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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005230
Title: Evaluation of in vitro antidiabetic potential of lavender oil
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The lavender essential oil has been used cosmetologically and therapeutically for centuries, which is one of the few essential oils that can be used neat on the skin and especially on the wound. This essential oil reported to show antibacterial, antifungal, carminative, sedative, antidepressive, and effective for burns and insect bites. Aim: The present study is focused on evaluating the in vitro antidiabetic effect of this essential oil. Materials and Methods: The in vitro antidiabetic effect of lavender oil was evaluated by assessing the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition. Results: The results showed that the oil possessed inhibitory activity on both the enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Thus, the study can be concluded that lavender oil possessed a potent in vitro antidiabetic effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005229
Title: Awareness of maintenance of patients records among dental professionals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Good medical records are essential for the continuity of care of your patients. It comprises the patient’s demographic information, history of illness, diagnosis, and treatment plan. Medical records also serve as a source of communication for multiple unrelated health-care providers. The aim of this present study is to create awareness of maintenance of patients records among dental professionals. Materials and Methods: A self structured questionnaire is administered to the participants through an online survey planet link. Results and Conclusion: The medical records act as the central repository for a patient with the health care provider. Hence, it is important to create awareness among dentists to maintain a patient record. More awareness may be created among dental professionals to maintain proper records of the patient either manually or digitally.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005227
Title: Awareness of cancer vaccines among college students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cancer is a very common disease and is characterised by the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of the cells. A cancer vaccine treats existing cancer or prevents the development of cancer. Vaccines that treat existing cancer are known as therapeutic cancer vaccines. Cancer vaccines leave the immune system with a “memory” that helps it respond to those antigens in the future. Cancer treatment vaccines boost the immune system’s ability to recognise and destroy antigens. The aim of this study is to create awareness of cancer vaccines among college students. Materials and Methods: A self structured questionnaire was administered to the participants through online survey planet link. Results and Conclusion: This study may depict the knowledge and awareness of the presence of cancer vaccines among the participants. More awareness may be created about these vaccines to delay the progress of cancer in the society.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005182
Title: All ceramic systems in dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The range of application of ceramics has been expanding in the past four decades. They have optimal esthetic properties, biocompatibility, color, stability, high wear resistance, and low thermal conductivity. High strength ceramics such as alumina, zirconia, and lithium disilicate meet the requirements of strength and toughness, hence suitable for extensive loads. However, they also present with inconveniences. A comparative insight to the properties, advantages, disadvantages, and indications of the three ceramic materials would help the clinician choose the ideal material for clinical use.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005174
Title: A survey on the knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral cancer management among dental and medical practitioners in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study about the knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral cancer management among dental and medical practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted with 100 people who are dental and medical practitioners. Questionnaire was circulated through SurveyPlanet. It contained about 20 questions based on the knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral cancer management. Results were collected and analyzed by statistics. Results: From the results, we get to know that the dental and medical practitioners have enough knowledge about oral cancer but are not very confident on treating them. Conclusion: It is concluded that the participants have enough knowledge about the oral cancer its symptom, etiological factors, etc., but they are not confident and trained on how to treat a patient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005175
Title: Awareness of medico-legal issues among compulsory rotatory residential internship students of dental college – A pilot study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Medico-legal issue and cases regarding awareness among the Compulsory Rotatory Residential Internship (CRRI) students who provide health-care services to patients and also by the method of the following certain set of standards help avoiding litigation in the name of malpractice. A medical and dental professional is bound by law and ethics while providing treatment to patients. Dental problems are at most common for which the treatment given to the patients, throughout the world patient has become more aware of their right legal literacy in relation to any dissatisfaction of their treatment as supplemented by modern legislation, so it is a duty on the part of the medical professional to perform such obligation with proper care basically being aware of the medico-legal issues. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of doctors about the various medico-legal issues. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional self-administered structured questionnaire was used to survey the awareness of medico-legal issues among CRRI students in dental college. The awareness of medico-legal issues among the dental professionals is always indispensable so as to be on safer side legally throughout in their practice, and the dental professionals were lacking which was concluded. Results: Two different specialties of a medical health professional who were involved in the study and results were found that on a whole 60% of the participants were aware of the code of medical ethics while treating the patients, but 90% were aware about informed consent, and 80% were aware of the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA). Conclusion: Each and every dentist should obtain the consent form before the treatment. Hence, we must upgrade our knowledge on COPRA at all levels of our profession and change our attitude by inculcating a practice to spread the message of COPRA for delivering quality dental care. Therefore, dental professionals need to update their knowledge and understanding of CPA and its amendments to be on a legally safer side.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005176
Title: Bond failure of orthodontic brackets in patients with fixed appliance – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The main components of the fixed orthodontic appliances are brackets that are attached to the teeth with the help of different types of adhesives. The teeth movement depends on the wires and springs attached to these brackets. Therefore, it is of very importance that these brackets remain bonded to the teeth during the course of orthodontic treatment. However, brackets detachment from the teeth remains one of the major concerns during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of bond failure of orthodontic brackets in patients with fixed appliance. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among 100 general dentists to estimate the prevalence of bond failure of brackets in patients with fixed appliance treatment. The questionnaire was circulated among the dentists comprising questions regarding the method of application of bracket, type of adhesive used to bond the brackets, most common arch to have bond failure, reason for bond failure, bonding technique which has least risk of bond failure, age group which is more prone for bond failure was included in the study. Results: Among the 100 general dentists, 53% of the dentists have experienced bond failure of brackets in their practice. Out of the 100 general dentists, the most common reason for bond failure are inappropriate bonding technique (35%) and improper moisture control (38%), followed by occlusal trauma (26%) and improper maintenance by the patient (22%). Conclusion: From our study, we conclude that bond failure was more common among general dentists and the main reason for bond failure is inappropriate bonding technique and improper moisture control. The lower arch was more common for bond failure due to difficulty in keeping the field dry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005177
Title: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the flower extract of Ixora coccinea and its antimicrobial activity
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Royal College of Medicine Perak, University Kuala Lumpur, No 3 Jalan Green Town, Ipoh 30450, Perak, Malaysia.
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Background: The development of nanoscience has been widely accepted in the field of medicine and pharmaceuticals due to its tremendous applications. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles are gaining high attention among the researchers due to various reasons one among those is the microbial resistance. Materials and Methods: Thus, the present study was aimed to produce green synthesized silver nanoparticles from the flower extract of Ixora coccinea and to test its antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms. The synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles were confirmed through UV-spectral analysis, differential light scattering, and zeta potential analysis and agar disk diffusion method was carried out to confirm the antimicrobial activity of the silver nanoparticles. Results: UV-visible absorption spectra for the mixture were found to be 460 nm, particle size was found to 125 nm, and its zeta potential was ‒17.4. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity was found to be good with selected Gram-negative bacteria compared to other selected groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005178
Title: In vitro evaluation of sun protection factor of Ixora coccinea flower extract
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Royal College of Medicine Perak, University Kuala Lumpur, No 3 Jalan Green Town, Ipoh 30450, Perak, Malaysia.
