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Journal of Pharmacy Research-JPR Solutions - jpronline | JPR Info online Journal | Drug Invention Today
Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science
ISSN NO: 0976-1209
International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science (IJCAS) is a international journal which publishes high quality original research articles, reviews, short communications, and case reports that contribute significantly to the advancement of the scientific knowledge in the following categories:
  • PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY:
    • Synthesis and biological studies.
    • QSAR.
    • Novel drug design.
    • Rational drug design combinatorial and parallel synthesis.
    • Estimation of drug.
    • Method developments.
    • Analysis of various pharmaceutical drugs.
    PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS:
    • Medicinal chemistry
    • Organic and synthetic chemistry
    • Natural products chemistry
It's online copy circulated to all bonafide members of JPR Solutions. The Editorial Board of IJCAS comprises of eminent scientists and pharmacists from reputed institutions worldwide.
Impact Factor TM ( India ) = 0.918 as on date (12.03.2018)

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000355
Title: Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Some 5-Phenyl-1-(Acyl)-1, 2, 3, 4-Tetrazole.
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

A novel substituted pyrazole trifluoro methyl hexa hydro pyrimidinones (4a-g) have been prepared by Biginelli condensation of six substituted pyrazolealdehydes, ethyltrifluoroacetoacetate and urea using zinc chloride as catalyst. The structures of the synthesized compounds have been confirmed on the basis of spectral data. The newly synthesized compounds have been assayed invitro for antimicrobial activity and cardiotonic activity.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 6, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001218
Title: Wet chemical method for determination of free carbon content in boron carbide
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

A wet chemical method has been developed for the estimation of free carbon in boron carbide. A chromic-sulfuric acid mixture is used to selectively oxidize the free carbon to carbon dioxide which is precipitated as barium carbonate in a known excess of barium hydroxide solution. The free carbon content is then calculated from the barium hydroxide consumed.

 

Cite this article as:D. Annie, V. Chandramouli, S. Anthonysamy,Wet chemical method for determination of free carbon content in boron carbide,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2016,7(1),1-4.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001166
Title: Synthesis and investigation of photophysical properties of imidazobenzothiadiazoles
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Benzothiadiazole scaffold containing molecules are important precursors to derivatives with applications in several areas. We report a facile method of synthesis of a few imidazobenzothiadiazoles using La(OTf)3 as catalyst. The structures of these compounds were characterized by IR, 1HNMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy. Benzothiadiazoles act as electron acceptors and on conjugation with electron donors they assume a greater significance in material science. Imidazobenzothiadiazoles embodies both electron acceptors and electron donors in their structure and hence we have investigated their absorption and fluorescence properties. The effect of solvent polarity on the photo physical properties of imidazobenzothiadiazoles was investigated in different solvents of varying polarity. Imidazobenzothiadiazoles were found to be weak fluorescing and showed a solvent and compound specific solvatochromism. The quantum yields are varying in between 7.4x10-3 and 9x10-5. A direct relationship was found between wavelength of emission and the quantum yield. Larger fluorescence quantum yields were observed when the lone pair of electrons on the imidazolo tertiary nitrogen accepts hydrogen from the proton donor solvent like ethyl alcohol and water than in DMSO. The fluorescence was dependent on the polarity of the solvents. Efficient fluorescence was observed in a polar and protic solvent. These compounds show lower Stokes shift and vary in between 50 nm and 135 nm. A decreased Stokes shift was observed in water medium than in the remaining solvent media.

Cite this article as:Anwita Mudiraj, Gajula Raju and A. Ram Reddy,Synthesis and investigation of photophysical properties of imidazobenzothiadiazoles,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(2),73-79.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-SDS-00001165
Title: Comprehensive study on the production of single phase nickel doped Zinc Oxide nanoparticles by mixture of fuel approach for DMS applications
Category: Synthetic Drug Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The evolution of semiconductor industry has brought about echelon of growth in the electronics industry. The introduction of magnetic properties to these materials has spurred a magnanimous growth in the spintronics industry. One of the major concerns in this industry is the production of highly ferromagnetic semiconductors due to absence of critical methods to produce the same. In this paper, a novel autocombustion method using ammonium acetate as the fuel has been described which can produce single phase nickel doped zinc oxide nanoparticles in a single step process. The produced particles were tested for their single phase nature and confirmed to be the same using Reitveld refinement methods and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ferromagnetic property of nickel doped zinc oxide was tested and a linear growth of the susceptibility was observed with increasing concentrations of nickel in the sample. The optical properties proved the presence of defect states and oxygen vacancies in the sample arising due to the addition of nickel to the sample. This paper gives a complete comprehensive study on the production of single phased nickel doped zinc oxide nanoparticles with concentrations varying from 2% to 25% by analyzing their structural, morphological, chemical, magnetic and optical properties.

Cite this article as:V. Rajendar, N. Prudhvi Raju, K. Shobhan, I. Srikanth, K. Venkateswara Rao,Comprehensive study on the production of single phase nickel doped Zinc Oxide nanoparticles by mixture of fuel approach for DMS applications,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(2),64-72.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 6, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001162
Title: A new, simple and rapid method for simultaneous determination of ethambutol and isoniazid in dried blood spots by LC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study.
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Background: Ethambutol (EMB) and isoniazid (INH) are first-line anti tubercular drugs. The combination formulation is used for the continuation phase of tuberculosis. A new, simple and rapid method for simultaneous determination of ethambutol and isoniazid in dried blood spots (DBS) was developed and validated using LC-MS/MS. This method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study following oral administration of tablet of fixed dose combination containing ethambutol hydrochloride 800 mg and isoniazid 300 mg in human volunteers. Methods: Whole blood samples were spotted, dried and a 3 mm punch was extracted with methanol. The separation was performed on kromasil C18 column (150×4.6mm i.d., 5µm particle size) using a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol (35:65 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The total run time was 3.5 min with retention times of 1.34 min for EMB, 1.90 for INH and 2.44 for IS. Results: The method was linear over the concentration range of 50-4000 ng/mL for EMB and 100-5500 ng/mL for INH with all correlation coefficients greater than 0.9943 and 0.9941 for EMB and INH respectively. The intra-day accuracy of the method was ranged from 95.5% to 103.4% and the inter-day accuracy was between 97.8% and 103.8% with the precision less than 8.4 and 7.5% respectively. The stability of both the analytes was evaluated under various conditions. Conclusion: The method described here was validated in accordance with “Guidance for industry: Bioanalytical method validation, USFDA (2001)” and the method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study after oral administration. DBS technique has been demonstrated to produce similar PK profiles as that of plasma quantitation methods, supporting the use of DBS as an alternative for plasma pharmacokinetic studies.

Cite this article as: P Pavan Kumar, T E G K Murthy,A new, simple and rapid method for simultaneous determination of ethambutol and isoniazid in dried blood spots by LC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(1),49-54.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 2, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001101
Title: Spectrophotometric Estimation of Ranolazine in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by UV- Specrtophotometry
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The present study describes a simple, accurate, precise and cost effective UV-VIS Spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Ranolazine (RZ), an anti-anginal drug, in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The solvent used was distilled water and the λ max or the absorption maxima of the drug was found to be 272nm. A linear response was observed in the range of 20-100μg/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The method was then validated for different parameters as per the ICH [2] (International Conference for Harmonization) guidelines. This method can be used for the determination of RZ in quality control of formulation without interference of the excipient.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 2, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001100
Title: Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Eletriptan Hydrobromide in Pure and Tablet Dosage Forms
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

