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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004642
Title: Inhibition by-product of fermented jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) seed against foodborne fungi
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM 21 Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia
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Objective: The present study was purposed to determine the concentration of total alcohol produced and to assess the antifungal activity of fermentation by-product of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) seed against foodborne fungi. Materials and Methods: The foodborne fungal was isolated from spoiled rice and re-cultured on to the Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. After the pasteurization process, jackfruit seeds were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 3 days, and the resulted product was evaluated for its ethanol production using titration method and the antifungal activity against foodborne fungal using the agar diffusion method. Results: The fermentation process of jackfruit seed by S. cerevisiae produced 8.43% ethanol. The antifungal activity of the fermented product exhibited inhibition activity at the minimum concentration of 60% w/v. Conclusion: The antifungal potent of fermented jackfruit was not very potential to be developed as a food preservative.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00004643
Title: Effect of digoxin ophthalmic solutions on the intraocular pressure in rabbits
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Editorial
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Al-Farahidi University, Baghdad, Iraq
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Introduction: Glaucoma is an important reason for permanent blindness worldwide. Reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) is the solitary approach familiar to prevent the progression of vision loss. Purpose: The current research was piloted to assess the effect of digoxin ophthalmic solutions (0.00625%) on IOP of both normotensive and hypertensive eyes in rabbits. Materials and Methods: Three groups of albino white rabbits were used for normotensive study part to assess the influence of the topical application of digoxin, Timolol, and distilled water (DW). On the other hand, another three groups were used for the induction of elevated IOP study part in which topical application of digoxin, Timolol, and DW was assessed. Tested drugs applied on the left eye and the other eye served as control. Weakly subconjunctival injection of 0.7 ml of betamethasone suspension for 4 weeks was used for the induction of elevated IOP. IOP was measured by Schiotz tonometer daily at the same time (9.0 am) to avoid IOP diurnal fluctuation. Results: The main findings of the current study were as follows: digoxin was effective in reducing IOP in both normotensive and ocular induced hypertensive rabbits. Mean IOP decreased after 1 day of digoxin installation (1.7 mmHg) in normotensive eye and (1.3 ± 1.15 mmHg) in hypertensive eyes. Significant results (P ≤ 0.05) were gained when equated the outcomes of digoxin with DW (as a negative control group). On the other hand, no significant differences were gained when equated with Timolol (as a positive group). Conclusion: The results obtained in this study provide experimental evidences for the efficiency of digoxin (0.00625%) ophthalmic solution in the IOP reduction. In addition, it was found to have a tolerable ocular hypotensive effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004704
Title: Memory enhancing activity of Bacopa monnieri against aluminum chloride induced amnesia in Wistar rats by adult neurogenesis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalagiri, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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Introduction: Aluminum is a potential neurotoxin for humans, known to cause pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Our study examined the biochemical and behavioral effects of aluminum in Wistar rats highlighting the hippocampal region of the brain, which is concerned with short-term memory. Besides these, the effect of Bacopa monnieri (BM) treatment on aluminum induced neurodegeneration was investigated. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were administered orally with AlCl 3 for 4 weeks to induce neurodegeneration. BM at two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) for two groups of rats was administered every day following the AlCl 3 administration. Spatial learning and retention of memory were assessed using Morris water maze (MWM) followed by the estimation of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity in the hippocampus. Results and Discussion: BM treatment improved learning and memory function in rats as seen from MWM task by its AChE inhibition, adult neurogenesis, and cell proliferation. Conclusion: This study suggests that BM protects the neurons in the hippocampus from AlCl 3 induced neurodegeneration by its property of neurogenesis and cell proliferation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004705
Title: Ameliorative effect of Viscum album on angiogenic markers in A431 human skin cancer cells in vitro
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Siddipet, Telangana, India
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Background: Skin cancer caused by exposure to ultraviolet light. As soon as, the DNA is altered, it cannot properly control skin cell growth, leading to cancer. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Viscum album on angiogenic markers in A431 human skin cancer cells: In vitro. Cell Culture and Treatment: The skin cancer cell line, A431, was purchased from the National Centre for Cell Sciences, Pune, India, and cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, penicillin G, and streptomycin. The cells were placed in 5% CO2 incubator and further experiments were started after the confluency stage was attained. The cells were incubated at 37°C with V. album (100 μg/ml) in a CO2 incubator. After 24 h treatment, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and (β-catenin) proteins were studied in the A431 skin cancer cell line by western blot analysis. Results: A431 skin cancer cells showed a significant increase in the levels of MMP-2, VEGF, pAkt, and β-catenin, while V. album (100 µg/ml) treatment reduced the protein levels significantly. Conclusion: This study concludes that V. album shows anticancer potential by regulating angiogenic markers (MMP-2, VEGF, pAkt, and β-catenin) in A431 human skin cancer cells. Hence, V. album may be one of the therapeutic beneficial options for the treatment of skin cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004706
Title: Computational approaches for semiquantitative data analysis and validation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
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With the advent use of computers in every daily life, the computational approaches have collaborative effort between the biologists and computer scientists and thus cover a wide variety of traditional computer science domains, including data retrieval, data integration, data cleaning, data modeling, data mining, data warehousing, data managing, ontologies, simulation, parallel computing, agent-based technology, grid computing, and visualization. However, applying each of these domains to the biomolecular and biomedical applications raises specific and unexpectedly challenging research issues. This review is to provide life scientists and computer scientists with a complete view on biological data management by identifying the particular issues, presenting existing solutions from both academia and industry, and providing a framework in which to compare these systems.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004707
Title: A study to compare the effectiveness of Kinesio taping versus contract relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching of plantar flexors flexibility in amateur badminton players
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, School of Physiotherapy, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Badminton injuries usually occur in the lower limbs and as a whole were predominantly sprains and strains, and not overuse in nature as widely believed. Some of the researchers believe that lack of physical readiness and insufficient fitness are the predisposing factor to occur injuries. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching is one of the most effective forms of flexibility training for increasing range of motion (ROM). The Kinesio tape (KT) is a taping technique that, nowadays, is frequently applied in pathologies in the musculoskeletal system, especially in the field of sports injuries. It can be applied theoretically to any muscle or joint of the body, and it can be worn up to 4 days without interfering with the daily hygiene and without modifying its adhesive properties. The comparison of PNF stretching with KT in plantar flexors flexibility in amateur badminton players was not studied so far. Aim of the Study: In our study, we framed the aim of the study was to compare the PNF contract relax stretching with KT on ankle flexibility, dorsi flexor active ROM, and plantar flexor power of amateur badminton players. Materials and Methods: The study was an experimental study design with the total of 30 badminton players who fulfilled the inclusion criteria which was randomly assigned into Group A (n = 15; 7 males, 8 females) received Kinesio taping of calf muscle and Group B (n = 15; 8 males, 7 females) received contract relax PNF for calf muscle. Subjects were informed about the procedure, and merits and demerits of the treatment. Consent was obtained from each subject for voluntary participation. The subjects in both groups received the intervention 2 times weekly for a period of 4 weeks, totally 8 sessions. Subjects were evaluated using the goniometer, lunge test, and vertical jump test at baseline and post-test after 4 weeks. Statistical Analysis: Both pre-test and post-test measures were analyzed statistically using the data analysis computed with SPSS. We have analyzed paired t-tests for each outcome variable at 95% level of significance (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In this study, the use of Kinesio taping helps to perform efficient vertical jump and also shows better than the subjects with contract relax PNF stretching in terms of ankle dorsiflexion ankle-dorsiflexion ROM and lunge test.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00004708
Title: Synthesis, spectroscopic, characterization, pharmacological evaluation, and cytotoxicity assays of novel nano and micro scale of copper (II) complexes against human breast cancer cells
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Wasit University, Kut, Iraq.
