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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005081
Title: Effect of pyocyanin as secondary metabolite on pseudomonal biofilm and in increasing the resistance degree to antipseudomonal agents
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq.
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Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced the maximum amount of pyocyanin pigment as a secondary metabolite as a virulence factor that responsible for increase pathogenesis. The study aims to improve our understanding of the emergence of pseudomonal biofilm formation by pyocyanin production. The correlation between minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) values of ceftazidime, piperacillin, and ciprofloxacin with pyocyanin production is also targeting in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 isolates from patients with catheter-associated urinary tract and wound infections were included in this study. Pyocyanin production was determined. The antimicrobial susceptibility tests including, Kirby– Bauer and E-test, were estimated. Finally, the detection of biofilm production, which includes microtiter plate assay and biofilm formation on FBCL, was done. Results: One hundred thirty-eight isolates of P. aeruginosa, isolates that produced biofilm were 96 (69.5%). There is a progressive relationship between pyocyanin production level and biofilm production. Furthermore, there is a relationship between MICs values of ceftazidime and pyocyanin production level. Conclusion: Our suggestion showed that pyocyanin could be one of the factors that help to induce biofilm formation. Wherefore, sessile cells were showed an increase in isolates that have higher pyocyanin levels more than others. Furthermore, pyocyanin increases the resistance against ceftazidime, which could be of clinical significance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005069
Title: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with Mentha spicata against Aspergillus niger
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Babylon, Babil, Iraq.
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Background: Mentha spicata not modern uses aqueous leaf extract of medicinal plant. Silver nanoparticles(AgNPs) synthesized by leaves of Mentha spicata were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and found highly toxic and hazardous to microorganisms. It is found out that the silver nanoparticles have many inhibitory and fungicidal effects and so its application is extended as an antibacterial agent. The antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles is estimated by the zone of inhibition. Aspergillus sp. are indoor and outdoor saprophytic fungi that play a significant role in global carbon and nitrogen recycling while negatively in human and animal. Materials and Methods: After the addition of AgNO3 within 20 min, the suspension showed change in color and turned dark brown, formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In this study, 70 samples were collected from sputum, 44 males and 26 females. Samples were positive 32 males and 18 females (50 infection) for the presence of fungal element. Results: Structure of synthesized AgNPs were confirmed by FTIR, UV visible, XRD and FESEM studies. Fungal species were isolated from sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Many species were recovered and the effect nanoparticles on Aspergillus niger growth were tested. The result showed the effectivity of nanoparticles against fungus with zone of inhibition with 8 mm at concentration of 20 mg. Conclusions: The possibility of preparing nanoparticles of M. spicata plant using silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) result revealed that AgNPs have a good activity against aspergillosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005070
Title: Isolation and identification Candida species among renal failure Iraqi patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Iraq
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Background: Candida species is a member of an individual’s normal gastrointestinal flora, vagina, oral cavity, human skin, and mucosal surfaces. Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis are the most common cause of fungal infections in humans. Recently, it has been seen ongoing medical importance, possibly causing life to threaten systemic infections and chronic mucocutaneous infection in patients with immune disabilities. The aim of this study is to find that Candida has role in causing renal failure and isolate and identify Candida (C.) sp. from renal failure patient urine sample and investigate the sensitivity of these strains to some antifungal drugs. Methodology: A total of 121 urine samples of renal failure patient were obtained from both Marjan and Al-Imam Al-Sadiq Hospital in Hila city, belonging to both sexes at various age groups ranging from 15 to 85 years of age, using sterile urine cap, all specimens were immediately transported to laboratory and cultivation within 2 h. Results: The present study showed that 14.8% of urine sample are positive for Candida spp. involved C. albicans (16.6%), C. glabrata (16.6%), and males Candida krusei (22.2%) and Candida parapsilosis (11.11% and 33.33%) mix while the susceptibility testing profile revealed that most Candida spp. are sensitive to sulfamethoxazole and resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and itraconazole. Conclusion: The current study concludes that the most common pathogenic fungi in urinary tract system was C. glabrata as Candida spp. is the most common species in the tested renal failure patients. The most effective antifungal on Candida spp. was sulfamethoxazole. The study revealed the number of infection-free females more than male.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005071
Title: Biochemical studies of Ginkgo biloba extract on oxidative stress-induced myocardial injuries
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
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Background: Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage is associated to several clinical disorders, which remains a significant issue. Oxygen-free radicals are produced on reperfusion and are known to have a central role in myocardial I/R injury. A number of studies have described various therapeutic benefits of Ginkgo biloba. As, it has been suggested that G. biloba exhibits protective effect against I/R-induced myocardial injuries for various organs due to its antioxidant properties. It is, therefore, important to investigate the efficiency of these herbal products in protecting myocardial tissue against the I/R injury, which may be opening the door to develop new therapies for myocardial I/R injury. Materials and Methods: To assess whether and how G. biloba products can reduce the I/R-induced myocardial injuries, 36 male rats were subjected to ischemia for 45 min and then they were exposed to reperfusion for 60 min. All rats were classified into three groups: Group 1 (control), Group 2 (I/R), and Group 3 (G. biloba treatment group). Rats in Group 2 were infused internally with only 0.9% saline solution while in Group 3, rats were given G. biloba (400 mg/kg) for 15 days with the same diet intraperitoneally, before I and before R. Once the blood samples were collected from the rats, the biochemical parameters were estimated. Serum lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and oxidative stress levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide were measured. Results: The results presented in this study show that the cardiac enzymes levels and oxidative stress within group treatment were substantially lower than those in the group I/R and control group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that G. biloba could protect myocardial tissues against I/R-induced myocardial injuries in rat’s model.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005072
