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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004843
Title: Cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid fever inpatient in the private hospital in Subang, Indonesia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl Raya Bandung Sumedang Km 21, West Java 45363, Indonesia.
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Background: Typhoid fever is a systemic infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhi. This disease is an important problem, especially in developing countries, including Indonesia. Subang’s Health Service found 451 cases of typhoid fever in 2018. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of the inpatient typhoid fever treatment in a private hospital in Subang, Indonesia. Subject and Methods: The study used a retrospective method, including alternative criteria for cefixime and ciprofloxacin, patient criteria, research perspectives, outcome determination, cost components, and pharmacoeconomic analysis. Data were conducted to statistical analysis using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test followed by the Mann–Whitney test. Results: A total of 114 patients met the inclusion criteria. Typhoid fever was affected most teenagers and young adults (17–25 years). Analysis of length of stay (LOS) showed a significant difference between LOS using cefixime and ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0004). The total cost showed no significant difference between the total cost of cefixime and ciprofloxacin (P = 0.878). The cost-effectiveness ratio for therapy with cefixime and ciprofloxacin was 368,985 ± 14,247 indonesian rupiah, the indonesia currency (IDR)/day and 363,053 ± 12,276 IDR/day, respectively. Conclusion: The treatment of cefixime was more cost-effective than ciprofloxacin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004834
Title: Antibacterial activity of nutmeg oleoresin, rosemary oleoresin, and ginger oleoresin – An in vitro study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of nutmeg, rosemary, and ginger oleoresins against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus. Materials and Methods: The oleoresins used for the study were obtained from Synthite Industries Pvt. Ltd., Kerala, as a gift sample. To test the antibacterial effect of the oleoresin, agar well diffusion method was used and its effect was assessed by measuring the zone of inhibition. Results: All the oleoresins showed very good antibacterial activity. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect was observed with all oleoresins except nutmeg oleoresin against Pseudomonas where low concentration showed better activity. In this study, maximum inhibition was shown by rosemary oleoresin against Pseudomonas followed by nutmeg oleoresin against Enterococcus. Conclusion: The present study concludes that nutmeg oleoresin, rosemary oleoresin, and ginger oleoresins were active against E. coli, Pseudomonas, S. mutans, and Enterococcus. Hence, they may be used for the control of infections caused by these organisms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004819
Title: Occurrence of behavioral changes and its management in persons with mental illness due to lunar effects
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A belief that still endures is that the position of the moon and the phases cause certain physiological, psychological, and behavioral changes in humans and animals. The tidal changes in oceans are due to the gravitational force that is induced on earth by the moon. The full moon (FM) and new moon (NM) can beget social tension, mood swings, and disharmony in humans. There are incidences of increased road accidents, crime, and suicides on lunar cycles. The study states the behavioral changes in special children that include mentally ill, mentally retarded, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) persons. The study also indicates the management methods and medication to be followed during lunar cycles. Aim and Objective: This study aims to study the behavioral changes in mentally ill, mentally retarded, and ASD person in lunar cycles and their management techniques. Materials and Methods: The study is conducted in a population of 40 between the age group of 15 and 45 years that is divided into Samples I and II. Sample I population is the person who are treated at home and Sample II population is an inclusive of person treated in an institute. The study is conducted for a period of 2 months that comprises 2 days of FM and 2 days of NM. Fifteen queries were inquired, which are parted into A, B, and C and the observation is presented in bar graph representation. Results and Conclusion: The study explores the changes in Sample I who does not undertake medication while Sample II experiences a trivial behavioral change in their behavior. This minor change is due to the effect of medication that is specified, and hence, not much changes are observed in Sample II when compared with Sample I. These changes can be overcome by the management techniques that include the recreational activities, medical facilities, counseling facilities, and vocational training courses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004820
Title: Green synthesis of garlic oil-mediated selenium nanoparticles and its antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Nanoparticles, or matter ranging between 1 and 100 nm size, are of immense value in today’s technological ventures, in all fields. Besides, if made of biodegradable materials, the preparation supports sustained drug release for a long time. Green chemistry is thus incorporated in nanotechnology. This study involves the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNP) incorporating garlic oil. Garlic is already known for its medicinal properties, of which its antimicrobial and cytotoxic nature will be studied. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of garlic oil-mediated SeNP. Methodology: Preparation of garlic oil incorporated SeNP was followed by a test for its antimicrobial activity using agar well diffusion method and cytotoxicity, using brine shrimps. Results: Garlic oil-mediated SeNP exhibits significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that garlic oil-mediated SeNP have a good antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity at high concentrations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004821
Title: The evaluation of cariogenic bacteria levels in subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment by assessing the efficacy of yogurt containing probiotic bacteria