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Introduction: Although 1,2,4-triazoles-3-thione derivatives have an important biological active, azomethine group in Schiff base triazole are to be bioactive compounds and its complexes having metals, copper has been a subject of interest; it is bound with ligands creating complexes that interact with biomolecules. The use of nano scale from organic compounds has several benefits such as high surface/volume ratios, it shows a considerable biochemical certificate. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe cytotoxicity assays of ligand of novel nano and micro scale of copper (II) complexes against human breast cancer cells. Methods: In this paper synthesized Schiff base triazole derivative (L1) that containing 1,2,4-triazole ring by condensation of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyd with 4′-amino-5-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)-4H-1,2,4- triazole-3-thiol then characterized ligand (L1) by elemental analyses (C.H.N.S), nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 HNMR and 13 CNMR) spectra, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic and mass spectrum. The new asymmetrical Schiff base (L1) used as a ligand to synthesize novel nano and micro complexes with CuCl 2 .2H2 O. Then was characterized structure of the micro complex by elemental analysis and flame atomic absorption in addition to Fourier- transform infrared and ultraviolet visible spectra. The magnetic susceptibility properties and conduct metric measurements of the metal complex were also determined; the structure of nano complex characterized using Fourier-transform infrared, atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Evaluated antioxidant activity (DPPH Assay) by Examine novel compounds for the DPPH scavenging activities and tested novel compounds by MTT Assay, this method using 96-well microtiter plates containing RPMI medium for seeding of the cells (1× 105 cells/mL). Results: The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities for the ligand (L1) and complexes (nano, micro) were studied in the inhibition of human breast cancer cells MCF-7 ligand (L1) < micro complexes < nano complexes. Conclusions: The results exhibit that the Schiff base triazole ligand (L1) and nano ligand (L1 nano) act as a bidentate chelating agent, bonded to the metal ion through the N atom of the azomethine and S of thiocarbonyl groups. These compounds presented potent anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 cells at low concentrations. Our result suggested that a novel synthetic compound may be apotential breast cancer inhibitor.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004709
Title: A case study on efficacy of soft tissue mobilization and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques in subject with shoulder impingement syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soft tissue mobilization (STM) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on pain level and shoulder range of motion (ROM) patient with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). Case Report: A single case study of a 42-year-old female patient with the left SIS was included in the study. The patient complained of difficulty in overhead activities such as grooming and wearing clothes reaching up and reaching behind back. Results and Discussion: The patient received STM of subscapularis and PNF contract-relax technique for shoulder abductors, internal rotators, and external rotators for 15 days. The outcome measure was estimated by visual analog scale (VAS) to assess pain, ROM measured using goniometer, and muscle strength using manual muscle testing. After completing 15 sessions, there was a significant reduction in VAS score, improved overhead reach and ROM of shoulder. Conclusion: The patient showed a significant reduction in pain level. The values for shoulder abduction, internal rotation, and external rotation showed a significant improvement. The value for overhead reaches also significantly increased. The combination of STM and contract-relax PNF technique for the shoulder was found to be effective in reducing pain and improving glenohumeral ROM and muscle strength of the left shoulder.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004710
Title: Applying of a modified and validated high-performance liquid chromatographic/ultraviolet method for quantification of cetirizine in human plasma for pharmacokinetics studies
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
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Introduction: Cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ) is a second-generation antagonist of H1 receptors. It is a non-sedating type antihistamine, orally active. It is used, mainly, in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal rhinitis and conjunctivitis as well as pruritus and urticaria of allergic origin. Objective: The objective of the study was to develop and validate a modified isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic /ultraviolet (UV) analytical method to be more sensitive, accurate, and reproducible for quantification of CTZ in human plasma to be applied for studying the pharmacokinetics (PK) of CTZ after a single oral dose of Cetirizine® 10 mg tablet. Materials and Methods: Cetirizine was extracted from plasma samples by applying a liquid-liquid technique in dichloromethane. Samples were analyzed by Phenomenex C8 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). A waters high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system connected to a UV detector with autosampler were used to develop and validate the method. Diazepam was used as internal standard. A mixture of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2 PO4) buffer:methanol at a ratio of 50:50 (v/v) in isocratic mode was used as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min. The analysis was performed at ambient temperature and CTZ was monitored at a maximum wavelength (λmax ) of 231 nm after injection a 55 μl sample into the HPLC system. The analytical method was validated according to standard guidelines. After that, the method was applied for PK study of CTZ tablets (Cetirizine®, Riyadh Pharma, Saudi Arabia). Cetirizine® 10 mg tablets were administered as a single dose to 12 healthy male adult volunteers (mean age of 28.5 ± 8.2 years) with fasting condition. Sixteen blood samples were withdrawn from each volunteer over 36 h period. From the plasma concentration-time data of each individual, the PK parameters; Cmax , t max , AUC0−t , first-order terminal elimination rate constant (β), AUCt−∞, AUC0−∞, %AUCextra , Cmax /AUC0−∞, and t 0.5 were calculated. Results: A specific peak area was observed for CTZ and diazepam at retention time (t R) of 12.4 and 15.9 min, respectively. Linearity was established at a concentration range of 10–500 ng/ml with the regression coefficient (R2 ) = 0.999. The lower limit of quantitation was identifiable and reproducible at 10 ng/ml with precision (as coefficients of variation [CV%]) of 4.45%. The CV% of the intraday and interday precision at 30, 250, and 400 ng/ml levels were found to be 3.616%, 1.006%, and 2.326%; and 6.798%, 1.869%, and 2.155%, respectively, which, were lower than the accepted criteria limits (15%). Accuracy for CTZ ranged from 93.545% to 102.458% at low, mid, and high concentration levels. The relative recovery (%) of CTZ at 30, 250, and 400 ng/ml was found to be 97.724%, 102.327%, and 101.586%, respectively. Stability at different conditions and in autosampler was also confirmed. The mean PK parameters of CTZ; Cmax , t max , AUC0−t , β, AUCt−∞, AUC0−∞, AUCextra %, Cmax /AUC0−∞, and t 0.5 were found to be; 271.971 ng/ml, 1.085 h, 2504.961 ng. h/ml, 0.083/h, 142.739 ng. h/ml, 2647.7 ng. h/ml, 5.537%, 0.104/h, and 8.396 h, respectively. Conclusions: The modified method was proved to be specific, sensitive, accurate, and precise for quantification of CTZ in human plasma. It can be confidently applied for PK then after, for bioavailability and bioequivalence studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004711
Title: Clinical pharmacy services framework in the management of acute coronary syndrome: A qualitative study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, SS Nagar, Mysuru - 570 015, Karnataka, India.