A simple efficient, precise and accurate spectroscopic method has been developed and validated for quantitative estimation of Eletriptan in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form. Eletriptan is dissolved in Distilled Water and the resulting solution was then scanned in the UV range (200-400nm) in a 10 mm quartz cell in a double beam UV spectrophotometer. The λmax of Eletriptan was found to be 221nm.The method obeys Beers law in the concentration range from 2-10μg/ml. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.99914 (r2 0.9991). The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.6523 and 1.087mg/ml respectively. The result of estimation of marketed tablet formulation RELPAX (eletriptan)) was found to be 99.87% with their % RSD 0.7652%.The accuracy of the method was determined by recovery studies. The percentage recovery was found to be 99.56± 0.7632%. The method was validated statistically as per ICH guidelines. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD less than 2. So, the proposed method was found to be simple, specific, precise, accuracy, linear, and rugged. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Eletriptan in pharmaceutical formulations.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 2, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-00001099
Title: Therapeutic Role of Nigella sativa on Turpentine Oil Induced Acute Inflammation in Rat Liver
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was performed to investigate the effect of herbal extract of N. sativa in Turpentine oil induced acute hyperlipidemia. Herbal extract of N. sativa was given orally at two doses levels (100 mg/Kg & 150 mg/Kg) for four weeks. Injection of non medicinal turpentine oil (0.2ml) before 6h of sacrificing was given to experimental group. Turpentine oil treated animals showed remarkable changes in inflammation and other lipid biochemical assays when compared to normal control. The 100mg/kg herbal extract treated rats showed significant increase of 25% in total antioxidant activity as compared to control induced hyperlipidemic. In conclusion the extract of N. sativa appeared to be safe and possibly protective against turpentine oil induced lipid peroxidation. However, further studies still to be needed prior to support its use in herbal medicine for hepatoprotection.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001098
Title: Method development and Validation of Reverse Phase HPLC Method for the Determination of Dithranol in Pharmaceutical Ointment Forms
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple and rapid reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of dithranol in Ointments. Dithranol was analyzed by using reverse phase Phenomenex C18 column (4.6mm x 25cm, 5microns) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: water: TFA (60:40:0.05%v/v). The flow rate was set 1.2ml/min and the analysis was performed at wavelength 254nm using Photo Diode Array (PDA) detector at 25°C temperature. The method was validated and stability studies were conducted under different conditions. The retention time for dithranol was around 10.2minutes. The developed method was successfully applied to estimate the amount of dithranol in ointment formulations and it is the stability indicating method.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-NPs-0000396
Title: Soxhlet Extraction of Neem seed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Using Hexane as a Solvent.
Category: Natural Products
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This work proposed the Soxhlet extraction of Neem oil from Neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) using hexane as solvent. Effects of particle size, temperature, and residential time on the extraction parameters were studied. Neem oil was extracted using hexane solvent with ratio of neem seed powder weight to solvent volume of 1:5. Here we have studied the yield of oil. Here, the control mechanism for soxhlet extraction of Neem oil in hexane is mass transfer, and we studied the yield data of Neem oil extraction by using Soxhlet Apparatus. Based on the analysis, showed that decreasing particle size increases the yield of oil and increase in temperature increases the yield of oil. We got the maximum yield of oil of 20ml from 50gm of raw material at a temperature of 650C and 0.6 mm particle size. As the time of contact increases the yield of oil also increases up to optimum time of contact.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000397
Title: Assessment of Medicinal Potentials of Cleome viscosa L. Methanol Extract
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The antimicrobial activity of methanol extract obtained from Cleome viscosa L. was tested against 4 bacterial species (Erwinia carotova, Pseudomonas
marginalis, Pseudomonas syringe and Xanthomonas campestris) and 10 fungal species of (Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Acremonium
strictum, Bipolaris bicolor, Fusarium oxysporium, Pencillium expansum, Rhizoctina solani, Tiarosporella phaseolina and Ustilago maydis) plant pathogens. Better antibacterial activity was observed with the extract showed maximum activity against Erwinia carotova. Among different fungi tested Tiarosporella phaseolina and Alternaria alternate were found to be more sensitive to plant methanol crude extract. The antimicrobial assay was performed by agar well diffusion method. Recent investigations have shown that the antioxidant properties of plants could be correlated with oxidative stress defense and different human diseases. In this respect flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds have gained the greatest attention. The plant extract was tested for Ferric reducing ability of Plasma Assay (FRAP) and total phenol content. For antimicrobial activities tested, the extract was subjected to its effectiveness against both
bacteria and fungi. The zones of inhibition produced by the crude methanol extract against selected phytopathogens were measured and compared with those of standard antibiotics Streptomycin for bacteria and Bavistin for fungi. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of whole plant of Cleome viscosa. The results of present study revealed that C. viscosa whole plant might be explored as viable source of antimicrobial and antioxidant agent.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-SDS-0000395
Title: Synthesis of Nano- crystalline Hydroxyapatite from Biological Wastes: Dead snail shells
Category: Synthetic Drug Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present work, hydroxyapatite (HAp) was successfully synthesized by two different sol-gel synthesis methods using dried dead snail shells, aspecial type of biological wastes, (NH4)2HPO4, and NH4OH as starting materials. The gelatinous precipitate was washed repeatedly with distilled water to remove unwanted ions and dried overnight in an oven at 100 o C and then calcined at 8000C for 2 hour. The powder sample was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Malvern Particle Size Analyzer, X-ray Diffractometer (PW-1830, Philips, Netherlands) using Cu-Ka radiation. FTIR spectra with a Perkin-Elmer (S2000) IR spectrometer, thermogravimetric analysis by (NETZSCH-Geratebau GmbH Thermal Analyzer) BET surface area analyzer (QUANTACHROME Model: Autosorb1). The snail shells seems to be a promising source of calcium for preparing nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with excellent properties so essential for hard tissue replacement.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000394
Title: UV, HPLC Method development and quantification of eugenol isolated by preparative paper chromatography from Alcoholic extracts of different species of Ocimum
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Around 2 ml of 99% eugenol was taken in a clean and dry test tube. The standard eugenol was spotted on a watt man filter paper having dimension 4 X 20 cm. 95% of methanol was mixed with 5% of chloroform by ultra sonication and taken around 100 ml in a chromatographic chamber. and its (Rf) value was calculated. 5mg of each extract was drawn and dissolved in 5 ml of solvent (Meoh:Chloroform 95:5) then 0.1 ml from the above solution was applied to the paper in the form of band and all the procedure was maintained as like as standard. After complete development the paper was removed out and allowed to dry. Measure the Rf value as compared with the standard eugenol. Then the portion which resemble with the standard Rf value was cut out and dissolved in 5ml of the above solvent. The solution then taken for UV analysis. By trial and error, the method having 70 parts of methanol, 20 parts of water and 10 parts of Acetonitrile was fit strong for eugenol in an Isocratic system having column C-18 and this method was developed for both standard eugenol and eugenol present in alcoholic extracts of different species of Ocimum, and subjected for HPLC analysis.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000393
Title: Estimation of Diacerein by UV Spectrophotometry in Bulk and formulation.
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Three simple, precise and economical UV methods have been developed for the estimation of Diacerein in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. In Absorbance maxima method, the absorbance maxima for Diacerin was found to be 256nm. In first order derivative method, the absorbance was measured at λmaxima = 266nm and λminima = 245nm and amplitude difference was measured for the respective concentration of standard and was plotted against concentration and regression equation was calculated. In area under curve method 244-264nm range was selected. Linearity for detector response was observed in the concentration range of 1- 11μg/ml for all three methods. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of Diacerein in commercial pharmaceutical preparation. All three methods were validated statistically as per ICH guidelines.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000392
Title: Hydrotropic Solubilizing Agent Dimethyl Urea In Spectrophotometric Estimation of Gatifloxacin
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present investigation, hydrotropic solubilization technique has been employed to solubilize the poorly water-soluble fluoroquinolone antibiotic gatifIoxacin. There was more than 15-fold enhancement in aqueous solubility of gatifloxacin in 7.5M N,N dimethyl urea as compared to aqueous solubility. The selected λmax for spectrophotometric estimation was 288 nm. The hydrotropic agent and the additive used in the manufacture of tablet did not interfere in the analysis. Statistical data proved the accuracy, reproducibility and precision of proposed method.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000391
Title: Spectro-Photometric Determination of Capecitabine In Pharmaceutical formulations
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Rapid, simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are presented for the determination of Capecitabine. The methods are based on their oxidation and precipitation reactions. In both methods the reactions can be monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance of the produced complexes at 520 and 560 nm. The proposed methods have permitted the quantification of Capecitabine over linearity in the range of 10-120 mg/ml and its percentage recovery was found to be 99.65-99.93 %.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-MD-0000382
Title: Production of chitosan from marine trash crustaceans and its application in mercury removal from seawater
Category: Marine Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The marine bycatch resources especially trash crustaceans can be effectively utilized in producing cheaper means of chitosan; a bioactive substance exhibiting peculiar properties, such as: biodegradability, biocompatibility, adsorption, selective permeability, chelation, ion exchange properties, antitumor and antimicrobial activities. In this present study chitosan is produced from trash crustaceans in bulk quantities indulging minimal infrastructural facilities in laboratory scale. The experimental protocol showed a 3-4 times the production of chitin and chitosan by applying the minimal chemicals. It is then subjected to mercury adsorption from sea water. The FT-IR spectroscopy analysis of the so produced chitosan showed considerable quality of the product as per with the industrial grade chitosan. At the same time proving the former a better choice than the latter for the adsorption of heavy metal (Hg) from the marine resources.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-SDS-0000383
Title: Synthesis of Some Novel N- Acetyl Derivative of Sulpha Drugs and Their Biological Activities.
Category: Synthetic Drug Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Six Acetyl derivatives of some Sulpha drugs ( Sulfadoxine[1] , Sulfadimidine[2] , Sulphamethoxazole[3], Sulphadiazine[4], Dapsone[5] and Sulphamethaxazole [6] were synthesized. COCH3 group was introduced into heterocyclic framework of the Sulpha drugs. The derivatives (1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A and 6A) were characterized by melting point, UV and IR spectroscopies, elemental analysis and Thin layer chromatography. The compounds were screened against Aspergillus niger, E.Coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Some of the derivatives were found to possess higher activities than the parent drugs. Toxicological studies were carried out by investigating the effect of administration of the parent drugs and derivatives on Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities of serum, liver and kidney of Albino rats. Overall, it was revealed that the derivatives exhibited lower toxicity on tested organs than the parent drugs.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000384
Title: Determination of Mineral Composition and Metal Content of Nutraceutically Valued Plant- Embelia basal
