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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005040
Title: Antibacterial efficacy of methanol extract of mango kernel against blood culture isolates of Salmonella Typhi
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Research Laboratory for Oral and Systemic Health, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai - 600 100, Tamil Nadu
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Introduction: The emergence of fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella has become a serious public health concern. The antimicrobials of plant origin are considered as alternatives to synthetic drugs. Mango seed kernel has been used in Indian systems of medicine, Ayurveda for many years. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the antibacterial efficacy of the methanol extract of mango seed kernel against ciprofloxacin resistant and ciprofloxacin susceptible Salmonella Typhi isolates. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of mango seed kernel was prepared by cold percolation method. S. Typhi (n = 48) isolated from the blood culture of patients with enteric fever were included in the study. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extract of mango kernel and the standard antibiotic ciprofloxacin was assessed by broth microdilution method. Results: Of 48 clinical isolates of S. Typhi, 24 (50%) were intermediately susceptible to ciprofloxacin (MIC range: 0.24–0.5 µg/mL) while, 24 (50%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC range: 1 to >4 mg/mL). The methanolic extract of mango seed kernel displayed significant anti-salmonella activity. MIC50 and MIC90 of the methanolic extract of mango kernel was found to be >16 mg/mL. Conclusion: Among the 24 ciprofloxacin resistant isolates, 1 (4.2%), 5 (20.8%), and 1 (4.2%) isolates had mango seed kernel MIC of 8, 12, and 16 mg/mL, respectively. Of the 13 isolates with a higher ciprofloxacin MIC (>4 µg/mL), 5 (38.5%) were inhibited at a concentration of ≤12 mg/mL of methanol extract of mango kernel. Our results suggest mango kernel seed extract would serve as a better alternative for the effective treatment of invasive Salmonella infections.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005035
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of one herbal formulation, Trikatu Churnam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The present study deals with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC– MS) analysis of one digestive Ayurvedic formulation, Induppukanam. Materials and Methods: Induppukanam was procured form a standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and was subjected to GC–MS analysis following standard procedure. Results: Some important molecules such as thymol, Methyl-4,7,10,13-hexadecatetraenoate, Chloroacetic acid, pentadecyl ester, Methyl-4,7,10,13-hexadecatetraenoate, Santalol, E-cis,epi-.beta.-, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 4-Vinylbenzoic acid, 2-Phenyl-3-methoxy-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, Ricinoleic acid, 5-Methyl-5-triazolo(1,5-a)pyrimidine etc. have mostly actions related to hormonal balance. The role of some molecules such as 1,2,3-Benzenetriol, (4R,5S)-4-Hydroxymethyl-5-hydroxytricyclo[4.4.0.0(3,8)]decane, Nonane, 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl-, (R)-(-)-14-Methyl-8-hexadecyn-1-ol, 9-Octadecenoic acid, (E)- and 2H-Pyrazino[1,2-b] isoquinoline-1,3(4H,6H)-dione, and 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-11,11a-dihydro-8,9-dimethoxy- are known. Conclusion: The direct evidence of Induppukanam as digestive formulation is not reflected by the molecules, whose roles are known. It will be of interest to work on those molecules whose medicinal roles are not reported yet, which could lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of Induppukanam.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005034
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of one Ayurvedic formulation, Srikhandasavam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: The aim of the present study is to known about the types of molecules present in one Ayurvedic medicine, Srikhandasavam prescribed for alcohol de-addiction and liver protection, by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC MS) analysis. Materials and Methods: Srikhandasavam was procured from standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and subjected to GC MS analysis by standard procedure. Results: It was observed from the GC MS report that there are some very important present in Srikhandasavam which augur well with the role of this medicine. Conclusion: It is concluded that Srikhandasavam is a very good and potent medicine for alcohol de-addiction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005018
Title: Effect of splinting on periodontal health – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Periodontal disease impairs tooth support and permits secondary trauma to occur. As a consequence, teeth may loosen, and the alveolar bone may be subjected to additional damage. One of the common causes of tooth loss is a slow, deteriorating response to periodontitis. Hence, the reduction of mobility is an important objective of periodontal therapy. In an effort to reduce tooth loss due to the weakened periodontium, various treatments have emerged to provide a possible solution. The prognosis of periodontally involved teeth depends often on the initial mobility and whether it can be altered by treatment. One of the methods to retain the mobile, periodontally affected tooth is by splinting. Splinting simply refers to a method of stabilizing and fixing the mobile teeth. However, splinting by itself does not reverse the damages caused to the periodontium but rather it is a method which maintains the periodontal status and helps healing. The aim of this article is to do a literature review the effect of splinting on periodontal health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005019
