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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004975
Title: Awareness of varicose vein among traffic policemen – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Varicose veins (VVs) are swollen, twisted veins usually occur in skin but can also be seen in other parts of body. VVs are most commonly seen in families as a hereditary component and are of high risk in older, female, obese, and pregnant women and long-standing workers. Aim: This study aims to study the awareness of VV among traffic policemen. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire used in this study has a total of 11 questions, the questions regarding the knowledge of causes, signs, symptoms, prevention, and treatment were included in the questionnaire. The questions regarding the knowledge about the prevention and treatment were in the yes/no format, and if yes, then they were asked for any preventive measures or treatment which they know to overcome the VV problem. Results: From our study, 92.5% were aware of the causes of VVs, in which obesity (22.5%) was the most common cause of VVs followed by hereditary (20%) and aging (20%). Conclusion: From our study, we conclude that majority of the traffic policemen have knowledge about VVs and our study will be helpful to analyze how much additional knowledge they have about the preventive measures and the treatment of VVs. This study will be helpful to create awareness of VVs even among the traffic policemen who are prone to have VVs so that they can prevent them in their further practice as traffic policemen.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004976
Title: Awareness of various crown removal method available in dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Crowns usually have a greater lifespan, but still they fail for a number of reasons. Many methods and devices have been invented to remove crowns from abutment teeth. Usually, crown removal is done when there is a fracture or breakage, trauma to the tooth, failure of conventional methods in removing crowns, and so. There are different methods for crown removal depending on the injury. Materials and Methods: A pre-tested questionnaire was prepared with ten questions about various crown removal methods. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 dental students and the responses were elicited. The data were extracted, tabulated, and analyzed using statistical software. Results: About 63.3% of them have preferred pneumatic crown remover. About 17.9% of them have chosen CORONAflex as the air driven crown removal method. About 10.5% of them have chosen crown tractors as the effective system for removing professional crowns. About 7.2% of them have opted matrix bands as the restorative procedure. About 1.1% of them have chosen buccolingual dimple technique, where dimples are created. Conclusion: The awareness of various crown removal methods among dental students was adequate. Pneumatic crown removers are the most preferred method of crown removal. However, more awareness can be created by organizing more dental education programs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004977
Title: Surface modifications on osseointegration of dental implants – A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Osseointegration of dental implants was previously characterized as a structural and functional connection between newly formed bone and the implant surface, which became a synonym for the biomechanical concept of secondary stability. Osseointegration comprises a cascade of complex physiological mechanisms similar to direct fracture healing. Surface characteristics such as topography, wettability, and coatings contribute to the biological process during osseointegration by mediating the direct interaction to host osteoblasts in bone formation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004978
Title: Awareness of green home habits among the urban population of Coimbatore
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: A green home is a house which is equipped with energy saving and emission reducing utilities, thereby making it environment friendly. It focuses on the use of water and energy in an efficient way. Global warming is a result of aggressive industrialization of the world and causes many environmental problems. Global warming has created such a negative impact on the ecosystem in some regions that it has sparked a huge interest in developing methods and equipment which minimize the deteriorating effects it can have on the local ecosystem. Aim: The study is to evaluate the awareness of green home habits among the urban population of Coimbatore. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared regarding green home habits. People among Coimbatore were asked to fill the survey. This survey was taken up by 100 people, aged between 18 and 50, of which 36 are male and 64 are female. The questionnaire was prepared using Google forms and the survey was dispensed through a digital base. The survey was sent to people in Coimbatore. Once the required responses were received, the survey was closed, and the data were taken in form of pie chart with help of Microsoft excel. Results: A total of 100 people was questioned, of which 36 (36%) were males and 64 (64%) are females. The age range is from <18 to 50 years. Thus, we come to know the different percentile of the questions asked, from which a complete stand can be taken regarding people’s views on green home management. Conclusion: From the above results, we can conclude that most of the people are aware of greenhouse habits and their importance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004979