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Background: Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation is considered as one of the major causes of skin damage which results in photo aging, sunburn, hyperplasia, edema, etc. The production of free radicals in our body due to ultraviolet radiation increases the chances of photocarcinogenesis. Even though, there are many number of sunscreen formulations available in the market to counter react the damage caused by ultraviolet radiation, still there are few problems addressed on its safety, side effects, and allergic reactions among certain populations. This has indeed made the researchers to find an alternative to overcome the issues by formulating natural ingredient based sun screen products. Materials and Methods: Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) from the flower extracts of Ixora coccinea. The extract was studied for its qualitative phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity using DDPH assay, and UV-visible spectrophotometric evaluation of SPF value. Results: The test results were found compromising on the extract, the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of major phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenols, IC50 of the extract was found to be 47 µg/ml and its SPF value was found to be near to moderate reference value. Conclusion: Furthermore, findings of this study will be a useful tool for the future researchers interested in this plant source for its photoprotective activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005179
Title: In vitro antioxidant activities of ethanolic stem bark extract of Terminalia brownii
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, University College of Science and Technology, Adikavi Nannaya University, Rajamahendravaram - 533 296, Andhra Pradesh, India
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Introduction: Terminalia brownii is one of the important ethnomedicinal plants belonging to the family Combretaceae and it has been used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases such as jaundice, intestinal, liver problems, yellow fever, and HIV infection. Objectives: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the total antioxidant activity, 1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and reducing power of ethanolic stem bark extract of T. brownii using various in vitro antioxidant assays. Materials and Methods: The stem bark ethanolic extract of T. brownii was obtained using the Soxhlet apparatus in 1:5 ratios (plant material and ethanol) and further subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis, and evaluates the total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and reducing power using standard methods. Results: The quantitative phytochemical analysis of stem bark ethanolic extract T. brownii revealed that the presence of the substantial amount of flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, and alkaloids and further, the total antioxidant activity of stem bark ethanolic extract of T. brownii was determined as 78.01 µg/ 250 µg, showed significant DPPH scavenging activity at 250 µg/ml was 60.86% with the IC50 value of 132.6 µg/ml, and exhibited maximum reducing power was found at 250 µg/ml was 0.137 O.D at 700 nm. Conclusion: The current study showed that stem bark ethanolic extract of T. brownii showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power due to the presence of plant-derived antioxidant compounds and these compounds might serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants, for treatment of various oxidative stress-related diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005180
Title: Awareness of dental pain and sensitivity among elderly women – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental pain is caused normally due to dental caries, periodontitis, pulpits, or traumatic conditions. This is generally caused by bacteria from decayed teeth or defective dental fillings. Moreover, sensitivity of the tooth is due to displacement of fluid present in the dentinal tubules. Mostly, sensitivity occurs due to recession of gums and nerve exposure. Materials and Methods: This is a survey carried out among elderly women about dental pain and sensitivity. A questionnaire consisting of 11 questions regarding dental pain and sensitivity was framed and shared using a link created by SurveyPlanet and circulated among elderly women. Moreover, the final result was statistically analyzed and interpreted. Results and Discussion: The results were analyzed using pie chart. It is clear that 50% of them are aware that dental pain is due to decay, cracked, or infectious tooth and only 45% of them are aware that fluids present in the dentinal tubules are responsible for sensitivity of the tooth. The study shows that 44% of them are suffering from pricking type of pain for this 33% of them are taking medication, whereas 56% of them are having sensitivity in their tooth for this 50% of the population are using sensitivity toothpaste. Conclusion: Dental pain and sensitivity are the most important problems with the patients who are facing in their day-to-day life. As a dentist, patient education programs and screening programs can be conducted to create awareness among elderly women about dental pain and sensitivity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005181
Title: A study to assess the orthostatic hypotension among Type II diabetes mellitus patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Orthostatic hypotension (OH), also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person’s blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position. OH is a major clinical sign of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in diabetic patients. Aims: The study aim is to assess the OH among Type II diabetes mellitus patients. Materials and Methods: A descriptive research design was conducted among 60 Type II diabetic mellitus patients. Judgmental sampling technique was used. A structured questionnaire method was used to collect the demographical data and a sphygmomanometer was used to measure the blood pressure. The data were summarized, processed with descriptive and non-parametric statistics. Results: Among 60 samples, seven samples (11.6%) have OH during supine, 42 samples have OH during standing position, and 11 samples (18.3%) have a neutral state of OH. In the present study, there was a statistically significant association with all the demographic variables. Conclusion: This reveals that most of the diabetes mellitus had a standing OH; therefore, it is important to create awareness, prevention, and managing techniques regarding the OH to all the elderly and vulnerable groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005183
Title: Clinicoradiological and laboratory evaluation of chronic cough
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, Panimalar Medical College Hospital & Research Institute, Varadharajpuram, Poonamallee, Chennai - 600 123, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Cough is one of the most common complaints, for which patients seek medical attention. Health-care expenditure for managing cough is substantial with which quality of life can be severely affected. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical and radiological characteristics of common causes of chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Medicine in GSL General Hospital during the period of October 1, 2016–June 30, 2018. Socio-demographic variables and clinical and laboratory parameters were collected and analyzed. Results: Among the 241 study participants, 68.9% were males. About 90% belong to low socioeconomic class, 56% were daily labourers, and 76.3% of them used biomass fuel for cooking. Other symptoms such as fever, chest pain, and shortness of breath were found along with cough. About 43.1% had other comorbidities. Normal chest X-ray is seen in 28%, non-cavitating lesions 22%, consolidation in 10%, emphysematous changes in 10%, bronchiectasis changes in 6%, mass lesion in 3%, interstitial pattern in 2%, pleural effusion in 0.6%, and cavity with air-fluid level in 0.4%. Sputum is negative for acid-fast bacilli in 51.5% of the study population. Pulmonary function tests were normal in 32%, which showed mild, moderate, severe obstruction in 24%, 17%, and 11%, respectively, while restriction in only 2% of the cases. Among 241, 49% diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis, 22% as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11% were bronchiectasis, 7% were bronchial asthma, 7% were carcinoma, 3% were interstitial lung diseases, 3% were bronchitis, 1% gastroesophageal reflux disease, and 0.4% lung abscess. Conclusion: The treatment of chronic cough should include a systematic step-wise approach to diagnose the cause of cough. Timely management of the disease should be done effectively to decrease the disease burden.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005184
Title: Effectiveness of emotional freedom technique tapping an acupressure on post-operative pain reduction among post-operative clients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study aims to determine the effectiveness of emotional freedom technique on postoperative pain reduction among post-operative clients. Methods and Materials: A quantitative quasi experimental research design was used for the present study. A total of 60 post operative clients who fall into the inclusion criteria was selected as samples by using purposive sampling technique among which 30 samples in the experimental group and 30 samples in the control group. The demographic data and the surgical variables was collected in both the groups, followed by that the pretest was conducted on the 0 post-operative day, immediately after 3 hr of surgery and the intensity level of pain in both the groups was assessed by using numerical pain scale and the emotional freedom technique was initated only in the experimental group. The post test was conducted on the 3rd post-operative day and the intensity level of pain was assessed by using the same numerical pain scale in both experimental and control group. Results: The results of the study revealed that there is an significant reduction in the intensity level of pain at the level of P < 0.0001 after the intervention among experimental group than in the control group. Conclusion: Thus, the study proves that acupressure can be used as an effective nursing intervention for reducing the post operative pain among the post operative clients and it is a easily applicable technique and also considered as cost effective method with no side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005185
Title: Awareness of laser therapy among the dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental lasers are one of the newer signs and technologies which came into the various aspects of dental practice. It was first introduced in 1960 by the scientist Miaman and it was considered as the most significant development in modern dentistry. Aim: This study aims to assess the awareness of laser therapy among the dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the dental students in Saveetha Dental College. A total of 100 dental students were assessed using a standard questionnaire comprising 13 questions regarding the applications of laser treatments used in dentistry. Results: Almost 100% of the students know about the lasers used in dentistry, in which about 94% of them have knowledge of using lasers. Conclusion: All the students have knowledge about lasers being used in dentistry, but many of them do not aware of the applications of lasers used in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005186
Title: Awareness on management of mesially tilted abutments
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Replacement of missing teeth by a fixed dental prosthesis involves careful consideration of the biomechanical principles in designing the prosthesis. Treatment planning consists of determining a sequence of treatment logically designed to restore the patients’ dentition to good health, with optimal function and esthetics. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of management of mesially tilted abutments. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 100 dental students in Tamil Nadu during the month of January 2019. A web-based questionnaire comprising 10 questions relating to awareness of management for mesially tilted abutments was formulated and circulated. The responses were then subjected to statistical analysis. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. Results and Conclusion: The study assessed that there is adequate knowledge on management of mesially tilted abutments among the students. The management of mesially tilted abutments can be further more better if we know the proper abutment selection methods. Thus, gaining an adequate knowledge would help us in the betterment of the outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005187
