Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002221
Title: Impact of lifestyle and environment on melatonin hormone in relation to oxidative stress
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Melatonin hormone secretion affected by the type and conditions of sleep. Its act as antioxidant and has a major role in different biochemical process in human body. The aim of the present study is that to determine the effect of lifestyle (time of sleep, exposure to sunlight, and physical activity) on melatonin levels and oxidative stress markers in groups which differ in their lifestyle and activity. Materials and Methods: Three groups participate in the study; Group 1 consists of 30 volunteers selected from an agricultural rural community, Group 2 includes 30 volunteers selected from army forces works at a checkpoint, and Group 3 includes 30 volunteers from medical staff (doctors and nurses) in Al-Yarmok Teaching Hospital. Blood was drawing from all volunteers in the morning (8:00–10:00 AM). Melatonin levels and oxidative stress markers were measured. Results: Melatonin hormone level shows significant increase (P ˃ 0.05) in rural environment when compared to other studied environment. The mean of glutathione significantly increase (P ˃ 0.05) in Group 1 when compared to both Groups 2 and 3, but there was no significant difference between Groups 2 and 3. Serum malondialdehyde significantly increases in Group 3 when compared to other studied groups (P ˃ 0.05). Conclusions: The difference in lifestyle was effected on melatonin level which acts as antioxidant and also on oxidative stress markers. Melatonin levels increase in the subjects who lived in the rural environment which exposure to sunlight and exert more effort due to their work in agriculture as compared to subjects who work in army in checkpoint and the two populations more than the 3rd group which include medical staff who work at night shift.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00002066
Title: Proteins P53 and BCL-2 in pathogenesis of missed and spontaneous abortions
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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mRNA expression of p53, p21, BCL-2, Bax, Noxa and MDM2 in decidual tissue (endometrium) of 50 patients with missed abortions, 47 patients with spontaneous abortions, and 57 patients with artificial abortion (control group) at 6–10 weeks of gestation were examined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Expression of p53 mRNA had no significant differences in patients with missed and spontaneous abortions. Significant increase of proapoptotic protein Noxa, accompanied with anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 elevation was observed in the endometrium of patients with missed abortions. In patients with spontaneous abortions, only increase of Noxa has been observed. It can be suggested, that increase of BCL-2 in patients with missed abortions, when embryo resorption has happened, protects nearby embryos in case of multiple pregnancies. No significant changes of p21 mRNA were discovered in both groups, which indicates, that cell cycle arrest is not involved in the pathogenesis of early miscarriages. No significant changes of Bax and MDM2 mRNA expression were discovered in decidual tissue of patients with missed and spontaneous abortions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002026
Title: Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium of Ca(II) and Mg(II) onto sulfonate-modified silica from sugarcane bagasse
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Sugarcane bagasse contains silica, which was separated and modified in this investigation. The silica was reacted by 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanethiol, and the product was oxidized to produce sulfonate-modified silica (SMS). The result of modification was accomplished by spectroscopic analysis of FTIR, XRD, and SEM-EDX. The SMS was used as adsorbent for adsorption kinetic and equilibrium of Ca2+ and Mg2+. The mechanism of the adsorption can be proposed from these experiments. Adsorption kinetic studied the adsorption of the cations as the function of contact time, and the data were evaluated by intra-particle diffusion model, Boyd equation, and Lagergren pseudo kinetic model. The calculated model fitted well to the experimental data and suggests that both Ca2+ and Mg2+ were adsorbed by SMS through external mass transfer, and were pseudo-second ordered. Adsorption equilibrium was evaluated using proton stoichiometry, and adsorption isotherms, the adsorption as the function of cation concentration, and the data were analysed using Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR)-Raduskovich. The results showed that the adsorption of Ca2+ onto SMS was through cation exchange and, that of Mg2+ onto SMS was via physisorption.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00001970
Title: Anatomic X-ray features of the temporomandibular joint elements with a decrease in the interalveolar distance
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This paper presents data on the anatomical and radiological features of the dentoalveolar system and especially the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) elements in patients with major dental diseases accompanied by a decrease in the interalveolar distance. Radiographically, there is a distal displacement of the lower jaw heads observed in the habitual occlusion with signs of a decreased height of occlusion. When optimizing the ratio of the jaws, the mandible heads occupy a harmonious front position, which leads to a decrease in the compression of the TMJ bilaminar zone, significantly reduces the likelihood of developing musculo-articular dysfunction in the dentoalveolar apparatus and improves the activity of other organs and systems. The study of the topography of the stony-tympanic gap using cranioscopy methods identified two extreme variants of its location relative to the mandibular fossa, which is of fundamental importance in the development of TMJ diseases and determines the nature of their clinical manifestations.