Title: Knowledge and awareness on post-endodontic restoration among dental practitioners – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Main objective of restoring post-endodontic treatment to maintain normal function, occlusion and stabilizes dental arch. Dentists are confronted with a continuously growing number of various materials for post-endodontic restoration and with an increasing occurrence of endodontically treated tooth (ETT) in need of treatment. However, the scientific literature provides numerous, primarily material-oriented, non-comparable, and possibly confusing studies. Hence, it is not surprising that the manner in which post-endodontic restorative care is performed does not fully reflect recommendations from the literature but is influenced by geographic location, age, and specialty status. These findings suggest that each dentist develops his/her own experience-based treatment concept. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness and knowledge on post-endodontic restorative materials among dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A standard questionnaire- based survey containing ten multiple-choice questions about techniques and treatment methods, effect of dentin thickness, type of post, choice of luting cement, core material, the reason of failure of endodontic treatment was distributed to dental practitioners. A total of 100 questioners were distributed by hand to general practitioners. The collected data were statistically analyzed. Results: About 83% agreed rubber dam isolation is required during a post-endodontic restoration. Table 1 shows that the majority (48%) preferred composite to restore an ETT when more than 50% crown is remaining. About 85% of the responders agreed that ferrule effect does increase the fracture resistance of ETT. Prefabricated posts were commonly used (84%). About 92% believed that tooth with post and core should be crowned. When asked about the duration taken to insert post after obturation, 78% preferred to do it after a week, whereas 20% preferred to do it after 24 h after obturation. Based on the crown material used, 53% preferred all-ceramic crowns. Among prefabricated posts, 88% preferred fiber-reinforced composite posts. When asked about the design of prefabricated metal posts, 89% preferred tapered posts. Conclusion: From this present study, it can be concluded that most of the dental practitioners are more aware regarding the most frequent mode of failure, direct core build-up material, and that post strengthen the ETT and reduces fracture probability. A future study with a larger sample size is highly recommended to confirm the findings of this pilot survey, and also, various seminars, continuous dental education, or workshops should be conducted so as to increase their awareness of post-endodontic restoration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005021
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of patients toward replacement of missing teeth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Smile is a window into one’s personality and plays a significant part in the maintenance of a healthy personality and an affirmative self-image. Tooth loss is psychologically a very traumatizing and upsetting experience and is considered to be a serious event in the life of a person, requiring significant psychological readjustments. Patients may suffer real and perceived detrimental effects following the loss of one or more teeth which substantially reduce the quality of life, affecting the patient emotionally, socially, physically, and psychologically. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of the patient’s toward the replacement of missing teeth. Methodology: The study was conducted using a questionnaire. It was evaluated by 100 patients of both genders. The questionnaire included questions of demographic data, questions to assess facial and dental esthetics, dental satisfaction, and treatments considering patients notion to improve dental esthetics. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Patients with at least one missing tooth (excluding the third molars) were included in the study. The study was conducted using a questionnaire. The majority of the patients (36%) did not have previous experience of any sort of prosthesis. Although most of the patients preferred to have fixed partial denture (40%), some of them responded that they would be comfortable with a removable partial denture (24%). The low felt need was the most common reason among this study group for the delay in seeking a dental replacement, while 5% patients were in the post-extraction healing period. Dentists were found to be the most important driving force for patient awareness regarding the replacement of teeth. The majority of the patients agreed that dental visits should be regular. Some patients (25%) did not appreciate the importance of restoring teeth, while 62.5% of the patients had the perception that artificial teeth were not equivalent to natural teeth. Conclusion: To enlighten the negative effects of missing teeth on oral health, the importance of different types of media cannot be overlooked. It is therefore recommended that communication program be strengthened at district and local levels to stimulate the development of awareness toward the indications and contraindications of the options available for replacement of missing teeth, which can satisfy esthetic and functional needs along with improving the perception of patients regarding their dentition.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005022
Title: Awareness of gastroesophageal reflux disease among general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a highly prevalent digestive disorder, in which gastric content may return to the esophagus and reach the mouth. This leads to dental caries and high incidence of dental erosion. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of GERD among the general population. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to evaluate the level of GERD awareness among the general population. In particular, this survey focuses on the knowledge regarding the causes, signs, and symptoms of GERD and also their knowledge on how to prevent and treat the disease. A total of 100 have participated in this survey and it was completed successfully. The questionnaire used in this study has a total of 12 questions, the questions regarding the knowledge of causes, signs, symptoms, prevention, and treatment were included in the questionnaire. Results: As the prevalence of GERD is more among the common population as there is a drastic change in eating habits. A survey is conducted among the general population and awareness will be created regarding the cause and management occurrence of GERD among the general population. Conclusion: From our study, we conclude that most of the general population has knowledge about GERD and our study will be helpful to analyze how much additional knowledge they have about the preventive measures and the treatment of GERD.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005023