Title: Awareness of teledentistry among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The use of technology in the form of smartphones and other electronic media in day-to-day life has become an integral part of life today. Technology today is seeing a paradigm shift toward better interprofessional communications which can help doctors, patients, and the masses as a whole. Putting these technological advancements to good use evolves as a major milestone in dentistry in the form of teledentistry. Aim: The present study was aimed at knowing the knowledge and awareness of teledentistry among dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared to assess the knowledge and awareness of teledentistry and was circulated among dental students. The data thus collected were analyzed and results obtained. Results: A total of 100 dental students responded to the questionnaire. In the present study, it was found that the knowledge and awareness about teledentistry were 55%, in which most of them agreed that teledentistry is a practice of dentistry through various media options with limited application in dentistry without a legal issue. Conclusion: In the present study, it was apparent that most of the respondents were lacking adequate knowledge and awareness of teledentistry. Hence, there is an immense need to create awareness among dental professionals on teledentistry as future lies in technological advancement. Teledentistry can mark the beginning of a new era in dentistry. This can be achieved by conducting continuous dental education programs and awareness campaigns/programs which helps in various levels.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005188
Title: Awareness of the various retention modes used for implant dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental implant is an artificial root that is surgically inserted into the jawbone to support a single-tooth replacement, fixed partial, complete denture, or maxillofacial prosthesis. It has become increasingly important. Endosseous dental implants are typically screw shaped, inserted into either the maxilla or mandible, and serve to replace the tooth root. Aim: This study aims to estimate awareness and promote the use of various retention modes used for implant dentistry. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire has been prepared and distributed to 100 dental undergraduate students of Saveetha Dental College. There are no inclusion and exclusion criteria. The resulting data have been analyzed using statistical software. Results: In the present survey, 75 females and 25 males had been participated. In that, 98 members already done implant. Among 100 practicing dentists, 50 members recommended cement-retained restoration, 49 members recommended screw- retained restoration, and 1 person recommended attachment-retained restoration. Conclusion: From this present survey, we concluded that the awareness of various retention modes used for implant dentistry among the practicing dentists is not enough. They need some more awareness of various retention modes used for implant dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005189
Title: Chemomechanical caries removal – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Chemomechanical removal of caries is a new method with the advantage of selective removal of severely demineralized dentin. In addition, the method enhances the clinician’s ability to differentiate carousel tooth structure from sound tooth structure. Mechanical method of caries removal is associated with the removal of sound tooth structure, production of pain, heat, annoying sounds, and vibrations. Chemomechanical caries removal method is based on the removal of only carious dentin leaving sound dentin intact. Dental caries is currently considered as the most common oral diseases. Chemomechanical means for caries removal are beneficial both for patients and dentist. Hence, it is recommended as an alternative method of caries removal.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005190
Title: Community service and outreach programs by a dentist
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the awareness and involvement of dentists in the community service and outreach programs. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Chennai among 100 dentists who had an experience of more than 10 years. It was done using a questionnaire where questions were asked about community service and outreach programs by them and the data were analyzed. Results: It was found that among 100 dental practitioners, 70 of them have a regular practice and 85 of them are involved in outreach programs. Then, 89 of them suggest that these outreach programs are more enough to improve the oral health of the rural populations. Conclusion: The study concluded that majority of the dentists has an awareness regarding outreach programs and community services. From the obtained results, the minor surgeries and treatment can be provided by these outreach programs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005191
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of the administration of Gow-Gates mandibular block among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Pain control is a primary yet challenging goal to achieve as a dentist. In patient’s opinion, their attitude toward dentists and dentistry relies on the local anesthetic experience they have had before. Various techniques are available for achieving mandibular anesthesia – inferior alveolar nerve block, Gow-Gates mandibular block, and Akinosi-Vazirani closed mouth mandibular nerve block. Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the administration of Gow-Gates mandibular block among dental students. Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted through Google Forms. The questionnaire was created in such a way that it assesses the knowledge, attitude, and practices of Gow- Gates nerve block technique. The link for the survey was circulated among dental students pursuing their 3rd year, final year, and internship in Chennai. Results: A total of 164 responses were obtained. About 70.7% of the responders were aware of Gow-Gates mandibular block technique. Only 32.9% of the respondents have had a demo on the administration of Gow- Gates mandibular block and only 23.2% of the respondents have administered Gow-Gates nerve block. Only 18.3% of the respondents were confident enough to administer Gow-Gates mandibular block without any supervision. Conclusion: The results clearly show the lack of knowledge and interest about the technique, advantages and disadvantages of Gow-Gates mandibular block.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005192
Title: Perception of dental students on the effect of extracurricular activities on academic performance
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nad
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Introduction: Extracurricular activities refer to those non-academic activities that are undertaken by students and fall outside the curriculum of an institution. These are most likely voluntary as opposed to compulsory. Pre-clinical students spend their time mostly between curricular and extracurricular activities. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of extracurricular activities among dental students. Material and Methods: A questionnaire of 16 questions was prepared based on the involvement of dental students in extracurricular activities. On the basis of responses, a statistical analysis is performed. Results: The majority of participants (88.4%) were of the opinion that extracurricular activities should be implemented as a mandatory requirement in colleges. They were in agreement with the importance of extracurricular activities in college and how they shape an individual by improving self-esteem, communication skills, teamwork, and academic performance as a whole.Conclusion: The majority of students agree that there is a positive impact of extracurricular activities on their individual skills and steps must be taken to implement it in more colleges and universities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005221
Title: Knowledge and perception of the usage of alternative medicine in general dental practice among dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Traditional medicine (TM) is known as “complementary and alternative medicine” (CAM) in some countries. The World Health Organization defines TM as “the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in the maintenance of health and in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement, or treatment of physical and mental illness.” Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and perception of the usage of alternative medicine among dentists in general dental practice. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 150 dental practitioners in South India with the help of a questionnaire consisting of 10 questions and the knowledge and perception of the usage of alternative medicine among dental practitioners were analyzed. An appropriate statistical analysis was conducted and the results were obtained. Results: About 87% of the dentists were aware of CAM. About 56% of the dentists were aware through internet, 14% through friends and family, 17% through books, and 14% through journals. Conclusion: This study shows that though dentists are aware of CAM, the usage of CAM modalities in general dental practice is comparatively less. Perhaps, most stress should be placed on the usage of alternative medicine in dental practice and more studies in this direction may help in providing better care to the patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005222
Title: Knowledge and awareness in association of malocclusion and mouth breathing in children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: To evaluate the knowledge and awareness level among parents about mouth breathing and its negative impact on their child’s developing dentition. MB can cause long, narrow faces, gummy smiles, and dental malocclusions, whereas nose breathing humidifies the air taken it which is beneficial in many ways crossing their first-line defense mechanisms. Aim and Objective: This study aims to assess the knowledge and awareness in association of malocclusion and MB in children. Materials and Methods: An online survey was done on SurveyPlanet which was circulated to 150 members of which 101 responded. The questionnaire included questions which would assess the patents knowledge regarding their child’s breathing habits and its consequences. Results: The results show that 53.2% of the parents are aware regarding the impact of MB on the alignment of teeth. About 56.7% of the children had a crowded alignment of teeth. Conclusion: From the result, it is analyzed that most of the parents are aware regarding the consequences of MB pattern and are willing to take medical guidance to correct the condition.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005223
Title: Evaluation of protease activity in four selected grains (green cowpea, black chickpea, white chickpea, and rajma) at various germination stages
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the protease activity in three selected grains at various germination stages. Introduction: Grains and cereals worldwide are extremely important for both human and animal nutrition. More than plain grains, sprouted grains have more nutrition and energy while eating. Sprouts are rich in digestible energy, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, proteins, and phytochemicals, as these are necessary for a germinating plant to grow. The major sources of protease enzymes are animals, plants, and microorganisms. Application for protease activity is seen in dentistry, medicine, food industry, etc. Plant protease such as bromelain, ficin, and papain is widely used in food industry for various applications. Materials and Methods: There were four selected grains that are green gram, black chickpea, white chickpea, and rajma being used. These grains were collected as a sample. They were washed thoroughly for the sterilization purpose. The preparation of the sample was done using the mortar and pestle. Thus, sprouting was done for these grains for 3–4 days. They were thoroughly monitored for these days. Results: The enzyme assay was tested was all the four grains separately. Accordingly, the graph was being in cooperated to forecast the result. The protease activity of various grains was tested for 3 consecutive days. Discussion: In case of germination, the dietary fibers, carbohydrates, proteins, etc., will be at a peak level. Lot of energy is required for the germination to take place. Sprouted grains have a tremendous nutritional value as compared to the unsprouted grains. The peak level is more on day 2. Hence, extraction at this day will be easier. This extraction of protease will be of great importance for food industries. Conclusion: This study exhibits that extraction of protease done on a particular time of grains germination that can give a maximum enzyme yield. Thus, further research can be done to enhance the enzyme yield. Therefore, the sprouted grains have an immense amount of nutritional value on the particular day of sprouting; it can be used for industrials purpose.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005224
Title: Awareness of effects of solar energy among college students – A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Solar energy is capturing the energy from the sun and subsequently converting it into electricity. Solar-powered photovoltaic panels convert the sun’s rays into electricity by exciting electrons in silicon cells using the photons of light from the sun. Solar is a clean, renewable source of energy that can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions and decrease our impact on the natural environment. Solar energy can be used for both household and business purposes. Materials and Methods: A self structure questionnaire was administered to the participants through online survey planet link. Results and Conclusion: More awareness may be created on the government subsidy available to install solar panels, beneficial effects and applications of solar energy in the society.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005225
Title: A survey study on the knowledge of passive smoking among uneducated people