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Background: Optimization of pharmacotherapy through the provision of clinical pharmacy services gained importance despite having standard allusion of guidelines in the management of chronic conditions such as acute coronary syndrome, the association of multimorbidity, and polypharmacy to chronic conditions predispose the patient to drug- related problems. Aim: The aim of this study is to prototype a standardized framework in the provision of clinical pharmacy services and to optimize pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic diseases such as acute coronary syndrome. Materials and Methods: Double Diamond service model design was used to develop an ICDE framework that included identifying the needs of stakeholders, characterizing the service concept, and drafting the designs and establishment of the service strategies that are characterized from 4Ds of the study design. Multidisciplinary group discussions and personal meetings were conducted to understand the individual requirements that add to the improved services. We characterized the service concept through mind mapping and prioritize the service requirements according to the hierarchy. In the next phase, we aimed to draft the service activities by documenting the services and categorization of service type. Results: On applying the service design approach and considering the insights into the stakeholders, we addressed the needs of the stakeholders adhering to the evidence from secondary research and study site observations. The service activities identified and developed in the study site included (1) pharmacotherapy reconciliation service, (2) pharmacotherapy optimization (review and management), (3) providing evidence-based information and interventions, and (4) follow-ups at transition. We observed that the above four service activities are essential to address the expectations of the stakeholders and established the four service activities in coronary care practice. Conclusion: We developed a clinical pharmacy service framework for the optimization of pharmacotherapy and demonstrated that evidence-based clinical pharmacy service framework met the needs of the stakeholders. This clinical pharmacy service framework is likely applicable to chronic conditions such as acute coronary syndrome globally that can be beneficial in long-term follow-up of chronic conditions at inpatient and outpatient settings. Furthermore, adhering to evidence-based practices will address the requirements of stakeholders and build proficient association among the health-care professionals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004712
Title: Preparation and in vitro evaluation a matrices forms of metronidazole using propolis and beeswax as matrix forming agents
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Al Kafeel, Iraq *Correspondence author: Hayder K. Abbas, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Al Kafeel, Ira
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Background: Metronidazole is nitroimidazole antibiotic that is used for the treatment of numerous infectious diseases caused by different organisms, such as protozoans, Helicobacter pylori, primarily Gram-negative and Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria, and protozoa. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of using propolis and beeswax in preparation of a matrix form of metronidazole by different techniques. Materials and Methods: Matrices were prepared by melt technique using beeswax and propolis as a release retardant agents. The compatibility between metronidazole and matrices forming agents (propolis and beeswax) was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Results: The FTIR and DSC analysis showed the stability and compatibility of the drug with other components. Bead matrices were prepared by emulsion congealing techniques by changing the amount of beeswax as a release retardant agent at five ratios mostly1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:8, and 1:10 drug to wax ratio. Tween 80 (2% w/v) was used as a surfactant. It was found that by increasing beeswax content, the particle size of spherical particles was increased. The drug release shows initial fast release followed by constant release. Conclusion: According to dissolution studies, it can be concluded that the use of beeswax and propolis as matrices forming agents of metronidazole is a very promising manner to sustain the release of drug.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00004713
Title: Synthesis and characterization new liquid crystals of Schiff base using microwave radiation
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Wasit, Wasit, Kut, Iraq
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Background: Schiff base compounds have been almost important in many applications, for example, in the industry of paper, coloring agents for foods, and in liquid crystalline displays. Some azomethine compounds are very interesting material because of rich liquid crystalline polymorphism. Liquid crystals were discovered in 1888 by Australian Botanist Friedrich Reinitzer. The liquid crystal state was between the traditional solid and liquid phases and this is the origin of the term “mesogenic state.” The aim of the present work is to synthesize three series of Schiff bases S1 , S2 , and S3 using the microwave; the synthesized Schiff base has a number of carbon atoms at the terminal alkoxy chain with liquid crystal properties. Methodology: The prepared compounds were characterized qualitatively by Fourier transform infrared, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, and CHN analysis. The liquid crystalline properties of L1 -L11 were verified using differential scanning calorimetry and hot-stage polarizing microscope (polarizing optical microscope). Results: A series of Schiff base (S1-S3) have been synthesized from the reaction of different amines (o-phenyldiamine,3,3’-dimethylbiphenyl-4,4’-diamine, pyridine-2,6-diamine) with some substituted aldehydes. The 1 H-NMR spectra of the synthesized compounds (S1-S3) in the DMSO-d6 as a solvent exhibited a singlet peak at 8.75, 8.56, and 8.67 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: Three series of Schiff bases S1, S2, and S3 were prepared using the microwave; the synthesized Schiff base has a number of carbon atoms at the terminal alkaoxyl chain with liquid crystal properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00004714
Title: Synthesis of new compounds derived from 5-chloroindole and the study of their biological activity
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jabir ibn Hayyan Medical University, Najaf, Iraq
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Background: Indole is one of many sides heterocyclic nuclei compounds, specific as a pharmacophore in a large number of natural and synthetic biologically active molecules, indole and its derivatives are formed in interesting plants, in which indole derivatives exhibit different biological and pharmacological properties. Methodology: This paper contains some prepared heterocyclic compounds derived from 5-chloroindole, by the reaction between Meldrum’s acid, 5-chloroindole, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and catalyst L-proline in acetonitrile to produce indole derivative (V), which ethanolyzed to give ester derivative (V1 ), then compound (V1 ) reacted with hydrazine hydrate to give hydrazide derivative compound (V2 ), hydrazide derivative reacted with p-hydroxy benzaldehyde in absolute ethanol to give Schiff base derivative(V3 ), Schiff base derivative used to prepare some new heterocyclic compounds by multistep reactions with different solvents, and materials to prepare four, five, and seven ring membered. The prepared compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, 1 H-NMR, and 13 C-NMR. All the prepared compounds were studied for antibacterial activity. Results: Most of the reactions were done with long periods, this is maybe due to the structure of starting material Meldrum’s acid which contains indole ring, the study of antimicrobial activity for all the prepared compounds. Conclusion: Synthesis of Meldrum’s acid derivatives for antibiotic drug containing indole, study the biological activity against the types of bacteria.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004746
Title: Awareness of complications in chronic kidney disease patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes conditions that damage your kidneys and decrease their ability to keep you healthy by doing the jobs listed. If kidney disease gets worse, wastes can build to high levels within the blood. Results: Earlier recognition of CKD could slow progression, prevent complications, and reduce cardiovascular-related outcomes. However, current estimates of CKD awareness indicate that both patient- and provider-level awareness remain unacceptably low. Conclusion: Many of the factors that are possibly associated with CKD awareness, which could help guide implementation of awareness efforts, have yet to be fully examined.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00004761