Title: Study of extracellular DNA in blood of patients with pancreonecrosis
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “N.P. Ogarev Mordovia State University”, Bolshevistskaya Str. 68, Saransk, 430005 Russia
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Aim: The progressive dynamics of extracellular DNA (exDNA) accumulation in the blood plasma of patients with acute pancreatitis of varying severity and degree of pancreatic necrosis was revealed. Materials and Methods: The maximum increase in the content of exDNA was observed in patients with pancreatic necrosis. Patients with acute pancreatitis of varying severity have the intensified processes of degradation of lipid and protein molecules in their blood accompanied by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, circulating immune complexes, and medium-weight molecules. Results and Discussion: In this case, there is a steady increase in the blood of patients with the number of cells dying by apoptosis. Mononuclear blood cells of patients, depending on the severity of acute pancreatitis, show an increase in their caspase activity 3/7. The dynamics of exDNA accumulation in the blood of patients with acute pancreatitis reflects the depth of development of the pathophysiological process as a whole and characterizes the severity of endotoxemia. Conclusion: Thus, the qualitative and quantitative composition of blood plasma exDNA is a systemic indicator that can characterize the course of the pathological process.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005073
Title: Stability-indicating reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of emtricitabine, tenofovir, cobicistat, and elvitegravir
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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Objective: A stability-indicating reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method development for the simultaneous determination of emtricitabine (EMT), tenofovir (TNF), cobicistat (COB), and elvitegravir (ELV) in solid dosage forms. Materials and Methods: The Waters Acquity Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatographic system with column HSS C18, 100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 m is used for the method development. The detector used is PDA detector at 280 nm. Mobile phase used in this method is pH – 3.5 phosphate buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 70:30%V/V. Flow rate used for this proposed method is 0.3 ml/min. Results: The retention times observed are 1.403 min, 1.680 min, 1.921 min, and 2.615 min for EMT, TNF, COB, and ELV, respectively. The linearity calculated was found to be within the range. The % recoveries for EMT, TNF, COB, and ELV were within the acceptance criteria. These drugs were found to be stable at forced degradation studies and results are within the limits. Conclusion: The proposed UPLC method is found to be producing the faster retention times with good resolution than that achieved with the conventional HPLC. The decreased flow rate to 0.3 ml/min in the proposed method indicates more economical with high sensitivity. The stress testing procedure is followed as per ICH guidelines and reveals that the method is specific and stability indicating. The proposed method can be used for the quality control of the combination in the pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005074
Title: Awareness on dental anxiety among dental patients in South Indian population – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental anxiety is a term used to describe fear, anxiety, or stress in a dental setting and patient specific response toward dental situation-associated stress. It can be associated with certain triggers such as needles, drills, or the dental setting in general and is a recognized problem for both the patients and dental health providers. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to investigate the subjective ratings of dental anxiety levels in dental patients among South Indian population. Results: The present study aimed to explore the sources of dental anxiety in dental patients among South Indian population. Conclusion: From the study it is evident that the development of dental anxiety could be prevented with pain control, behavior management, and consideration of patient as a whole.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005076
Title: In vitro antidiabetic activity of crude acetone leaf extract of Annona muricata
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a global health crisis which has been affecting humanity over more than a decade. Annona muricata is a plant belonging to the family Annonaceae and is known for its traditional medical uses. At present, herbal medicines are used to cure many diseases. This study aims to prove the hypoglycemic activity of A. muricata. Materials and Methods: The plant A. muricata was purchased in a nursery in Chennai. The plant was allowed to grow for a few days and the leaves were collected for study. The leaves were washed and crushed with acetone. The extract was tested for its antidiabetic activity. Results: The aqueous extract of A. muricata showed positive results for α-amylase inhibitory activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Conclusion: This study has analyzed the hypoglycemic potential of A. muricata. A. muricata, therefore, represents a possible dietary adjunct for the treatment of diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005077
Title: Oral health habits among elderly South Indian population – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The proportion of older people continues to increase throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Maintaining oral health is definitely difficult in old age. Most oral diseases and non-communicable diseases share common risk factors. Globally, poor oral health among older people is evident in dental caries experience, increased levels of tooth loss, xerostomia, and the prevalence rates of periodontal disease, oral pre-malignancy/malignancy. The negative impact of poor oral conditions on the quality of life of older individuals is an important public health issue. Materials and Methods: This study is a questionnaire-based survey. The survey comprises questions pertaining to oral health habits among elders. This survey was administered to 100 participants. The results obtained were statistically analyzed. Results: The oral health status of elderly population is deficient, with an increased rate of tooth loss and periodontal diseases which are responsible for mastication difficulties, impairment of oral quality of life, and chronic disease destabilization, with direct effects on the individual’s general quality of life and well-being. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates poor oral health habits among elderly population. Improvement of the oral health of the elderly should be a key objective of geriatricians, dentists, dental hygienists, and caregivers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005078
Title: In vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract of Ambon banana (Musa paradisiaca) peel powder against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM 21 Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia.