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Probiotic is the that term used for bacteria which are defined as microorganisms which when given in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The effect of Lactobacillus having beneficial effect in the prevention of caries has been reported but not well recorded. The most common strains used for this are of the lactic acid bacteria Bifidobacterium strains and Lactobacillus. Probiotics have been previously evaluated by giving in different modes such as milk, cheese, ice cream, capsules, supplements, yogurt, chewing gum, and lozenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of giving probiotic yogurt as an adjuvant and that contains strains of Lactobacillus casei on the Streptococcus mutans levels in the unstimulated saliva sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Our sample consisted of 20 patients (11 females and 9 males) undergoing treatment with fixed orthodontic appliance treatment were selected for this double-blinded study where the dentist and investigator. Ten randomly selected subjects were asked to consume the probiotic yogurt twice daily in the morning and night for 15 days. Ten subjects were given yogurt to consume that did not have any added probiotics. Probiotic yogurt was given to patients to consume one bottle of 200 ml in the morning and at night. Saliva samples of the patients were collected in unstimulated manner using a sterile container. Results: After the use of the probiotic yogurt, in some of the subjects, there was a reduction in the S. mutans levels; and in two subjects, there was not much significant reduction. The subjects in the study group had a lesser count of S. mutans than those in the control group. Conclusion: This indicates that daily usage ingestion of a L. casei Shirota derived probiotic through a yogurt form could reduce the levels of S. mutans in saliva around orthodontic brackets and bands and wires. These findings need to be validated with future long-term randomized clinical studies with a larger sample size.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004822
Title: Free radical scavenging activity of developed herbal formulation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Dr. N.G.P. Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Medicinal plants have played a key role in the prevention and treatment of diseases since ancient period. They are also potential sources of drugs and nutrients. Boerhavia diffusa and Achyranthes aspera are widely used medicinal plants in Ayurvedic treatment for a variety of ailments including kidney diseases. The present study was designed to assess the free radical scavenging capacity of herbal formulated medicinal plants, B. diffusa and A. aspera. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extracts of herbal formulation were prepared and evaluated for their free radical scavenging capacity using various in vitro chemical assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’‐azinobis(3‐ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid), ferric reducing antioxidant power, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. Results: The ethanolic extract of herbal formulation showed potential radical scavenging activity against the radicals generated in vitro as the result was compared with the standard at the same concentration. Conclusion: The present research concluded that herbal formulated medicinal plants, B. diffusa and A. aspera, were found to be more effective due to the combined activity of the individual components. Hence, it is concluded that herbal formulation of these plants may provide efficient, supportive, or alternative treatment procedures for numerous health ailments.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004823
Title: Recent review on lipid drug conjugates for the treatment of glioblastoma
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (Grade IV glioma) is one of the most dangerous tumor of the central nervous system, which is the reason for about 4% of the cancer-related deaths, which makes it one of the deadliest cancers in the world. Well based on the present treatment regime, the average survival rate is 14 months and survival rate is 3–5% for 2 years. Hence, the development of novel drug delivery was necessary. The main challenge in the treatment of glioblastoma is drug penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The review discusses the features of the BBB and its structural changes with different tumor growth stages, various techniques to improve the delivery of brain drugs, i.e., tight junction opening, drug chemical alteration, efflux transporter inhibition, convection enhanced delivery, craniotomy-based drug delivery, and nanosystems for drug delivery. A wide variety of nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed to target GBM surface markers, overexpressed receptors, aberrant genes, and signaling pathways, in addition to contemplating barriers targeting strategies. Among the nanocarriers explored, lipid NPs claim important and unique features, including the versatility in promoting both passive and active drug targeting, making them excellent candidates for brain drug delivery and one of the most appealing to overcome the obstacles of the current GBM treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004824
Title: Rheumatoid arthritis: An overview of epigenetics and pathogenesis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a progressive autoimmune disease specified by significant morbidity, loss of functional capacity, and whose pathogenic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The greater risk of RA is for women when compared to men. The evidence obtained from analyses of genetic tissue and clinical studies suggest an immune‑mediated etiology correlated with dysregulation of stromal tissue, which spreads chronic inflammation and joint destruction together. RA includes a complicated genotype interplay and environmental triggers. The presence of circulating autoantibodies, various chemokines, and modified metabolism occurs in the body helps in the characterization of RA. From the earlier studies, it is known that the suppression of pro‑inflammatory cytokine‑mediated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, mitogen‑activated protein kinase, or Syk activation may be adequate but not in terms of clinical aspect. Nevertheless, a large proportion of RA patients do not show much response to the current therapies. New interventions and medications are urgently required. This review addresses the recent awareness of the epigenetics, pathological pathways in the progression of RA, and also a short overview of the current therapies of RA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004825
Title: Innovation in medical device at glance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore, Karnataka, India