Title: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ginger oil and its characterization using transmission electron microscopy and spectrophotometer
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Nanosized silver particles have many applications, such as catalysis, photonics, sensors, and medicine. Hence, there is an increasing need to develop high-yield, low-cost, non-toxic, and eco-friendly procedures for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Ginger is a spice that has traditionally been treated as medicine. There is a growing interest in the use of essential oils in pharmaceutical industries and therefore, many researches are going on to explore the various possibilities for the optimal use. Aim: The aim of the study was to prepare the silver nanoparticles using ginger oil and its characterization using TEM and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Materials and Methods: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle was carried out using ginger oil and confirmed using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphological characters can be analyzed using TEM. Discussion: The synthesis of nanoparticles was visually observed by the colour change from a pale translucent color to pale brown color and was further confirmed by the UV–visible spectroscopy. The absorbance peak at 420 nm indicated the presence of silver nanopartcicles. The size of the particles ranges from 2 to 65 nm and the shape of the particles was spherical. Conclusion: The synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ginger oil suggests that it is a better alternative to chemical synthesis since it is eco-friendly. The synthesized silver nanoparticles may be utilized for its various biomedical applications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004770
Title: Immunohistochemical evaluation of bone morphogenetic protein 3 in chronic periodontitis influenced by Type2 diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: VRR Institute of Biomedical Science (Affiliated to University of Madras), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Periodontitis and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are chronic lifestyle disorders sharing a two-way relationship. Immunoexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP 3), an antagonist of osteogenesis, gives an insight into possible extent of alveolar bone loss in chronic periodontitis (CP) subjects with or without T2DM. Aim: This study aims to study the immunoexpression of BMP 3 in CP influenced by T2DM. Materials and Methods: This study evaluates the expression of BMP 3 immunohistochemically on gingival sections of CP subjects with or without T2DM. Results: The present study clearly indicates that BMP 3 levels are significantly elevated in gingival epithelium as well as inflammatory cells in subjects with CP t+T2DM when compared with CP subjects and healthy controls. Conclusion: T2DM influences the expression of BMP3 in subjects with CP, which could play a significant role in alveolar bone loss.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00004771
Title: Design, molecular docking, synthesis, and biological evaluation of pyrido pyrimidine and pyrazolo pyrimidines for cytotoxic activity
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, Research Scholar, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The study aims to design 25 pyrimidine scaffolds, synthesize selective compounds based on molecular docking simulations, characterization by spectral methods and biological evaluation for cytotoxic activity. Materials and Methods: All the required chemicals were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals and SD-Fine Chemicals and the solvents used in the synthesis were laboratory grade. All Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were recorded on Thermo Nicolet Nexus 4700 FT-IR instrument KBr disc method, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum was recorded on Advance 300 MHz Bruker UX-NMR and the samples were made dimethyl sulfoxide-d6 using tetramethylsilane as internal standard, and the mass spectrum was recorded with high-resolution mass spectra on Thermo Finnigan LCQ Ion Trap instrument and they were reported in m/z as molecular ion peak. Results and Discussion: Selective compounds were synthesized, characterized by spectral methods, and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic potency against hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2), MCF-7, and HeLa cell lines. Conclusion: It is seen that all the synthesized compounds showed significant activity. Among all, the IC50 values of the compounds 9g, 13c, and 13e reported good activity against HeLa, MCF-7, and Hep G2 cell lines were found at 28.58, 12.79, and 37.59 µg/ml, respectively, as most potent compounds. Good agreement was observed between the top experimental inhibitors and top-ranked docking scores. Hence, the compounds could be considered as new anticancer hits for further lead optimization.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004772
Title: A review on effect of clonazepam in burning mouth syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Na
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Aim and Objective: This review is to discuss the effect of clonazepam in burning mouth syndrome management.Background: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic or recurrent burning sensation in the mouth without an obvious cause. BMS is also named as stomatodynia, stomatopyrosis, glossopyrosis, glossodynia, sore mouth, sore tongue, and oral dysesthesia. The prevalence of symptoms will be more in diabetic patients. This discomfort may affect the tongue, gums, lips, inside of your cheeks, roof of your mouth, or widespread areas of your whole mouth. Since BMS is a complex pain disorder, the treatment may not be constant for all patients. Drugs majorly used in the treatment of BMS include nortriptyline, oral and topical clonazepam, gabapentin, pregabalin, and alpha-lipoic acid. Clonazepam, a benzodiazepine also widely used in the treating various chronic pain syndromes. Reason: This review elaborates the effect of clonazepam in the management of burning mouth syndrome.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004773
Title: Design and evaluation of acyclovir-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for sustained release
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Surya School of Pharmacy, Villupuram - 605 652, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study was to prepare acyclovir (ACV)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to sustain the release of the drug. Materials and Methods: ACV SLNs were prepared by an emulsification and low-temperature solidification method. The nanoparticles were further characterized for particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, drug entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release behavior. Results: The results revealed that this method is reproducible, more feasible and led to the entrapment of drug with an expected sustained release. The nanoparticle precipitated was with particle size of 180 nm, zeta potential of −25 mV, and spherical in shape. The entrapment efficiency noted was 78%. In vitro release was about 78% release in 35 h, which indicated that the ACV-loaded SLNs provide sustained release and release behavior was in accordance with zero-order kinetics. Conclusion: ACV-loaded SLNs may be a good choice for the improvement of bioavailability and reduction in toxicity with a good sustain release over a long period.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004774
Title: Study on prescription pattern in patients with cerebrovascular disease (ischemic stroke) among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Na