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Objective: The objective of this present study was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract of Ambon banana (Musa paradisiaca) peel powder against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Materials and Methods: The Ambon banana powder was macerated using 96% ethanol as the solvent and the phytochemical contents were analyzed using the standard method. The antibacterial effect of the extract was investigated using the agar diffusion method against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, with the clindamycin as the standard antibiotic. The effect of bacterial species types and extract concentration on inhibition diameter was statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results: The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the Ambon banana peel powder extract exhibited the presence of alkaloids, total flavonoids, and saponins. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the extract clearly demonstrated that the peel parts of Ambon banana have prominent antibacterial properties against P. acnes and S. epidermidis. Based on the results of statistical analysis, it was clarified that there was a significant effect of the bacterial species types and extract concentration on the inhibitory diameter values. In line with the analysis, the results of diameter values reflected that P. acnes was more sensitive to the extract than S. epidermidis and the diameter inhibition was increasing as the increasing of extract concentration. Conclusion: This study recommended for the 1st time that the ethanolic extract of Ambon banana (M. paradisiaca) peel powder could be developed as a natural anti-acne agent against P. acnes and S. epidermidis as the main causative agent for acne.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005079
Title: Design, formulation, and evaluation of reservoir-type transdermal delivery of an antihypertensive drug
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, KLE College of Pharmacy, (Affiliated to KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research), Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
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Aim: The purpose of this study was to develop a reservoir-type transdermal delivery system for losartan potassium. The developed patch consisted of four layers from bottom to top, namely, a fabric with adhesive layer, a rate-controlling membrane, a reservoir, and a backing. Materials and Methods: In the present study, reservoir device was prepared using rate-controlling membrane ethylene vinyl acetate, two-layer backing membrane of 4% w/w polyvinyl acetate and 12% w/w ethylene vinyl acetate and gel system of Carbopol 934P. Reservoir-type transdermal delivery system was further analyzed for their appearance, pH, viscosity, and drug content of gel, in vitro diffusion studies. Optimized formulation was further subjected to stability studies. Results and Conclusion: In vitro drug diffusion studies exhibited concentration-dependent controlled release of losartan potassium for 8 h. Optimized formulation (X1) was subjected to accelerated stability studies which revealed the stability of the formulation. Thus, it was concluded that transdermal patches of losartan potassium can be developed for treating hypertension.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005080
Title: Evaluation of antibacterial potential of fruiting body extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus in vitro and in vivo study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Basic Science, College of Dentistry, Wasit University, Kut, Iraq.
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Background: The recent development of bacterium resistant strains has raised worry in health care settings in public of Iraq. This has led to raised research interest in mushrooms. The present research explores the medical chance of the cultivated mushroom oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) as a hopeful antibacterial agent against divers’ clinical pathogens that are multidrug resistance (MDR) agents and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to present-generation antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Samples enrolled in this study is mushroom belongs to the genus P. ostreatus, obtained from Unit of fungal production/Unit of medicinal and Aromatic plants, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Iraq with sample Code no MF0657151, recorded in NCBI (National center for Biotechnology Information/Part of (US National Institute of Health). S. aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii were already isolated and diagnosed from previous study and preserved in the lab. General method of extraction from the powder of P. ostreatus fruiting bodies was done by three solvents sequentially (chloroform, methanol, and aqueous) solutions. The antibacterial activity was assessed using agar well diffusion procedure; 200 mg/ml from each crude extract have been used. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were assessed for the methanol crude extract for the potent solution among the others in the ranging from 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/ml. Murine model was used to assess the antibacterial activity of methanol crude extract after cutaneous induced infection of each of clinical pathogen, A. baumannii (MDR), and MRSA. Results: It was seen that the best extract was this belongs methanol. The most potent antibacterial activity of the methanol crude extract was seen within the range of 100 mg/ml–12.5 mg/ml concentrations. Methanol crude extract exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect against S. aureus and A. baumannii growth with MIC 25 mg/ml. In the case of, in vivo study and regarding S. aureus, it was found a significant difference (P < 0.05) using methanol crude extract but in other words, there is no effect of this extract on A. baumannii. Conclusion: Methanol crude extract of P. ostreatus was the powerful one as an antibacterial agent against the tested S. aureus and A. baumannii than the other extracts which are chloroform and aqueous in vitro and in vivo models except the later design was not useful in A. baumannii.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005082
Title: Comparative study of the molecular, biochemical, and other parameters in Iraqi hepatitis B patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Anbar, Iraq
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Background/Purpose: It well recognizes that hepatitis B infections are one of the most medically important problematic infections in the world. We compared the molecular, biochemical, and other parameters of two study groups of hepatitis B patients depending on the result of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Methodology: The serological indicators of 80 study patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) were investigated. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels were quantified, and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) viral quantity was determined using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The biochemical and hematological essays of the patients, in addition to 40 healthy individuals, were also detected. Results: HBsAg was revealed positive in all study patients. They were quantitatively and statistically more significant in those patients positive for HBsAg than negative ones with a mean of 7779.9 ± 3898 IU/mL and 3233.8 ± 2474 IU/mL, respectively. The HBV-DNA viral quantity was also much higher in HBeAg-positive patients (35,328,825 ± 23,101,537 IU/mL) than in HBeAg-negative patients (3115.1 ± 1916.8 IU/mL). Glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase values were elevated in patients carrying HBeAg in comparison with other ones in contrast with gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), who decreased markedly. The level of prothrombin times for HBeAg-positive (15.24 ± 2.0 s) and HBeAg-negative (15.73 ± 2.4 s) patients was higher than that for the healthy individuals (13.65 ± 0.5 s). Conclusion: The interesting finding that emerged from this study is the reasonably substantial significant difference between both study groups of HBeAg in terms of HBsAg level and HBV-DNA load creating an impression that a high level of attention must be brought on the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of HBeAg positive patients. Furthermore, several biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) were markedly increased in patients who have HBeAg in comparison with those negative for the presence and controls. In both groups of patients with CHB infections, the GGT levels were observable, increasing than those in the healthy subjects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005083
Title: Molecular characterization and gene expression profiling of Trichophyton rubrum treated with a Marasmius palmivorus filtrate
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathological Analysis Techniques, AL-Mustaqbal University College, Hilla, Iraq.