KEY WORDS: Bilaminar zone, Decrease of interalveolar distance, Deep occlusion syndrome, Dentistry, Functional- physiological test method for jaw ratio, Multilayer spiral computed tomography, Stony-tympanic gap, Temporomandibular joint anatomy, Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001968
Title: Substantiation of the technology for obtaining an extract from the fruit of blessed milk thistle for a geriatric drug creation
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This paper presents the results of studying the effect of ethanol concentration in the water-ethanol mixture on the qualitative and quantitative composition of extracts obtained from crushed fruits of blessed milk thistle with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Materials and Method: For the extraction, plant materials were used: “Blessed milk thistle additive” made from grinded blessed milk thistle fruits by PJSC “Lektravy,” Zhitomir, Ukraine, date 28.03.17, series No. 002, shelf life 24 months. Result and Discussion: The optimal concentration of ethanol as an extractant was determined for the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds from plant raw materials. The effect of temperature on the extraction degree of extractives during the filtration extraction method was studied, and optimal parameters for the isolation of biologically active compounds from this plant material were proposed. Conclusion: It was found that the optimal concentration of ethanol in the water-ethanol mixture, which simultaneously extracts hydroxycinnamic acids, taxifolin, and flavonolignans and the fruits of blessed milk thistle, falls within the range of 64 ± 6% by weight.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001967
Title: Development of a technique for assessing the quality of propolis by the content of caffeic acid phenethyl ester by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode- matrix detector
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Propolis is characterized by a wide range of pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic, as well as cardioprotective. A number of listed pharmacological properties of propolis is associated primarily with of oxycinnamic acid ester, one of them - caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) - is considered the most pharmacologically significant. This paper presents the results of the development of an estimation of the quality of propolis with the use of CAPE as a marker component. Using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-matrix detection, identification was carried out, and the quantitative content of this component in propolis was determined. As an optimal elution mode, a gradient regime was used, with allowed differentiating CAPE from other esters of caffeic acid. In the course of the experiment, it was found that the most suitable extractant for extracting CAPE from propolis is isopropyl alcohol. The optimal color form of propolis, containing the greatest amount of the component to be determined, is green propolis. A quantitative evaluation of the studied component was carried out using the absolute calibration method in the concentration range of the standard sample of CAPE 0.01–0.1%. In the indicated concentration range, the calibration curve was linear; the correlation coefficient was R² = 0.9998. To assess the comparability and correctness of the methodology, metrological characteristics were calculated. The error of the single determination with the relative error P, 95% was 4.76%. The quantitative content of CAPE in 6 propolis samples taken from different regions of the Russian Federation showed a significant difference in the content of this component and was in the range of 0.106– 0.515%. The results of the conducted studies indicate the possibility of assessing the quality of propolis in terms of one of its most significant components - CAPE.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00001966
Title: Microcirculation dynamic of changes in the oral mucosa in patients with paresthesia during orthopedic dental treatment
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Based on laser Doppler flowmetry and optical tissue oximetry, a change in the state of microcirculation of the oral mucosa (OM) in 39 patients with paresthesia of the OM was evaluated. All patients had a secondary deformation of the dentition, accompanied by a decrease in the interalveolar distance and needed orthopedic treatment. Materials and Methods: A two-stage method for treating patients with paresthesia of the OM using individual caps is proposed, aimed at restoring the central ratio of the jaws and correcting the orientation of the mandible in the facial skeleton space. Result and Discussion: Based on the results of the work performed, during initial treatment, there was a violation of microcirculation in the area of lesion by paresthesia of the mucous membrane of the cavity. Correction of occlusive relations led to optimization of microcirculation. Conclusions: Thus, all the examined patients (100%) with OM paresthesia showed a significant improvement in microcirculation indices with a decrease in tissue hypoxia in paresthesia sensations after the use of the treatment and diagnostic apparatus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00001940