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Embelia basal (R. & S.) A. DC, a shrub from family Myrsinaceae is a well known traditional medicine from ancient times. Various species of Embelia are used in Ayurveda for therapeutic purposes. Embelia basal contains health promoting factors such as minerals and metals in different concentrations which is used in indigenous medicines. Fruits of Embelia basal are quantified using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Metal analysis of fruits shows the presence of vital essential minerals. The majority of the plant material is rich in some essential minerals like Fe, K, Zn, Cu, Mg, Ca, Al, Mn along with N and P 2O5 which are known to be beneficial for health. The quantitative metal analysis shows the presence of trace amount of Nickel and Cobalt. The present study provides fundamental data on the availability of some essential minerals, which can be useful to provide dietary information for designing value added foods and for food biofortification. These results may help in the development of new drug formulations.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-NPs-0000385
Title: Antimicrobial activity of ß-asarone from Acorus calamus leaves
Category: Natural Products
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Plants have evolved a number of inducible defence mechanisms against pathogen attack. Acorus calamus known as Vach in Hindi has also been credited with many medicinal properties. An antimicrobial substance ß-asarone was isolated from the methanolic extract of Acorus calamus leaves using various chromatographic procedures. The antibiotic was identified as ß-asarone on the basis of the FTIR, 1H- NMR, and FAB Mass spectral data. Antimicrobial activity of Acorus calamus rhizomes was evaluated in vitro. Different concentrations of ß–asarone isolated from methanolic extract (20-100 μg/ml) were tested and the antimicrobial activity was observed from 40 μg/ml and the zone of inhibition increased with concentration. ß –asarone inhibited growth of bacteria E. coli in a range of 40-100 μg/ml. The growth of fungi A. niger was slightly suppressed by ß-asarone in a range of 80-100 μg/ml. This is the first study to demonstrate in vitro antifungal activity of ßasarone against micro-organisms Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-SDS-0000386
Title: Synthesis, Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Evaluation of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole Derivatives
Category: Synthetic Drug Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities were evaluated for newly synthesized 2-mercaptobenzimidazole derivatives by carageenan induced paw edema method and cup plate method respectively. Totally a series of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole derivatives (1A-1J) were synthesized by mannich reaction from 2- mercaptobenzimidazole by reaction with compounds having secondary amine and formaldehyde. The purity of the synthesized compounds was checked by melting point and TLC and their structure was established by various analytical techniques such as IR and 1HNMR spectral studies. All the synthesized compounds exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity and showed mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000387
Title: Three Simple Spectrometric Methods For Metoprolol Succinate In Tablet Form
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Three simple, precise and economical UV methods have been developed for the estimation of Metoprolol succinate in pharmaceutical dosage form. Method A is Absorbance maxima method, Metoprolol succinate has the absorbance maxima at 273.0 nm, Method B is the first order derivative spectra, the absorbance was measured at lmaxima = 284 nm and λminima = 260 nm with 272 nm as zero crossing point and amplitude difference was measured for the respective concentration of standard and was plotted against concentration and regression equation was calculated. Method C applied was area under curve (AUC), in the wavelength range of 244-294 nm. Linearity for detector response was observed in the concentration range of 25-200 μg/ml for all three methods. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of Metoprolol succinate in commercial pharmaceutical preparation. The results were validated statistically as per ICH
guideline. It was found to be satisfactory.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000388
Title: Advances In HPLC Column Packing
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is a highly improved form of column chromatography in which instead of a solvent being allowed to drip through a column under gravity, it is forced through under high pressures of up to 400 atmospheres(500-5000 p.s.i). The sensitivity and range of the technique depends on the choice of column and on the efficiency of the overall system. Column technology has seen great developments over the years. The transition from large porous particles and pellicular materials to small porous particles occurred in the early 1970s, when micro particulate silica gel (10 -mm dp) came into light and appropriate packing methods were developed. Monolithic columns are a promising alternative to packed columns in the future but much of the research is yet to be done. The use of CAPILLARY COLUMNS (4 mm) has increased in recent years, in part because small-diameter columns use much less solvent and provide higher sensitivity. While speaking of the future of packaging development, silica gel with chemically bonded phases will be around for a long time. The field is a promising one with great scope for research and development.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000389
Title: Analytical Method Development and Validation of Ganciclovir API by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A rapid, sensitive and cost effective high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the determination of Ganciclovir in bulk. Ganciclovir was eluted on a pre-packed Phenomenex C-18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column with acetonitrile & 10 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH 5.0 ± 0.05; 5: 95, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 252 nm. The method is linear with correlation of coefficient greater than 0.998. Percentage RSD of precision study was observed 0.289. The method was rugged showing the percentage RSD of 0.671 and 0.651 for intra-day and inter-day respectively. The method is applicable for the assay of Ganciclovir determination in bulk drug.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-SDS-0000390
Title: Synthesis and antifungal study of novel fluoro-benzothiazole derivatives
Category: Synthetic Drug Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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N-{6-fluoro-7-[(substituted)-amino] 1, 3-benzothiazole-2-yl}-2-nitrobenzamides; N-{6-fluoro-7-[(substituted)-amino] 1, 3-benzothiazole-2-yl}-3-nitrobenzamides and N-{6-fluoro-7-[(substituted)-amino] 1, 3-benzothiazole-2-yl}-4-nitrobenzamides derivatives were synthesized. The synthesized compounds were screened for antifungal activity at two different concentrations (50μg/ml, 100μg/ml) against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by cup plate method (diffusion technique) using Griseoflavin as standard.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-SDS-0000398
Title: Synthesis and Antimicrobial activity of Novel Pyrazolo [3,4-d] Pyrimidine derivatives
Category: Synthetic Drug Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of new N-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-7-methyl/7-methyl -3-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-5H-[1,3]thiazolo[3,2-a] pyrimidine-6-carboxamide have been synthesized by a three component (MCR) reaction involving N-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-3-oxobutanamide,thioura and substituted benzaldehyde gives N-(2,5- dimethylphenyl)-6-methyl-4-phenyl-2-sulfanyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro pyrimidine-5-carboxamide which on reaction with dibromoethane /chloro acetylchloride respectively. The newly synthesized compounds were well characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral studies. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and have exhibited moderate to excellent growth inhibition of bacteria and fungi. The results of such studies have been discussed in this paper.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-NPs-0000399
Title: Effect of ß-carotene from Chlorococcum humicola on biomarker enzymes, Lipid peroxidation and Antioxidants in B(a)P induced lung cancer
Category: Natural Products
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Chlorococcum humicola, fresh water green algae accumulated high amounts of carotenoids with 50-60% of ß-carotene. ß-carotene inhibits tumour growth and suppresses benzo(a)pyrene induced lung cancer. Cancer induction was confirmed with marker enzymes (Gamma Glutamyl transpeptidase, 5’-Nucleotidase, Lactate dehydrogenase, and Adenosine deaminase). At various period of time interval, the biomarkers were assessed which shows the significant alteration on ß-carotene treatment. The levels of lipidperoxidation, enzymic antioxidants (Catalase, Super Oxide Dismutase, and Glutathione Peroxidase) and non-enzymic antioxidants (Reduced Glutathione, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E) showed significant alterations compared with the control mice. The minimal lipid peroxidation and significant improvement of antioxidant status was found in the ß-carotene fed animals. The findings from overall data demonstrates that the animals post treated with ß-carotene from green algae C. humicola may prevent lung cancer and hence aid in establishing the chemopreventive effect when administered orally on lung cancer bearing mice.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 6, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000703
Title: Polarographic studies of Fe(II)-dithiocarbamate complexes at DME: Application to environmental samples
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Two new ligands, ammonium 4-phenylpiperazine-1-dithiocarbamate (Amm 4-PP-DTC) and ammonium 4-benylpiperidine-1-dithiocarbamate (Amm 4-BP-DTC) were synthesized in the laboratory. The method was based on chelation of iron (II) with Amm 4-PP-DTC / Amm 4-BP-DTC in presence of NH4OH at pH 6.2 and 6.6 to produce catalytic hydrogen currents at -1.31V and -1.50V vs SCE respectively and prior detected by DC polarography. Optimized polarographic conditions were established by studying effect of pH, supporting electrolyte (NH4Cl), ligand and metal ion concentrations and effect of adverse ions on peak height to improve the sensitivity, selectivity and detection limits. This technique is successfully applied for the analysis of iron (II) in different matrices with recoveries ranging from 96.25-99.76% and the results obtained were comparable with the AAS.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 6, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001789
Title: Spectral studies of N’’-[(1Z,2Z)-2-(hydroxyimino)-1-phenylpropylidene]-N’’’-[(Z)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]thiocarbonohydrazide(HINSALTH) metal complexes.
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The complexes of new ligand with the transition metal Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), and Zn (II) have been synthesizedandreported for the first time. Ligand act as the ambidentate nature. The geometry of the complexes investigated on the basis of magnetic susceptibility and spectral data. IR studies shows that the ligand behaves as bidentate in metal like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)and coordinate through oximino and azomethanine nitrogen. Based on these results probable structure of these complexes have been proposed, for Ni(II), Zn(II) tetrahedral, Ni(II) octahedral and Cu(II) have square planar structure.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-SDS-00001170
Title: Determination of zolpidem in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study
Category: Synthetic Drug Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class and is available in 5 mg and 10 mg strength tablets for oral administration. A simple, rapid and sensitive high throughput liquid chromatographic method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) has been developed and validated to quantify zolpidem in human plasma using mirtazapine as internal standard. Methods: The analyte and internal standard were extracted from 300 ìL plasma via solid phase extraction and were separated on a Hypurity Advance C-18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µ) with isocratic elution using methanol: acetonitrile: 5 mM ammonium acetate solution (75: 20: 5, v/v/v) as mobile phase. The protonate of analyte was quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The mass transitions m/z 308.4/235.1 and m/z 266.2/195.1 were used to measure zolpidem and mirtazapine respectively. Results: The proposed method validated for a linear dynamic range of 0.5-550 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient = 0.99, where the regression model (1/x2) was best fitted. The intra- and inter-day batches precision (%CV) across the three validation batches (LOQQC, LQC, MQC and HQC) were in the ranged of 4.4-5.7% and 4.9-6.1% respectively. The intra- and inter-day accuracies at different levels of QC were within ± 7%. The drug was found to be stable after a number of stability studies. This method competes with all the regulatory requirements for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and stability for the determination of zolpidem. Conclusions: The validated method was successfully applied in the analysis of zolpidem levels in a clinical pharmacokinetic bioequivalence study following oral administration of zolpidem 10 mg tablets.