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Background: Trichophyton rubrum is a common anthropophilic fungal species. It is the primary causative dermatophytosis agent in the world, infecting the skin, feet, and the area between the fingernails. Aim: The present study examines the molecular characteristics of T. rubrum isolates and the bioactivity of Marasmius palmivorus filtrate against this fungus. Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates were collected from patients with different varieties of tinea who attended the Al-Hussein Hospital (Dermatology and Venereal Disease Unit) in Kerbala Province from February to November 2018. Results: Four T. rubrum isolates were identified based on their morphological and molecular features and were registered in the International GenBank with the accession numbers: MK167434, MK167437, MK167442, and MK167443, revealing close relationship with National Center for Biotechnology Information-Blast T. rubrum (MH865940.1). The phylogenetic tree of internal transcribed spacer rRNA sequences showed that the T. rubrum isolates (numbers 1, 2, 5, and 6) were closely related to global isolates of the same fungus. The results showed that this fungus could produce protease enzymes. M. palmivorus filtrate (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) showed an inhibitory influence on T. rubrum growth through the distortion of fungal structures (presence of abnormal mycelium and cell lysis). Gene expression was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the specific primer β-tubulin (housekeeping gene), a serine protease, citrate synthase, and MEP4. The amplification accuracy of the gene product was observed. The data revealed high gene copy amplification in serine protease, citrate synthase, appeared the accumulation of product through the duration of the qPCR experiment, but on the contrary, it happened with MEP4, which indicates protein lysis. Conclusion: The results of this study will aid in the development of innovative and novel effective drug targets and antifungal agents using M. palmivorus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005084
Title: Occurrence, morphological, and molecular characteristics of Trichophyton erinacei in Iraq
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathological Analysis Techniques, AL-Mustaqbal University College, Hilla, Iraq.
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Background: Dermatophyte infections are caused by Trichophyton erinacei, which has been isolated from hedgehogs on numerous occasions. Although a variety of animal infections of this fungus have been observed in different countries, the pathogen has rarely been isolated from humans. Aim: This research was conducted to characterize the zoonotic isolate of T. erinacei through culture and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: An experiment was carried out on the different types of tinea identified on patients attending the Dermatology Unit at Al-Hussein Hospital in the holy city of Kerbala during the period from February to November 2018. Results: Based on clinical diagnoses and culture characteristics, the pathogen observed in tinea manuum, tinea faciei, and tinea corporis was identified as tinea erinaceid. The culture characteristics revealed white/cottony irregular colonies with septated elongated macroconidia and numerous pear-shaped microconidia attached along the side of the hyphae. This discovery was verified by sequencing the inner translated fungal nuclear ribosomal DNA spacers utilizing the inner translated spacer (ITS) 1-ITS4 universal primers. The fungus was recorded in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Center under entry number MK167440. The genetic tree of the fungus T. erinacei was shown to be related to the following global strains: The Netherlands (MH865913.1) and 96%, German (NKU257463.1) 88%, French (DQ786689.1) 88%, Iranian (1) KP789451, and Estonian (KC833522.1) 82%. Conclusions: This is the first report on T. erinacei tinea manuum infection in the Kerbala Province and, as far as is known, in the country of Iraq.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005085
Title: Detection of the morphological and genetic effect of chloroformic flax seed extract on the Leishmania tropica.
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Tikrit University, Saladin, Iraq
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Objective: The present study was designed to test the efficacy of the chloroform extract of flax seed in the treatment of Leishmania tropica by the toxic inhibitory effect on the promastigote stage in vitro by inhibiting the growth and number of the parasite as well as detecting the genetic effects of the parasite genome using random amplified polymorphic DNA- polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) technique. Materials and Methods: The original cultures for the isolated parasites were obtained from two patients and transplanted to the liquid culture medium Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 by five samples, four of which were treated with different concentrations of the chloroform extract of flax seeds and one sample that was not treated with the extract control sample and three replicates for each sample and the parasite was counted for all samples and was conducted for them statistical analysis. DNA was extracted from all samples and RAPD-PCR Markers were performed using six primers. The results were carried over the agarose gel, the results were photographed, and the statistical analysis was performed. Results: The number of parasites decreased in an inverse relationship with the concentrations. The higher the concentration, the lower the parasite rate and the largest rate of inhibition at the concentration was 100 µg/ ml. The parasite rates were 3820, 6580, 10,560, and 14,840 organisms/ml, respectively, and compared to the control group that recorded an increase in the number of parasites. In a direct relationship with time, where parasite rates reached 11,600, 19,800, 31,200, and 47,800 being/ml. Concentration showed 50 µg/ml inhibition of 50% of promastigote after 96 h of growth with comparison with the control group and that concentration of 100 µg/ml resulted in 70% inhibition (LC70 ) during the same period. The RAPD-PCR markers, it was found that all treatments have an effect on the DNA genetic material of the parasite. The first treatment, T1, which is the highest concentration of the extract, showed the highest number of mutant bands (24) distinct bands, divided into (14) unique bands and (10) absent bands. Followed by the T4, which is the lowest concentration of the extract that had (20) distinct bands, which were divided into (9) absent bands and (11) unique bands. Followed by the T3, with a number of mutant bands of (19) bands, divided between (10) absent bands and (9) unique bands. Followed by the T2, which obtained a number of distinct flying bands that reached (18) distinct bands, which were divided into (9) absent bands and (9) unique bands. Conclusion: It is concluded from the current study that the increased concentration has led to an increase in the generation time in a direct relationship with the concentrations. The chloroform extract has a high effect on the parasite’s genome during the reproductive process, specifically when DNA is duplicated, which leads to mutations that lead to high damage to the parasite’s genetics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005086
Title: Generic drug regulatory approval process in the USA, Europe, and India
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysuru - 570 015, Karnataka, India.