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke, by persons other than the active smoker. It occurs when tobacco smoke enters an environment, causing its inhalation by people within that environment. Moreover, the secondhand smoking can be reduced by banning smoking on public places which not only protect people from the health risk of secondhand smoking but also reduce the likelihood that children will start smoking. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and to create awareness of passive smoking. Materials and Methods: A group of 100 uneducated people were selected. A questionnaire-based study was done among them where the questions are mainly based on their awareness of passive smoke, the effects of passive smoking, and certain other questions related to the study. The questionnaire was made in the regional language and distributed. Then, the data were collected and analyzed. Results: The positive outcome of this study is that the majority of the study population was aware of the health consequences of active smoking. Conclusion: From the results, it is concluded as they had an awareness of the effects of smoke and diseases caused due to it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005226
Title: Knowledge of pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption among dental practitioners – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption (PEIR) is a lesion often located in the dentin adjacent to the amelodentinal junction in the occlusal aspect of the crown of the developing tooth. It is only an incidental radiographic finding. Radiographs must be taken for detecting the progression of caries. Depending on the progression, treatment can be suggested. Surgical extraction of the developing tooth is indicated if pulpal involvement is present. PEIR is also known to be associated with various syndromes. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevalence of PEIR among dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 150 dental practitioners in South India with the help of a questionnaire consisting of 15 questions and the knowledge of PEIR among dental practitioners was analyzed. An appropriate statistical analysis was conducted and results were obtained. Reason: Assessing the knowledge of PEIR, we can create more awareness of the same among dental practitioners.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005231
Title: Phytochemical screening and in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential of jasmine oil
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 160, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Jasmine oil is an essential oil derived from the white flowers of the common jasmine plant, also known as Jasminum officinale. Jasmine oil and components of synthetic blends of jasmine essential oil have properties that offer a number of health benefits. Studies have proven the antiseptic, aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, cicatrizing, and sedative activity of jasmine oil. There is evidence that aromatherapy can effectively reduce depressive symptoms. Aim: The aim of the study was to study about the photochemistry and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory potential of jasmine oil. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening was done based on the standard screening procedures. In vitro XO inhibitory (XOI) of jasmine oil was assessed. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Jasmine oil possesses XOI activity in a concentration-dependent manner and the results revealed that the activity is found to be higher in jasmine oil when compared to the standard drug allopurinol. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of phlobatannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids with mild amounts of carbohydrates. The presence of these phytochemicals might be the underlying reason for the beneficial effects of jasmine oil. Conclusion: Jasmine oil showed the better activity compared to the standard allopurinol. Thus, jasmine oil has in vitro XOI activity and can be used in treating gout.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005232
Title: Awareness of symptoms associated with autism disorder among parents – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The prevalence of autism is growing worldwide. Due to parents being the primary caregivers in most situations, their ability to recognize the signs and symptoms of autism and respond appropriately is of paramount importance in aiming to provide the best health care to autistic individuals. This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining the parent’s knowledge and awareness of autism. Materials and Methods: This study is the questionnaire based survey. The questionnaire comprises questions pertaining to awareness of symptoms associated with autism disorder among parents. The survey was conducted in an online forum and data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: The data were collected, statistically analyzed, and interpreted. Conclusion: Autistic children are a part of society and have the right to enjoy all available resources to its optimum. It is thus important that these children are diagnosed correctly and at the earliest. This would ensure early intervention which would help them live a more enriched life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00005233
Title: A completely environmentally-friendly methodology for removal of permanent hardness of water using natural materials
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Physical Science, Faculty of Technology and Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India
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Objective: Water hardness is the measure of calcium and magnesium salts dissolved in water. Hard water poses various difficulties when used domestically and industrially. Conventionally, permanent water hardness is removed using lime soda treatment or ion-exchange methods. The precipitates formed during lime soda treatment and the brine collected after backwashing of the ion exchange resins can prove detrimental to the environment if not disposed properly. Materials and Methods: In this work, varieties of eco-friendly natural products were used for removal of permanent water hardness. Results: Comparative analysis of their efficiency revealed that fresh pomegranate peels were the most efficient as a water softening agent. Conclusion: Hereby, an eco-friendly, economic, simple, and efficient method has been developed for removal of permanent water hardness simply by applying various naturally occurring materials without using any chemical reagents or a source of energy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005234
Title: Awareness of classes and types of autoclave among dental interns
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to create the awareness of classes and types of autoclave among dental interns. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted with 100 dental interns. The questionnaire was prepared using SurveyPlanet and the survey was dispensed through a digital base. The participants were comfortable with the universal language, English, and hence, no translation was provided. Once the required responses were received, the survey was closed and the data were taken and analyzed. Results: Nearly half of the population is aware of the use of unwrapped solid instruments for immediate use, 57% of them know this. Nearly 66% are aware regarding the autoclave which is used in dentistry. About 54% of the population was aware of the type of autoclave used for sterilizing these gowns. Therefore, we can see that nearly more than half of the population are aware regarding the concept of autoclave. Conclusion: Therefore, we can conclude nearly more than half of the population are aware regarding the concept of autoclave. Autoclave plays a very important role in the field of medicine as they help in sterilizing the instruments, thus preventing the spread of contagious diseases. Sterilization is a crucial part in practice and it is the duty of a doctor to follow it properly with protocols.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005235
Title: Requirements of biopharmaceutics and clinical research for abbreviated new drug application submission – USA
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore, Karnataka, India
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The objective of the study is to understand the biopharmaceutic requirements for the submission of abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) for the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), how to conduct the bioavailability/ bioequivalence (BE) studies, and how to submit those information to the agency, electronic common technical document structure for the dossier compilation, the significance of the BE to prove the rate and extent of the drug product is same as the branded drug product, this article also emphasizes on the FDA requirements for conducting the clinical studies. Generic drugs are the drugs, which are similar to the brand/reference listed product, not withstand the difference in strength, quality, dosage form, performance, route of administration, intended use, and characteristics. To get an approval from the USFDA for the marketing of generic drug, we need to file an ANDA. The BE can be achieved only if the rate and extent of absorption do not show a major difference from the reference listed drug (RLD), to demonstrate that the generic drug product is bioequivalent to the RLD all of the clinical study report data needed to be submitted in the module 5. Nowadays, more number of generic drugs are coming into the market; hence, the drug product will be available at the cheaper rate, but at the same time, the safety of the drug product is also very important; hence, the biopharmaceutics study is essential for the ANDA submission.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005236
Title: Oral health status, dental awareness, and dental services utilization barriers among transgender population in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospitals, Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute, Golden George Nagar, Mogappair, Chennai - 600 107, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Transgender (TG) community is one of the most underprivileged communities in India. Their accessibility to dental facilities is very scarce. Thus, they are more vulnerable to severe dental problems such as dental decay and tooth loss. Aim: The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate (1) the status of oral health, (2) the knowledge on oral health, and (3) the dental utilization barriers among the TG residing in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Dental decay, filled teeth, missing teeth, etc., were assessed on clinical examination among 72 TG and a self-evaluated questionnaire was also distributed. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS IBM software. Results: The overall oral health was perceived to be very poor, with more than half suffering from untreated dental caries. The mean values and standard deviations, respectively, of decayed, missing, filled components were 1.89 and 1.773, 0.83 and 2.664, and 0.15 and 0.522, respectively. Over 30% of the population believed that a painful tooth was the reason one must visit the dentist. Over 60% of the participants had not visited the dentist at all. The reason major reason being, 15.7% felt the treatment being too expensive, 22.9% were scared of the dentist. Over 77.1% agreed that there were no dental awareness camps held in the past, while 54.3% still felt neglected to avail oral health care. The majority of 91.4% strongly request the government to frame dental health schemes. Conclusion: There has to be an immediate intervention of the dental institutions and the government bodies to raise the oral health quality among the TG community.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005237
Title: Expression of serum fucosyltransferase 8 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorder – A case–control study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Dentistry, Bharath Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common human malignancy that is highly lethal due to its recurrenceand metastasis. When fucose is attached by a fucosyltransferase enzyme through a glycosidic bond to a biomolecule, it becomes a fucosylated molecule. A universal hallmark of tumor cells is the change in their glycosylation phenotype, of which fucosylation is the more important oligosaccharide modification. Case Study: The study evaluates the levels of serum fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT 8) in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, patients with potentially malignant disorders, namely, leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and healthy controls. Results: The progressive increase in serum FUT 8 between healthy controls, patients with potentially malignant disorders, namely, leukoplakia and OSMF and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, substantiates the crucial role of FUT 8 in malignant transformation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and poor overall survival.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005238