Title: Awareness of occlusal scheme for complete dentures among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Occlusal scheme is defined as the form of arrangement of the occlusal contacts in the natural and artificial dentition. The choice of an occlusal scheme will, hence, determine the pattern of occlusal contacts between the opposing teeth during centric relation and also the functional movement of the mandible. With dentures, the quantity and the intensity of these contacts will determine the amount and direction of the forces that are transmitted through the base of the denture to residual ridges. That is why the occlusal scheme remains an important factor in the design of complete dentures. Aim: The aim of this study focuses on evaluating the knowledge, attitude, and practice of occlusal concepts in complete dentures among general dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was made with questions on awareness of occlusal concepts in complete denture. It was then given to a total of 100 dental students in Saveetha Dental College in Chennai. The questionnaire included questions on a preferred type of occlusion for different types of maxillary and mandibular arches. The data collected were computerized and analyzed statistically. Results: About 89.8% of the respondents preferred balanced occlusion and 5.9% opted mutually protected occlusion. About 72.9% said that they need protrusive records to provide balanced occlusion, 72% said that they need bilateral simultaneous contacts to provide balanced occlusion, 59.3% said that balanced occlusion can be established using lingualized teeth, and 18.6% said that balanced occlusion can be established using monoplane teeth. Conclusion: By analyzing the results, it was found that the awareness regarding occlusal concepts dental students should improve.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004980
Title: Awareness about oral manifestation of varicella zoster virus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is one of the eight herpesviruses known to infect humans. It causes chickenpox (varicella), a disease most commonly affecting children, teens, and young adults, and shingles (herpes zoster) in adults; shingles is quite rare in the case of children. VZV is a worldwide pathogen known by many names: Chickenpox virus, varicella virus, zoster virus, and human herpesvirus type 3. VZV infections are species specific to humans, but can survive in external environments for a few hours and maybe even a day or 2. VZV multiplies in the lungs and causes a wide variety of symptoms. After the primary infection (chickenpox), the virus goes dormant in the nerves, including the cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, and autonomic ganglia. Many years after, the patient has recovered from chickenpox, VZV can reactivate to cause neurologic conditions. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire was prepared and survey was conducted among participants about varicella zoster and data were collected. The survey was prepared on SurveyPlanet and administered to participants. The survey was conducted among 40 people about awareness of oral manifestation of varicella zoster. Results: Out of the total number of participants, 57.5% do not know what VZV is, 82.5% are aware that a treatment is possible if infected by this virus, and 19.5% have a slight notion about the symptoms of this virus. Conclusion: There are moderate levels of awareness about oral manifestations of varicella zoster and it needs to improve. This survey created awareness of the oral manifestation of varicella zoster among dental practitioners, that, it is one of the eight herpesviruses known to infect humans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004981
Title: Awareness of tooth shade selection principles among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The success of any tooth-colored anterior restoration is directly related to the accuracy of chairside shade selection. Patients are currently demanding esthetic replacement that must match their existing dentition and are more concerned about the shade match of their restorations rather than the quality of the restoration. Aim: The purpose of this survey was to determine the knowledge and awareness of the principles of tooth shade selection among final year dental students and interns in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A self-administrative questionnaire especially designed for this study was distributed among a conveniently selected sample. A total of 200 questionnaires were completed. Results: The total percentage of the students who will consider this step important was low (45%). This could be related to the fact that students usually focus on completing their clinical requirements and do not pay complete attention to minute details of technical nature. Conclusion: The findings indicate a need for devoting more time and training for the shade selection process in undergraduate students, who will become dentists and will not overlook important aspects of shade selection in their routine clinical work. As regards the training the dentists, short courses about the shade selection process can be conducted, helping them to overcome their deficiencies and update their knowledge in this area.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004982