Cite this article as:Kuldeep K Namdev, Manoj K Singh, Swapnil Sharma, Jaya Dwivedi,Determination of zolpidem in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(2),99-106.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-SDS-00001169
Title: Efficient, stable and reusable Bi2O3/ZrO2 catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 3, 4-dihydropyrimidi-2(1H)-ones under solvent-free conditions
Category: Synthetic Drug Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-ones were synthesized in high yields by a one-pot cyclocondensation of an aldehyde, 1,3-dicarbonyl compound and urea using Bi2O3/ZrO2 as a recyclable catalyst under solvent-free conditions in short reaction time (2–3.5 h). Bi2O3/ZrO2 catalyst with Bi2O3 loading (3 wt %) was prepared by the wet impregnation method. This catalyst was characterized by various techniques, such as SEM, XRD, FT-IR and elemental analysis. Bi2O3/ZrO2 was found to be stable and efficient to catalyze one-pot Biginelli reaction in solvent-free conditions. The catalyst is recovered by pouring reaction mixture into cold water and filtration.

Cite this article as: Vijaya Charan Guguloth, Gajula Raju, Manohar Basude and Satyanarayana Battu, Efficient, stable and reusable Bi2O3/ZrO2 catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 3, 4-dihydropyrimidi-2(1H)-ones under solvent-free conditions,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(2),86-92.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 6, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001167
Title: Simultaneous determination of Lansoprazole and Metronidazole in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by Reversed Phase- High Performance liquid Chromatography
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Lansoprazole and Metronidazole in Pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was carried out on a C18 (25 cm×4.6 mm i.d, 5 µm particle size) column with a mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile ,water and Triethanol amine(pH 7.3 by addition of O-phosphoric acid) (40:60:1 v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 290nm with UV detector. The retention time of Metronidazole and Lansoprazole was 3.14 and 10.13 min, respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation .The calibration curves were linear with R2 between 0.99to 1.0 over a concentration range of 5-25 µg/ml for Metronidazole and 2-10 µg/ml for Lansoprazole . The RSD for intraday and interday precision was <1.0%.The proposed method can be used for the estimation of these drugs in combined dosage forms. Degradation studies showed that solutions of both the drug were stable for 5 hr at room temperature but both the drug showed degradation when subjected to thermal and photodegradation.

Cite this article as: Snehal Y. Kane, Snehalatha B., Munira Momin,Simultaneous determination of Lansoprazole and Metronidazole in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by Reversed Phase- High Performance liquid Chromatography,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(2),80-85

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001163
Title: Stability-indicating HPTLC determination of mefenamic acid in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations.
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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High-performance thin-layer chromatographic method was described for the analysis of Mefenamic acid in powder and in pharmaceutical formulations. The method employed HPTLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase and mixture of petroleum ether–chloroform–glacial acetic acid (5.0 : 3.0 : 0.5, v/v/v) as mobile phase. This system gave compact spots for Mefenamic acid with Rf value of 0.60. Densitometric analysis of mefenamic acid was carried out in the absorbance mode at 283 nm. The linear concentration range was 0.2–3.0 µg per spot with correlation coefficient of 0.9987. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.09 and 0.30 µg per spot, respectively. Mefenamic acid was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation and photodegradation. The degraded product was well separated from the parent drug. The drug does not undergo degradation under photo, oxidative and acidic conditions. Degradation with sodium hydroxide showed additional spot at Rf value of 0.32. This indicates that the drug is susceptible to alkaline degradation. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable and selective for the estimation of this drug. As the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation product, it considered as a stability-indicating one. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied for mefenamic acid analysis in commercially available tablets.

Cite this article as: Safaa F. Saleh, Sayed M. Dereaya  and Mahmoud A.Omar,Stability-indicating HPTLC determination of mefenamic acid in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(1),55-60.

 

 

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 2, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001974
Title: Spectrophotometric Determination of Manganese (II) With 2-Hydroxy- 1-Naphthaldehyde Isonicotinoylhydrazone
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective method is developed for the spectrophotometric determination of manganese (II). The reagent, 2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (OHNAINH) reacts with manganese (II) in aqueous DMF solutions in the pH range 5.0-10.0 and at room temperature to form a brown coloured 1:2 (metal:ligand) complex with absorption maximum at 495nm with a molar absorptivity 1.02 x 104 Lit mo1-1cm-1 and Sandell’s sensitivity 0.52 X 10-2μg cm-2. Beer’s law is obeyed in the range of 0.27-4.12μg mL-1 of Mn (II). A method for the determination of manganese (II) by first order derivative spectrophotometry has also been proposed. Interference of various diverse ions has been studied. The present method is applied for the determination of manganese in tap water, cement samples, milk, steel alloys and plant samples.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 6, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001161
Title: Simultaneous determination of copper and cadmium as Cu(DDTC)2 Spectrophotometrically after fractional extraction
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Copper(II) and cadmium(II) forms M(DDTC)2 complexes (M=Cu, Cd) with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) that is extracted in CHCl3/CCl4. Yellow Cu(DDTC)2 shows maximum absorbance at 435 nm whereas Cd(DDTC)2 has no absorption. Extract was divided into two fractions. Absorption of one fraction is directly measured which is equivalent to Cu(II) present in sample. Addition of excess copper(II) to the second fraction of the extract displaces cadmium quantitatively forming additional Cu(DDTC)2 as its stability is higher than Cd(DDTC)2. The absorbance of second extract is measured subsequently when additional absorbance is equivalent to cadmium. Linear calibration range was obtained 0.05–17 µg mL-1 for cadmium and 0.02–12 µg mL-1 for copper with the regression coefficient (r2) 0.998 for each. In the presence of EDTA as masking agent very good selectivity was achieved.

Cite this article as:Mohammad Nasir Uddin, Md. Muzahidul Islam, Nur Mostaq Shah,Simultaneous determination of copper and cadmium as Cu(DDTC)2 Spectrophotometrically after fractional extraction , International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(1),43-49.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-SM-00001160
Title: Antagonistic effect of rhizospheric Aspergillus species against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici
Category: Secondary Metabolites
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present research work was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of five Aspergillus species as biocontrol agent against the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, the causal organism of tomato wilt disease, in in vitro condition. Materials and methods: Isolation and identification of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici pathogen and In-vitro screening of antagonist native bio agents against F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici form tomato cultivated soil were collected from different areas in and around Mysore district which is located between latitude 11°45' to 12°40' N and longitude 75°57' to 77°15' E, Karnataka state, India. Five Aspergillus isolates were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici following the dual culture technique in vitro. Results: Biological control is an innovative, cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for control of diseases. In the present study, the bio-agents, isolated from indigenous soil, were identified based on morphological characteristics and spore structure. Five Aspergillus isolates, isolated from indigenous soil, displayed significant antagonistic activity and suppressed the growth of the pathogen. Among five, A. niger inhibited 80.33% growth of the pathogen, A. flavus isolate 1 and A. tamarii inhibited 77.03% growth of the pathogen when compared to control.