Title: Role of fucosylation in cancer – A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Dentistry, Bharath Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A universal hallmark of cancer cells is the change in their glycosylation phenotype of which fucosylation is the more important oligosaccharide modification. Fucosylation is the attachment of fucose by fucosyltransferase enzyme to a biomolecule. Extravasation of tumor cells is a pivotal step in metastasis formation and cancer cells that are shed or released into circulation from the primary tumor often overexpress fucosylated glycans on their surface. Evidence suggests that the critical components for extravasation of circulating cancer cells are interactions between selectins and their fucosylated ligands. Understanding the biological significance of variations of fucosylation levels in cancer validates their potential as novel prognostic indicators. Review: The objective of this systematic review is to critically analyze the various studies in literature that have reported the role of fucosylation in cancer. Articles were searched in PUBMED and MEDLINE, and a thorough Google search was done. Manual search of Journals was also performed. Twenty three relevant articles were reviewed and analyzed. Of 31 potentially relevant articles, ten were excluded on the grounds of exclusion criteria, two articles were included by internet search and manual search. Results: Of the total 23 relevant articles reviewed, the resulting data were collected and tabulated. From the systematic review, we can infer that there is an increase in fucosylation in carcinomas which correlates with advanced stage of disease, distant metastasis, recurrence, and poor overall survival validating its potential as a prognostic indicator.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005239
Title: Effects of premenstrual syndrome in day-to-day life of women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a condition that affects woman’s emotions, physical health, and behavior few weeks or days before the menstruation. It affects almost 90% of the women. It causes a lot of symptoms by affecting the normal day-to-day life of various age groups of women. PMS is due to the change in the level of hormones that cause neurological disturbances which affect our moods, thoughts, and emotions. Aim: The aim of this study to assess the prevalence of PMS among working women, housewife, and students and its impact in their routine life. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 100 is taken for the study. The questions were uploaded in the SurveyPlanet which contained around 20 questions. They were framed with the demographic data, the symptoms they experience during PMS, and the remedies to overcome the symptoms. The data obtained were collected and compiled for statistical analysis. Results: The results show that college-going students are affected the most. Mean average of 67% of respondents have experienced mood swings and depression during PMS. About 58% of respondents take good diet to overcome the symptoms. Conclusion: Therefore, it could be concluded that students are affected to a larger extent when compared to the working women and housewife. Second, affected group would be the working women and then comes the housewife.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005240
Title: Comparison study of factors associated with smartphone addiction among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The growing advancement in technology has given birth to many gadgets, smartphones as one of them. Whenever a habit is converted into an obligation, it becomes an addiction. The overusage of the gadgets (smartphones) has prone to be a hazardous effect on them in changing the mental and physical state. This smartphone phone addiction is most commonly seen among youngsters like college-going students. This study was done to analyze the factors associated with the smartphone addiction among the college students. Materials and Methods: A set of questionnaire were developed in relation with the association of smartphone addiction, mental changes, behavioral changes, and psychological changes. A total sample of 100 were taken and the data were collected and analyzed. This study was purely conducted only within the college students. The results were compiled for statistical analyses. Results: The obtained result shows that 44% of college students are more prone to smartphone addiction. This overusage of smartphones affects them behaviorally and even psychologically. The result shows that overusage of smartphone is associated with the headache, disturbed sleep, and inadequate sleep, and this extensive use of smartphones has been associated with physical health-related problems. Conclusion: This study gives establishes that college students are more addicted to smartphones which, in turn, leads to physical and psychological changes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005241
Title: Clinical review on prevalence and risk factors of depression among postpartum mothers in Manchester of Tamil Nadu
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
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This description review was derived since 2016–2020 published articles based on anxiety during postpartum period in the PubMed. Nearly two or three articles were concentrated based on the frequency, in additional papers, more or less are same as about risk factors and only a decreased in a number of paper are based on medication and therapy. Postpartum depression (PPD) is caused due to high costs of medical treatment, unsuitable medical care, and child abuse. They were a high incidence depression symptoms, PPD symptoms are connecting with breastfeeding, sleep disturbance, and delivery pain due cesarean, this kind of symptoms can be overcome by family support, partner support, and proper guide or counseling during mothers postpartum. Health-care professionals should regularly screen mothers during postpartum visits using questions such as patient health questionnaire (15 scale), Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, and personality belief questionnaire (scale).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00005242
Title: Assessment of pain and quality use of analgesics among inpatients of a cancer hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, Jagadguru Shri Shivarathreeshwara Academy of Higher Education and Research, SS Nagar, Mysuru - 570 015, Karnataka, India.
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Background: Pain is a ubiquitous part of the cancer experience. Suboptimally managing individual patients with acute pain as well as the inappropriate use of narcotics both can lead to a number of adverse sequelae. Aim: The aim of the study was to find out the utilization pattern and to evaluate the appropriateness of analgesics in inpatients of a cancer hospital in Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out over a period of 9 months in the inpatients of an oncology care Centre in South India. Standard guidelines given by the European Society of Medical Oncology and National Comprehensive Cancer Network were used to compare the quality use of analgesics. Prescribed analgesics were classified based on the WHO analgesic ladder. Defined daily dose per patient was calculated for individual analgesics. The acceptability of analgesic use was assessed using a pain management index (PMI). Results: Among the 253 patients, 145 (57.31%) were males. The mean age of the study population was 54.72 ± 13.18 years. The analgesic use was more observed in stage 4 (34.79%) and stage 3 (30.03%). Among the study population, 114 (45.06%) were prescribed with one analgesic and oral NSAIDs for 164 (41.5%) patients. The use of analgesics in 68.38% patients conforms to standard guidelines. About 73% of analgesic prescriptions were acceptable, as indicated by the PMI. Conclusion: Appropriate prescribing and use of analgesics can be helpful in optimal pain management and thereby providing quality of life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005243
Title: Awareness of absorbable sutures among dental students – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Effective wound closure is important for success of any surgical procedure. An incomplete closure leads to separation of edges, providing a potential pathway for bacterial contamination leading to infection and scarring. Although tissue adhesives and staples are now being used as alternatives, surgical sutures are still the mainstay for a secure wound. Aim: The aim of this survey is to assess the awareness of absorbable sutures among dental students. Methodology: A systematic online survey was conducted among 100 dental students with basic questions on absorbable sutures. Each student was requested to fill the questionnaire consisting of 15 questions. Results: A total of 100 students participated in this survey. After analyzes, it was noted that though 80% of students were aware of absorbable sutures majority of them failed to know on their kinds, applications, and contraindication. Conclusion: In this survey, we concluded that there is lack of knowledge on absorbable sutures among these students and there is a need to create awareness among them.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005244
Title: Dental implant impression techniques – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental implants are the most successful option for prosthodontics rehabilitation. It is surgical fixture that is placed into jawbone and is allowed to fuse with the bone over the span of few months. It acts as replacement of root for missing tooth. The main goal of impression in implants is to accurately relate an analog or abutment of implant to other structures in dental arch. The review concentrates on prosthetic components, impression materials such as polyether, polyvinyl siloxane, condensation silicone, and addition silicone and various impression techniques such as open tray versus closed tray used in dental implant. It is done to brief the knowledge regarding the components used during impression, the choice of impression materials, and the selection of suitable impression techniques for preventing biological and mechanical complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005245
Title: Awareness of teratogenicity of drugs among dental students of Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The term teratogenicity is defined as any morphological, behavioral, or biochemical effect induced during embryonic life or fetal life detected at birth or later. The factors that lead to teratogenicity include both non-genetic and genetic factors. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of undergraduate dental students toward teratogenicity. Materials and Methods: The present study was a questionnaire-based comparative observational study carried out at Saveetha Dental College, Tamil Nadu. The questionnaire comprised two main parts. The first part comprised questions pertaining to the demographic profile of the students and the second part consisted of questions assessing the students’ knowledge and awareness toward teratogenicity. Appropriate statistical analysis was done and results were obtained. Results: A total of 100 dental students participated in the study. The mean age of students was between 19 and 27. In the present study, it was found that about 95% of the students were aware of the term teratogenicity. About 75% of students knew about all the causes that lead to teratogenicity. Furthermore, the percentage of students who knew about the name of two teratogenic drugs and two teratogenic defects associated with drugs was only 24% and 36%, respectively. Conclusions: In the present study, it was found that after the educational intervention, there was a significant improvement in the knowledge of the students. This reflects the need of early exposure of students to this important issue of teratogenicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005246
Title: Antiepileptic activity of the bioactive compounds – Diosgenin and silymarin in combination on experimental animal models of epilepsy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: The present study evaluated the individual and combined effect of diosgenin and silymarin against epilepsy in maximal electroshock (MES)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and strychnine (SRY)-induced seizures models in rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were selected and grouped into five (n = 6). Groups I and II were kept as control and standard. Groups III, IV, and V were treated with diosgenin (100 mg/kg), silymarin (100 mg/kg), and diosgenin (50 mg/kg) + silymarin (50 mg/kg), respectively. Thirty minutes after administration of drugs/vehicle, rats received a shock of 150 mA or intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole (65 mg/kg) or strychnine (2 mg/kg). Results: In MES-induced seizures model, DI (100 mg/kg) and SY (100 mg/kg) shown 83.33% of protection with reduction in duration of hindlimb tonic extension (HLTE), individually. In PTZ- and SRY-induced seizures model, SY (100 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in duration of seizure along with 100% and 83.33% of protection of rats, compared to control. However, the compound DI (100 mg/kg) shown 83.33% of protection in PTZ-induced seizures model and only 66.67% of protection in SRY-induced seizures model. In all three tested models, animals treated with DI and SY (50 mg/kg, each), in combination, shown greater significance in reduction of duration of HLTE and seizures with 100% of protection, similar to standard. Conclusion: The study revealed that diosgenin and silymarin in combination could reinforce their protection against epilepsy in synergistic manner than their individual antiepileptic effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005247
Title: Role of tacrolimus in alcohol-induced cognitive impairment in Wistar albino rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, K S Hegde Medical Academy, Mangaluru - 575 018, Karnataka, India.