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Regulatory involvement in the generic drug development hastens the drug approval process which directly/indirectly accelerated the launching of drug into the market. The regulatory documents whether in-house of documents to be submitted to regulatory authorities should be carefully reviewed by the skilled personnel to minimize the queries raised by the regulatory agencies and speed up the approval process. These are few differences in the dossier submission requirements among the three regions, i.e., the USA, Europe, and India which has been clearly represented through succinct comparisons third part of this work. Generic manufacturers may file an abbreviated new drug application that incorporates the safety/effectiveness data submitted by original innovator drug manufacturer and adds only bioequivalence studies. Therefore, it is very difficult and challenging task to approve a drug by the manufacturing companies, simultaneously submitted in all the regulatory authorities. The literature work, the comparison parameters, and difference in generic drug approval requirements have been delineated in this work, which gives clear depict where India lies in its generic drug approval process and the challenges that Indian regulatory authority has to overcome in the near future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00005087
Title: Evaluation of Drug utilization and Analysis of Drug related problems of Anti-Epileptic drugs at tertiary care teaching hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, H.S.K College of Pharmacy, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India
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Background: Epilepsy has been considered as a public health problem by the WHO and international league against epilepsy (ILAE). It was felt that there remains significant scope for the improvement of better epilepsy services in an emerging country like India. Hence, we search for to evaluate the drug utilization of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Aim: The study was designed to evaluate the drug utilization of AEDs in in-patient admission of medicine and pediatric departments at tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: The data were obtained prospectively from 80 patients with AED over a period of 6 months. The utilization was assessed based on the age, seizure type, therapy, newer, and conventional AEDs and rationality of prescriptions. Results: AEDs are highly prescribed for an age group of >18 years in the study. AEDs are highly prescribed as dual therapy in 38.75% of the patients. In the study, 63.75% of AED were prescribed alone and 35% of AED with add-on therapy of benzodiazepine (BZD) and found statistically non-significant (P = 0.4726). The assessment of rationality was done as per ILAE and Indian Association of Pediatrics guidelines, of which 81.02% and 58.06% were found to be rational respectively. Conclusion: In the study, AEDs are used as polytherapy was more effective in terms of reduction of seizures, as there were large number of grand mal seizures 73.75% among our study subjects. Most of the patients with grand mal seizures do not achieve seizure control with single AEDs. The study determines the effective use of BZDs along with AED. Due to the lack of specific guidelines for the usage of AED in India, the rationality in the prescription is variable.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005088
Title: Association of body mass index and glycated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Dr. MGR Educational University and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: According to the World Health Organization, 1.9 billion adults were overweight and of these obese are 650 million and raised body mass index (BMI) is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, and some cancers. Poor glycemic control leads to overweight and obesity. This study was carried to find the association between the categories of BMI and Hba1c in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Materials and Methods: This is a case–control study and it includes 102 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus comprising 42 males and 60 females. Blood sample was collected and it was used to estimate the fasting blood glucose and HbA1c. BMI was calculated using the formula weight (kg)/height (meter 2). It was analyzed using the SPSS version 17 and one-way ANOVA method was applied. Results and Conclusion: Normal BMI and overweight group shows significance with Hba1c, where P < 0.001. It also shows significance in between the normal BMI and obese group where P < 0.03. It was concluded that BMI should be maintained within the normal range so that complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus would be delayed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005089
Title: Awareness, knowledge, and prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome among dental students in Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to find out the awareness, knowledge, and prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among dental students at Saveetha Dental College. Objective: CTS is one of the most common upper limb entrapment neuropathies, hence, it very important to find the awareness, knowledge, and prevalence of CTS among dental students in Saveetha Dental College. Materials and Methods: An online survey consisting of 17 questions was conducted among 100 Saveetha Dental College students. The students were in internship which further helped us in assessing the CTS since they had few years of work experience and the results were analyzed. Results: The assessment on the severity of the wrist or hand pain showed that 63% of the people had no symptoms, 18% had mild symptoms, 10% severe symptoms, and 5% showed very severe. The functional scale also revealed that 6% of the people had no difficulty in writing, 9% of the people had no difficulty in buttoning of clothes, 12% of the people had no difficulty in holding a book while reading, 3% of the people had little difficulty in grabbing a phone, 22% of the people had little difficulty in opening a jar, 2% of the people had little difficulty in performing household chores, and 23% of the people had little difficulty in carrying a grocery bag. Conclusion: Practice and attitudes toward illnesses in general and CTS, in particular, are fluid, continuously changing, and developing overtime. This study showed us that adequate knowledge of CTS is essential for proper diagnosis and treatment. This occupational hazard can be easily acquired by dentist who works with improper hand and wrist and hand and chair position.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005090
Title: Prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis in hypertensive patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe health complications and increases the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, etc. The other dental-related problems in hypertension are gingivitis and periodontitis. Nowadays, periodontal disease can be also considered as another cardiovascular risk factor. In hypertension, alteration in microcirculation can cause ischemia in periodontium which favors periodontal disease. Experts believe that inflammation from gum disease may trigger or worsen inflammation in other parts of the body, including blood vessels and arteries. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among dental patients with hypertension visiting Saveetha Dental College. Fifty hypertensive patients are chosen based on their medical records. Then, the scorings are given according to the severity of disease using the gingival bleeding index (bleeding on probing) and Russell’s periodontal index. The demographic data were collected. From the hypertensive patients, their medications, dosage, and period of medications data were also collected. Results and Discussion: The study reveals that 66% of hypertensive patients have periodontitis and 34% of them have gingivitis. The molars are the severely affected tooth and the severity of periodontitis is measured by Russell’s periodontal index. Conclusion: Hence, we can conclude that hypertensive patients are more susceptible to periodontitis than gingivitis from this study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005091
Title: Drug development for pediatric populations: A regulatory perspective
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysore, Karnataka, India
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Pediatric elements are now soon integrated into the process of developing a new drug. In recent years, stronger enforcement by the regulatory agency to obtain pediatric information has resulted in an increased number of children’s trials. The regulatory structure forms specific rules and specifications, notably from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This review summarizes the regulatory needs, policies, and role of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in pediatric populations. It includes planning and conducting pediatric research, factors for children’s first dose, suitable sampling strategies, and various techniques for generating and analyzing information to create understanding about a drug’s pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) in children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005092
Title: Neuroprotective effect of Bacopa monnieri against aluminum chloride-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of Wistar rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalagiri, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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Introduction: Aluminum (Al) is proven to cause pathogenesis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Our study explored the potential effect of Al in apoptosis and neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri (BM) against aluminum chloride (AlCl3) -induced neuronal damage in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were assigned into five groups: Control group was administered orally with distilled water, and 0.5% tween 80, AlCl3 group received aluminum chloride (AlCl3); protective groups (BM100+AlCl3 group and BM200+AlCl3 group) were concurrently administered with AlCl3 and BM at two different doses; BM200 group received only BM. The administration of drug and chemical lasted for 4 weeks. The hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were estimated at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, neuronal quantification was performed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus to identify the viable neurons and dark neurons. Results and Discussion: BM reduced the neuronal deterioration caused by AlCl3 as it is evident from more number of viable neurons and few dark neurons seen in protective groups compared with AlCl3 group. This observation is supported by oxidative stress markers such as GPx and MDA, which are also critical regulators of apoptosis. Conclusion: BM protected the neurons in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus from neuronal insults produced by AlCl 3.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005093