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Aim and Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the drug utilization pattern in patients with ischemic stroke among South Indian populations. Materials and Methods: The Blood supply to the brain is either interrupted or reduced, the brain does not get enough oxygen or nutrients leads to death of brain cells (i.e., the affected part of the brain does not function properly) leads to stroke. It can affect the patient by physically, mentally, emotionally, or a combination of the three. The clinical features of stroke vary widely depending on size and location of the lesion in the brain. So, it becomes mandatory to decrease the morbidity with the help of drugs. A convenient sample of 30 patients with prevalence of stroke was found and their prescriptions were collected and recorded. Statistical analysis has been done with the collected prescription data to evaluate the frequency of prescription pattern on stroke patients. Results: This study is designed comparatively to evaluate and analyze the stroke patients’ prescription pattern among South Indian population. The reason for this study is to make common people aware of the common drugs which are prescribed toward the patients with cerebrovascular accident to decrease the morbidity. Conclusion: This study shows that clopidogrel+aspirin (72.5%) and strocit (37.5%) is the commonly prescribed drug than optineuron forte (32.5%) and ecosporin (20%). Strovas (70%) is the most common drug prescribed to decrease the blood cholesterol level. The treatment should aim at reducing the incidence of secondary stroke attack with drug combination therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004775
Title: Review on the investigations of various bleeding disorders
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Bleeding disorders or hemorrhagic diathesis are a group of disorders characterized by defective hemostasis with abnormal bleeding. The causes are hemorrhagic diathesis due to vascular abnormalities, hemorrhagic diathesis related to platelet abnormalities, disorders of coagulation factors, and hemorrhagic diathesis due to fibrinolytic defects, and combination of all these as occurs in disseminated intravascular coagulation. The hemostatic mechanisms have two primary functions, they are, to promote local hemostasis at the site of injured blood vessels and to ensure that the circulating blood remains in fluid state while in the vascular bed, that is, to prevent the occurrence of generalized thrombosis. Formation of hemostatic plug is a complex mechanism and involves maintenance of a delicate balance among at least five components: (i) blood vessel wall; (ii) platelets; (iii) plasma coagulation factors; (iv) inhibitors; and (v) fibrinolytic system. It also includes some of the disorders such as menometrorrhagia and coagulation disorders. The investigations are also targeting these five components. Bleeding time, clotting time, thrombin time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, factor assay, and function assay of the platelets are the proposed investigations of the bleeding and clotting disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00004776
Title: Antidiabetic activity of chelating tris n-methylethylenediamine iron complex
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Holy Cross College, Nagercoil, Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India
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Polydentate ligand whose structure permits the attachment of their two or more donor atoms to the same metal ion simultaneously and thus produces one or more rings is called chelate. Chelates are used for the elimination of harmful radioactive and heavy metal toxicity from the body. Some of the chelating agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ethylenediamine, and 1,2-trans-cyclohexylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid are used in the elimination of harmful radioactive metals from the body. Chelates used in food preservation. Fruit, fruit juice, foodstuffs, etc., are now preserved with the help of chelating compounds. Supplementation of essential trace elements is an area of increasing interest in the field of human and veterinary pharmacology. In the present work synthesis of tris N-methyl ethylene diamine iron complex and confirm their application by anti-diabetic activity. The synthesized complex was characterized by elemental analysis, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, ultraviolet-visible, magnetic susceptibility, Fourier transform-infrared, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis, and X‐ray diffraction. Applications of the complex were studied by its antidiabetic activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004777
Title: Questionnaire-based study on the awareness of need for dental treatment for the children administered to the parents
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims at evaluating the awareness of the need for dental treatment among parents of school-going children. Materials and Methods: Growing children need proper guidance for healthy growth, upkeep, and hygiene of their teeth and parents need to be educated on the importance of dental treatment. Parents should receive counseling on appropriate oral hygiene procedures, fluoride supplementation, oral habits and also need for clinical intervention for their children because knowledge regarding risk among parents may be variable. A convenient sample of 150 participants who are parents of school- going children visited Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals for treatment were included in the study. Results: This study shows the importance of parental knowledge on their child’s dental health. Parents are not fully familiar with oral hygiene techniques and dental treatment methods but more awareness is required for them to instill good oral health in their children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004778
Title: Methotrexate-induced organ toxicity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A review article
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru - 570 015, Karnataka, India
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Background: Globally, 0.5–1% general population are suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is a chronic systemic self-immune medicated inflammatory disorders, affects synovial fluids and the lining of synovial joints. To treat RA required multiple drug therapy such as glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologics. DMARDs such as methotrexate (MTX), hydroxychloroquine, and leflunomide are routinely used in RA either as a monotherapy or combination therapy. MTX is a well-established DMARD used as first-line therapy in RA due to cost-effectiveness and efficacious. Even though MTX acts as gold standard drug therapy in the management of RA, it possesses various toxicity that may be related to the organ. Organ related toxicity includes gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, hematological toxicity, hepatic toxicity, renal toxicity, cutaneous toxicity, and infections. This leads to the withdrawal of MTX therapy in 5–57% of patients within 1–2 years. Hence, we aimed to conduct a review of case studies to identify the types and nature of MTX -induced organ toxicity and management of that toxicity. Search strategies: We conducted a medical database search to identify case studies and found a total of 27 case studies, having 40 RA patients presentation, who experienced MTX -induced organ toxicity. The mean age of RA patients experienced with MTX -induced organ toxicity was 66.2 years and the age of affected patients was ranging from 30 to 82 years. Maximum number (n = 30) of MTX toxicity was seen in 61–80 years group of RA patients. The MTX -induced organ toxicity was GI toxicity, hematological toxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hepatic toxicity, renal toxicity, cutaneous toxicity, and various types of infections. Conclusion: MTX -induced organ toxicity can occur at any stage of MTX therapy even after taking care of precautions. This toxicity may be acute or chronic. The severity lies mild to severe in nature and rarely even cause death. This toxicity enhances economic burden and suffering to the patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004779
Title: Doctor of pharmacy: Boon for health-care system
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, (NITTE- Deemed to be University), Paneer, Deralakatte, Mangaluru - 575 018, Karnataka, India
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Pharm D is a new professional academic course that started in the year 2008 in India. It has a broad spectrum compared to those of other conventional professional pharmacy courses. The unique feature of prefixing (Dr.) and provision of joining Ph. D after Pharm D allure the students all over the country. The syllabus is designed to cater to the clinical needs and fill the gap between patients and doctors. Graduated students have plenty of opportunities both in India and abroad in the field of health- care services. Despite having a well-designed syllabus, Pharm D is still facing several problems at the practice level for its recognition. Although it has been a decade and more, the program is still in its budding stage. Pharm D students are striving continuously for appropriate attention and recognition by regulatory authorities as well as by the community.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004780