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Introduction: Considering the fact that there is a role of inflammatory and immune system in alcohol-induced CNS disorders, this study screened the role of memory-enhancing action of tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant alone and with donepezil in alcohol-induced cognitive impairment in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Four-month-old healthy albino male rats, average weight of 250 g, were used. Animals were divided into seven groups where n = 6. Group I – Normal control received distilled water for 14 days, Group II – alcohol 20%, Group III – tacrolimus 5 mg/kg, Group IV – donepezil 2.5 mg/kg, Group V – alcohol 20% + tacrolimus 5 mg/kg, Group IV – alcohol 20% + donepezil 2.5 mg/kg, and Group VII – alcohol 20% + tacrolimus 5 mg/kg + donepezil 2.5 mg/kg days. On 15th day onward, cognitive performance was assessed by Hebb William Maze and Elevated Plus. Results and Discussion: Pharmacological experiments revealed a significant (P < 0.001) cognitive impairment was noticed in animals that received only alcohol on comparing with normal control. On the other hand, alcohol-treated animals that received tacrolimus and donepezil showed a significant improvement in cognition on comparing (P < 0.001) with alcohol alone treated animals. These findings clearly depict alcohol-induced cognitive defects are immune-mediated, which can be reversed by immunosuppressants. Conclusion: Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant drug, has memory enhancing action in alcohol-induced cognitive impairment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005248
Title: Comparative analysis of oral microbial flora of smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the changes caused by smoking on the microbial profile of patients with periodontitis. Background: A shift in the oral microflora contributes majorly to the etiology of periodontitis. Literature also shows that smoking alters the commensal microflora profile significantly. A clear idea on the microbial shift would help formulate specific antibiotic therapy to prevent recurrences of the disease. This study, therefore, aims to comparatively analyze the microbial shift in smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples of 20 periodontitis patients (10 smokers and 10 non-smokers) were collected and incubated in BHI agar at 37°C for 24 h. The CFU was counted and Gram staining of the colonies was done. Results: The microbial profile of smoking-associated periodontitis is distinct from that of non-smokers. Periodontitis patients who are non-smokers had more Streptococcus and Enterococcus colonies and periodontitis patients who are smokers had more Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, and Candida albicans colonies. Conclusion: Antimicrobial therapy can, therefore, be modified for smokers and non-smokers, respectively, and employed along with scaling and root planing while treating periodontitis to prevent recurrence of the disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005249
Title: Comparative evaluation of antimycotic activity of Cucurbita maxima seed oil and orange peel oil in reducing Candida albicans count
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The essential oils usage for antimicrobial agents has become more popular over the years in an attempt to find alternative ways of dealing with strains of bacteria and fungi that have become resistant to conventional antibiotics. Candida albicans is a fungus present on human mucosal surfaces including the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and skin that become an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised or immunodeficient individuals. Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin) belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae and commonly used as a traditional medicine and C. maxima seed oils are rich in bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, sterols, β-carotene, and lutein that have, along with some fatty acids, high nutritional value factors. In addition, it has been proven that these compounds have a positive effect on human health. Orange peel oil is an essential oil produced by cells within the rind of an orange fruit (Citrus sinensis fruit). In contrast to most essential oils, it is extracted as a by-product of orange juice production by centrifugation, producing a cold-pressed oil. Materials and Methods: C. albicans was isolated from clinical sample and maintained in microbiology department in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Agar plate dilution technique was followed to screen the antimycotic activity in reducing C. albicans count. SDA was prepared with different concentrations of the both the essential oil 50 μl, 100 μl, and 200 μl and the plates are allowed to set. Results: The plate with extract at concentration 100 μl and 200 μl did not show any bacterial growth. Discussion: Antimycotic activity of two essential oil has no growth in 200 μl concentration. There is a confluent growth in negative control of SDA plate with no extract in orange peel oil and C. maxima seed oil. No growth in positive control of SDA plate with fluconazole antibiotic in orange peel oil and C. maxima seed oil essential oil. Conclusion: Orange peel oil and C. maxima seed oil are an important source of compounds having antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, and antiviral properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005250
Title: Knowledge of dental practitioners toward the treatment protocol given by the Dental Council of India during COVID-19 pandemic in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospitals, Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute, Golden George Nagar, Mugappair, Chennai - 600 107,
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Background: COVID-19 pandemic has already set its firm grip over India with Chennai being one of the most affected cities. The dental personnel have a higher risk of infection due to close contact with the patient and a risk to inhale aerosolized particles. Aim: This study aims to gauge the knowledge among the dental practitioners on the protocols described by the Dental Council of India (DCI) to be followed in their clinics amidst COVID-19. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 dental practitioners participated in the cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. The twenty questions were based on the knowledge regarding the protocol laid down by the DCI. Data obtained were analyzed using SPPS IBM software version 19.0, Chicago. Results: About 61.1% of dentists were unaware of how to tackle a COVID-19 suspected patient. About 90.7% of them did not know to differentiate emergency from urgent dental care procedures. About 84% did not know the most effective pre-procedural mouth rinse. About 76% were unaware of the right concentration of preparing the fumigation chemical. About 56.7% were unsure about the correct method of disinfection of the clinic and dental chair. Nearly 78.7% of the dentists did not know right mask for treating a COVID-19 positive patient and also 61.3% prescribed ibuprofen as a drug, neglecting its effects toward COVID-19. Conclusion: Despite the availability of guidelines and protocols to be followed by the dental practitioners, many lack knowledge regarding the same. Continuing dental education programs and webinars are a pre-requisite to update the dental professionals during COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005251
Title: Clinical review on diabetic awareness and knowledge among urban and rural population in Coimbatore zone
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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The aim of review literature gives information about observation of disease, attitude, and behavior of diabetes in urban and rural areas. Knowledge helps the patient to understand about frequent urination, weight loss, blood sugar level, cholesterol level, and management of diabetes. Peoples in developing country had less knowledge while compared to well-developed countries. Diabetic knowledge in rural peoples is less while compared to urban peoples. Awareness about complications, risk factors, and preventive measures is low in rural peoples. Urban peoples are highly developed diabetes because of industrialization and fast foods (like canned drinks). Some of items induce high blood sugar level such as fruit flavored yogurt, white bread, pasta, rice, flavored coffee drinks, dried fruits, and honey. Foods reduce the diabetic level such as ragi, maize, vegetables, eggs, turmeric, and nuts. Urban people knew about preventive measures of diabetes. In city, peoples are educated and they know about preventive measures of high blood sugar level and high cholesterol level. Most of peoples acquire knowledge through social media, awareness programs, and health camps which conducted by health care institutions. In most of the study, peoples have high blood sugar which came from early ages. This article helps the people to prevent diabetes by home remedy. It also gives information about comorbidities. Most of peoples developed eye problems, heart diseases, and kidney diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005252
Title: A study on the effectiveness of Peyton’s four-step approach in teaching procedural skill for MBBS students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai - 602 105, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Skills laboratory training for procedural skills has gained a lot of significance in recent years. An instructional approach that is becoming increasingly prevalent in medical education is Peyton’s four-step approach, which is a 1:1 teacher:student teaching tool. The aim was to study the effectiveness of Peyton’s four-step approach as a teaching tool to teach the procedural skill to MBBS students. Specific learning objectives were to teach procedural skills such as Ryle’s tube insertion and venepuncture using Peyton’s four-step approach and to assess the learning outcome in MBBS students, using Peyton’s four-step approach as a teaching tool and to compare it with that of conventional teaching methods. Fifty students from MBBS Phase II were divided into two groups. Group A (25 students) and Group B (25 students) were taught procedural skill 1 using Peyton’s method and conventional method, respectively. Pre-test, post-test questionnaires, and OSCE were conducted. The two study groups will be interchanged and taught procedural skill 2 using the other method (Group A – Conventional and Group B – Peyton’s method). Pre-test, post-test questionnaire, and OSCE were conducted. A feedback was obtained from all students and faculty involved in this study, which was analyzed statistically and interpreted. Statistical analysis showed the following results: For skill 1 – The mean score of pre-test was 20.12, and post-test was 23.18 (out of a total of 30). For skill 2 – The mean score of pre-test was 19.28 and post-test was 25.68. All the students performed better in OSCE mean value 8 when they were trained using Peyton’s method. Mann–Whitney’s U-test analysis showed that the results were significant. Demonstration, deconstruction, comprehension, and performance of the skills taught showed a remarkable improvement using Peyton’s method as a teaching tool.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005253