Title: Awareness of cryotherapy among dental students – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cryotherapy is a controlled and targeted destruction of diseased tissue by the application of low temperatures. The beneficial effects of cold as a therapeutic agent have been known for a long time, with ancient population aware of the reinvigorating effects of cold water either taken orally or used for baths. The use of cold, mainly locally, still remains in our daily common activities. It is a simple, cost effective, efficacious, and esthetically acceptable modality for the treatment of various dermatoses. Aim: The aim of this survey is to assess the awareness of cryotherapy among dental students. Methodology: A systematic online survey was conducted among 100 dental students with basic questions on cryotherapy. Each student was requested to fill the questionnaire consisting of 15 questions and the results were analyzed. Results: A total of 100 students participated in this survey. After analyses, it was noted that though 79% of students were aware of cryotherapy, majority of them failed to know on their implications, complications, and contraindication. Conclusion: In this survey, we concluded that there is lack of knowledge of cryotherapy among these students and there is a need to create awareness among them.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004983
Title: Awareness of medication protocol treatment for the premalignant oral lesions among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A precancerous sore is a morphologically modified tissue, in which oral malignancy is bound to happen than in its obviously typical partner, for instance, leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and so forth. A precancerous condition is a summed up state related with an essentially expanded danger of malignant growth, for instance, submucous fibrosis, Lichen planus, and so forth. Aim: This study is to assess the awareness of the medication protocol treatment about the precancerous oral lesions among dental students at Saveetha Dental College. Materials and Methods: The questionnaires were prepared and distributed to the dental students of Saveetha Dental College. The resulting data were analyzed using the statistical software. This study group consisted of 100 students of both genders. Results: About 78.2% of them are aware of precancerous oral lesions and about 53.5% of them are aware of specific protocols for premalignant diseases. About 60% of students feel that smokers melanosis regresses to normal. About 44% of dental students say that steroids are the primary drug of choice for oral submucous fibrosis. About 32.7% of them say that Vitamin B12 is the primary drug for actinic keratosis. Conclusion: This survey reveals that students are moderately aware regarding the medication protocol treatment about the precancerous oral lesions. Early detection of premalignant oral lesion is of utmost importance to prevent further progress to oral cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004984
Title: Prevalence of perforation in root canal treatment and knowledge of management among undergraduate students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Root canal perforations are an artificial communication between the root canal system and the periodontium. They are not uncommon in endodontic practice, however, the success of the treatment depends on the timely diagnosis and management of the same. This study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of perforations in root canal treatment among undergraduate students and their knowledge on management of the same. An online questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 118 undergraduate students from and freshly graduated interns from Saveetha Dental College and the results were obtained. About 61% of the students have encountered perforations in their clinical practice at the Saveetha Undergraduate Clinic or in their private practice. We found that the general awareness on the management of perforations and the need to repair perforations was quite good.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004985
Title: Status on the use of antibiotics in endodontic infections among dentists
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Antibiotics have given an additional improved value to the paraphernalia used by various medical health practitioners for the treatment and management of bacterial infections. There is no doubt on whether the invention and use of antibiotics are a boon or a bane as they have served in various instances as lifesaving drugs. However, the general public have unfortunately developed high and often unrealistic expectations about when and why antibiotics should be used. The health-care providers have also played a role to the present situation with respect to the overuse of antibiotics in all treatments over the past few decades. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the current status of antibiotic prescription among the dental community. Materials and Methods: A survey was created and circulated among undergraduate dental students, postgraduate dental students, and dental practitioners. A total of 88 verified responses were obtained and the results were tabulated. Results: About 76.1% of the study population answered that they would prescribe an antibiotic. About 43.2% answered that they would prescribe an antibiotic in irreversible pulpitis, whereas 17% were unsure about the prescription of an antibiotic. The first choice antibiotic prescription was amoxicillin followed by ampicillin and clindamycin. Conclusion: There are lacunae in the knowledge available about the use of the antibiotics among the dental population. The same has to be improved to prevent the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant strains of organisms and thereby improve patient care as a whole.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004986
Title: The role of oxytocin in relief of stress, anxiety, and fear
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Social bonding is fundamental for several animals, including humans for its relevant and obvious impact on reproduction and thus survival of species. Many studies show that oxytocin (OT) might be one of the mediators of this process. OT is an evolutionary highly preserved neuropeptides released from paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus through the posterior pituitary. OT receptor which presents in the human brain has been activated in adults while looking at pictures of their partners or in mothers while looking at their children. However, recent studies show OT seems to be released during sexual intercourses and organism and during the application of different relaxation techniques. So that it is thought to be one of the promoters of attachment and mediators in the decrease of the stress response which are related to positive social bonding.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004987