Title: Clay modeling in pathology – A questionnaire-based research
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Modeling clay is any of a group of malleable substances used in building and sculpting. The material compositions and production processes vary considerably. Modeling clay could be of various types such as paper clay, ceramic clay, oil-based clay, salt dough, polymer clay, and plasticine. Clay modeling has been incorporated in many educational institutions so as to help the students to understand and visualize the concepts better. This study was focused on the undergraduate students, to know the usefulness of clay modeling in understanding the pathology concepts to know the preference level on clay modeling as a class activity among undergraduate students and to know the advantages and disadvantages of clay modeling activity in teaching pathology. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was done among 123 s and 3rd -year undergraduate dental students of Saveetha Dental College who were selected randomly. The questionnaire was made according to three aspects, based on the preference level of clay modeling in pathology, based on the advantages, and disadvantages of clay modeling activity. Results: All 123 participants have attended the questionnaire study and the results were calculated accordingly. The preference to clay modeling activity varies among the students and majority would like to have the activity with three-dimensional models of pathological aspects. The majority preferred group discussion or lecture before the activity to know the concepts and to do the activity majority preferred a group activity. Conclusion: Clay modeling-based activity will improve the cognitive skills, understanding ability, and analogical reasoning among the undergraduates. To learn the pathological concepts well, we need this type of modeling-based educational systems. Finally, the challenges and the preferences of clay modeling-based education were explained in this article to science education researchers, advanced students of science education and curriculum design, teacher educators, public examiners, and textbook designers to adapt themselves to this type of innovative teaching system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004781
Title: Bioactive compounds of zingiber officinale roscoe improves behavioral activity in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine induced mouse model of Pakinson’s disease
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Bharat University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background of the Study: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the neurodegenerative disorders due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and reduction in the striatum dopamine. Objective: The purpose of the study deals with neuroprotective effects of gingerol, against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced mice model of PD. Materials and Methods: A combination of behavioral task using graphical representation and biochemical parameters was tested using standard molecular tools method. Results: Gingerol activity shows the increase the level of dopamine and its metabolites enhanced the behavior activity of the animal models. Conclusion: This present is need to understand the neuroprotective and antioxidant properties while devolping the new experimental modalities for parkinsiom.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004782
Title: Prevalence of dental anxiety among the OP patients in Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental anxiety is defined as the fear, anxiety, or stress expressed by an individual during the dental procedures. When the anxiety become severe and it leads to an irrational fear towards the dentist. So this leads to total avoidance of the dentist to complete the dental procedure. It can also called as dental phobia. The present study aims to assess the prevalence of dental anxiety among the out patient (OP) patients visiting Saveetha Dental College with the age of 18–25 years and study about the state of mind in the dental chair, their attitude toward the dentist during dental procedures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the OP patients of Saveetha Dental College. The study consisted of 100 random participants of the age group of 18–25 years. A questionnaire based on the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale was given to all the participants and was asked to fill it. Results: From the survey, it is evident that majority of the participants were relaxed and only 5% were extremely anxious when they were supposed to meet the dentist. When oral cavity was looked by the dentist, 56% were relaxed, whereas 8% were extremely anxious. When the tooth is drilled, 27% were relaxed, whereas 37% were extremely worried. About 54% were relaxed when the tooth was restored with the filling material and 21% were extremely worried. When a local anesthetic injection is given, 23% were relaxed and 25% were extremely worried. During a tooth extraction, only 6% were relaxed and majority of them (68%) were extremely worried. At the time of cleaning and polishing the tooth, 83% were relaxed and 4% were extremely worried. Conclusion: From the study, during extraction and local anesthetic injection, most of the participants were extremely worried. Hence, the dentist has to take the necessary accomplishment to overcome anxious during these procedures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004783
Title: Prevalence of erosion on dental hard tissues and its correlation with dietary habits
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technology Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Tooth erosion is the loss of dental hard tissue from the tooth surface by chemical processes, usually acid, without involving plaque bacteria. Tooth erosion is commonly known to be associated with certain dietary habits. Objective: The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of erosion on dental hard tissues in the age group of 12–80 years and to establish a correlation of erosion with dietary habits. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients (130 males and 128 females) belonging to the age group of 12–80 years were examined followed by asking questions regarding their medical history, rate and frequency of drinks and food consumption, and lifestyle habits. Results and Conclusion: The prevalence of erosion on dental hard tissues was found to be among 21%. Pickle consumption was the most common dietary habit involved in causing erosion. The correlation between erosion and dietary habits is well established.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004784
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of surgery-first approach in orthognathic surgery among orthodontists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: This study aims to assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice of surgery-first approach (SFA) in orthognathic surgery among orthodontists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and practice of SFA in orthognathic surgery. Background: The treatment approach, SFA is now common with recent advances in surgery and understanding of occlusion. SFA provides adequate treatment stability and increases the patient compliance due to the lesser treatment time toward orthognathic surgery. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 50 specialists (25 orthodontists and 25 oral and maxillofacial surgeons) with a pre-tested questionnaire consisting of 10 questions to evaluate their knowledge, attitude, and practice of SFA. An appropriate statistical analysis was done and results were obtained. Reason: The reason for the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of SFA compared to the earlier practiced approach pre-surgical orthodontics as it requires a prolonged treatment period and sometimes worsening of patient profile. Conclusion: Our study concluded that although specialists have reported that they have found better patient compliance in SFA over the conventional approach, the widespread acceptance of the procedure and understanding of its indications leaves much to be achieved. The shorter treatment time and patient satisfaction were the primary driving force for SFA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004785