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It takes more than just a smart idea and creative engineering to design a new medical device. Innovation and development of new products is the lifeblood of companies in research and development (R&D)-intensive industries, but faulty goods can cause huge damage. It is not just a fresh presentation but it also should be beneficial and viable. Concepts for technology also come from experts who are familiar with the challenges that need to be overcome. Clinicians and health-care professionals receive the number of thoughts to solve their problems by innovating fresh goods. In the design of a medical device, biomedical engineers also play a very important role. The software will also assist in the advancement of medical devices, allowing medical technology manufacturers to leverage artificial intelligence and machine learning and ensuring better tracking of applications from pre-market growth to post-market outcomes. The forms of innovation in medical devices are incremental innovation, in which products are easy and the consumer risk level to the patients. The new innovative medical device example is Integra LifeScience Omnigraft Dermal Regeneration Matrix. The creation of medical products is predominantly through the first recognition of the issue and then the development of the theory and then the thorough production of the drug. With better treatments, minimal hospitalization, and increased patient satisfaction, the innovation in medical device improves. The system must fulfill a need, resulting in better performance, and at the same time have to be relatively low cost. The life cycle of medical devices is not an easy, linear progression from basic research to applied research, production, and marketing. Instead, it is a dynamic system of five parallel tracks including administrative, R&D, advertising, production, and legal matters.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004826
Title: Knowledge and awareness of blood/body fluid spill management among the third year dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and to create awareness of the blood or fluid spill management technique among the 3rd year dental students. Materials and Methods: A survey questionnaire has been provided to the 3rd year dental students, which consists of pre-training blood/fluid spill management questions. One hundred dental students were made to fill this questionnaire and a training of the protocol was been taught. After this, the post-training survey questionnaire was been provided to them and the results after the training were been noted. Results: From the results, we come to know that before the training the students knew that there is a management for this blood/fluid spill, but they were unaware of the steps in the blood/fluid spill management protocol. Conclusion: Thus, this study ensures that the protocol of the blood/fluid spill management is educated to all the pre-clinicians of the 3rd year dental students before entering the clinical exposure. Hence, this study helps the students to get to know more about the precautions and the prevalence occurring due to the improper management of the blood/fluid spill.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004827
Title: Blow the balloon for the ease – A cross-sectional study on wheezing patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of balloon blowing exercise on wheezing patients. Introduction: Wheezing is a dynamic sign, occurs when airflow through narrowed airways, by creating vibrations in the audible frequency. In this highly polluted society, all age groups are affected invariably with respiratory diseases, in which wheezing is the most common condition. To control the severity of wheezing, Balloon blowing exercise has been introduced. It is cheap and can be followed by all age groups. The principle followed in blowing the balloon exercise is to increase the maximum expiratory volume of lungs. Materials and Methods: The sample size of 15 students of the age group 18–20 years was selected. They were given the balloon and asked to blow the balloon for the consecutive 30 days, both in the morning and evening for 15 min. The lung functions such as FVC, FEV1, and PEF were measured using spirometer before and after the exercise. Results and Discussion: There is a significant increase in the forced vital capacity (FVC) of wheezing patient after balloon blowing exercise. Among the respiratory function test parameters, only FVC showed a significant increase of P = 0.056. Since it is a pilot study, it had many limitations. Therefore, future studies need to be conducted with more subjects, measuring the balloon resistance accurately. Conclusions: Blowing the balloon strengthens the respiratory muscles and results in increased of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). This exercise improves pulmonary function and reduces the risk of lung disorder from wheezing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004828
Title: Submission pathway for post-approval changes in Japan
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore, Karnataka, India
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Post-approval changes are the changes made to the drug product which is already approved by the regulatory agency of any country. Changes or variations in any information relating to licensed or approved drug products, including information relating to the composition of listed drugs or other aspects of their manufacture and the labeling of the drugs, shall be reported to the agency forth with and the adjustment or modification shall not take place until approved by the agency.. Chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) changes are inevitable due to many reasons, including changing needs, new findings, and continuous improvement. Therefore, regulations require that all changes be evaluated carefully and follow the proper regulatory path for implementation, regardless of whether it is an investigational or a commercial product. Failure to comply with the regulatory requirement for post-approval CMC changes can potentially lead to “misbranded or adulterated” status for a given product. This should be taken very seriously for marketed products because of the potential safety/efficacy impact for the vast number of patients as well as legal, regulatory and business impact for the sponsor. Changes occur to have business continuity in case of quality problems, to maintain the economy, process improvisation, alternate addition of sources, or exclusion. The applicant of registered generics who intend to make post-approval changes should follow the guidance or regulation in accordance with the agency which is different for each country. The changes can be major, moderate, or minor depending on the changes likely to affect the quality, safety, and efficacy of the product. Irrespective of the category of the changes, every change is to be brought to the notice of the regulatory authorities in stringent, structured, and stipulated format that is recommended for the regulatory advancements.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004829
Title: Age-related differences of heart rate and respiratory rate in the age group of 45–55 years – A regression analysis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) differences between the age group of 45–55 years and correlate it with the age. Introduction: HR is the number of contractions (beats) of the heart/min (bpm). It is usually equal or close to the pulse measured at any peripheral point. The normal resting adult human HR is 60–100 bpm. Tachycardia is a fast HR, defined as above 100 bpm at rest. Bradycardia is a slow HR, defined as below 60 bpm at rest. When the heart is not beating in a regular pattern, this is referred to as arrhythmia. The RR is the number of breaths/ min. The typical RR for a healthy adult at rest is 12–18 breaths/min. Abnormal RRs – apnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, tachypnea, hypopnea, bradypnea, orthopnea, platypnea, Biot’s respiration, Cheyne–Stokes respiration, and Kussmaul breathing. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 100 healthy individuals was considered for this study between the age group of 45 and 55 years were selected randomly. Their HR and RR were measured at rest manually and were statistically analyzed. Results and Discussion: According to the regression analysis, 52% of the RR has a correlation to age, whereas only 32% of the HR has a correlation to the age. Conclusion: From the graph, it is evident that as the age increases, HR and RR decreases. Moreover, RR is more relevant according to the regression analysis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004830