Title: Applications of nanotechnology in dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Nanotechnology that deals with matter in nanodimensions has widened the views of poorly understood health issues and in current stages providing novel means of diagnosis and treatment in field of dentistry with having its extent in all fields of dentistry. The review aims at comprising the nanotechnology which is being considered as a groundbreaking and viable research subject. This review provides detailed insights about current developments in the field of dentistry, and discusses potential future uses of nanotechnology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005024
Title: A comparative study of regulatory requirements for herbal medicines in India and Europe
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Herbal medicines and their preparations have been widely used for thousands of years by developed and developing countries. Herbal medicines are widely used which are derived from natural source. The use of herbal medicines helped to cure lots of diseases in India and other countries. Herbal medicines do not have any side effects and no adverse reactions. The primary objective of this study is to understand the registration process of herbals in emerging market and regulated market, i.e., India and EU. In recent decades, natural products have gained lot of attention in pharmaceutical research field. The cost of the treatment, duration of illness, and toxicity of allopathic drugs cause an increase in the use of alternative systems of medicines, which lead to the drastic development of herbal medicine industry. The estimation of global market by 2022 is $1.12 trillion and this shows that the pharma needs globally. Herbal medicine promotes prevention through a wellness approach so that a body can heal itself. The World Health Organization recommends the practice of the traditional system of medicine as it is affordable, safe, and culturally acceptable. Most herbal products on the market today have not been subjected to drug approval process to demonstrate their safety and effectiveness. India has set of well-recorded and well-practiced knowledge of traditional herbal medicine. The Indian systems of medicine, i.e., Siddha, Ayurveda, and Unani mainly encompass herbal medicines along with herbomineral formulations. Knowledge of herbal products has become critical in several areas. There are various names for herbal medicines in different countries, i.e., Ayurvedic, Siddha, and Unani drugs in India, traditional medicine in EU. Comparison study helps to understand the various differences between the registration process in regulated and emerging market. The main aim is to understand the regulatory process of registration process of herbals in various regulated and emerging markets.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005025
Title: Screening of antibacterial activity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs against selected pathogens
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: Screening of antibacterial activity of non-antibiotics – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) against selected pathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The four NSAIDs were selected based on their common usage, they were aspirin, diclofenac sodium, ibuprofen, and paracetamol. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by liquid broth dilution method. Further, their susceptibility was determined by agar disk diffusion method and ofloxacin used as control. Results and Discussion: Among the studied drugs, mostly diclofenac sodium and ibuprofen produced a significant effect and other drugs also produced a milder effect which is not sufficient to inhibit microbial growth when compared to control. Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of non- antibiotics diclofenac sodium and ibuprofen was microorganism dependent. Hence, in microorganism, identified infection can use this drug as antibacterial agents to minimize the effects of overdose and also reduce the usage of antibiotics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005026
Title: Language, a communication barrier in pediatric dentistry? – A questionnaire-based survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Communication between doctors and patients is of great importance. The issue of language barriers in the health-care sector has received very little attention. Miscommunication between the doctor and patient or between doctor and the patient’s families can be hazardous. Communication challenges arise when the doctor and the patient do not speak the same language. There is always a level of uncertainty if the patient or the patient’s family has been able to understand what the doctor is trying to tell them. There is a need to address this barrier for the benefit of the patient. A survey was done among parents of pediatric patients whose pediatric dentists do not speak their first language to assess if language is a communication barrier. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was done among 200 parents of pediatric patients in the Department of Pedodontics of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. The questionnaire was handed out to the parents after the treatment. The survey data were collected, analyzed, and interpreted. Results: The result suggested that about 43.45% of the parents think that language is not a barrier in treating pediatric patients, whereas 21.15% of the parents think the reverse. About 35.1% of parents think that language can sometimes be a barrier in treating pediatric patients. Conclusion: Based on this survey, it cannot be concluded if the language is a barrier or not. Some parents find it easy to understand post-operative instructions and the treatment plan explained by the dentist who does not know their first language, whereas some parents find it difficult in taking appointments from the dentist who does not know their first language. It was proved that the overall efficiency of the dentist will not reduce because of the language barrier.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005027