Title: Mathematical modeling of the in-stent restenosis risk of patients with coronary heart disease
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aims: This article presents the mathematical modeling of the in-stent restenosis risk of patients with coronary heart disease, which is also known as ischemic heart disease. Methods: The mathematical model was developed based on an artificial neural network and regression analysis. Results: The results identified increased in-stent restenosis risk in patients with the following genotypes: [Hp 1-2; Gc 1-2; Tf CB; C’s SS], [Hp 2-2; Gc 1-1; Tf CC; C’s FF], [Hp 2-2; Gc 1-2; Tf CB; C’s SS], [Hp 2-2; Gc 1-1; Tf CC; C’s SS]. Conclusion: The coefficients of determination of ANN (0.21) and linear regression (0.11) were calculated. The resulting values of the coefficient of determination were <0.5, suggesting that the simulation was unacceptable. Analysis revealed that the presence or absence of restenosis was possible with the same set of phenotypes

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001939
Title: Cardiac mechanisms of chronic heart failure development in patients with ischemic heart disease, postman arcticcardiosclerosis of the elderly
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The objective of this study was to study the formation of myocardial remodeling in elderly patients with CHF of ischemic genesis. Materials and Methods: The object of our study was 140 elderly men suffering from CHF with a history of myocardial infarction more than 4 months ago; the average age of the examined persons was 68.4 ± 7.8 years. Results: It was determined that hypertrophic remodeling develops in most elderly patients with IHD, postinfarction cardiosclerosis, and a smaller number of patients have dilated myocardial remodeling. Thus, the morphometric study of myocardial tissue
in patients with eccentric hypertrophy of the LV revealed a significant reduction in the size of the cardiomyocyte nuclei (94.08 ± 16.41, P = 0.0057) in comparison with patients with concentric hypertrophy with a group without signs of remodeling and control group. Conclusion: It was established that structural changes occur in the formation of postinfarction cardiosclerosis. Morphological studies revealed an increase in size and a decrease in the number of myocytes and an increase in the connective tissue matrix. The density of the myocardium increases accompanied by a diastolic LV disturbance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001938
Title: Minimally invasive access for open heart surgery - Relevance for modern cardiac surgical practice
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Today in the modern medicine, the quality of life takes on great importance, what determined significantly by the cosmetic effect of the surgery. Together with it, the variety of combinations of types of the constitution and the options of heart diseases requires the surgeon’s ability to possess different variants of mini approaches. Minimally invasive access without sternotomy was considered as the main method which reduces the duration of hospital stay after surgery; early activation of the patient and the rapid recovery of physical functions. There should be noted that the minimally invasive open-heart surgery using thoracoscopic equipment with cardiopulmonary bypass demonstrates that is a feasible method that can be performed safely and effectively, especially in the hands of experienced surgeons.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001937
Title: Morphological characteristics of the rats brain under hypergravity
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The objective of the research was to study the morphological changes in the most sensitive areas of the brain under hypergravity, using standard general histological and histochemical, as well as immunohistochemical methods with antibodies to glial fibrillary acid protein, neurofilament protein, Ki67 proliferation markers, and p53 apoptosis. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed on 40 white Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: 1st - control, 2nd - rats exposed to hypergravity for 8 min at a centrifuge rotation rate of 5,000 rpm, 3rd - rats exposed to hypergravity 3 times during the 1st day for 5 min and at a rotation rate of 4,000 rpm, and 4th - rats exposed to hypergravity 3 times for 5 min and a rotation speed of 4,000 rpm for 3 days.After the end of the experiment, morphological changes in the brain were examined. Results: It was established that the animals of the first