Title: Awareness and practice in using needle destroyers in dental practice – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The use of needles in dental practice is inevitable. Hence, proper precautions have been taken to dispose and destroy the needles. Needlestick injuries are the most common injuries posed to a dental practitioner due to improper handling of needles. This study was started with an objective to find the awareness level of dental students regarding needle destruction in their daily practice and the role needle destroyers play in such destruction. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness and practice in using needle destroyers in dental practice. Materials and Methods: Sixty undergraduate dental students were asked to fill a structured questionnaire that assessed their awareness, knowledge, and use of needle destruction and destroyers in their daily practice. Results: About 96.7% of the participants felt that needles should be destroyed after use, with 85% of them feeling needle destroyers were the best way to destroy the needles. About 81.7% used needle destroyers to destroy needles in their daily practice. About 48.3% felt that non-dental staffs were the most affected due to improper disposal of needles while 41.7% felt dental practitioners were most affected. Conclusion: From the results, we can conclude that since the dental practitioners are well aware of the consequences of needlestick injuries, they should now take initiative to bring awareness to the general public about the consequences needlestick injuries to avoid transmission of diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005094
Title: Awareness of ceramic implants among dentists in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental ceramics made of silicate glasses, porcelains, glass-ceramics, or extremely crystalline solids. They differ from the materials such as metals, acrylic resins, and resin-based composites by exhibiting different physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Aim: The present study aims at gaining knowledge on the awareness of dentists about ceramic implants. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based survey study was conducted employing a self-administered questionnaire at the Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. A total of about 70 participants who were dentists were included for this survey. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire containing closed-ended and open-ended questions and responses were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Results: In this survey, a total of 70 dental practitioners participated in which 43 were males and 27 were females. Of the total about 52 people were general dental practitioners, 28 people were specialists. From the study, 83% of dentists possess adequate knowledge about ceramic implants. Conclusion: Although the dentists possess basic awareness of ceramic implants, to keep up with the current trends, more knowledge is required on their part.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005095
Title: Awareness of dental practitioners toward oral biopsy – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The word biopsy originates from the Greek term bios (life) and opsis (vision): Meaning vision of life. In routine practice, the clinical diagnosis of oral lesions frequently must be confirmed by different procedures, among which oral biopsy constitutes an important tool by establishing the histologic characteristics. At times, it could be the only way to diagnose some oral lesions. Inaccurate diagnosis, or failure to diagnose oral disease, may have profound implications for both the patient and the clinician. It must be highlighted that oral biopsy is not only limited to diagnosis, but is also greatly useful to determine the nature of the lesions, i.e., benign/malignant and for designing effective treatment strategies. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of dental practitioners toward oral biopsy. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 dentists excluding the dental surgeons participated in this survey and it was completed successfully. The questionnaire used in this survey has a total of 12 questions which included the questions such as how often they come across an oral lesion requiring biopsy, reasons why they do not perform oral biopsy, knowledge regarding various types of biopsy and type of lesions they have come across in their practice and also whether they need to update their knowledge regarding lesions and biopsy procedures. The responses were collected and analyzed, and the results were presented as tables and pie charts. Results: From this study, it was found that 58% of dental practitioners perform oral biopsy and 34% do not perform oral biopsy. 76% of practitioners prefer to preserve in formalin because if the tissue is not preserved properly, it produces lot of artifacts which prevents the pathologist from giving an appropriate diagnosis, but few practitioners prefer alcohol (14%) and saline (4%) probably because they do not have the formalin in their clinics always since they seldom encounter lesions requiring biopsy. Conclusion: The awareness and practice of biopsy among dental practitioners were moderate. This survey helps to access the knowledge of dental practitioners toward biopsy and to create an awareness among them to avoid misdiagnosis of lesions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005096
Title: Awareness of diagnosis and management of endodontic perforation among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Success of endodontic treatment depends on different factors, and the probability of failures varies significantly in different cases. Root perforation is an artificial communication between the root canal system to the supporting tissues of teeth or to the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was formulated and distributed among 100 undergraduate dental students in Chennai. A total of 10 multiple choice questions were formulated and distributed. Data were collected from the filled questionnaire and analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: The results showed that the overall awareness level on diagnosis and treatment of endodontic perforation was less about 38% among dental students, but the awareness level on etiological factors which lead to endodontic perforation was high. Conclusion: This study showed that the awareness of endodontic perforation was inadequate among undergraduate dental students. As awareness of endodontic perforation among dental undergraduates has been found to be inadequate, it was concluded that increased importance should be given to education in this aspect of endodontic perforation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005097
Title: Awareness of digital shade matching devices among clinical students in Saveetha Dental College
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: epartment of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
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Introduction: The tooth color determination is a very important point during restorative dentistry procedures. Its clinical relevance needs to be considered before any treatment procedures in esthetic dentistry. An alternative to visual color assessment is using color measuring instruments. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of digital shade matching devices among clinical students at Saveetha Dental College. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to 100 students clinical students of Saveetha Dental College. The questions were related to participants’ awareness toward digital shade matching devices. Results: Among the study population, 78% of the participants think that the traditional shade matching method is less time consuming. Among the study population, 77% (majority) of the participants feel that accessing shade visually has several disadvantages, which includes metamerism, whereas 23% of the population feel that there no disadvantages in accessing shade visually. Conclusion: The study showed there is sufficient amount of awareness among clinical students about digital shade matching devices.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005098
Title: Awareness of gag reflex in patients among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The overall health, well-being, education, learning abilities, development of children, families, and communities can be affected by oral health. However, in developing nations, the importance of oral health in comparison to general health is minimal. A child’s oral health care should be provided by a dentist who has appropriate training in managing the patient’s specific needs. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge about gag reflex in patients among dental students. Materials and Methods: A web-based study with title predictive of a gagging survey was created, and member of 100 students were asked to evaluate the questionnaire. The questions focused on age group, common procedure associated with gag reflex and the most common technique adopted by dentists in their clinics to prevent gag, reasons for gag reflex such as anxiety or medical conditions, influence of gag reflex on treatment modalities, and preventive methods. The data are entered in excel sheet and statistically analyzed by SPSS software. Moreover, the results were obtained. Results: There was a maximum of 43% of 6–10 years of the age group of patients with gag reflex followed by irrespective of age being 33%. Anxiety and fear were found to be the main reason for gag reflex 63% followed by medical conditions with 17%. About 83% of patients reported a change in heart rate during gag reflex. About 72% of patients had a change in treatment plan due to reflex while others felt it was part of dental care. Radiographic procedures constituted maximum to gagging 49% followed by impression technique with 44% and followed by operative procedure 9%. The awareness level was quite low among dental students. Conclusion: This study will establish the awareness of gag reflex among dental students, and so it is necessary to take preventive measures to make its prevalence less.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00005099
Title: Assessment of clinical and economic outcomes of clinical pharmacist-initiated drug therapy management among general surgery patients
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, Jagadguru Shri Shivarathreeshwara Academy of Higher Education and Research, SS Nagar, Mysuru - 570 015, Karnataka, India.