Title: Review on impact of drugs with high hepatic extraction ratio on liver dysfunction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRMIST, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Liver dysfunction is a clinical syndrome in which liver is unable to perform its normal metabolic function. The hepatic extraction ratio of the drug is the ratio of hepatic clearance of a drug to the hepatic blood flow. First pass metabolism is the phenomenon, where the dug concentration is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation, whereas in liver dysfunction results in increased bioavailability and adverse effects. The first pass metabolism of drug decreases in liver dysfunction, thereby affects bioavailability by changing metabolizing enzyme activity, plasma protein binding, and creating intra and extrahepatic portacaval shunts. Oral drugs that are completely absorbed into portal circulation and its bioavailability depend on extraction ratio. When a drug with high hepatic extraction ratio (>0.7) has low bioavailability in healthy. Dosage adjustment in liver dysfunction can be done by causality scales like Child-Pugh, model of end-stage liver disease, and National Cancer Institute index and Roussel Uclaf Causality assessment method. Since liver metabolizes most of the drugs that have been taken orally, drug therapy can be rationalized by accounting its pharmacokinetics, severity of liver disease, and changes in end organ response that occur in the presence of liver dysfunction. The most dangerous drugs in patients with liver dysfunction are those with a high, low hepatic extraction, and a narrow therapeutic range, both initial and maintenance doses have to be adjusted by >50% of the normal dose. Hence, studies should be carried out to find the correlation between hepatic extraction ratio of prescribed drugs in patients with liver dysfunction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005028
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of one Ayurvedic Rasayana, Sonitha Amritha Rasayanam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The present study deals with the GC–MS analysis of one Ayurvedic Rasayana medicine, Sonitha Amritha Rasayanam. The medicine is used for purifying the blood and for skin diseases. Methods: The medicine was procured from standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and was subjected to GC–MS analysis with due procedure. Results: The GC–MS profile indicated the presence of molecules such as ketone, isopropylidenecyclopropyl methyl, benzoic acid, hydrocinnamic acid, 1-butanone, 2-hydroxy-1-phenyl-, myrtenoic acid, ethyl ester, 1, 1-diphenyl-4-phenylthiobut-3-en-1-ol, arteannuic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-4-phenylthiobut-3-en-1-ol,(1Ar-(1aalpha,4abeta,8as(*)))-4a,8,8-trimethyloctahydrobenzo ©cyclopropa (d)pyran-2,4-dione, 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, and mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester which do have medicinal value directly or indirectly indicating the role of this medicine as an effective skincare tonic. Conclusion: This knowledge could lead to further research to pinpoint the roles of each molecule toward the medicinal role of Sonitha Amritha Rasayanam.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005029
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of one Ayurvedic oil, Kunthalakanti Thailam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai - 600 073, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: There is an urgent need to prove the authenticity of Ayurvedic medicines in the light of modern scientific knowledge. Methods: The present study deals with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of one herbal oil, Kunthalakanti Thailam, to understand the molecules present there in. Kunthalakanti Thailam was bought from a standard Ayurvedic vendor from Chennai. It was processed and GC–MS analysis was done by standard procedures. Results: The GC–MS report indicated the presence of mostly fatty acids and their esters which have potent antioxidant and antiallerg ic properties such as N-Hexadecanoic acid, 2-Methyl-3-93-methyl-but-2-enyl)-enyl)-oxetane, 3, 7-decadien-2-one, and 10-(3,3-dimethoxyloxiran dimethyl-, (E, E)-, +/− which have medicinal activities which help in keeping the homeostasis of the scalp and maintain good health to hair follicles and hair. Some important biomolecules have medicinal properties supporting the validity of skin treatment with this oil. Conclusions: The presence of these biomolecules having medicinal properties supports the validity of Kunthalakanti Thailam as skin and hair health treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005030
Title: Study of some Crataegus leaves component and effect of their aqueous extract on oxidative stress during ischemia/ reperfusion brain damage
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
