of AD, the accurate genetic foundation of AD remains unclear. Pathologically, it is characterized by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloidal protein deposits contributing to senile plaques. In this review, authors will explain about the different aspects of etiology, pathophysiological mechanisms behind the AD, and its management by conventional drug therapies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005132
Title: Chromatographic determination of allopurinol and lesinurad simultaneously in raw and tablet forms
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Jagarlamudi Kuppuswamy Chowdary College, Guntur - 522 006, Andhra Pradesh, India.
View Article

Objective: A novel stability-indicating high-pressure liquid chromatography procedure was developed followed by validation for the simultaneous estimation of allopurinol and lesinurad in bulk and was applied on the marketed formulations of allopurinol and lesinurad. Materials and Methods: The mobile phase used for the chromatographic runs consisted of methanol: acetonitrile:0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.2 (25:60:15 v/v/v). The separation was achieved on a ProntoSIL Hypersorb ODS C18 column (4.6 mm ×250 mm; 5 μ) using isocratic mode. Allopurinol and lesinurad peaks are well separated and detected at 239 nm using ultraviolet detector. Results: The method was linear in the quantity range of 75–600 μg/ml for allopurinol and 50–400 μg/ml for lesinurad. The method was verified in full compliance with ICH directives. Allopurinol’s detection limit (DL) and quantification limit (QL) were 0.032 μg/ml and 0.097 μg/ml, respectively, while DL and QL for lesinurad were 0.022 μg/ml and 0.067 μg/ml, respectively. The validation study results showed that developed procedure was selective (no obstruction from diluent and excipients of tablet), specific (no obstruction from degradants formed during stability testing), precise (relative standard deviation [RSD] value – <2.0%), rugged (RSD value – <2.0%), accurate (recovery percent near to 100%), and robust (difference value – <2.0%). Conclusion: The reported method can also be used effectively in marketed formulations for routine analysis of allopurinol and lesinurad.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005133
Title: Biofilm and antibiotic resistance profile among salmonella typhi isolated from patients with typhoid fever
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq
View Article

Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) is a Gram-negative, facultative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It consists of more than 2668 different serotype. It can cause the disease in both humans and animals, which are the major causative pathogens of foodborne disease outbreaks and also a public health concern all over the world. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two S. Typhi isolates were recovered from 100 blood specimens of patients suffering from fever sign. All isolates confirmed by different types of agar media and VITEC2 compact apparatus; biofilm formation was assayed by tissue culture plate (TCP) while antibiotic susceptibility performed according to CLSI-2019. Results: The results revealed that, the isolation percentage of S. Typhi were 32/100(32%) isolates, and the biofilm formation using TCP method were documented 7/32 (22.88%) isolates for each of both strong and moderate biofilm former while 18/32 (56.25%) isolates were weak biofilm former. Concern correlation of biofilm formation with antibiotic resistance, the results showed strong association between biofilm formation and resistance to antibiotic. The results of antibiotic susceptibility test showed that S. Typhi resistance for penicillins (ampicillin was 32/32 [100%] and amoxicillin-clavulanate was 32/32 [100%]); for cephalosporins (all of cefoxitin, ceftazidime, and cefotaxime were 32/32 [100%]); for monobactam (aztreonam was 26 [81.25%]); for carbapenems (imipenem was 3/32 [9.37%]); for aminoglycosides (gentamicin was 32/32 [100%] and amikacin was 28/32 [87.5%]); and for quinolones and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin was 32/32 [100%] and levofloxacin was 6/32 [18.75%]). Conclusion: There is a strong correlation between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance among S. Typhi isolated from clinical specimens.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005135
Title: Awareness of light pollution among college students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: The aim of the study was to check the level of awareness of light pollution among college students. Introduction: It is important to know about the basic concept and definition of light pollution and my survey. Light pollution is known as excessive, misdirected, or obstructive artificial light which is usually outdoor. Light pollution is the presence of anthropogenic and artificial light in the night environment, but even carefully used light fundamentally alters naturals conditions also. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 college students. I created a self- administered, close-ended questionnaire here and was distributed among college students to learn about their knowledge of light pollution. Results and Discussion: This survey created awareness of light pollution among college students. Light pollution is harmful to environment. About 73% of students are aware that light pollution does cause harm to the environment. Conclusion: Light pollution is known to cause all kinds of problems. Studies show how it can throw sleep cycles out of whack and disrupt the natural ecosystem.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005215
Title: Impact of poultry consumption by adolescent females – An analytical study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Faculty of Management, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Poultry products are proven to be the single, cheapest, and highest source of all proteins and nutrients required by people of all ages. However, there is a misconception that the consumption of poultry and related products also leads to the early onset of puberty among growing female children resulting in physical and emotional problems in their lives. Empirical studies place the mean age of puberty attainment by girls at 8–13. The present study is to prove or disprove this misconception. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample size of 2446 female adolescents in Tamil Nadu using a comprehensive questionnaire to elicit their normal food habits, including poultry products, to seek a truthful response to evaluate their age of puberty attainment. This study uses logistic regression to identify the parameters and combination of parameters that lead to early puberty in girls. The critical combinations that lead to early puberty include (i) family disease history + BMI + family puberty history and (ii) non-vegetarian eating habits + meat eating + red meat- eating habits. The combination that does not lead to early puberty is (i) egg eating + chicken eating. The analysis revealed that the non-food or non-physical factors than food habits had a more dominant role in determining the puberty attainment among such adolescent females.