Title: Awareness of annual doctor checkups among general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to create awareness on the importance of annual doctor checkups and the improvement of overall health status. Introduction: In a physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination, a medical practitioner examines a patient for any possible medical signs or symptoms of a medical condition. Annual health examination helps in early diagnosis of any malignancies, cardiovascular diseases, etc. It generally consists of a series of questions about the patient’s medical history followed by an examination based on the reported symptoms. People in rural areas have no sufficient knowledge on the importance of annual health checkups. This study is conducted to evaluate and assess the knowledge of various age group people toward regular health checkups including healthy and unhealthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 100 people containing 15 questions based on demographic data, frequency of visiting doctor, health status, etc. and the obtained results were analyzed statistically. Results: Only 32% of the people go for regular checkups and majority of the people visit hospitals only when they fall sick. This is because they are not aware and they do not focus on their health and regular body health checkup. Conclusion: People are needed to be educated through health-care professionals and by conducting camps on the importance of annual doctor checkups as primary prevention and for screening.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004831
Title: Perception of prosthodontic need of patients during and after extraction – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: The aim of this study is to identify the perception of patients about the impacts and needs of prosthesis at the time and after extraction of the tooth. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the patients’ perception of tooth loss and prosthesis before and after treatment. Materials and Methods: Teeth play an important role in mastication. Tooth loss can be treated with various types of prosthetics, depending on the severity, which aids in maintaining the mastication properly. Most of the patients are not seeking treatment immediately after tooth loss even when it is needed due to unawareness of the treatment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the patients’ perception of the impacts and prosthesis need at the time and after extraction of the tooth. A convenient sample of 101 patients was clinically evaluated and answered for the questionnaire about prosthetic needs. Data were collected at the time of extraction and at the time interval of 1 month. Statistical analysis has been done with the collected data. Results: This study is designed comparatively to evaluate and analyze the patients’ perception of the impacts and needs of the prosthesis at the time and after tooth loss. The reason of this study is to aware people about their knowledge of benefits, risk, and impact on the prosthesis and impacts on untreated tooth loss. Conclusion: Self- perception about tooth loss and prosthodontic needs at the time and after an interval of 3 months from extraction did not have much significant change among patients. Better function and oral discomfort were mentioned as a major benefit and risk of prosthesis. Treatment demand was low due to lack of knowledge and awareness, poor interest, and motivation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004832
Title: Effect of herbal drug supplementation in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sulfonylureas
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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Sulfonylureas are the agents that cause or stimulate secretion of insulin, which are beneficial in the Type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. There will be a high chance of drug interaction to the patient those who consume sulfonylureas along with other herbal medicines. The aim of this analysis is to present the herbal drugs with potential interactions of antidiabetic sulfonylureas. Sulfonylureas are mainly metabolized by the enzymes CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 and the herbs such as St. John’s wort and Ginkgo biloba produce CYP2C9 influenced metabolism of sulfonylureas. Whereas, fruits, including pineapple juice, pomegranate, and cassia, hinder its metabolism. Herbs with antidiabetic nature such as Aloe vera, sesame, neem, ginseng, and Andrographis paniculata pharmacodynamically increase the hypoglycemic activity of sulfonylureas. Several herbal supplements can interact pharmacokinetically and some herbal medicines are pharmacodynamically associated with sulfonylureas.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004833
Title: CHARGE syndrome (congenital anomalies): A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Maternal and Child Health, College of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman, Oman
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This case report describes a full-term baby girl with a CHARGE syndrome (CS) born to a 21-year-old mother at 38 weeks of gestation with consanguineous marriage. The baby had birth weight 2.86 kg and length 47.5 cm. She was diagnosed with bilateral choanal atresia, tetralogy of Fallot, coloboma of the iris, and ears abnormalities. Heart defects and breathing problems are usually threatening the life of babies with CS. CS was diagnosed clinically with the presence of the four major criteria (coloboma, choanal atresia, characteristic ears, and cranial nerve [CN] dysfunctions). Various imaging investigations contributed to the detection of the different internal ear and CN anomalies. Besides, this case summarizes the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to reflect on the patients’ health outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004835
Title: Effects of shock wave therapy on inflammatory markers in diabetic and non-diabetic frozen shoulder
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy for Internal Diseases, Faculty of Physical Therapy, October 6 University, Giza, Egypt