Title: Biosimilars: An overview on global scenario and challenges
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
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In Global pharmaceutical market, biosimilars have occupied a major driven part. Only after patent expiration of innovator biopharmaceuticals, biosimilars as biological products are developed. In different countries, biosimilars are recognized differently such as biocomparables, follow-on biologics, follow-on proteins, similar biologics, subsequent biologics, and secondary or off-patent biotechnological products. As biosimilars show the same clinical effect as generics but not copies of synthetic drugs, special approvals are required for their marketing. These slightly new entity molecules consisting of hetero groups are compared to those with innovator products. Similar biologics require complete quality, safety, and efficacy profile documentations. A number of challenges that result in hindrance in the growth of biocomparables are structural variability, regulatory aspects, etc., that affect structural complexity and patient safety, respectively. This article mainly emphasizes on biosimilars scenario based on global impacts and focused on different countries’ regulatory guidelines, including challenges involved within.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005254
Title: Panoramic radiograph and its importance in pediatric dentistry – A retrospective study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the importance of panoramic radiographs in diagnosis and treatment planning for pediatric patients. The objective of this study is to examine and determine the rate of incidentally observed oral pathologies, associated lesions, dental anomalies, and dentition status in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 panoramic radiographs obtained from the Department of Oral Medicine, Saveetha Dental College. These radiographs were randomly selected from pediatric patients with mixed dentition who came for their regular dental check-up. Panoramic radiographs were examined to detect the presence of any lesions, pathologies, anomalies, and also their dentition status. The results obtained were tabulated and analyzed. Results: Among the 102 radiographs, the most commonly observed finding was decayed primary tooth (76.5%) with the second most common finding being eruption delay due to setback in exfoliation of the primary tooth or retained deciduous tooth (20.4%). Hypodontia accounted for about 15 in 102 radiographs (15.3%). The impacted tooth was found in about 6.12% of the Orthopantomographs. Pulp therapy was done in 5.1% cases and crown placement was done without pulp therapy in 8.16% cases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005255
Title: Effectiveness of crushed bay leaves in removing dental plaque among tobacco chewer’s
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Child Health Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Chewing tobacco and use of smokeless tobacco products cause discolouration of the teeth is a common complication of tobacco chewing. The stains bind and penetrate the enamel, dentin, root surfaces, causing a brown to black discolouration. Dental plaque is an oral biofilm that adheres to teeth, comprising of more than 700 species of bacteria and fungi. It is one of the etiological factor leading to oral related diseases namely gingivitis, periodontitis and dental caries.Plant essential oils and powders in the treatment of dental plaque can be beneficial due to the antimicrobial and non-toxic properties making them ideal for their use in oral care products. Aims: The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of crushed bay leaves powder in removing dental plaque. Materials and Methods: A quantitative Pre experimental one group pre-test post- test design. Was conducted among 60 tobacco chewer’s with dental plaque. Purposive sampling technique was used to select sample. Semi structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, clinical Proforma. Plaque score was assessed by using Silness and Loe plaque index. The samples were advised to brush twice a day using the crushed bay leaves powder for one week. After one week, the plaque score was re-assessed. Results: The study result shows significant reduction in the dental plaque after the intervention at the level of p<0.001. This indicates that the crushed bay leaves powder is the effective and easy methods to remove dental plaque among tobacco chewer’s and maintain good oral hygiene. Conclusions: The results of the study is it was concluded that crushed bay leaves as no side-effects and it is the effective and easy methods to remove dental plaque among tobacco chewer’s and maintain good oral hygiene.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005256
Title: Knowledge and awareness of natural anticarcinogenic herbs among the general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the “botanical garden of the world.” The medicinal plants, besides having natural therapeutic values against various diseases, also provide a high quality of food and raw materials for livelihood. The medicinal plants are easily available and cheaper and possess no toxicity as compared to modern (allopathic) drugs. Scientists all over the world are concentrating on herbal medicines to boost immune cells of the body against cancer. By understanding the complex synergistic interaction of various constituents of anticancer herbs, the herbal formulations can be designed to attack the cancerous cells without harming normal cells of the body. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study assessing the knowledge and awareness of anticarcinogenic herbs was conducted among 100 general public. A questionnaire has been prepared and distributed through social networking sites to 100 general public. Results and Discussion: About 79% of people think that the cause of cancer can be through inheritance, lifestyle, and radiation. About 69% of people think that cancer can be controlled by naturally available herbs. About 93% of people are aware of the side effects of cancer treatment. About 89% of people are aware that turmeric possesses the anticancer property. Through this survey, many other anticancer herbs were made aware to the general public. Cancer is a dreadful and commonly prone disease among the general public. It is important to create awareness of anticarcinogenic herbs that are commonly available. Conclusion: Based on the study results, we can conclude that most of the general public have moderate knowledge and awareness of natural anticarcinogenic herbs and their uses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00005257
Title: Biofilm inhibitory activity of plant-derived antioxidant compounds among Staphylococcus epidermidis obtained from clinical samples
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Chennai - 600 119, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction and Aim: Bacteria synthesize their hydrated polymeric matrix that attaches to various surfaces, which allows them to aggregate and form sessile communities. Many active compounds derived from various natural sources are found to be effective against biofilms, because of their anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-biofilm properties. Materials and Methods: A total of 35 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis which showed biofilm formation were obtained from various sites such as skin, mucosal membrane, invasive devices, and from the blood. Among these 35 isolates, eight strains were strong biofilm producers by tissue culture plate method, which were considered for this study. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) assay was carried out on the seven S. epidermidis isolates, with four different active compounds using various concentrations. Results: Analysis was performed with the MBIC values of quercetin, boswellic acid (BA), thymoquinone, and lycopodium. Out of these four compounds, BA showed the MBIC values with 7 × 10-5 mM, 1.75 × 10-5 mM, 1.7 × 105 mM, and 0.0001401 mM, respectively. Conclusion: The biofilm susceptibility assay results showed a high rate of biofilm inhibition by BA, followed by thymoquinone, lycopodium, and quercetin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005258
Title: Evaluation of submaximal exercise tolerance test in pre- and middle adolescent overweight children: A single-blind observational analytical study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: SRM College of Physiotherapy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chengalpattu - 603 203, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: The overweight plays a major role in children because of lack of physical activity. The physical activity such as walking, running and heavy energy consuming activities has to be encouraged in children to avoid obesity. Most of the daily activities are performed at submaximal levels of exertion, and it has been proposed that submaximal functional tests are a better reflection of physical capability. The 6 min walk test is a submaximal exercise tolerance test, which results the distance walked over a period of 6 min. Methodology: The study design was non-experimental, observational study. A total of 130 overweight children were selected out of 1300 students from two schools. The inclusion criteria were BMI of 85–95 percentile of their age and sex, 11–15 years of age. The 6MWT test was conducted according to a standardized protocol (ATS guidelines) using corridor with the 100-foot distance marked by colored tape on the floor. The distance in meters covered over the 6 min was recorded (6MWD). Pulse, blood pressure, dyspnea (modified Borg scale), and oxygen saturation were recorded immediately at the end of the test and during the recovery period of 3 and 5 min. Results: The mean distance walked by children with age group 11–14 years ranges between 210 ± 420 m. According to two-way ANOVA, there is non-significant difference between age groups and distance walked test (P > 0.05) with Kruskal–Wallis test and gender-wise difference and distance walked test (P > 0.05) using Mann–Whitney U-test. The distance walked has non-significant correlation with age (P > 0.569), height (P > 0.081), and weight (P > 0.895) using Pearson’s correlation analysis. Using Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the significant difference between pre- and post-test value of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, and SpO2 was calculated at P < 0.05. Conclusion: The study concluded that 6MWT has to be done in overweight children to find out the submaximal functional ability. Furthermore, the distance walked by overweight children in 6MWT was less compared to normal weight children. The heart rate, SBP, and DBP also have variation than normal children

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005259
Title: Anticaries inhibition test of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) and apple (Pyrus malus L.) fruit juices on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia.