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Background: The explosion of newer drugs made difficult for practitioner to keep abreast and make appropriate decision for the patients unlike in the past. Clinical pharmacist can contribute to patient safety and appropriate medication use bringing about clinical and economic benefits to the patient. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the clinical pharmacist interventions in general surgery and to identify its impact in clinical and economic outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective interventional study was conducted in the general surgery wards of JSS Hospital, Mysore. All admissions were reviewed and enrolling done based on inclusion criteria. The data collected from medical records were reviewed to identify drug-related problems (DRPs) and categorized. An independent panel was convened to assess the clinical outcome of pharmacist-initiated drug therapy management. Economic outcome was assessed taking into account the direct medical cost. Results: Of the 1131 patients reviewed, 471 DRPs were observed from 301 patients while suggestions were provided for 469 DRPs. Drug use without indication and improper drug selection accounted for 16.35% and 12.53%, respectively. The acceptance rate of pharmacist intervention was 100% and the change in drug therapy was in 97.23%. A reduction of 1.33% in probability of readmission, 8.97% in frequency of performing laboratory investigation/medical procedure, 19.6% in length of stay, and a net saving of Rs. 207,134.7 in terms of direct medical cost were identified. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest that clinical pharmacist as an active member of health-care team has an enormous role to play in optimization of drug therapy and outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005100
Title: Awareness of orthodontic and their role in growth and development of children by general pediatric practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the understanding regarding orthodontic and their role in growth and development among general pediatric. Objective: The objective of this study to create awareness and determine the understanding of orthodontic and their role in growth and development among general pediatric. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on a questionnaire which consists of 12 questions through a web-linked application called SurveyMonkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive general pediatric practitioners who currently practicing in Chennai participated in the study. Results: As an overall result, most of the participants are aware of orthodontic and their role in growth and development among general pediatric. Conclusions: The awareness of orthodontic and their role in growth and development among general pediatric is adequate, but certain knowledge has to be brushed up among them for a higher level. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them treating their patients with more consent and awareness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005101
Title: Analysis of related substances for the developed formulation of dexibuprofen hydroalcoholic and hydrogels – A stability study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
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Aim: In particular, the objective of this research work is related to treating patients in need of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy. The study was aimed to prepare topical administrations of dexibuprofen in the form of a transdermal gel so that the problems associated with oral administration of dexibuprofen are avoided. This present study is focused to study the stability profile for the prepared hydroalcoholic and hydrogels of dexibuprofen. Materials and Methods: The dexibuprofen hydroalcoholic and hydrogels were prepared by simple dispersion techniques. The prepared hydroalcoholic and hydrogels were subjected to stability under accelerated stability (40°C/75% RH) condition. The stability samples are withdrawn at predetermined time intervals, drug content and related substances were analyzed by the developed high-performance liquid chromatography technique. Results: There are observed highest unknown impurity in hydroalcoholic gel due to drug degradation. Hence, the optimized formulation G9 of hydroalcoholic gel was prepared with free from alcohol (hydrogel) to maintain the stability. The dexibuprofen hydrogel was not observed any significant unknown impurity; it can able to maintain the shelf life. Conclusion: Since an effort was made to formulate a stable transdermal gel, due to the related substances observed on the hydroalcoholic gel, alcohol free dexibuprofen hydrogel shows no change in the drug content and related substances. The results are encouraging the formulations of the hydrogel.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005102
Title: Lower incidence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Typhi in blood cultures of pediatric patients with typhoid fever in South India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Research Laboratory for Oral and Systemic Health, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Velachery Main Road, Chennai
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Introduction: Typhoid fever is of serious public health concern in the developing countries. Owing to the emergence of MDR strains, empirical treatment regimens had shifted to fluoroquinolones for the treatment of typhoid fever. Nevertheless, mutation in the quinolone resistance determining regions had resulted in the decreased susceptibility to the ciprofloxacin. Thus, therapeutic management of enteric fever remains a challenge. Hence, this study was proposed to detect MDR strains of S. typhi from laboratory confirmed cases of enteric fever. Materials and Methods: S. Typhi (n=39) isolated from the blood culture of paediatric subjects with clinical symptoms of enteric fever were included in the study. Susceptibility to ampicillin (10 µg), chloramphenicol (30 µg), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg) and ciprofloxacin (5 µg) was assessed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin MIC was determined by microbroth dilution method. Results: Of the 39 S. Typhi isolates tested, 46.1% were susceptible to ampicillin, while all (100%) the isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Nevertheless, only 2.6% susceptible to ciprofloxacin. MIC50 and MIC90 of ciprofloxacin were 0.5 to >4 µg/mL respectively. None of the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. Conclusion: Our results show the re-emergence of chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole susceptible S. Typhi. This suggests the possibility of antibiotic recycling for the therapeutic management of typhoid fever.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005103