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of tobacco among tobacco users in South Indian population – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Concerns about tobacco smoking and its negative effects on human health have a long history. Tobacco contains more than 50 chemicals that cause cancer and nicotine is the primary among them. Nicotine is highly addictive and causes physical and psychological dependency. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and awareness of tobacco use among tobacco smokers and to assess if the patients have a knowledge of the use of tobacco, ill effects of patients smoking tobacco, and its implications in health and surroundings and we can create more awareness among the public about the health effects on smoking tobacco using this information. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 50 tobacco smokers with a questionnaire consisting of 15 questions to evaluate their knowledge, attitude, and awareness of smoking tobacco. An appropriate statistical analysis was conducted and results were obtained. Results: Through the study, we found that almost 20% of people did not know about the legal age of using tobacco, and 46% of the smokers were influenced by family members, 54% of people feel they are more acceptable in society, and 58% started smoking before the age of 18. Conclusion: Through the study, we identified the areas where we can tackle the tobacco menace and aspects where we have to educate the people more. This will give an insight into aspects of the design of a tobacco cessation program.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004786
Title: Analysis of teeth anomalies among consanguineous marriages – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different types of teeth anomalies caused due to consanguineous marriage in the Indian population. Background: A consanguineous marriage is defined as a union between two individuals who are related, who share a common ancestor or share blood. It is a common tradition, especially among Indian population. Consanguinity results in reduction of genetic variations and possibility of defective genes, easily resulting in several genetic defects, out of which one of the defects is anomaly of the teeth. The different types of teeth anomalies include supernumerary teeth or hyperdontia, fusion, taurodontism, hypodontia, and macrodontia. Materials and Methods: The participants include 30 consanguineous couples and their children. The type of teeth anomaly in the children was identified by means of clinical examination and the degree of consanguinity was assessed through questionnaire. The data were analyzed and results were obtained. Results: It was observed that of the 35 children of the participants 18 (51%) suffered from hyperdontia, 4 (11.43%) suffered from hypodontia, 2 (5.71%) suffered from fusion of teeth, and 11 (31%) of them had no anomaly. Conclusion: This study was carried out among consanguineous couples and their children to know about the different kinds of teeth anomalies caused due to consanguinity to create awareness about the dental anomalies caused due to consanguineous marriages. This also creates awareness during preconception counseling, helping patients make an informed decision.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004787
Title: Gingerol increases the effect of Parkinson’s disease mouse: Motor and non-motors behaviors and neurotoxic- chemical activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Bharath University, Selaiyur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the neurodegenerative mental disorders because dopaminergic neurons were reduced in the substantia nigra and striatum dopamine. Parkinsonism causes mainly the movement disorder, its affect 60–70 years aged females. Aim: The main aim of the study is to expose chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induced with gingerols mice model of PD. Materials and Methods: The end of behavioral experimental tissues was further investigated with dopamine and Western blotting methods. Results: Gingerols activity showed that the increasing the level of dopamine and its metabolites after that enhanced the behavior activity of the PD animal models.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004788
Title: Survey on the prevalence of periorbital and pedal edema in the elderly aged people
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Edema is swelling caused by excess fluid in our body’s tissues. It may be the result of medication, gestation or associate degree underlying sickness usually symptoms of heart condition, renal disorder, or liver disease. It takes place when too much fluid gets trapped inside the tissues of the body, mainly the pores and skin. There are exclusive causes and styles of edema. It is a very common side effect when appearing dermal filler injections and is normally relatively slight and self-limiting. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the survey on the prevalence of periorbital and pedal edema in elderly aged people. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among the elderly aged people who are above the age group of 50. This survey questionnaire consisted of dependent, pitting, and bilateral types of edema questions. Patients with recognized diabetes mellitus, heart diseases, respiratory diseases, and hypertension and with unknown diagnoses had been included in the study. The survey tool consisted of original research questionnaires. Data were collected and analyzed statistically. Results: The survey reveals that about 72.2% of people have pedal edema conditions. Among them, the pitting type of edema is about 41.8% and non-pitting type is about 34.5% of people. The dependent edema type is about 45.5% and non-dependent type is about 29.1%. The presence of periorbital edema is a few of about 20%. The prevalence of periorbital and pedal edema with systemic diseases like diabetes mellitus is about 70.9% and heart-related diseases are about 44.4%. The presence of hypertensive people is 74.1%. The people who are under medications are about 72.7% with regular intake of drugs is about 51.9% and 50% is diet controlled. Conclusion: This survey finalizes by stating that people are more prevalence with pedal edema as compared to periorbital edema. Pedal edema with pitting edema conditions is more and also they are dependent edema type. Systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertensive conditions are more common among them.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004789
Title: Use of picture puzzle in understanding pathology – A comparative study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the use of picture puzzle in understanding pathology. Introduction: These puzzles help us in diagnostic thinking and clinical reasoning. They help us in creating an atmosphere of happiness, challenge which creates a positive change in us and helps us to focus better on the subject. The puzzle game helps in stimulating the mind so that there is an increase in vocabulary and better retention of the concepts in mind. Materials and Methods: Two batches were selected and compared for analyzing the effect of the picture puzzle game. One batch involved conventional lecture and the other batch involved picture puzzle also. They were compared based on the marks scored in the test. Results: Due to failed normality, the Mann–Whitney U Statistic test was considered which mainly considered median value (center value). P-value was found to be significant. P-value was found to be significant (P ≤ 0.001). The difference in average values between the two batches was also found to be significant (4.46–3.58 = 0.88). The average was high in the study, which included a picture puzzle in them. Discussion: According to another study, which involved Duran’s communicative adaptability scale which depends on both cognitive and behavioral skills. This study concluded that games in learning had a positive effect on the communication ability, adaptability, and resourcefulness in adult learners which also proved that they might have a role to play in higher education. Wouters et al. detected in his study effective and significant change in learning and retention of concepts due to the involvement of puzzles. Conclusion: Picture puzzles were found to be effective in understanding the concepts of pathology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004790