Cite this article as: Anil Kumar R. and RajKumar H. Garampalli,Antagonistic effect of rhizospheric Aspergillus species  against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(1),39-42.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001159
Title: Evaluation of the Angiosuppresive Activity of Prodigiosin Using the Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel development that performances a crucial function in embryonic development and many pathological situation encompassing cancer. The potential use of natural products in antiangiogenesis is to be appreciated especially their role in chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of red pigment isolated from marine bacteria Vibrio sps. This pigment was further purified and characterized by physical and chemical characteristics using TLC, UV–vis Spectroscopy, NMR H, and C NMR and confirmed as prodigiosin. The chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of prodigiosin. The antiangiogenic activity of prodigiosin implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired.

Cite this article as: Pabba Shiva Krishna, Gudikandula Krishna, Laxminarayana Eppakayala, Reddy Shetty Prakasham and M.A.Singara Charya ,Evaluation of the Angiosuppresive Activity of Prodigiosin Using the Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(1),33-38

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001158
Title: The polarographic study of Cobalt(II)-dithiocarbamate complexes at DME
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Cobalt is a naturally occurring element in the earth’s crust. It is a very small part of our environment and very small amounts are needed for many animals and humans to stay healthy. Cobalt poisoning can occur when exposed to large amounts of cobalt. The aim of this study was to develop a facile, rapid, robust, sensitive and selective methodology for the determination of cobalt(II). Two new ligands, ammonium 2,6-dimethyl morpholine dithiocarbamate (ADMM-DTC) and ammonium 3-methyl piperdine dithiocarbamate (AMP-DTC) were synthesized in the laboratory. The method was based on chelation of cobalt(II) with ADMM-DTC/AMP-DTC in presence of NH4OH at pH 7.2 and 8.2 to produce catalytic hydrogen currents at -1.28 V and -1.38 V vs SCE respectively and prior detected by D.C polarography. Optimized polarogaphic conditions were established by studying effect of pH, supporting electrolyte (NH4Cl), ligand & metal ion concentrations and effect of adverse ions on peak height to improve the sensitivity, selectivity and detection limits of the present method. This technique is successfully applied for the analysis of cobalt(II) in different matrices with recoveries ranging from 93- 98 % and the results obtained were comparable with the differential pulse polarography (DPP).

Cite this article as:C. Giridhar, S. Kanchi, T. Niranjan, N. Venkatasubba Naidu,The polarographic study of Cobalt(II)-dithiocarbamate complexes at DME,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(1),24-32.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 6, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-00001157
Title: Antihyperglycemic activity of Boerhaavia diffusa in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Many Indian medicinal plants were investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model and provided scientific validation to prove their antihyperglycemic activity. In view of alleged antidiabetic potential, effect of the aqueous and methanol extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa (Nyctaginaceae) roots, was observed on fasting blood sugar levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Fasting plasma glucose levels were determined by an enzymatic method using a kit. Results: Results show that both the extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose level in STZ induced diabetic rats. Conclusion: A plausible mechanism of action is that the extracts might have stimulated the residual pancreatic beta-cell function or produced the hypoglycaemia.

Cite this article as: Deepti Malhotra, Fouzia Ishaq and Amir Khan,Antihyperglycemic activity of Boerhaavia diffusa in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(1),21-23.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001156
Title: Fabrication of Nafion/HRP-SWCNT/MWCNT-ZnO based alcohol biosensor: Diagnostics for forensic analysis
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Nafion/HRP-SWCNT/MWCNT-ZnO working electrode was fabricated. The principle enzyme alcohol oxidase was immobilized on inner surface of PVC beaker which forms the body of electrochemical cell. Optimization of the sensor system was performed and, for electrochemical measurements, a potential (E) of -50 mV versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode was chosen in 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer at pH 8.0. The ethanol content in standard solutions was determined and the biosensor exhibit a linear range from 10 µM to 750 µM with detection limit of 10 µM and a response time of about 10s. These characteristics allowed its application for detection of alcohol concentration in the saliva and blood samples. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that immobilized alcohol oxidase has high specificity toward ethanol and showed good storage stability, which may be of considerable interest for clinical and forensic application.

Cite this article as:Anjum Gahlaut, Monika Dahiya,Rekha Dhull,Neeraj Dilbagi, Fabrication of Nafion/HRP-SWCNT/MWCNT-ZnO based alcohol biosensor:Diagnostics for forensic analysis,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(1),15-20.

 

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001154
Title: Simultaneous estimation of Pyronaridone Tetraphosphate and Artesunate in Bulk and Combined Tablet Dosage form by RP-HPLC.
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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A simple, sensitive, linear, precise and accurate method by Gradient RP-HPLC for the simultaneous estimation of Pyronaridone Tetraphosphate and Artesunate in Bulk and in their combined Tablet Dosage form was developed and validated. The separation of the two drugs was based on the use of Inertsil ODS 3V (250 × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 ìm) column in a Gradient mode. Mobile phase consisted of 0.1% orthophosphoric acid (Solvent A) and Acetonitrile (Solvent B) was set with gradient programming for 20 min and was delivered at 1 ml/min flow rate and effluents are achieved with variable wavelength PDA detector at 220 nm. The retention times of Pyronaridone Tetraphosphate and Artesunate were found to be 2.17 minutes and 11.59 minutes respectively. The percentage assay of Pyronaridone Tetraphosphate and Artesunate was found to be 99.39% and 99.95% respectively. Calibration curves were linear for PYT and ART at concentration ranges of 72-216 ìg/ml, and 24-72 ìg/ml with the regression coefficient of 0.999 for both the drugs and precise with (%RSD<2). The LOD for PYT and ART was found to be 1.8 ìg/ml and 0.06 ìg/ml and LOQ for PYT and ART was found to be 5.4 ìg/ml and 1.8 ìg/ml respectively. The method was validated by determining its linearity, accuracy, precision, system suitability and can be employed for routine quality control analysis as per ICH guidelines.

Cite this article as: K. Neelima, Y. Rajendra Prasad,Simultaneous estimation of Pyronaridone Tetraphosphate and Artesunate in Bulk and Combined Tablet Dosage form by RP-HPLC,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(2),93-98

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 6, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001153
Title: Analytical Techniques in Forensic Science: MS & Bio-Sensor based diagnostics
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background/Objectives: Forensic science is a stream which owes its growth to the advancements in technology. Forensic science analyses samples or material evidences like blood, skin, semen, hair collected from the site of crime through detection techniques. Methods: Various analytical techniques including Gas/Liquid Chromatography, HPLC, Mass Spectrometry, Immunoassays, enzymatic assays, DNA profiling techniques, PCR, biosensing and metabolomics involved for forensic studies. LC-MS is efficient in telling the chemical nature of almost all kind of samples. DNA profiling provides the fingerprint of individual’s DNA which are used in criminal identification and solving disputes related to paternity and maternity. PCR allows gaining great deal of information from very limited amount of samples. Conclusion: Cumulative use of the detection techniques has totally changed the parameters of forensic analysis. The traces of samples can easily be analysed accurately and efficiently. This review provides an overview of the recent methods and technology used for forensic analysis.

Cite this article as:Anjum Gahlaut,Vikas Dhull, Monika Dahiya, Rajesh Dabur,Analytical Techniques in Forensic Science: MS & Bio-Sensor based diagnostics,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(1),6-10

 

 

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001152
Title: Stability- Indicating High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Determination of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate both as a bulk drug and in formulation was developed and validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines .The method employed TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of butanol: ethyl acetate: acetic acid (4.5:0.5:0.3 v/v) and densitometric analysis was carried out in the absorbance mode at 260 nm. The system was found to give compact spot for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Rf value of 0.51 ± 0.02). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good relationship with r2= 0.9999 ± 0.0001 in the concentration range 300 – 1800 ng/spot. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal degradation and photo degradation. There was no interference of the excipients on the determination of the active pharmaceutical ingredients. Proposed method is precise, selective and accurate for the estimation of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in the bulk and dosage form.

Cite This article as: Charushila H. Bhirud *, Dr.S.N.Hiremath,Stability- Indicating High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Determination of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(1),1-5.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001155
Title: Application of response surface methodology in lithium recovery from highly concentrated solutions containing Mg2+ ions
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The technique of Response surface methodology (RSM) is an integration of experimental strategies, mathematical methods and statistical inference which allows for simultaneous variation of several factors to find the optimal level giving the most interesting response. In this work this method was applied in order to establish the optimum conditions (Al/Li molar ratio, pH and reaction time) for lithium trapping using RSM methodology in presence of Mg2+ ions. The optimum values of these factors were found to be 4, 8.4 and 4h25min respectively. A 24-1 fractional factorial design and central composite design were employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. Predicted values are tested. The obtained results indicate that maximal lithium trapping is 95% and magnesium remaining in solution is 72%. For reducing the magnesium retained in the aluminum gel, washing with distilled water is indispensable. This operation has increased the total percentage of recovered magnesium in solution which reaches 97%. It should be noted that this operation reduces slightly the Li trapping only from 1 to 2%.