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Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of shock wave therapy on inflammatory markers in diabetic and non-diabetic frozen shoulder. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 50 subjects with frozen shoulder. They were classified according to the fasting blood sugar (FBS) level into two groups. The diabetic group had FBS level of more than or equal to 126 mg/dl, while the non-diabetics group had FBS level of <100 mg/dl. Both groups received shock wave therapy in addition to a therapeutic exercise program for 4 weeks. The outcome measures, including visual analog scale (VAS), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), shoulder range of motion (ROM), and inflammatory markers levels, were evaluated pre- and post-treatment for both groups. Results: Comparing both groups post-treatment showed that there was a statistically non-significant difference between both groups regarding VAS, SPADI, shoulder ROM, and inflammatory markers (P > 0.05). However, there was a greater percentage of improvement in non-diabetic group than in the diabetic group. Conclusion: Shock wave is effective in reducing pain, disability, and inflammatory markers, as well as improving shoulder ROM in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients with frozen shoulder, with a greater improvement in non-diabetics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004836
Title: Defects of motor performance in children with different types of specific learning disability
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
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Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the defects of fine and gross motor functions in children with a specific learning disability (SLD) and its association with different types of SLD. Methods: The cross-sectional study conducted on 200 children (100 with SLD and 100 typical), their ages ranged from 9 to 13 years (92 boys and 108 girls). The defects of motor performance were evaluated by Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Its total composite composed of four composites; fine manual control, manual coordination, body coordination, and strength and agility. Results: There were significant differences in scores of BOT-2 of composites and all subtests of children with an SLD (P ˂ 0.05) with typical ones. The fine motor integration, upper limb coordination, balance, and bilateral coordination were associated with dyscalculia, dyslexia, and mixed type (P ˂ 0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that the total motor performance of children with SLD is very below average. The balance is affected in dyslexia than other types while the bilateral coordination is affected in dyscalculia than other types and running speed and agility are affected in mixed type. Hence, it is important to evaluate the motor performance of associated skills early before school age.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004837
Title: Assessment of the molecular effects of Nd: YAG laser on Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria using random amplified polymorphic DNA marker
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, Tikrit University, Iraq.
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Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the bacterial species that infected of the human, animal, as well as on the skin where tissue damage causes burning or injury, providing an environment conducive to the growth of P. aeruginosa. It causes 10–15% of these infections by opportunistic nurses who can cause various infections such as urinary tract infection, infection of the middle ear, inflammation of the brain membranes, and respiratory infection, including pneumonia. This study aims to assess the genetic effects of Nd-YAG laser on P. aeruginosa bacteria isolated from some clinical and environmental sources using random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) marker. Materials and Methods: Clinical samples were isolated from wound, burns, and middle ear infections patients coming to Salahuddin General Hospital while environmental samples isolated from water and soil. After the diagnosis of P. aeruginosa bacteria depending on the macroscopic and biochemical test, bacterial samples irradiated by Nd-YAG laser with wavelength 1064 nm using energies (300 mj and 500 mj) with (15 and 25 s) and genomic DNA was extracted from all samples, then RAPD-PCR marker using six random primers were carried out. Results: The results showed a clear effect of Nd-YAG laser on P. aeruginosa bacteria by comparing RAPD profiles of treated samples as loss of normal bands and the appearance of new bands with control (unexposed). The genetic template stability (% GTS) was significantly decreased in the DNA of wound water, soil, ear, and burn This indicates that the laser had a mutagenic effect on the genetic material. Conclusion: The Nd- YAG that laser causes genetic changes in the DNA of P. aeruginosa, so lasers can be used in treatment and sterilization. The RAPD-PCR method could be used to evaluate the biological effects of radiation on bacteria as a biomarker assay.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004838
Title: Cytokines levels among patients with celiac disease and celiac-coexist with infections in Najaf Province
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Health, College of Health and Medical Techniques/Kufa, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Najaf, Iraq
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Background: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease recognized as gluten sensitive enteropathy as well its considered as “chronic inflammatory disease of small intestine recognized by malabsorption after ingestion gluten” maybe associated derivatives of barley and rye or coming from the wheat of people with a particular history. Materials and Methods: Ninety CD patients with age vary 4–60 years, each female and male. All patients are diagnosed by clinicians in hospitals by serological and histological assessments and diagnosis of other infections present with CD in the same patients at the same time. Serum samples were measured for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL) (IL-10, IL-12, IL-2, IL-5, and tumor necrosis factor- alpha [TNF-α]). Results: Individuals with active CD had significantly larger of pro-inflammatory cytokines, for example, IFN-γ and TNF-α, which 8.9 ± 1.12 and 8.38 ± 1.27, respectively, and the T helper-2 cytokines, for example, IL-10 (12.1 ± 0.72) and IL-5 (35.85 ± 1.01) compare to controls. In addition, a relationship has emerged between CD and other diseases, where we found the highest incidence (33.3%) of gastrointestinal tract infections associated with CD and in the second place viral infections and a percentage (22.2%). Produce cytokine in CD patients with they have other infections in the same time as well as IL-5 and IL-10 appear a significant (P < 0.001) in cytokine levels, but IL-12 had been decreased, though the minimization was not significant (P < 0.001) and no difference was discovered for TNF-α at diagnosis when compared CD patient without other infection. Conclusion: The present study revealed that female is more infected than the male with CD. Gastrointestinal tract infections are more common in patients with CD. A significant elevation of a IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-5, no difference of IL-2 and IL-12 in patients with CD and compare with the healthy human.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004839
Title: The effect of Lactobacillus species on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Medicine College, Wasit University, Kut, Iraq.