Title: Survey on contact lens users with dry eyes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: According to the National Eye Institute adopted in 1995, states that dry eye is a disorder of the tear film due to the tear deficiency and excessive evaporation, which causes damage to the interpalpebral ocular surface. It is also referred to as keratitis sicca which results in dryness and inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva. Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface which results in the symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tears film instability. The use of contact lenses is increased in the growing population, as it is prescribed for the management of refractive errors as an alternative to the spectacles used for cosmetic purposes. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire- based survey was conducted with 20 standardized questions. It was prepared and distributed among the general population and students of Saveetha Dental College. There were 52 participants, demographics which include age, sex, education, occupation, and habits. The questions asked were consists of the type of contact lens been used, the modality of contact lens, condition, and symptoms of dry eyes. The results obtained from the survey were analyzed statistically and it is reported in percentage. Results: From 52 participants, the study comprises mostly of college students and people working in IT survey reveals that there were about 75% of females and 25% of males. The age group among them was about 79.9% of aged between 15 and 20 years, and 21.2% aged between 21 and 30 years were using contact lens. The type of lens used among the participants was that 75% of them were using a soft contact lens and 17.3% of them were using a silicone hydrogel type of lens. The condition in which dry eyes were experienced among the participants was that 42.3% of them experienced while staying in air-conditioned rooms, 36.5% of them have dry eyes due to dust allergies 21.2% of them experienced while using the contact lens for a long time. Conclusion: The major reason behind the dry eyes among the contact lens users was the screening of computers and mobile phones and other environmental factors also lead to dry eyes. Hence, dry eyes, a major risk factor in contact lens users, can be prevented and managed by the limited screening of computers and mobile phones with proper hygiene and maintenance of the contact lenses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004791
Title: Red cell variables in male and female regarding exercise
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In healthy individuals, exercise stimulates hematological parameters, muscle functions, and local immune response. By improving the oxidative capacity and glycogen storage, the exercise activity can be improved. The hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin level (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and red cell distribution width (RDW) are subjected to change during and after when the individual is subjected to forceful exercise. In the previous literature, there are reports which conclude that there is an increase or there is no change in the hematological parameters induced by exercise. This study aims to assess and measure the red cell variables during exercise. This study also focuses on the sex-related variables of the hematological parameters. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male and four female participants were selected for this study. Peripheral venous blood was drawn and the following hematological parameters were analyzed RBC count, Hb level, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and RDW. Results: The data were collected and statistically analyzed with paired t-test using SigmaPlot Version 12. From the statistical analysis, it was evident that RBC count, Hb level, and Hct were statistically significant. The other parameters such as MCV, MCH, MCHC, and RDW are not statistically significant. Conclusion: From the study, it is concluded that there is a significant increase in the red cell variables and hematological parameters in both males and females before and after exercise.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004792
Title: Estimation of pH of saliva between diabetic and nondiabetic patients visiting Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a global health challenge faced by the world today. India ranks second with 66.8 million people with diabetes in 2014 following China, which ranks first with 96.2 million diabetics. International Diabetes Federation estimates that currently, more than 387 million people worldwide have diabetes and it is estimated to increase to 592 million by 2035. It is a common chronic metabolic disease with various oral consequences. Diabetes mellitus manifests in altering the salivary composition and its functions. Change in oral environment initiates pathogenic bacteria, damaging hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity leading to an increased cariogenic activity and periodontal lesions. Since saliva provides a protective effect, there can be the development of dental caries when there is clinically significant decrease in salivary functions. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the pH of saliva between diabetic and nondiabetic patients visiting Saveetha Dental College. Materials and Methods: In this study, the sample size was considered to be 50, in which 25 patients are diabetic who were previously diagnosed and other 25 patients were healthy individuals. The salivary samples were collected from the patients and were immediately analyzed the pH using digital pH meter. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: From our results, we know that pH of diabetic patients is ranges from 5.5 to 7 and nondiabetic patients are range from 6.5 to 8. Diabetic patients have a mean of 6.408 and SD of 0.662017 whereas nondiabetic group has mean of 7.42 and SD of 0.500833. Diabetic patients are mostly acidic and nondiabetic is alkaline and neutral. Diabetic patients have lower pH than nondiabetic patients due to the insulin affinity. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the lowered pH of interstitial fluids causes insulin resistance through reduced binding affinity of insulin to its receptor. By comparing the diabetic group has acidic pH and nondiabetic group has alkaline pH.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004793
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness to overcome bad breath among the higher secondary school students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Halitosis, or unhealthy breath, most frequently starts within the mouth. Poor oral hygiene permits food particles to gather on the surface of the tongue between the teeth or on the animal tissue (gum) that surrounds the teeth. Bacteria in the mouth break down the food particles and chemicals that are released which have a powerful odor. Infections within the mouth, such as caries (tooth decay), dental medicine (gum), or mouth sores associated with different conditions, might contribute to unhealthy breath. The main aim of this study is to overcome bad breath among the higher secondary school students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 high school students in the month of November–December who are volunteers underneath. This survey questionnaire contained consuming behavior and dietary importance of bad breath. The participants gave their knowledgeable consent for the original survey questionnaires. Data have been accrued and analyzed with statistics. Results: This survey showed that the term halitosis, i.e., bad breath is known only by 38.1% of people. The garlic and onion causes’ bad breath is known by 77% of students which is very common in usage. The ingredient in green tea is polyphenol antioxidant which prevents that the bad breath is known by 33%. Conclusion: Halitosis is the oddest thing which makes a bad impression on one person. It is very much important to overcome it. This survey is evident that most of the higher secondary students were unaware of it and had poor knowledge about bad breath.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004794
Title: Prevalence of dental problems in people due to regular workout
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In the current scenario, many people preferred to go to gym to maintain physical fitness. However, most of them are not aware of the impact of vigorous workout on dental problems. This study is conducted to assess the prevalence of dental-related problems and aggravating factors during heavy workouts. Aim and Objective: The objective of this study was to associate the relationship between dental problems and workout. Materials and Methods: An online survey was done on SurveyPlanet which was circulated to 105 people who are regular to the gym. The questionnaire included questions which would assess the people’s knowledge of the effects of regular workout and the problems it can cause and its preventive measures. Results: The results show that 40.4% are not aware of the preventive/precautionary measures to prevent exerting pressure on teeth during weightlifting. About 31.4% of the people are affected with caries. Conclusion: From the result, it is analyzed that most of the people are unaware of the consequences caused by regular workout on dental health. The study shows the prevalence of dental problem.