Cite this article as: A. Somrani, A. H. Hamzaoui and A. M’Nif,Application of response surface methodology in lithium recovery from highly concentrated solutions containing Mg2+ ions,International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2014,5(1),11-14

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 7, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-00001852
Title: Comparative study of analytical method development of fluconazole in tablets and capsule by ultraviolet spectrophotometric method
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: This comparative study is aimed to develop and validate a simple, accurate, economic, and precise ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic method for tablets and capsules of fluconazole. Percentage purity of fluconazole in tablets and capsule was determined using bracketing method. Method: The method involves the use of easily available inexpensive solvents that is distilled water. UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, model 1800) which has two matched quartz cells with 1 cm light path and a detection wavelength of 261 nm using a UV detector. Results: A linear response was observed over the concentration range 5-25 μg/mL of fluconazole. Detection limit for fluconazole tablet and capsule was found to be 0.894 and 1.35, respectively. Quantitation limit for fluconazole tablet and capsule was found 2.71 and 4.1, respectively. The percentage purity was found 101.35% and 97.29% for tablet and capsule, respectively. Conclusion: The comparative study of proposed method gives analytical results which satisfy all validation parameters for both tablet and capsules. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines acceptance criteria for linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, and ruggedness. Good precision and accuracy which prove the reliability of proposed method in different dosage form. Hence, this method can be used routinely for quantitative estimation of fluconazole in solid dosage form (tablet and capsule) by UV spectrophotometer. The literature survey revealed that various research works are done with fluconazole in bulk, tablet, capsule, and any other formulations. The present work gives detail account on comparative study of tablet and capsule for analytical method development and validation.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000316
Title: Phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of mangrove plant Heritiera littoralis
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of stem Heritiera littoralis and the compounds isolated from ethyl acetate extract. On the basis of their melting points, spectral data (IR, 1H and 13CMR) and mass spectral data the tested compound is Heritol. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts and their isolated compounds were investigated and tested against gram + ve and – ve bacteria and fungi.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000331
Title: Simultaneous determination of tetravalent vanadium and hexavalent molybdenum using second derivative spectrophotometry
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A second derivative spectrophotometric procedure is developed for the simultaneous determination of vanadium (IV) and molybdenum (VI). The method is based on the color reaction between tetracycline (TCL) and the above mentioned ions in a solution of pH 5.5. The simultaneous determination is performed by measuring the signal at zero crossing wave length. The linear calibration range, regression equation, correlation coefficient and relative error are reported in each case. The results obtained by the proposed method were in good agreement with those obtained by the standard method.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000332
Title: Evaluation of Physicochemical and Standardisation parameters of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl.
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts like leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant of of plant Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. (Solanaceae) are used. It is commonly known as Yellow Berried Nightshade (syn: kantakari). It is a prickly diffuse bright green perennial herb, woody at the base and 2–3 m in height. It is found throughout India mostly in dry places as a weed on roadsides and waste lands. The fruit is used as anti-asthmatic, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-tussive, antifeedant, antipyretic, antispasmodic, anti-histaminic, hypotensive, antianaphylactic and cytotoxic activity. Till today there is no detailed standardisation work reported for the Solanum xanthocarpum. Physicochemical parameters like preliminary characteristics, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue, aflatoxin and microbial contamination analysis were carried out. The study revealed different parameters of the crude drug which will be useful in identification and control of adulterations.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000333
Title: Simultaneous estimation of aceclofenac, tramadol hydrochloride and paracetamol by UV spectrophotometric simultaneous equation method from tablet formulation
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, accurate, precise and economical procedure for simultaneous estimation of aceclofenac, tramadol hydrochloride and paracetamol in three component tablet dosage form has been developed utilizing concept of internal standard addition. The method is based upon determination of aceclofenac at 275.5nm, tramadol hydrochloride at 271.0 nm and paracetamol at 247.0 nm in methanol diluted with distilled water. Aceclofenac, tramadol hydrochloride and paracetamol at their respective ëmax 275.5nm, 271.0 nm and 247.0 nm shows linearity in the concentration range of 5- 25 μg/ml, 20-100 μg/ml and 3-15 μg/ml respectively. The method was validated statistically. Recovery study was performed to confirm the accuracy of the method.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000335
Title: Diabetic Nephropathy : An Updated Review
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Diabetic nephropathy is associated with increased mortality in diabetic patients and is a major cause of end stage renal disease in most countries. Diabetic nephropathy seems to occur as a result of an interaction between metabolic and haemodynamic factors .Glucose dependent pathway are activated with in diabetic kidney .These include increased oxidative stress and accumulation of advanced glycated endproduct. Haemodynamic factors are also implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and include increased systemic and intraglomerular pressure and activation of various vasoactive hormone pathways including renin-angiotensin and endothelin. Despite the modern therapies involved in the management and prevention of diabetic nephropathy include antidiabetics ,anti-hypertensive, particularly those which interrupt the renin-angiotensin system, antioxidants and inhibitors of advanced glycation end product are available to treat diabetic nephropathy.The purpose of this review is to bring together the current information concerning the signaling system involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000338
Title: New Spectrophotometric method to determine Ketoprofen in tablet dosage form using mixed Hydrotropy
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In this investigation, a blend consisting of 30% urea and 30% sodium citrate solution has been used as hydrotropic solubilizing agent for ketoprofen to carry out its spectrophotometric analysis. Ketoprofen shows tremendous increase in aqueous solubility of more than 700 folds in this blend. Thus, it was thought worthwhile to solubilize ketoprofen by this blend of solubilizing agents to carry out spectrophotometric analysis. Ketoprofen showed maximum absorbance at 260 nm and Beer’s law was obeyed in concentration range of 4-20 μg/ml. The mean percent label claims estimated were very close to 100 with low values of standard deviation, percent coefficient of variation and standard error indicating the accuracy of the proposed analytical method. The results of recovery studies showed that the mean percent recoveries ranged from 99.49 to 101.37, which further proved the validity and reproducibility of the proposed method. Thus, it may be concluded that the proposed method of analysis is new, simple, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, safe, accurate, and reproducible.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000339
Title: Photodegradation and Photostabilization of Ascorbic Acid in Pharmaceutical Preparations
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A number of drug substances and their formulated products including ascorbic acid may degrade on exposure to light and appropriate precautions are to be taken to preserve the active ingredients as raw material and in dosage forms. Ascorbic acid solutions on UV irradiation are degraded to dehydroascorbic acid and further photoproducts including 2,3-diketo-L-gulonic acid, oxalic acid and L-theoronic acid. Pharmaceutical formulations containing ascorbic acid have been stabilized by using antioxidants, DL-methionine, mannitol, sorbitol, sucrose, dextrose, halide salts, triplet quenchers, metal-complexing agents and viscosity enhancing agents.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000340
Title: Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Lepidium sativum Linn. Seeds against Food-borne Pathogens
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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constituents of the dried powdered seeds were extracted using solvents viz., chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and dichloromethane. The antibacterial activities of the concentrated extracts were evaluated by agar well diffusion method. The methanol extract showed the effective antibacterial activity against the pathogens used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also determined for most active extract by tube dilution method and subculturing method respectively. The MIC values of the methanol extract ranged from 1.56 mg/ml to 25.0 mg/ml whereas the MBC values ranged from 6.25 mg/ml to 25.0 mg/ml. These results suggest the potential use of the seeds of Lepidium sativum for the control of infectious diseases from food poisoning. However, more adequate toxicological study must be carried out to verify the possibility of using it for fighting pathogenic microorganisms in human.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000341
Title: Simultaneous estimation of sumatriptan succinate and ergotamine tartrate in the tablet dosage form.
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, specific, accurate and economical, an isocratic reversed phase liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and subsequently validated for the determination of sumatriptan succinate and ergotamine tartrate. Separation was achieved with a Nucleodur C– 18 column having 250x4.6 mm i.d. with 5μm particle size and 10mmol disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer, adjusted to pH 6.5 using diluted ortho phosphoric acid and acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) with isocratic program as eluent at a constant flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. UV detection was performed at 210 nm. The retention times of sumatriptan succinate and ergotamine tartrate were about 3.79min and 8.00min respectively. This method is simple, rapid and selective and can be used for routine analysis of sumatriptan succinate and ergotamine tartrate. The proposed method shows good linearity, accuracy and reproducibility. Results of analysis validated statistically and by recovery studies.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000342
Title: Review on Mucco Adhesive Buccal film and its Importance