Title: Infection control measures in prosthodontics – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Vinayaka Missions Sankarachariyar Dental College, Vinayaka Missions Research Foundation, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental safety is a key area of concern. The increased awareness of the dangers of cross-contamination with hepatitis B virus and HIV during dental procedures is having a growing impact in attitudes toward infection control in dental clinic and laboratory. Moreover, the principle potential route of transmission from patient to dental personnel is through contaminated impressions and prostheses. It has been demonstrated that microorganism can be recovered from casts recovered from impressions made of dental molds experimentally inoculated with bacteria. The responsibility to have a thorough knowledge of the patient’s history and ensure that the staff member is not at risk of cross-contamination begins with the clinician. Thus, it is important that impressions can be disinfected by the clinician/a suitably protected technician before the initiation of any laboratory procedures. The rationale for infection control is to “control” iatrogenic, nosocomial infections among patients, and potential occupational exposure of care providers to disease-causing microbes during the provision of care. Lack of infection control is life threatening for both the patient and the dental professional.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005104
Title: 0.5% sodium hydroxide as a bluing agent – A comparative study
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Bluing is the process which changes the initial soluble reddish-purple hematoxylin into an insoluble darker bluish-purple. After differentiation with acid, the tissue sections are subsequently treated with an alkaline solution or vapors to neutralize the acid and restore the blue color to the tissue. Commonly used bluing agents in histopathology are tap water, Scott’s tap water, and ammonium hydroxide water. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of 0.5% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide as an alternative to ammonium hydroxide water as a bluing agent. Materials and Methods: About 0.5% of aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide was freshly prepared by dissolving 0.5g of sodium hydroxide powder in 100 ml of distilled water. Ammonium hydroxide water was prepared by adding 5 ml of ammonium hydroxide solution to 100 ml of distilled water. From each of the ten blocks procured, two sections were cut using soft-tissue microtome. After staining with hematoxylin, the ten test group slides and ten control group slides were dipped once in 0.5% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide water, respectively, for bluing. After counterstaining with eosin and dehydration with graded alcohol, the slides were mounted and rated by two blinded observers. Results: The nuclear intensity and morphology, cytoplasmic staining intensity, bluing, and clarity were better when ammonium hydroxide water was used as a bluing agent. Conclusion: About 0.5% of aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide cannot be used as an alternative to ammonium hydroxide water for bluing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005105
Title: Comparison between the effectiveness of decline squat exercise and forward lunges in athletes with patellar tendinopathy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Cardiorespiratory, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background and Objective: Jumper’s knee or patellar tendinopathy is one of the common overuse or repeated stress injury in sports. It implies functional stress overload while jumping, most commonly affecting the inferior pole of patella. The prevalence of jumper’s knee is about 40–50% among the elite basketball players. In basketball players, the patellar tendon is exposed to landing forces of 8 kN (equaling 6–8 times the body weight), compared with 0.5 kN during walking. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness in patellar tendinopathy athletes who were receiving decline squat and forward lunges in the rehabilitation program. Materials and Methodology: It is a randomized clinical trial consisting of 30 basketball players with clinically diagnosed and imaging confirmed with patellar tendinopathy. They were randomly assigned into two groups consisting of 15 in each group. Group A received single-leg decline squat exercise at a decline board of 25° and progressing with load along with conventional physiotherapy and Group B received forward lunges on the flat floor and progressing with load along with conventional physiotherapy for three sets of 15 repetitions daily for 4 weeks. The outcome measurement tools used in this study is Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA) score and visual analog scale (VAS) for tendon pain with activity. Measures were taken throughout the intervention period of 4 weeks. Results: The result suggests that both the groups had a significant higher score at VISA and reduction in VAS score, but there will be more significant improvement seen in Group A. Conclusion: Both exercise protocols were alleviate pain and sporting functions in basketball players over 4 weeks. This study shows that the decline squat exercise protocol shows higher clinical gains during the rehabilitation of patellar tendinopathy in athletes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005161
Title: A retrospective evaluation of the cervical dimensions of the maxillary anteriors at the level of the emergence from the soft tissue in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The emergence profile of the implant restoration is determined by the soft-tissue contour. After tooth extraction, not only does the bone resorb, but also the soft tissue over it simultaneously collapses. Maintaining the soft-tissue contour is crucial to ensure natural-appearing restoration emerging out of the gingiva. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cervical dimensions of maxillary anteriors at the level of the emergence of the tooth on CBCTs. Materials and Methods: A cross- sectional descriptive study was conducted on 100 CBCT scans from a database available at the Radiology Department of Saveetha Dental College. The buccolingual and the mesiodistal dimensions of all maxillary anteriors were measured across the height of contour of the opposing sides. Results: The average dimensions for the maxillary central incisor are 7.6 ± 0.73 mm buccolingually and 6.3 ± 0.58 mm mesiodistal; maxillary lateral incisor is 6.1 ± 0.81 mm buccolingually and 4.7 ± 0.79 mm mesiodistal, and finally, the maxillary canine is 7.7 ± 0.85 mm and 6.4 ± 0.92 mm mesiodistal at the cervical level of the tooth emergence. Conclusion: This study established the average dimensions of maxillary anteriors at the cervical level in the Indian population, but also to aid in giving an idea of the gingival contours to be established in the implant prosthesis.