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Background: Probiotic is live microorganism include many species the most commonly used, as probiotic is Lactobacillus species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is considered a main cause of nosocomial infection. The aim of the present study was the commercial effect of some antibiotics and Lactobacillus species on the P. aeruginosa biofilm forming and also detection of formation biofilm using traditional methods and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: P. aeruginosa was isolated from different source patient’s hospital and the isolates identification using (API 20E, Vitek2 compact system, and 16S rRNA gene). Three traditional methods used to detection of formation biofilm (microliter plate (MTP), tube method (TM), and Congo red agar [CRA]). For probiotic, commercially variable capsule of Lactobacillus acidophilus (Holland and Barrett, USA), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (Health Genesis, USA) has been used while for estimation activity of Lactobacillus species on the P. aeruginosa, biofilm forming disc agar and well diffusion method was used. In addition, susceptibility testing was performed using 12 antibiotics. Molecular method (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) used to detection of some virulence gene (algD, algU, and algL). Results: Fifty-four isolates identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The majority of infection is belonged to ear infections (20), followed by nasal (12) and burns (12) infections. The result of the detection biofilm showed all isolates of P. aeruginosa produce biofilm using MTP, (48) isolates produce biofilm using TM, while in CRA (51) isolates produce biofilm. The molecular detection of the biofilm gene using PCR demonstrated 54 (100%) of isolates carried algD, 52 (96.30%) were positive for algU, and 41 (75.9%) of isolates had algL. The antibiotics susceptibility testing of P. aeruginosa revealed their sensitivity to imipenem and amikacin while showing a highly resistant pattern to ceftazidime, cefepime, carbenicillin, ofloxacin and aztreonam, piperacillin/tazobactam, tobramycin, levofloxacin, ticarcillin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively. L. rhamnosus was showed the highest inhibition zone rather than L. acidophilus in both methods (disk agar and well diffusion method). Conclusions: P. aeruginosa showed multidrug resistant and had ability to produce biofilm. Lactobacillus species have ability to inhibit growth of P. aeruginosa.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004840
Title: Study some immunological parameters for Salmonella Typhi patients in Hilla city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Hillah, Iraq
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Background: Salmonella spp. are creatures which might discover likewise normal commensals in the gastrointestinal tracts of man also animals or alternately result in malady that reaches from self-set looseness of the bowels. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) is responsible for a potentially fatal multisystemic illness, these known as typhoid fever or enteric fever. Materials and Methods: Subjects for this study included 40 patients with typhoid fever. Forty blood samples were collected from patients with typhoid fever and clinically diagnosed by doctors based on clinical symptoms of high fever for at least 2 days and severe headache with nausea, abdominal pain, and joints, include 30 females and 10 males with age 10–40 years, the control group study included 15 people apparently healthy that included nine males and six females with age average 20–30 years. Results: Patients of typhoid were divided by age into group, the age group (11–20) was the first age group, the disease rate was 25%, while the second age group (21–30), the disease rate was 55%, was the highest, and the third age group (31–40), the disease rate was 20%. Results of the distribution of study group by gender showed infection that appears in both sexes, with a significant association between the study groups and sex patients of typhoid disease which was more in female. Bacterial growth on growth media after incubation of the plates for 24–48 h showed that the bacterial colonies growing on the growth media were as follows: Transparent with a black center, colorless or pale pink. While microscopic examination, Salmonella, Gram stained bacteria, are characterized by Gram-negative rod cells. The results of the measurement of the concentration of the C-reactive protein showed an increase in the concentration of the age group. The distribution of typhoid patients immunoglobulin (IgM and IgG) measured by rapid cassette, IgM was highest among patients with typhoid (95%), while IgG was 45% and IgM and IgG were among patients (40%). Conclusion: Typhoid fever disease is more common among females than males. Patients with typhoid fever have elevated levels CRP.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004841
Title: Antibiotics resistance and molecular characterization of biofilm former bacteria, isolated from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis in Wasit Province, Iraq
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Microbiology, Medicine College, Wasit University, Al Kut, Wasit, Iraq.