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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For many decades, treatment of an acute disease or a chronic illness has been mostly accomplished by delivering drugs using various pharmaceutical dosage forms including tablets, capsules, pills, suppositories, creams, ointments, liquids, aerosols, and injectables as carriers. . However, this route presents some problems for a few drugs. The enzymes in the GI fluids, GIT-pH conditions, and the enzymes bound to GIT membranes are a few factors responsible for the bioavailability problems. During past few years, increasing interest has arisen in the use of bioadhesive formulations for the development of novel drug delivery systems. Bioadhesive formulations have a wide scope of applications, for both systemic and local effects.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000327
Title: A Comparative study for quality assessment of Calotropis procera Linn. root at selected regions
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The herbal drug Alarka is botanically called as Calotropis procera Linn. In the recent past tremendous attempts are being made to evaluate the scientific standards for traditional system of medicines, particularly in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The use of the plants, plant extracts, and pure compounds isolated from natural sources has always provided a foundation for modern pharmaceutical compounds. Calotropis procera Linn is small, erect and compact shrubs, which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. This shrub has been known to posses Analgesic, Antitumor, Antihelmintic, Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Inflammatory, Antidiarrhoeal, Anticonvulsant, Antimicrobial, Oestrogenic, Antinociceptive, and Antimalarial activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including- Benzoyllineolone, benzoylisolinelone and ß-amyrin. The root bark contains the calotropoleanyl ester, proceroleanenol A and proceroleanenol B. The latex contains the calactin, calotropin, uscharin, sitosterol, and calotoxin. The thin layer chromatographic studies of alcohol extract was also carried out to ascertain the quality of this drug. For the evaluation of Pharmacopoeial standards phytochemical parameters are adopted. These studies suggested that the observed physiochemical parameters are of great value in quality control and formulation development of Calotropis procera.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000326
Title: Antihyperlipidemic potential of a polyherbal drug (Geriforte) on atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemia: A Comparison with Ayurslim
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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We investigated the antihyperlipidemic activity of a polyherbal drug (Geriforte). The present study was undertaken to assess body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) potential of the polyherbal drug (Geriforte) using atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemia. The animals were divided into four groups: normal control, hyperlipidemic control, hyperlipidemic plus Geriforte and hyperlipidemic plus Ayurslim. Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with butter fat (79% standard diet + 21% butter fat). Intragastric administration of Geriforte (450 mgkg-1 body weight) for 8 days significantly decreased body weight, TC, TG and LDL and VLDL whereas significantly increased level of HDL. Atherogenic index was lowered in the Geriforte drug fed animals when compared to hyperlipidemic animals. Geriforte exhibited quite competitive potential when compared with the reference drug Ayurslim affording a possible alternative therapeutic drug in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000317
Title: Spectrophotometric estimation of paracetamol from tablet formulations
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Paracetamol is an analgesic and antipyretic drug. Simple, precise, rapid and selective zero order and area under curve UV spectrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of paracetamol from tablet dosage forms. The methods involve measurement of absorptivity at 245 nm respectively. The method shows good linearity, accuracy and reproducibility. Results of analysis validated statistically and by recovery studies.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000318
Title: Quantitative estimation of fixed oil obtained from seeds of lepidium sativum Linn.
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Oil is an important source of fat and is important in human diet. Beside this, oil plays a vital role in maintaining the agricultural economy of the country. The necessity for providing more oil and fat to the human society has been the incentive for intensive cultivation of crops. Scientists are working in this field to search out natural sources of oil crop’s containing various drugs of medicinal importance. Lepidium sativum Linn. (Brassicaceae), commonly known as chansur is important medicinal plant of Herbal Materia Medica and widely used as spice. The plant is used in different traditional systems of medicine in the treatment of various diseases. The present paper deals with the quantitative estimation of seed oil of Lepidium sativum Linn.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000319
Title: Studies on the hypoglycaemic activity of Acacia suma (Roxb.) barks.
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The different extracts of the barks of Acacia suma (Roxb.) (Family-Fabaceae) was tested for hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic and alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats at dose levels of 100,200 and 400mg/kg, p.o. respectively. The extract was further subjected to oral glucose tolerance test in normal rats. The hypoglycaemic activity of the bark was compared with the reference standard glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.). The study revealed that the bark extract caused significant reduction in the blood glucose level in both normoglycaemic and alloxan induced diabetic rats at the tested dose levels in a dose dependant manner. In glucose-loaded animals, the extract also reduced the elevated blood glucose concentration. The study established the scientific basis for the utility of this plant in the treatment of diabetes and justifies the use of the barks of the plant for treating diabetes as suggested in folklore remedies.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000320
Title: Chemical and biological examination of the leaves of Tephrosia tinctoria PERS.
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The genus Tephrosia is known for its unusual flavonoids. Chemical examination of the leaves of Tephrosia tinctoria led to the isolation of stigmasterol, lupinifolin, 7-O-methyl glabranin, rotenone, dehydrodeguelin and betulinic acid. The compounds were isolated and purified by chromatographic methods and the structures were established by 2D NMR analysis and MS spectral data. All the compounds are reported for the first time from the species T. tinctoria. The crude extracts of Tephrosia tinctoria showed antibacterial, antifungal and piscicidal activities.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000321
Title: Physicochemical characterization, formulation, and dissolution studies of ezetimibe hydroxypropyl ß -cyclodextrin inclusion complex.
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objective of this research was to prepare, characterize and to study effect on dissolution of inclusion complexes of Ezetimibe (EZM), with hydroxypropyl- ß- cyclodextrin (HPß-CD). Phase solubility curve was of A L type, indicating the 1:1 stoichimetry for HP-ß-CD: EZM complexation. The complexes were prepared by methods such as kneading, co-evaporation and physical mixing. The EZM in all samples were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, DSC and PXRD studies. The highest improvement indissolution of EZM was observed in complex prepared using co-evaporation method and were assessed by mean dissolution time (MDT) and similarity factor f2.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000322
Title: Method development and validation of RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of ibuprofen and methocarbamol
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A rapid, sensitive and specific RP-HPLC method involving UV detection was developed and validated for determination and quantification of Ibuprofen and Methocarbamol. Chromatography was carried out on a pre-packed Develosil, ODS-MG-5 (150*4.6mm, 5μ column using filtered and degassed mixture of chloroacetic acid buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of (400:600) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min and effluent was monitored at 230nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity, limit of quantification and limit of detection. The assay was linear over the concentration range of Ibuprofen and Methocarbamol was 20mcg-60mcg/ml and 500mcg to 1500mcg/ml respectively. Accuracy of the method was determined through recovery studies by adding known quantities of standard drug to the pre analyzed test solution and was found to be 99.7%-100.06% and 99.90%-100.01% within precision RSD of 0.05 and 0.94 for Ibuprofen and Methocarbamol respectively. The system suitability parameters such as theoretical plates and tailing factor were found to be 9610.4, 1.2 and 4611.8, 1.1 respectively for Ibuprofen and Methocarbamol. The method does require only 10 minutes as run time for analysis which prove the adoptability of the method for the routine quality control of the drug.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000323
Title: Comparative study on identification and estimation of Methionine in the pharmaceutical dosage forms
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Identification and estimation of methionine in pharmaceutical Dosage forms by different Analytical methods. Methods :A novel method for the identification and estimation of DL-Methionine in various pharmaceutical dosage forms like tablets and syrups was developed. Identification was done by the Paper chromatography technique; identification carried out by measuring color development by ninhydrin as a spray reagent. The absorbance of the solution was measured at 570 nm. Beer-Lambert’s law was observed to obey in the range of 10-100 mcg. In the estimation of methionine in pharmaceutical dosage forms, the quadratic polynomial coefficient was computed by measuring the fluorescence of the drug in 0.01N hydrochloric acid and six points equally spaced at 5nm levels on the emission spectrum from 550 to 575 nm were plotted. The quadratic polynomial coefficient was found to be linear (directly proportional) to the concentration in the range 0.5 to 2.0mcg. Results: Recoveries were quantitative with good reproducibility. Excipients like bronidiol, parabens, essences, sugars and coloring agents did not interfere with proposed methods, Method A. (Beer-Lamberts Law ) both the isomers of Methionine D AND L forms gave Rf values of 0.32 and 0.40 respectively. The linear responses were in the range of 10-100mcg. The experimental recovery was 98-99% with 99-100% reproducibility.Method B: Paracetamol and Ibuprofen did not interfere with the proposed method. Estimation of Methionine by method B (orthogonal polynomials) was although linear but comparatively less precise with recoveries of 97-99% with 99% reproducibility. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that the estimation of the compound could be done by either of the methods with a good correlation between them within the specified limits of concentration. How ever comparatively Beer-Lamberts Law is found to be much more precise than the other. Thus, the analysis of compound by orthogonal polynomial coefficient although is an important and convenient tool, but less effective in comparison to other method (beer lamberts law).