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Objective: The aim of this study was to highlight the anticaries potential of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) and apple (Pyrus malus L.) fruit juices on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: The fruits were locally cultivated fruits from Indonesia. All fruits were prepared to be processed as fruit juices using a mechanical juicer and followed by juice pasteurization. The fresh juices were then analyzed to screen the phytochemical compounds using the standard methods. Each of the fruit juices was tested to S. mutans and S. aureus clinical isolates at eight different concentrations with a two-fold serial dilution ranging from 50 to 0.78125% v/v using a microdilution method. Results: There were alkaloids and quinones in apple juices, in addition to other bioactive compounds which also present in strawberries juices, such as flavonoids, polyphenol, and tannins. The lowest concentration values to inhibit both S. aureus and S. mutans clinical isolates were exhibited by strawberries juice, ranging at 31.25–62.5 μg/mL to S. aureus and 62.5–125 μg/mL to S. mutans. The data showed that the S. aureus clinical isolates were more sensitive to be inhibited by strawberry juices than S. mutans clinical isolates. Meanwhile, the susceptibility of those bacteria against apple juices revealed the same minimal concentration value, ranging at 250–500 μg/mL. Conclusion: Thus, the strawberry juices can be recommended as a daily healthy beverage to promote human health, especially to avoid dental caries infected by S. aureus and S. mutans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005260
Title: Morphometric analysis of suprameatal triangle and its clinical significance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study aimed to analysis the boundaries of suprameatal triangle by morphometrically. Introduction: The temporal bone consists of squamous, mastoid, tympanic, petrous, and styloid parts. Among that, the petrous is highly complexed part which consists of middle and inner ear and related anatomical structures. In case of mastoiditis, otitis, and other neurovascular conditions related to the auricular region, it is important to approach through surgically. The infectious condition of mastoid antrum, i.e., mastoiditis, is highly a risk clinical condition which may spread into the cranial cavity and/or head-and- neck regions. The reasons for this mastoiditis condition are chronic suppurative condition of otitis media. Hence, the drainage of infected mastoid is very important. The drainage is achieved through suprameatal triangle. Materials and Methods: The present study collected 50 South Indian dry human skulls from the Department of Anatomy in Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. The digital Vernier caliper has used to measure the triangle which was used to understand the morphometric analysis of suprameatal triangle using Vernier caliper. The study adopted t-test for two independent means (online) for statistical analysis with P < 0.05 (95%) with the current observations. Results: The present study observed that the length of the upper border of suprameatal triangle is 13.71 ± 1.86 mm and 13.76 ± 1.74 mm on the right and left sides, respectively (P = 0.437358) [Figure 1 and Graph 1]. The length of the anteroinferior border of suprameatal triangle was measured to be 14.46 ± 1.63 mm and 14.30 ± 1.46 mm on the right and left sides, respectively (P = 0.310597) [Figure 2 and Graph 2], and also the length of the posterior border of the suprameatal triangle was measured to be 14.12 ± 2.02 mm and 17.73 ± 1.74 mm on the right and left sides, respectively (P = 0.85613) [Figure 3 and Graph 3]. There were no significant differences between the right and left sides which were observed in all the parameters. Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that the morphometrical knowledge of suprameatal triangle is most important for neurological and otological emergencies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005261
Title: Morphometric analysis of mandible using craniometric points related to mandible in South Indian dry skulls
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the present is to measure the various craniometric points in the mandible of the South Indian dry skulls. Introduction: Mandible is the strongest bone in the face and the only movable bone in the skull which starts developing during the 10th week of the intrauterine life from the second pharyngeal arch. The base or the lower border of the body and rami of the mandible is horseshoe shaped. The mandible contains body and ramus with coronoid and condylar processes, in which the condylar process articulates with the cranium thus forming temporomandibular joint. The important bony features of the mandible are symphysis menti, menton, mental foramen, mylohyoid line, mylohyoid groove, mandibular foramen, etc. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 dry human skulls from the Department of Anatomy in Saveetha Dental College were used to carry out this study. For measurement, digital Vernier caliper was used. Results: According to the present study, the average distance between the condylion-gonion on the right and left sides is 62.6 ± 15.79 mm and 62.86 ± 15.38 mm, condylion-symphysis menti is 112.6 ± 21.7 mm and 118.01 ± 11.9 mm, condylion-menton is 108.5 ± 11.06 mm and 107.03 ± 11.01 mm, gonion-symphysis menti is 85.16 ± 8.53 mm and 85.21 ± 8.73 mm, gonion-menton is 78.29 ± 7.35 mm and 80.75 ± 6.71 mm, coronoid process-symphysis menti is 93.75 ± 11.3 mm and 95.02 ± 11.8 mm, coronoid process-menton is 89.29 ± 8.48 mm and 89.13 ± 8.34 mm, and coronoid process-gonion is 62.09 ± 15.4 mm and 63.39 ± 17.7 mm. Conclusion: Mandibular fracture is a common fracture in the craniofacial region. The correction of such fractured is achieved through surgical procedures. Hence, the morphometric knowledge of the different craniometric points is of utmost importance for approaching those regions. Apart from that, these morphometric knowledges would help in the field of anthropometric, evolutionary studies, etc.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005262
Title: A study to assess the school adjustment and self-esteem among higher secondary schoolchildren (adolescent) of alcoholic parents at Ambattur
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Self-esteem is an important aspect of the adaptive processes at all stages of life. It is linked to the quality of adaptation, well-being, life satisfaction, and health. Self-esteem is not related to chronological age, but to the people’s quality of social integration and adaptive capacities to cope with life events, including physical and cognitive decline. Measures of the self-esteem and interpretation of the pertaining results vary according to various theoretical models. School adjustment can be defined as the degree to which adolescents become comfortable, engaged, and successful in their school environment. Samples include adolescents’ age group. Aim: The present study aims are to assess the school adjustment and self-esteem among higher secondary schoolchildren (adolescent) of alcoholic parent. Materials and Methods: The research design for the study is a non-experimental descriptive research design which is used to assess the school adjustment using school adjustment inventory and assess the level of self-esteem using Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Convenient sampling technique was used to select the sample. Results and Discussion: The study research shows that the self-esteem had shown statistically non-significant at demographical variables and shows that the age, sex, education, education of the father, income of the father, and habits of parent have no statistical significance at P < 0.05. The level of self-esteem mean is 19.1 and the standard deviation is 7.046.