group died from compression and dislocation of the brain resulted from overloads. Rats from the second group had clinical signs, such as weakness, one- and two-sided paresis, which completely passed within an hour. The histological picture of the brain had no specific features. In the third and fourth groups, the clinical symptoms were more pronounced, remaining until the end of the 1st day. Morphological picture of the immunohistochemical examination had no features but showed severe microcirculation disorders when stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Conclusion: Thus, the hypergravitational model of cerebral ischemia allows
obtaining circulatory hypoxia of the brain, which is confirmed by clinical data and general histological methods.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001936
Title: The influence of sleep disorders on cognitive functions of a brain at patients with Type 2 diabetes
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The results of neuropsychological and sleep examination with the use of validated tests and questionnaires at 136 patients with the verified Type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis are presented in this article. The average age of the examined patients was 59.19± 5.649. The patients were in decompensated condition on indicators of carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and Methods: A totalof 136 patients older than 40 years with clinically and laboratory proved Type 2 diabetes were examined. The research included the participants of both genders living in Astana with a different national and ethnic origin to be convinced that the research advantage and burden are distributed evenly. Results and Discussion: By results of neuropsychological testing, cognitive functions of a brainwere reduced in all age groups at patients with Type 2 diabetes and were characterized by retardation of intellectual activity rate, the reduction of speech fluency, the depression of concentration of attention, memory disturbances of dynamic character. 77.9% of patients had sleep disorders, including, mild degree - 28% of patients; moderate - 30.9% of patients. Conclusion: The intrasomnic disorders including frequent night awakenings with the subsequent difficulty of sleep initiation prevailed. It is revealed that insomnia negatively influences on such cognitive functions of a brain as attention and visual-constructive skills.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00001935
Title: A review on antimicrobial activities of important thiazines based heterocycles
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Nowadays, a number of thiazine-based heterocycles were prepared or extracted from natural sources such as plants and animals, using various approaches and examined for their biologically important activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antihypertensive to apply them as a possible pharmacological and chemical agents in a range of medicinal fields. Although several dynamic antimicrobial agents have since been developed, a allocated co-occurrence through the employ of current drugs as a single agent has developed drug resistance. This has made use to investigate for novel thiazine derivatives for ruling more effective antimicrobial agents. Thus, the present review was designed to provide a sequence of work going on the development of potential antimicrobial agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00001949
Title: A review: Different approach of bioactive pyrimidobenzothiazoles synthesis
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Due to structural specificity, heterocyclic compounds such as pyrimidobenzothiazoles are unique with biological activities and can be utilize as potential pharmaceutical material. Pyrimidobenzothiazoles are well-known agents for different activities such as antihypertensive anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumor, antiviral, antihypotensive, antimalarial, antimicrobial, and anticancer, make them more leader in their class. At present, benzothiazoles and their derivatives attracted the scientific community. The present work is a review of the newest work carried out by researchers in the finding and synthesis of new biological active pyrimidobenzothiazoles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001892
Title: Comparison of open and closed biopsies in the diagnosis of breast lumps