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Background: Ischemia brain is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. It has been reported that the ischemia brain is a prime reason for a long term of disability in adults. Several studies have been proposed to define the physiological disorders that result in ischemia brain where free radical formation is substantial interest. The free radicals can be formed during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) producing free radicals, which have a pivotal role in brain damage. This study focused on the assessing whether and how hawthorn extracts can mitigate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion brain damage in rat model. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six rats were subjected to ischemia for 45 min and then the infected rats were exposed to reperfusion for 60 min. All animals were categorized into three groups: Group 1 (control), Group 2 (I/R), and Group 3 (Crataegus pre-treatment group). Only 0.9% of saline solution was infused internally into rats in Group 2, whereas in Group 3, rats were given Crataegus (200 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 15 days with the same diet before ischemia and before reperfusion. The biochemical parameters were estimated in serum including oxidative stress levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) while enzyme immunoassay was used to assess interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-1 β in blood. Results: The results revealed that the levels of NO and LPO were considerably increased in mice within I/R group (26.93 ± 1.1 and 1.42 ± 0.02, respectively) contrary to the other two groups. It is, however, clear that the concentrations of NO and LPO decreased in the rats pretreated with Crataegus (Group 3) (21.32 ± 0.9 and 0.91 ± 0.08, respectively) compared to I/R group. In terms of cytokines, there was substantial increase in the level of IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-1 β in rats within I/R group (1.79 ± 0.39, 2.39 ± 0.53, and 1.12 ± 0.04, respectively) compared to those within the control group. However, the concentrations of these parameters were reduced in animal’s blood treated with Crataegus (1.36 ± 0.07, 1.78 ± 0.06, and 0.75 ± 0.09, respectively). Conclusions: These results suggest that the local Crataegus could protect rat brain tissues against ischemia-reperfusion-induced brain damage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005031
Title: Global scenario of reprocessing and reuse of single-use medical device
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka India
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Medical device reuse has been accepted worldwide. Reuse benefits are not only cost-saving but also have a positive effect on the environment. On the other hand, it is necessary to meet certain requirements for considering reprocess to be harmless and efficient. The technique of reprocessing single-use medical devices was simplified and well regulated in the United States and Japan. However, this pattern continues unhindered in India because of irregularity of regulations. This study covers the history of reuse policy, known activities in the Indian and foreign contexts and also discusses the social and monetary consequences of reprocessing. The triggers for recycling are limited resources, poor training of healthcare workers and patients’ confidence in the efficacy of injections. Among developed countries, the reuse of single-use products is less common, but may require sophisticated technological equipment. Reuse is restricted in many nations (e.g., the U.S., Canada, and some European countries) requiring ethical and legal requirements, high standards of personnel reprocessing and preparation, risk evaluation, monitoring, and confirmation of reprocessing. Decisions on the reprocessing of single-use products should only be taken in developing and developed nations after serious consideration of their benefits and drawbacks. The present study highlights the importance of reprocessing, provides information about the regulatory requirements in emerging and developed countries, and emphasizes the necessity of reprocessing in India.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00005032
Title: Acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of hantap (Sterculia urceolata J. E. Smith) leaves
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl Raya Bandung Sumedang Km 21, West Java 45363 Indonesia.
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Background: Hantap (Sterculia urceolata J. E. Smith), Malvaceae family, is widespread in Indonesia. Hantap leaves are empirically used to treat heartburn, thrush, flatulence, constipation, expectorants, hair cleanser, and tonic. There has been no scientific proof through the safety of hantap leaves ethanolic extracts. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity and toxic symptoms of hantap leaves ethanolic extracts. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity assay was conducted by various concentrations of hantap leaves ethanolic extract (70, 700, 1400, 7000, and 21,000 mg/kg mice) on female Swiss Webster mice. The toxic symptoms were observed for 14 days. Results: The safety level of hantap leaves ethanolic extract was 6th category, i.e., relatively harmless, based on Hodge and Sterner toxicity scale. This extract has a significant effect on the central nervous system by reducing the effects of hanging (P = 0.010) and retablissement (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Hantap leaves were safe.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005033
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of one Ayurvedic medicine, Dasanakanti Churnam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The present study deals with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of one Ayurvedic tooth powder Dasanakanti Churnam to understand the various molecules present in it. Materials and Methods: The medicine, Dasanakanti Churnam, was procured from a standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and was subjected to GC–MS analysis following standard procedure. Results: It was observed that some medicinally important molecules such as.alpha- campholenal, isoborneol, 1H-indole, 3-methyl-, eugenol.,beta-ocimene, benzenebutanoic acid.,alpha.,alpha.-dimethyl-. gamma.-oxo-, cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid, 2-phenyl-3-methoxy-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, dodecanoic acid, phenylmethyl ester, cyclobutanecarboxylic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester, 6,9,10-trimethoxy-12H-benz(6,7) oxepino(2,3,4-i,j)isoquinoline, succinic acid, di(3,7-dimethyloct-6-en-1-yl) ester, octanoic acid, 1-ethenyl-1,5-dimethyl-4- hexenyl ester, 5-(1-Cyclohexenyl)-5-ethyldihydro-4,6(1H,5H)-pyrimidinedione.,beta.-carbolin-1-one, 6-methyl-2,3,4,9- tetrahydro-.,beta.-carbolin-1-one, 6-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-, trans-Farnesol, benzamide, and 2-methoxy-N-allyl- were present which indicated far-reaching medicinal roles in tune with that of Dasanakanti Churnam. Conclusion: It is concluded that Dasanakanti Churnam, as shown by the GC–MS profile, contains some important molecules that help Dasanakanti Churnam as a good medicine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005036