Title: Third molar a cause for dental crowding: Opinion among dentist of all specialties – A questionnaire survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 6
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Introduction: The role of the third molar as a cause for incisor crowding has been controversial. There are different viewpoints which exist among clinicians in the management of the third molars in these scenarios. Hence, this study intends to evaluate the opinion of dentists of various specialties and to understand their viewpoint in managing the same. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire with 12 relevant questions was distributed among dentists of various specialties, data were collected and analyzed. Results: Majority of the professionals opined that upper third molar eruption will not result in crowding and various other factors are associated with it. On the other hand, contrasting percentages are reported for the lower third molar that can cause anterior crowding. Conclusion: Majority of dentists of various specialties think that the anterior crowding is due to the other causes and the third molars play a very less role in creating the anterior crowding. This study also points toward the need of further clinical researches in this field to throw a better insight and to help in establishment of a definitive clinical management protocol.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004988
Title: Awareness on gingival composites among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Gingival colored composites can be used to provide an esthetic alternative to surgical treatment options commonly used in the management of recession and cervical lesions. Very few studies are reported in the literature assessing the knowledge and practice regarding the usage of gingival composite among dental students. This article is aimed at studying the knowledge and awareness of gingival composite among dental undergraduates. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was formulated and distributed among 115 undergraduate dental students in Chennai pursuing internship of 115 students, 100 students responded. A total of ten multiple-choice questions were formulated and distributed. Data were collected from the filled questionnaire and analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: The results showed that only 35% of dental students were aware of the gingival composite. The awareness level for the advantage of gingival composite shows that 40% of them were aware that it is used for esthetic procedure. Conclusion: This study showed that the knowledge and awareness regarding the usage and clinical applications of gingival composite was inadequate among the dental students. As awareness on gingival composite among dental undergraduates has been found to be inadequate, it was concluded that increased importance should be given to education in this aspect of gingival composite.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004989
Title: Dental implant impression techniques – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,
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Dental implants are the most successful option for prosthodontics rehabilitation. It is surgical fixture that is placed into jawbone and is allowed to fuse with the bone over the span of few months. It acts as replacement of root for missing tooth. The main goal of impression in implants is to accurately relate an analog or abutment of implant to other structures in dental arch. The review concentrates on prosthetic components, impression materials such as polyether, polyvinyl siloxane, condensation silicone, and addition silicone and various impression techniques such as open tray versus closed tray used in dental implant. It is done to brief the knowledge regarding the components used during impression, the choice of impression materials and the selection of suitable impression techniques for preventing biological and mechanical complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004990
Title: Knowledge and awareness of the prevalence of ammonium nitrate in water bodies
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Ammonium nitrate is odorless, colorless, or white produced by the reaction of ammonia and nitric acid. It is highly soluble in water. It is widely used for agricultural, on-agricultural, and mining purposes. High intake of NH4 NO3 can cause sore throat, bloody diarrhea, weakness, a tingling sensation, heart and circulation irregularities, convulsions, collapse, and suffocation. The recommended amount of nitrogen for human metabolism is 1–3%. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of ammonium nitrate in water bodies among dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared with ten questions using Google forms about the prevalence of ammonium nitrate in water bodies. It was distributed to 100 dental students in Saveetha Dental College in Chennai. A total number of 100 people filled up the survey which contained ten questions in total. The questionnaire included questions on the awareness and prevalence of ammonium nitrate in water bodies. Results: The questionnaire was analyzed and was found that 0.26.8% say that excess ammonium content is due to the release of fertilizers, 9.3% say that it is due to the emission from vehicles, 9.8% say that it is from incineration of wastes, and the remaining 54.1% say that all these above are the major factors for the release of ammonium in atmosphere. However, the excess of ammonium is released into the atmosphere by fertilizers. Conclusion: The students did have a well-known knowledge about the contamination of water sources by ammonium nitrate. This survey did create an awareness of the ammonium nitrate contamination in water bodies among dental students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004991