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The breast cancer diagnosis and treatment is based on a less invasive, more accurate and effective strategybut the key factor in respect of these new standards is to confirm cancer before going to the operating room. Closedbiopsies by means of Tru-cut biopsy needle have replaced the more traditional incisional or excisional biopsies for the diagnosis of palpable breast lumps and have a definite role in the histological diagnosis of majority of palpable breastlumps. These biopsies can be performed under local anesthesia in the office or in outpatient setup. The technique is reliable,simple, and reproducible, and inexpensive; it can be adapted even for low-income developing countries. Objective:This study is designed mainly to compare the diagnostic accuracy of Tru-cut needle biopsy with that of excision biopsy.Materials and Methods: The original study is carried from July to December 2014 in Surgical Unit-1, Baqai Medical University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Among women with palpable breast lumps came to the outpatient, 140 patientsselected and Tru-cut needle biopsy along with excision biopsy was performed and the result of both the modalities recorded
and compared with each other. Results: The diagnosis given by Tru-cut needle biopsy is confirmed by means of excision biopsies. Therefore, it may be said that out of 49 malignant lumps 45 (91.83%) and out of 91 benign lumps 87 (95.60%)are correctly diagnosed with a total of 132 (94.28%) correct diagnosis. Conclusion: As the diagnostic accuracy of closed biopsies is considerable and very close to that of excision biopsies, the closed biopsies can be performed routinely on anoutpatient basis on women with palpable breast lumps.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001948
Title: Reverse engineering ancient cu based drugs, their synthesizing methods and evolution using Vedic mind tools
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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These days reverse engineering has gathered much attention due to its diversified applications. It is a unique approach involving an entirely afresh perception of a product as a combination of parts and structure. This concept can be felt back to Plato, Vedic Maths inventive principles and even up to modern TRIZ methodology of problem-solving. Reverse engineering sometimes called back engineering extracts valuable design information or knowledge from anything human-made and reportrait same thing or anything based on the extracted information. It involves, and its applications often involved are mechanical components, electronic, computer devices, programs, biological, and chemical and biological matter. The applications it serves are broad, and its objectives are priceless, however, only a few researchers have worked on its innate concepts and applied it in the field of traditional drugs. The present work aims at reverse engineering ancient Cu based Indian drugs using Vedic inventive and alchemical mind tools. The novelty of work is using aforementioned tools in exploring what Carse calls “Anomalies you cannot account for by any of the laws known to you.” Regarding which several modern tools such as scanning electron microscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, in vitro, and ex vivo analysis were also involved to carry the drug evolution forward in an innovative way.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00002015
Title: Inhibitory spectra of isolated tannin-rich fraction and assessment of compounds using chromatographic techniques
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Tannins, secondary metabolites of plants, are mostly water-soluble phenolic compounds exhibit numerous biological and antibacterial-promoting and antioxidant effects. Objective: The aim of the study is to characterize the various classes of tannins and to screen their biological activity. Materials and Methods: Isolation of tannin-rich fraction was done by means of column chromatography and assessment of compounds was done using bioassay techniques. Characterization of compounds was analyzed by means of ultraviolet (UV)-visible, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Results: Antimicrobial screening reveals that Syzygium aromaticum fraction 2 (21.6 mm) and 3 (18.3 mm) exhibit broad spectrum of activity followed by Candida glabrata (17.5 mm). Screening of tannin-rich fraction indicates that Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and C. glabrata remained sensitive toward the fraction, whereas Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus Parasiticus, and Fusarium solani remained resistant toward the fraction possessing least inhibition zone. UV absorption spectrum reveals the presence of condensed tannin, gallotannin, and ellagic acid (EA). FTIR spectrum denotes the presence of fingerprint region of hydrolysable tannin. RPHPLC analysis indicates the presence of gallic acid, EA, epicatechin, and catechin. Conclusion: The plant materials such as S. aromaticum and Acorus calamus indicate the presence of hydrolysable, condensed, and gallotannins.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002016
Title: Kras, epidermal growth factor receptor, and p53, but not Nras or Braf, biomarkers are frequently altered in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and precursor lesions