Title: The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of one herbal formulation, Trikatu Churnam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: The present study deals with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of one Ayurvedic digestive powder, Trikatu Churnam. Materials and Methods: The Trikatu Churnam was procured for standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and was subjected to GC–MS analysis by the standard as per the standard procedure. Results: The GC–MS profile indicated the presence of some important biomolecules such as longipinocarveol, trans-., beta-bisabolene, caryophyllene oxide., alpha.-ylangene, dodecanedioic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, 1(2H)-naphthalenone, octahydro-4a,8a- dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-, [4aR-(4a.alpha.,7.beta.,8a.alpha.)]-, 3-methyl-1-adamantaneacetic acid, thiazole-2,4(3H,5H)- dione, 5-benzylideno-3-[(ethylphenylamino)methyl]-, and i-propyl 5,9,17-hexacosatrienoate, which has medicinal roles indicating the efficacy of Trikatu Churnam as a medicine for digestive disorders. Conclusions: The above results and discussion indicates that Trikatu churnam is a good formulation for digestive disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00005037
Title: Acute Toxicity of Extract of Sunan candlenut (Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) Seeds
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, West Java, Indonesia
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Background: Extract of Sunan candlenut (Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) seed, the Euphorbiaceae family, has been shown to have anti-alopecia activity. Extract safety must be determined so that the extract can be developed into herbal preparations. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity and toxic symptoms of Sunan candlenut seed extract. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity assay was conducted on female Swiss Webster mice with various concentrations of Sunan candlenut seed extract (70, 700, 1400, 3500, and 7000 mg/kg BW mice), then observed the toxic symptoms for 14 days. Results: The LD50 value of Sunan candlenut seed extract was 4954 mg/kg BW mice. This extract has a significant effect on the central nervous system by reducing the motoric activity (P = 2 × 10-4) and retablisment (P = 0.002), and the autonomic nervous system by disturbing ptosis (P = 0.032) and breathing (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The Sunan candlenut seed extract was 6th category, i.e., relatively harmless, based on the Hodge and Sterner toxicity scale.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005038
Title: Local anesthesia and hot tooth – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077,
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Aim: The aim of this review is to review and discuss the effect of local anesthesia on hot tooth. Objective: The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the effect of local anesthesia on hot tooth. Background: Achieving profound pulpal anesthesia is a cornerstone in endodontic practice and dentistry. Profound pulpal anesthesia during the root canal procedure benefits not only the patient but also the dentist who will be less stressed worrying about patient reactions or sudden movement during therapy. Achieving adequate anesthesia in patients with a hot tooth can be a challenge. Hot tooth refers to a pulp that has been diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis, with spontaneous and moderate-to-severe pain. Reason: Providing profound local anesthesia for teeth with irreversible pulpitis is a challenge for most of the dental practitioner. They should have knowledge on various supplemental injection techniques and also how to use it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005039
Title: Infant oral health-care knowledge and awareness among parents in Chennai and Cochin
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 600 0
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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the understanding regarding the infant oral health (IOH) care among parents in Chennai and Cochin. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of IOH care among parents. Materials and Methods: A convenient sample size of 200 consecutive parents from the area of Chennai and Cochin (100 parents each) participated in this study. A cross-sectional observational online-based study was conducted. The questionnaire was constructed in the SurveyMonkey website with dichotomous responses and multiple- choice questions. Results: The results of the present study indicated that the overall knowledge and attitude scores of parents toward IOH were poor. The awareness regarding the importance of IOH care was not satisfactory at all. All the response was below the average level. Conclusion: Overall knowledge and attitude of parents towards IOH care were very poor. Health-care professionals should do more awareness campaigns, especially in rural areas to explain the importance of IOH before child loses his/her primary tooth due to caries. The importance of a primary tooth should be explained to every parent and parents to be. IOH care should be a major perspective in parenting. More programs should be conducted to create awareness regarding IOH care.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005041