Title: Prevalence of buccal cortical bone fracture and maxillary tuberosity fracture during maxillary molar extraction among dental students – A questionnaire-based survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The extraction of teeth varies greatly based on the type of patient who is undergoing the procedure. For example, elderly patients with significant comorbidities and on a complex combination of medications as compared with young healthy individuals render the procedure complicated and require much more preparation with modifications during and after patient management. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of buccal cortical bone fracture and tuberosity fracture during maxillary molar extraction among dental students. A questionnaire-based study was conducted which included questions on various possibilities of buccal cortical bone fracture and tuberosity fracture and their respective treatment options. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dental students participated in the study. This study highlights the prevalence of buccal cortical bone fracture and tuberosity fracture, the main reasons for such complications and the best treatment options. Results: About 33% says there is a prevalence of buccal cortical bone fracture and 67% says there is no prevalence of buccal cortical bone fracture. Of the 100 dental students, 29% say that improper placement of forceps or elevators is the reason for buccal cortical bone fracture. About 26% say that improper positioning of the patient is the reason followed by 23% say that molar with long root has an increased risk of buccal cortical bone fracture during extraction. About 47% of the students say that isolated tooth in the quadrant is the main risk for buccal cortical bone fracture followed by 35% saying hypercementosis is the reason and 15% saying overeruption. About 79% of students say that the size and anatomy of the maxillary sinus plays a major role in the risk factors of buccal cortical bone fracture during molar extraction. About 56% of students say that a periapical radiograph is the most commonly used radiograph for tooth extraction, followed by a panoramic radiograph (35%), computed tomography (CT) (2%), and cone-beam CT (7%). Conclusion: From our study, we conclude that the prevalence of buccal cortical bone and tuberosity fracture is less prevalent among dental students. A proper pre-operative radiographic interpretation along with a good anatomical knowledge of the structures involved is essential to prevent such complications. The prevention of this complication is the best option and should include a proper clinical examination and appropriate surgical plan.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004992
Title: Stereolithographic stent in implant surgery among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: A guided surgery system essentially consists of a stereolithographic guide with implant mounts for fixture installation, additional guide sleeves for fixation screw installation, drill keys of different heights, and depth-calibrated drills to prepare osteotomies. Once the surgical procedure has been planned and after virtual implant placement on the computer, the next step consists of the construction of the stereolithographic surgical guide, which can be positioned predictably. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether the students are aware of the use of stereolithographic stent. Materials and Methods: An online survey was done on SurveyPlanet which was circulated to 400 members out of which 350 responded. The questionnaire included questions which would assess the students’ knowledge of the use of stereolithographic stent and basic implant procedures. The results were then analyzed to assess the awareness. Results: The results show that 49.8% are not aware of the use of stereolithographic stent and 14.9% are not exactly sure about the usage of the stent, whereas 35.3% are aware of the use of stereolithographic stent. Conclusion: From the result, it is analyzed that most of the students are either unaware or not sure about the use of stereolithographic stent in implant. However, most of the students are willing to attend training programs on stereolithographic stent applications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004993
Title: Retentive properties of luting cements with implant abutments: A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: The selection of luting agents is very important for implant cement-retained fixed prostheses. The type of cement used is an important consideration because it affects the retention characteristics of the restoration. It may be desirable to use a type of cement that allows the restoration to be retrieved so that a superstructure can temporarily be cemented to evaluate the loading of the implant, occlusion, tissue response, and screw loosening. Search Strategy: A total of 46 articles were identified through the MEDLINE and PubMed searches. Abstracts were reviewed to confirm the articles met the inclusion criteria. A total of three articles were included finally and the data were extracted from these articles. Results: The PubMed search yielded a total of 46 articles of which eight studies met the inclusion criteria and 38 were excluded from the study. All the three included studies evaluated the effect of different cements in the retentiveness of implant crowns. Conclusion: Based on the evidence provided by the literature, resin cements prove to be the superior luting cement in terms of retention. The other cements can also be used according to the clinician’s preference.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004994