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Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) considered one of the common diseases, affecting nearly 10% of the general population, defined as an inflammatory disorder of the paranasal sinuses and linings of the nasal passages that last more than 12 weeks. The aim of the study is the determination of more predominant bacteria in patients’ complaints from CRS in Wasit Province. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty patients were included in the present study with a case history of CRS. Isolated bacteria were identified by API system and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species- specific primer pairs for 16S rRNA gene. Biofilm-related gene, icaA, icaD, and PpyR, was detected by PCR. Furthermore, antibiogram was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The results showed that 140 samples were positive for bacterial growth while only 10 were negative culture. The more predominant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus compile 41 (27.33%), 34 (22.66%) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 33(22%) for Staphylococcus epidermidis, 12 (8%) for Streptococcus pneumonia, 9 (6%) for Klebsiella pneumonia, 8 (5.33%) for Proteus mirabilis, 3 (2%) for Enterobacter aerogenes. According to gender, female was more affected than male, the age groups (15–24 years and 35– 44 years) were the highest affected among others. Most of the infected patients were students. The biofilm-related genes were diagnosed among most three predominant species, icaA for S. aureus, icaD for S. epidermidis, and PpyR for P. aeruginosa. The results revealed that 38 (92.68%) of S. aureus, 33 (100%) of S. epidermidis, and 34 (100%) of P. aeruginosa have icaA, icaD, and PpyR, respectively. The highest resistance of isolates for antibiotics was S. aureus for erythromycin (82.92%), S. epidermidis for cefpodoxime (90.90%), S. pneumonia for erythromycin (41.66%), P. aeruginosa for cefpodoxime (100%), K. pneumonia for ceftazidime (100%), P. mirabilis for ceftriaxone (100%), and E. aerogenes for erythromycin (100%). The results revealed that the most effective antibiotics were ciprofloxacin and imipenem for all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion: The study concludes that the predominant causative agents of CRS in Wasit Province were bacterial with capacity to form biofilm formation accompanied by antibiotic resistance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004842
Title: In vitro anticarcinogenic effect of Cymbopogon citratus on oral cancer cell lines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro anticarcinogenic effects of Cymbopogon citratus on oral cancer cell lines. Introduction: Oral cancer is a growing health problem in several regions of the world. It is the sixth most common cancer globally. Antioxidants present in green leafy vegetables and other dietary supplements inhibit the process of oxidation associated with free radicals. The current study involves the assessment of in vitro anticarcinogenic activity of the C. citratus on oral cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: In vitro anticarcinogenic activity of C. citratus on oral cancer cell lines is evaluated by MTT assay. Results: The percentage of cell inhibition in oral cancer cell lines increased with an increase in the concentration of C. citratus. Conclusion: It is summarized that C. citratus decreased cell proliferation in oral cancer cell lines. Thus, it can be concluded that C. citratus has a good anticarcinogenic effect on oral cancer cell lines and can be used in treating oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004844
Title: Awareness on benefits of chia seeds among college students
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Chia (Salvia hispanica), a biannually cultivated plant, is categorized under the mint family (Labiatae), superdivision of Spermatophyta, and kingdom of Plantae. Chia seeds are superfood in reducing cardiovascular risk, losing weight, and improving immunity against respiratory infections. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, 100 teenagers were participated. A questionnaire of 15 questions was prepared to assess the knowledge of college students on the benefits and uses of chia seeds, daily consuming levels, and on its ill effects too. The collected data were compiled and analyzed. Results: About 77% of people are aware of chia seeds as they have observed in their food or drink. Only 5% of respondents are aware that chia seeds can prevent cardiac disease. About 85% of people are unaware that how much they can consume per day. Conclusion: The college students are not aware of the benefits of chia seeds too. Chia has a promising future, they are economical, and they are one of the most nutrient-rich foods in the world.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004845
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and perception on the importance of hematological report among general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Blood test is the prime investigation advised by the doctors for the diagnosis of the disease and prognosis of the treatment. A simple blood test helps in identification of abnormal functions of any organs, recent and chronic infections, bleeding disorders, inflammation, and certain cancers such as leukemia. Early markers for myocardial infarction and rheumatoid arthritis are easily identified by the elevation of enzymes in blood. The aim of the study is to create awareness among the people about the importance of hematological report and its role in early diagnosis of tertiary diseases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among 100 people chosen randomly. The questionnaire was circulated through SurveyPlanet. The questionnaire contains 19 questions that contain various tests and knowledge about it. The results were collected and analyzed by statistics. Results: It was observed that more than 96% of people were aware of certain tests that they undergo and the disease transmitted through blood. However, in contradiction, they were not aware of the biomarkers indicating the heart disease and protein markers indicating inflammation. Conclusion: It was noted that the knowledge about blood test is known to the people and still there are topics in which still they remain unaware and awareness is needed for the betterment of people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004846