Title: Maxillary labial frenum morphology in children in Chennai population: A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Maxillary labial frenum has a diverse morphology. It is observed that assessment of frenum attachment is often neglected by most pediatric dentists. Abnormal frenum attachment is associated with various syndromic conditions. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of various types and attachment level of maxillary labial frenum in Chennai population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 200 children of age ranging from 3 to 10 years. The direct visual method under natural light was used. The thumb and the index finger were used to lift the upper lip. The labial frenum morphology was classified according to Sewerin and its attachment was classified according to Placek et al. Results: The most common morphology of frenum observed in these children was simple type (85%) and the most common type of frenal attachment noticed was mucosal (67%). Conclusion: This study shows that morphology of frenum varies in children. Pediatric dentists should assess the morphology of the frenum to prevent emergence of periodontal as well as orthodontic problems.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005042
Title: Holding time stability study of intermediates of core and coated tablets
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of intermediates stored at a temperature between 15°C and 25°C. Hold time stability study sets the time limit for keeping the products at different production stages. This guarantees that product quality during hold time does not yield results outside the acceptance criteria. The study design will represent the time of hold at each point. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was done using the antidiabetic drug on the initial day followed by 30 days and 90 days. Results and Discussion: Results of the hold time stability data of coated antidiabetic tablets 10 mg strength after 90 days reveal that the critical quality parameters mentioned are well within the specified limits when stored at a temperature between 15°C and 25°C in the manufacturing area. Conclusion: Critical quality attributes were not affected on holding and all the limits were within specification.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00005043
Title: Pre-menstrual syndrome and its impact on adolescent women
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Sciences, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to study and to create awareness of prevalence, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) and its impact on adolescent women. Data: PMS is a recurrent luteal phase condition characterized by physical, psychological, and behavioral changes of sufficient severity to result in deterioration of interpersonal relationships and normal activity. Pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is considered a severe form of PMS. The typical symptoms of PMS include symptoms such as mood swings, anxiety, and irritability, and physical symptoms such as headache, fatigue, bloating, sleep disturbances, nausea, and breast tenderness. About 90% of the women experience these symptoms during their childbearing age. Several factors such as hormonal change, diet, and lifestyle may cause PMS. PMS affects the day to day life of menstruating women of any age, race, and part of the world. Prescribed medications as oral contraceptives and antidepressants, some OTC drugs such as ibuprofen, paracetamol, and home remedies are taken as a treatment. Results: The prevalence of PMS is high among adolescent women. It has been estimated that affected women experience almost 3000 days of severe symptoms during the reproductive years. Until 2 decades ago, there were no effective treatments for severe PMS. Conclusion: Hence, changing lifestyle, modifying diet, exercises, stress reduction, and provision of services by health providers, such as counseling by a pharmacist can optimize the quality of life and overall health of women suffering from PMS. The health-care professionals should create awareness programs about PMS to improve the QOL and it should be encouraged.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005044
Title: Morphometric analysis of upper facial skeleton in South Indian dry skull
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The facial skeleton comprises facial bones that may contribute to the formation of the skull. There are 14 bones contribute to the formation of the facial skeleton. Measurement of facial skeleton either in the living subjects, dry skulls, or cephalograms is commonly used in the investigation of growth and development of face, jaw, and dentition. With this, the present study aimed to analyze the upper facial skeleton using morphometric technique in South Indian dry skull. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 dry human skulls from the Department of Anatomy in Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals were used to carry out this study. The morphometric parameters were measured using digital Vernier caliper. The data are collected and represented in graphs. Results: The present study has observed that the average distance between nasion to the anterior nasal spine (ANS) was 53.9 mm ± 3.1 mm, nasion to prosthion 67.8 ± 5.8 mm is, ANS to prosthion was 16.88 mm ± 3.5 mm, intermolar distance of maxilla was 60.1 ± 3.6, bizygomatic distance was 104.6 mm ± 4.8 mm, right and left zygomatic prominence to nasion was 67.7 mm ± 4.4 mm and 68.6 mm ± 3.1 mm, and right and left prosthion to zygomatic prominence was 66.2 mm ± 5 mm and 65.8 mm ± 3.7 mm. Conclusion: The present study, thus, concluded that the morphometric knowledge of the upper facial skeleton is very important in anthropological, evolutionary studies, sex determination, and surgeries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005045
Title: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of one Ayurvedic Rasayana drug, Dhanwantari Rasayanam
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: The present study deals with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of one famous nerve stimulating tonic, Dhanwantari Rasayanam. This knowledge of the molecules present in this medicine could indicate the mechanism of action of this medicine, which is basically used to treat nerve-related disease such as paraplegia, hemiplegia, and muscle wasting. Materials and Methods: Dhanwantari Rasayanam was brought from standard Ayurvedic vendor from Chennai. The GC–MS analysis was conducted following standard procedures. Results: It was observed that there are some important biomolecules such as heptanediamide, N,N’-di-benzoyloxy-, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural.,beta.-Asarone, Tetradecanoic acid, 15-Hydroxypentadecanoic acid, oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester, hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester, and 26-Nor-5-cholesten-3.beta.-ol-25-one show some interesting biological activities which are in tune with the medicinal roles of Dhanwantari Rasayanam. Conclusion: The results indicate a positive correlation between the medicinal roles of molecules present in GC–MS profile and that of the Rasayanam itself.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005046