Title: Awareness of guided tissue regeneration membranes in implant dentistry among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) are the essential procedures in implant dentistry and periodontology. The main objective of GTR or GBR membrane is to restore the lost tissues creating an ideal condition to place an implant or maintain a tooth. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the awareness of GTR membranes in implant dentistry among 100 dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study comprising questions regarding the types of GTR membranes, advantages and disadvantages of GTR in implant dentistry, and method of the placement of GTR membranes was conducted among 100 dental students from Saveetha Dental College to evaluate their awareness of GTR in implant dentistry and the results are tabulated. Results: From our study, it was found that out of 100 dental students, 85% were aware of GTR membranes in implant dentistry and 15% were not aware of GTR membranes in Implant dentistry. Out of 100 dental students, 42% feels that there is very high importance of GTR membranes in implant dentistry, 38% feels that it has high importance, 9% feel as moderate importance, and 11% of the dental students feel that there is no importance of GTR membranes in implant dentistry. Conclusion: From our study, we conclude that more students were aware of the use of GTR membranes in implant dentistry their indications, contraindications. GTR has evolved to become a predictable regenerative option and a critical technique in the field of implant dentistry. Compartmentalization to allow regeneration of a select tissue type is its guiding principle. A variety of techniques and materials exists, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The many applications for GTR in implant dentistry make possible the esthetic, natural- appearing outcomes in implant dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004995
Title: Awareness on acupuncture therapy in the management of myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome among dental students in Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In dentistry, acupuncture has been used in the treatment of a range of diseases/disorders and facilitation of dental treatments, particularly for analgesia associated with dental procedures and for the management of temporomandibular joint disorders, chronic oral-facial and myofascial pain syndromes, prominent gag reflex, and dental anxiety. Patient responses to acupuncture are generally positive while they could vary greatly, as some difficulties arise in the interpretation of efficacy studies, because of variations in study design, sample sizes, the choice of placebo, and sham acupuncture points. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the understanding of regarding the usage of acupuncture in myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) management among dental students. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of acupuncture therapy in the management of MPDS among dental students. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted based on questionnaire which consists of ten questions through a web- linked application called SurveyMonkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students (3rd year, 4th year, and interns) currently pursuing in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, was participated in the study. Results: As an overall result, most of the participants are not aware of acupuncture therapy and its usage in dentistry. Participants had lack of knowledge about acupuncture therapy. Conclusion: The awareness on usage of acupuncture in the management of MPDS has to be improved aiming the budding dentists. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them treating their MPDS patients with less invasive and without medicaments.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004996
Title: Prescribing pattern of antibiotics in children’s using WHO indicators
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Antimicrobials play a significant role in majority of treatments in clinical settings and are most widely prescribed. The objective of our present study is to describe antimicrobial prescribing patterns in pediatric medicine at a tertiary hospital located in a city of Andhra Pradesh and identify measures to improvement of antimicrobial use. Materials and Methods: This is an open-labeled cross-sectional study carried out using methodology adopted from the World Health Organization manual intended for the assessment of antimicrobial use in hospital settings. Results: Of 264 children participated in the study, the majority of children are <5 years (71.9%). Among the indoor patients, gastrointestinal tract-related conditions 38 (14.39%) and respiratory tract problems 33 (12.3%) account for high prevalence, followed by pneumonia, that accounts for 9.46% (25). Of 609 encounters, the most commonly prescribed antibiotics categories are penicillin’s 143 (23.6%), cephalosporin’s 134 (22%), aminoglycosides 62 (10.2%), fluoroquinolones 54 (8.8%), and carbapenems 47 (7.7%). Conclusion: We hope that these findings can be utilized in conjunction with antimicrobial resistance surveillance data in formulating antibiotic use guidelines for pediatric wards.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004997