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Pancreatic cancer is estimated to be the 12th most common cancer in men and the 11 most common in women worldwide. Materials and Method: As other cancers, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) accumulates genetic alterations in oncogenes and suppressor genes. In the present study, we analyzed five biomarkers status: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p53 using immunohistochemical labeling in 39 PDAC and Kras, Nras, and Braf, using pyrosequencing in 25 normal pancreatic tissues, 25 pancreatic intraductal neoplasia (PanIN), and 39 PDAC. Result and Discussion: Abnormal immunolabeling of p53 and EGFR was detected in 97.4% and 71.8%, respectively. There was a statistically significant progressive increment (P < 0.001) in the percentage of mutated cases through normal pancreas (8%), PanIN-1A (28.6%), PanIN-1B (33.3%), PanIN-2 (60%), and PanIN-3 (85.7%) to PDAC (94.8%). These mutations were arising in codons 12 and 61 of Kras and in codon 600 of Braf. Most frequent mutations were G12D (46%), G12A (23%), and G12V (18%) of Kras. No mutations were found in codons 13, 59, 117, and 146 of Kras or in codons 12, 13, 59, 61, 117, and 146 of Nras. Conclusion: We confirm that EGFR, Kras, and p53 are the most frequent altered biomarkers in PDAC with difference in predominated Kras mutations subtypes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002017
Title: Evaluation of neoangiogenesis and cell activation in hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis caused by chronic viral hepatitis
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: Evaluation of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation due to viral hepatitis in various stages of cirrhosis and fibrosis. We aimed to determine portal hypertension development by examining neoangiogenesis and fibrosis in the vascular epithelium. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 patients with chronic viral hepatitis before treatment and 40 hepatocirrhotic transplant patients were consented for this study. A modified histology activity index was used for fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity. 40 samples from all groups: The fibrosis 0-1 group, the fibrosis 2-3-4 group, and the cirrhosis group were taken. Samples embedded in paraffin were subjected to immunohistochemistry and stained for alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA). For microvascular counting, the Chalkley method was used, and an average of three different areas was taken. Results: A significant difference in SMA staining was detected in the three different groups (P < 0.001). Interestingly, fibrosis 2-3-4 was significantly higher compared to the fibrosis 0-1 group (P = 0.007). The cirrhosis group was higher compared to the fibrosis 0-1 group (P < 0.001) and the fibrosis 2-3-4 group (P < 0.001). Neoangiogenesis was significantly different between groups (P < 0.001), and neoangiogenesis was the highest in the cirrhosis group. Discussion: In conclusion, hepatic neoangiogenesis and fibrosis development are associated with each other. We show that neovascularization and HSC activation were augmented in the more progressive disease states. Future work should be focused on developing therapies targeting the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor or HSC activation may help prevent chronic hepatic diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002018
Title: Vitamin D is a suggested target in hypertensive Iraqi patients management
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Hypertension (HTN) is the leading attributable risk for cardiovascular disease. In the Middle East, the disease continues to be a worrying public health issue with modest blood pressure control rates. Vitamin D possesses antihypertensive acts through its negative regulation of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, antioxidant, and anti-angiogenic effects. Materials and Method: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 68 Vitamin D naive HTN Iraqi patients with a mean age (54.8 ± 13.2) were investigated in comparison to matched 31 normotensive apparently healthy individuals. Serum Vitamin D level estimation was done in both groups by immunofluorescence assay, and the dependency sufficiency (normal) values were those ≥30 ng/ml. Result and Discussion: Vitamin D sufficiency was less prevalent among the patients group versus controls (4.41% vs. 54.83%). The mean of Vitamin D serum levels among patients “unexpectedly” was 13.13 ± 8.86 ng/ml which were significantly (P = 0.000) lower than that of controls 36.44 ± 16.66 ng/ml. We also observed a significant (P = 0.007) inverse correlation between Vitamin D levels and the obesity index; waist to height ratio in HTN patients. Conclusion: It can be concluded that a deficient level of Vitamin D is highly prevalent in Iraqi HTN patients, and low levels tend to correlate with obesity.