Title: The GC–MS study of one ayurvedic formulation tiktaka ghrita
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Objective: The present study deals with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of one Ayurvedic formulation, Tiktaka Ghrita, which is prescribed for skin diseases. Materials and Methods: The medicine was procured from standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and was subjected to GC–MS analysis after due processing. Results: It was observed that there are some important biomolecules such as Eucalyptol, o-Acetyl-L-serine, Phenylethyl Alcohol, 2-Allyl- 3-hydroxy-2-methylsuccinic acid, 1-ethyl ester, Glycerine, Succinic acid, ethyl non-5-yn-3-yl ester, Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 1-ethyl-, Benzeneethanol, 4-hydroxy-, and 2,4,6,(1H,3H,5H)-Pyrimidinetrione, 5-acetyl- which augur well with the medicinal role of Tiktaka Ghrita. Conclusion: It was observed that the molecules present in the GC–MS profile do show some relationship with that of Tiktaka Ghrita as a medicine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005047
Title: A review on shigellosis: Pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Iraq
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Background: Shigellosis is an enteric disease caused by Shigella spp. and it is archetypically related to wander to high-risk districts. It is an invasive disease of the colon caused mainly by Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri. The mode of transmission is principally fecal-oral with low infectious dose as minimum as ten bacterial cells. Not surprisingly, Musca domestica can act as a vector of transmission at the dirty region of inadequate human feces disposal. Invasion of the epithelial cells covering rectum, the terminal ileum, and colon mainly depending on Shigella type three secretion system (T3SS), leading to hemorrhagic diarrhea. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses may occur a few hours after the invasion. Methodology: Clinical manifestation includes fever and stomach cramps and rectal spasms (tenesmus) after exposing to the bacteria after at least 12 h of exposure. Bloody diarrhea (as maximum as 50% of cases) usually contains mucus. Stool culture on selective media such as Salmonella-Shigella agar (SS agar), xylose lysine dextrose (XLD) agar, Hekteon enteric agar, and deoxycholate agar may help in the diagnosis of Shigella spp. Pale colony without blackness can reveal Shigella spp. on XLD and SS agar. Serotyping is very important to confirm the diagnosis. Results: The prominent clinical symptoms are bloody diarrhea accompanied in sometimes with mucus which may be resolved within 1 week of exposure. The post- shigellosis consequence may include peritonitis, kidney damage, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The main virulence factors responsible for clinical symptoms include enterotoxins: set1A, set1B, ShET1, and ShET2 carried on pathogenicity islands. In addition to invasins, T3SS and immune modulation effectors proteins such as OspC3, OspF, OspG, OpsI OpsZ, IpaH9.8, and IpaH0722 were implicated as virulence factors associated with clinical symptoms. Multidrug resistance isolates were reported among Shigella spp., especially for third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and most recently azithromycin. The present study concludes that Shigella spp. are amazing enteric pathogen with dual mode of pathogenesis (both invasiveness and toxigenesis) and have very low infectious dose. They have arrays of virulence factors that enable them from escaping and downregulation of the immune system. In addition, they possess effectors protein acting as invasins and enterotoxins. The resistance to the empiric therapeutic options may push an alarm to seek about new choices.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005048
Title: Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide for biological application
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Applied Sciences, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
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Background: Graphene oxide (GO) has a big surface area, moral dispersibility in solvents, and a great aspect ratio. GO displays antimicrobial activity and raise the bioavailability of adsorbed antibiotics. This investigation was aimed to create GO from graphite by simple method and detection of its antimicrobial action and cytotoxicity against lung cancer. Materials and Methods: GO was created by Hummer’s way. The synthesis of GO was shown by many characterizing techniques: Ultraviolet, Raman, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and detection of its antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-parasitic action, and cytotoxicity against lung cancer. Results: GO offered the higher result against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with inhibition zone 22 mm while Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 20 mm and Candida albicans, 19 mm. The antimicrobial action of GO offered higher results compare with antibiotics. The antioxidant action of GO was estimated through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, and the outcomes were displayed 42% in 75 μg/ml concentration. The anticancer activity of GO was examined against lung cancer (A549). The outcome indicated a good level of cytotoxic activity in 50 and 100 μg/mL concentration. The antiparasite action of GO against Leishmania tropica was estimated by MTT assay and the high concentration that causes cytotoxic 10 mg/ml (63%). Conclusion: This investigation concludes the good ability to GO for biological application.