Title: Estimation of salivary pH in hypertensive patients with and without periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Hypertension commonly referred to as high blood pressure is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure inside the arteries remains elevated. The normal blood pressure is from 120/80. There are two types of hypertension – mprimary hypertension that is due to genetics and other environmental factors such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle of the host and secondary hypertension that is due to some underlying disease such as Cushingarysyndrome, hyperthyroidism, and acromegaly. Periodontitis is the inflammation of the gums and the tissue surrounding the tooth structure. It is usually caused by bacterial accumulation due to poor oral hygiene. Periodontitis is of three types – chronic which shows a slow deterioration; aggressive which shows a rapid deterioration; and necrotizing which causes the death of gums due to improper blood supply. Moderate or severe form of periodontitis patients is said to have 20% increase in the risk of hypertension. Methodology: This cross-sectional study has taken 50 samples of individuals, who were divided into two groups – Group A and Group B each containing 25 patients. Group A consists of patients suffering from only hypertension. Group B consists of patients with both hypertension and periodontitis. The blood pressure of the patients was taken with the help of sphygmomanometer. The incidence of periodontitis was checked by the incidence of bleeding on probing. Results and Discussion: The hypertensive patients without periodontitis show a slightly dipping pH when compared to hypertensive patients with periodontitis which shows a somewhat neutral pH. Conclusion: From the study, it can be concluded that only hypertensive patients have an acidic pH when hypertensive patients are affected with periodontitis, it causes neutral pH. In addition, only periodontitis patient has a basic pH. During hypertension, the pH is low and the salivary flow rate is slow due to disturbance in the autonomic nervous system. The bicarbonate buffer is effective in high salivary flow rate and its concentration decreases during the slow rate of salivary flow – resulting in low pH. As for periodontitis, the pH is greater as the dental plaque can occur only in high pH above 7.6.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004998
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and perception of the effects of apple cider vinegar among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is a traditional medicine used for weight loss. ACV is prepared by two-step fermentation. It contains pectin; Vitamin B1, B2, and B6; biotin; folic acid; niacin; pantothenic acid; and Vitamin C. ACV reduces hemoglobin A1C; lowers low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides; and increases high-density lipoprotein. ACV with mother of vinegar is more healthy and effective for weight loss, where ACV is unpasteurized, raw, and unfiltered. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey study was conducted in Saveetha Dental College. The age range was between 18 and 28 years. The questionnaire was set and circulated among students. The questions were mainly based on the benefits and side effects of ACV. Results: There were 164 respondents, among which 42% of them are obese with body weight range between 50 kg and 100 kg. About 69% of students were aware of ACV. About 87% of students feel that ACV helps in weight loss. About 93% of students feel that unpasteurized ACV is more effective. Conclusion: From this study, we can conclude that students have sufficient knowledge of the benefits of ACV. Most of the students consume ACV in their day-to-day life to lose weight and some for to maintain hair and skin care. Although ACV has numerous number of benefits, it causes enamel erosion if we do not follow proper precautions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004999
Title: Evaluation of antidepressant activity of bixin in nicotine withdrawal model
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru - 570 0 15, Karnataka, India.
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Depression is a condition of no mood and loss of interest to activity that can lessen a person’s thinking, conduct, tendencies, emotional state, and the sense of well-being. This experiment resolved to observe the effects of bixin on depression induced by the nicotine withdrawal model in mice and to evaluate the nicotine persuaded oxidative stress in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in the brain. Male Balb/C mice were tested for depression by tail suspension test, sucrose preference test, open field test, and actophotometer for the behavioral evaluation. Bixin was administered to the mice at the dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg for 14 days as a test drug, which was impaired by depression through nicotine (2 mg/kg s.c) administered thrice a day for 7 days and withdrawn on the 8th day. The depression leads to developing by the nicotine addiction and sudden withdrawal until 14 days, where the treatment was given parallelly. The standard drug fluoxetine, an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor was administered at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Oxidative stress was assessed by superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and acetylcholine esterase for their concentration in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The results of the study revealed significant (P < 0.05) behavioral interaction with the bixin. However, the oxidative stress assessments have shown significant (P < 0.05) improvement in the bixin administered group. Further, it is confirmed by histological studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005000
Title: Family therapy for adolescent with anorexia nervosa – A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community and Mental Health, Master in Psychiatric and Mental Health, College of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman.