Title: Knowledge and attitude of probiotics among outpatients visiting dental operatory
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The word probiotics have been given a number of different definitions over the years, with the current definition being “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a medical advantage on the host.” Most probiotic products contain bacteria from the genera Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium, although other genera, including Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Propionibacterium, and Saccharomyces (a yeast), have been developed as probiotics. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared with 15 questions. It was circulated to the patients and attenders visiting dental operatory of Saveetha Dental College. The survey was conducted among various age groups not <16 years of age. The questions are framed based on their knowledge and perception toward probiotics. Results: About 76% were aware of probiotics and its uses and effects, in which 90.5% were aware that food they consume contains probiotics. Moreover, 85.2% of the population identified that probiotic is a constituent of living microorganisms. Different sources of probiotics were consumed, of which majority was yogurt (32.4%), milk (27%), apple (12.2%), cucumber (10.8%), soup (9.5%), and brown rice (8.1%). Probiotics are used as therapeutic drug for mostly gastrointestinal condition (63%). Conclusion: Most of them knew the beneficial effects of probiotics to human body in terms of food digestion and immunity. Furthermore, in general, they were aware that dairy products were food source of probiotics. However, they still lack on information on the other health benefits of probiotics as well as food source of probiotics aside from dairy foods.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004847
Title: The effect of Teflon coating on the resistance to sliding of orthodontic archwires
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to compare the effect of Teflon coating on the frictional properties on different archwires used in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: Two types of commercially available archwires with round and rectangular sections of different materials with and without Teflon coating were tested. The brackets were then bonded onto extracted lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar brackets. The brackets were then inserted into gypsum blocks. The resistance to sliding (RS) of each bracket-archwire-plate combination was tested by passing the wire through the test brackets at a rate of 10 mm/min, with a frictional testing apparatus, mounted on the crosshead of a universal testing machine. Results: Teflon-coated archwires produced lower frictional levels than their corresponding uncoated archwires. Coating archwires with Teflon may be a possible way to reduce RS. Conclusion: Teflon-coated archwires produced lower frictional levels than their corresponding uncoated archwires.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004848
Title: Effect of Haematococcus pluvialis crude astaxanthin extract on uric acid and hepatic enzymes
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Algal Biotechnology Laboratory, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
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Background and Aim: In humans, uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism. Due to the low solubility of UA in water, excess of it can form gout. Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered “super anti-oxidant.” Materials and Methods: In the present investigation experimental rats weighing 200– 220 g were given high protein diet (HPD), crude astaxanthin (CA), and CA along with HPD (CA HPD) (250 mg/kg b.w./per day) Results: About 10% increase of UA was observed in HPD group whereas in CAs and CA HPD, the UA level was significantly lowered by 34% and 24%, respectively, when compared to the normal group (NC). Serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels were elevated by 158% and 217% in HPD. In CA, the SGPT and SGOT levels were lowered by 45% and 36%, respectively. Similarly, in CA HPD, the SGPT and SGOT levels were elevated by 132% and 97%, respectively, when the groups were compared with the NC. Conclusion: The result indicates that H. pluvialis CA has the ability to prevent damage caused by high consumption of proteins and therefore, can be used in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004865
Title: Challenges of gestational diabetes mellitus – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a very much portrayed disease influencing a critical populace of pregnant ladies around the world. GDM comprises a noteworthy danger of creating Type 2 diabetes mellitus to the mother and embryo in later life. Patients with GDM are at higher hazard for sort 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular ailments, etc. Diabetes mellitus is an incessant sickness that requires proceeding with restorative consideration and progressing persistent self-administration instruction and backing to avert intense inconveniences and to decrease the long-haul difficulties. In certain populaces, for example, Asians, especially Indians the commonness of diabetes are expected to excessive weight gain, preeclampsia, and cesarean segments. After conveyance, these babies have a higher danger of creating hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory misery disorder and consequent corpulence, and type 2 diabetes. Inadequately controlled GDM brings about maternal and fetal mortality and bleakness. Heftiness and progressed gestational age are other hazard factors for GDM. The point of this original copy is to fundamentally audit GDM in a nitty-gritty and far-reaching way so as to give logical investigation and cure. This audit gives an outline of medical issues identified with GDM, counting the difficulties of viewing with finding.