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Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by a failure to maintain a normal body weight due to a paucity of nutrition, an intense fear of gaining weight or behavior that prevents the individual from gaining weight, or both. The long‐term prognosis is often poor, with severe developmental, medical, and psychosocial complications, high rates of relapse, and mortality, and AN is associated with impaired quality of life and significantly elevated mortality rates that are among the highest of any psychiatric illness. Family therapy has emerged as an effective intervention for adolescents with AN. Family therapy for AN provides a more intensive experience for families needing additional support. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of family therapy approaches for AN.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005001
Title: Awareness of replacement of missing teeth in partially edentulous patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: There are various types of edentulism that can exist in a patient. It refers to a state in which a single tooth or teeth are absent. It is often called as partial edentulism or semi-edentulism. It is essential to evaluate the edentulous areas of the patient and determine the number of missing teeth. There is the utmost importance to identify the reason as to why most patients fail to replace their edentulous spaces in the oral activity. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness among the population regarding the need for replacement of missing teeth when partially edentulous. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey comprising of 15 questions to assess the knowledge of replacing missing teeth in partially edentulous people was structured. The survey was conducted among 100 patients visiting Saveetha Dental College. Results: The patients neglected prosthodontics treatment as 70% of them felt the treatment was very expensive. Another key factor that the study revealed was that 94% of these patients were unaware of the drawbacks of failure to replace extracted teeth. Conclusion: The study has helped us conclude the level of awareness among the people for the need of replacing teeth had been significantly low. Through the study, we understand the need to emphasize on replacement of teeth and bring in innovative methods to demonstrate this need.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005002
Title: Awareness of primary teeth and their care among general dentists – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Often, the oral care of children is overlooked because of the fact that primary teeth are replaced by permanent dentition. Proper knowledge and awareness of primary dentition and its care among practicing dentists are essential to educate parents about the importance of oral care from a young age. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the awareness of primary teeth and the care of primary teeth among general dentists. Materials and Methods: Hundred dentists currently doing their internship in Chennai were surveyed using a multiple-choice questionnaire. Responses obtained were tabulated and the results of the questionnaires were computed in percentages. Results: About 83% of the dentists surveyed said that it was sufficient to brush once, 17% of the dentists surveyed felt that it was essential to brush twice. About 12% felt that chocolates were the chief cause of decay, 6% felt that prolonged bottle-feeding predisposed children to caries, 7% felt that improper brushing technique could be the cause of decay, 75% of the dentists surveyed felt that it was a combination of all the other factors that led to decay. Conclusion: This study found that the majority of dentists screened did have sufficient knowledge and awareness of the care and treatment of primary teeth. Any void in knowledge indicated by this study is a worrying concern and must be rectified by highlighting and stressing the importance of primary teeth during undergraduate education.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005003
Title: Awareness of direct sinus lift procedure in implant treatment planning among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nad
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Background: Implant placement in a deficient posterior maxilla is a highly predictable treatment option due to the high rate of success of sinus augmentation techniques. Pneumatization of the maxillary sinus secondary to posterior maxillary tooth loss is an extremely common finding. Significant atrophy of the maxilla prevents dental implant placement in this region. Grafting the floor of the maxillary sinus has emerged as the most common surgical modality for correcting this inadequacy. Aim: Awareness of sinus lift procedure in implant treatment planning among dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was initiated from a randomly chosen population of 120 undergraduate dental students. A simple random sampling technique was used to identify the samples. Inform consent was obtained from the participants and confidentiality of the records was ensured. Of the 120 samples, 84 were females and 36 were males. The distribution according to the year of study was I BDS – 9, II BDS – 21, III BDS – 33, IV BDS – 38, and CRRI – 19. The survey was conducted online using survey planet online survey tool. The survey instrument used was a pre-tested questionnaire comprising of eight questions eliciting responses pertaining to the knowledge and attitude toward direct sinus lift procedure for implant placement was elicited. Results: About 87.2% of students are aware of the sinus lift whereas 12.8% of students are not aware, 95.5% students did not have exposure of direct sinus lift whereas only 0.5% had exposure of direct sinus lift procedure while placing the implant. Conclusion: This study concludes that most of the undergraduate students are not aware of the sinus lift procedure and they want to attend training section on sinus lift procedure in dental implant placement. Bone dimensions are important for planning implant in posterior maxilla due to maxillary sinus, when there is inadequate height in posterior maxilla sinus lift has to be done in implant placement; hence, training and clinical exposure of sinus lift procedure should be conducted among undergraduate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005020
Title: Navigation pathway for vaccines in India
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeshwara Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore, Karnataka, India
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A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. All the vaccines are considered as new drug. The agencies involved in the approval of vaccines are as follows: (a) Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), (b) State Licensing Authority (SLA), (c) Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation, (d) Indian Council of Medical Research, (e) Central Drugs Laboratory, and (f) Subject Expert Committee and Technical Committee Experts. For submission of clinical trial application for evaluating safety and efficacy, guidance for industry is required to be followed (under specific for biologics, select vaccines). For the license to manufacture vaccine, Form 28D should be submitted under the SLA. For approval of import permission of vaccine, Form 45 should be submitted as per Rule 122A of Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945, application for the registration certificate in Form 40 and import license in Form 8 and Form 9 to CDSCO, and import license in Form 10 to Indian agent for import of vaccine. Application can be submitted through SUGAM portal for review and approval by CDSCO through https://www.cdscoonline.gov.in/. This study explains about the navigational pathway to be followed for the vaccines in India.