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000324
Title: RP-HPLC method development for the determination of assay of Donepezil hydrochloride
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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RP-HPLC method was developed and validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, selectivity, limit of quantitation, and precision for the determination of Donepezil hydrochloride. Donepezil was identified and quantitated on a C18 reversed phase column (3.9×150mm, 5.0μm), using a mobile phase composed of acetate buffer-Acetonitrile (50:50v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min, and with UV detection (λexcitation = 230nm). The method was proven to be linear over a Donepezil hydrochloride concentration range of 12.5 to 75μg/mL with a mean correlation coefficient of 0.9999.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-Es-0000325
Title: Advances in biochemical functions and the photochemistry of flavins and flavoproteins
Category: Enzyme study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The biochemical and photochemical aspects of flavins and flavoproteins have been reviewed with particular reference to their biochemical functions, nutritional importance and photochemical reactions including photodegradation, photosensitization and photoreception. The flavin coenzymes are involved in a wide variety of metabolic reactions. The two main photochemical reactions of flavins have been described as intramolecular photoreduction and intramolecular photoaddition leading to the formation of lumichrome and cyclodehydroriboflavin, respectively, as the major final products. Flavin-sensitized photochemical reactions have important biological implications. The techniques of laser flash photolysis, femtosecond-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy have been applied to study the dynamics of flavoproteins. Information regarding the photostability of riboflavin (vitamin B2) in pharmaceutical preparations has been provided.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000344
Title: A Review on Bergenia Ligulata Wall
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Bergenia ligulata Wall (Saxifragaceae) is perennial herb that grows wild in stones and rocks. This plant has been reported to exhibit various biological activities & thus has several traditional uses. It is used as an antidiabetic, diuretic, astringent, cardiotonic, woundhealer, expectorant, antipyretic, kidneystone & as a tonic. This review presents a comprehensive literature search of different studies carried out on phytoconstituents like ß-sitosterol, ß-sitosterol-D-glucoside, afzelechin and Catechin.Further investigations may help in exploiting its properties.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000345
Title: Antibacterial Efficacy of Secondary Metabolites from Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of crude ethyl acetate extract of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (ITCC 4688) against ten aerobic pathogenic bacteria including Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus, Klebsiella aerogenes, Psuedomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum. The acetate extracts of Beauveria bassiana (ITCC 4688) were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = mg/L) against many of the species tested. Significant antibacterial activity was found from 500 to 1000 μg/ml against Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus, Escherichia coli; 700 to 1000 μg/ml against Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and from 900 to 1000 μg /ml against Streptococcus pyogenes, Chromobacterium violaceum. The results suggest differential action of antibacterial property of crude extract of B. bassiana depending upon the active compounds on the specific bacteria. Hence, the present study gives an idea to test against more number of organisms and to find out the actual antibacterial compound from B. bassiana.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-DD-0000358
Title: Development and characterization of niosomal drug delivery of α-tocopherol
Category: Drug Delivery
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study is an aim to overall improvement in the efficacy, reduced toxicity and enhancement of therapeutic index of niosome carrying α-tocopherol.Niosome were prepared by reverse phase evaporation method using span and tween (20 and/or 60).The preparations were characterize with respect to size reduction, entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release profile and stability under specific conditions. The diameter of niosomes ranges from 1-5μm with discrete and round in shape.The percent entrapment efficiency of the vesicles was found to be 67.84 %, 61.17%, 75.13% and 79.63% for F1, F2, F3 and F4 respectively. Highly cumulative release was observed with 81.78 % for span 20, 75.92% for span 60, 96.01% for tween 20 and 92.35 % for tween 60 respectively. Stability studies proved that optimum storage condition for niosomes was found to be 40C.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000359
Title: In vitro antibiotic activity of volatile oils of Carum carvi & Coriandrum sativum
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The antimicrobial activity of Volatile Oils isolated from Carum Carvi and Coriandrum Sativum were studied. The isolated Volatile Oils in varying concentrations were studied against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Proteus Vulgaris, by paper disc diffusion method, using Streptomycin as standard drug. The result indicated that both Carum Carvi and Coriandrum Sativum has antimicrobial potential and were active against Pseudomonous Aeruginosa selectively, while both oils were ineffective against Proteus Vulgaris.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000360
Title: A Validated Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Ziprasidone as Hydrochloride in Bulk and pharmaceutical formulations
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Three simple, sensitive, selective and accurate Spectrophotometric methods (M1 to M 3) for the determination of Ziprasidone Hydrochloride (ZPD.HCl) in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations (tablets) have been described. Three individual methods are based on the charge transfer complex formation (M1), Inner salt formation (M2) and Precipitation/complex formation reaction (M3) of drug with different reagents to form colored chromogens exhibiting lmax 540 (M1), 580 (M2) and 470 (M3) nm respectively. The results of analysis for the three methods have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. The results are compared with those obtained using UV Spectrophotometric method in isopropyl alcohol at 229 nm.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000361
Title: New Aurum Coupling Reaction for Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Tolterodine Tartrate in Pharmaceutical Preparations
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric procedures were developed for the analysis of Tolterodine Tartrate (TT) in pure form as well as in pharmaceutical formulations. The methods are based on the reaction of TT with gold (III) chloride in the pH range 1.0 – 5.0 forming violet colored complex solution, showing absorption maxima at 540 nm. The linear plot indicates that Beer’s law is obeyed in the range of 10 – 90 μg/ml of tolterodine tartrate. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity are 5.43 x 103 l mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0876 μg/cm2 respectively. The standard deviation of the method for ten determinations of 20 μg/ml of tolterodine tartrate is 9.49 x 10-4. The correlation coefficient (?) of the experimental data of the calibration plot is 0.9989. The effective range of concentration for accurate determination of tolterodine tartrate as ascertained from Ringbom’s plot and it is 20 – 90 μg/ml.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-SDS-0000374
Title: Bioremoval of Cr (III) by bacterial strains isolated from the Ranipet
Category: Synthetic Drug Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Chromium (Cr) and chromium containing compounds are highly toxic in nature. Cr is discharge in wastes of various industries like tannery and cause toxicity to human, animal and environment. Focus of this study was to isolate bacterial strains that show great potential towards Chromium (III) bioremoval. In this study, total seven Cr (III) tolerant bacterial strains (named AK1 to AK7) were isolated from the tannery effluent samples collected from Ranipet, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. All strains were screened for its Cr (III) uptake potential and two efficient strains (AK2 and AK7) were adapted to higher concentration of Cr (III) for effective bioremoval of Cr (III). Effective strains were characterized morphologically and biochemically as Bacillus sp. This study also reports the maximum tolerance concentration (MTC) of the effective strains towards chromium, salt (NaCl) and other heavy metals. Antibiogram of the effective strains was also performed.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000375
Title: Analysis of Amino Acids By Paper Chromatography
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Paper chromatography method for separation and identification of amino acids in a mixture is described. The method is based on the use of ninhydrin as a locating reagent. The procedure has been successfully applied to the study of establishing a relationship between the zone area of the separated spots and the concentration of the amino acid (s) for quantitation of the solute. A suitable solvent system n-butanol-acetic acid-water (65:15:25) has been evolved which is found to give better resolution of the components during development of chromatograms. The amino acids in the concentration range varying from 10–4 to 10–1 mol / liter has been studied and found to give satisfactory results.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000376
Title: Methodical Characterization and Quantitative Estimation of Crude Oryza sativa Bran Oil
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Oils, a rich source of dietary energy are recognized as essential nutrients in human diets and contain more than twice the caloric value of equivalent amount of sugar. Furthermore, oils contribute significantly in maintaining the agricultural economy of the country, considering the fact that India is the largest producer of rice bran oil (RBO) with a theoretical potential of 1.2 MMT per year. For the last couple of decades, there has been a surge of global interest pertaining to the beneficial nutritive effects of bioactive phytochemicals such as, oryzanol, lecithin, tocopherols, and tocotrinols, obtained from crude rice (Oryza sativa) bran oil (RBO), manufactured from rice bran, a by-product of rice processing. The present research work was designed to methodically characterize and quantitatively determine the various physicochemical properties of crude RBO, extracted through solvent extraction from rice bran, using standard estimation methods. The parameters evaluated are useful in determining the suitability of the oil for edible or other industrial purposes.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-MD-0000377
Title: Production of chitosan from marine trash crustaceans and its application in mercury removal from sea water
Category: Marine Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The marine bycatch resources especially trash crustaceans can be effectively utilized in producing cheaper means of chitosan; a bioactive substance exhibiting peculiar properties, such as: biodegradability, biocompatibility, adsorption, selective permeability, chelation, ion exchange properties, antitumor and antimicrobial activities. In this present study chitosan is produced from trash crustaceans in bulk quantities indulging minimal infrastructural facilities in laboratory scale. The experimental protocol showed a 3-4 times the production of chitin and chitosan by applying the minimal chemicals. It is then subjected to mercury adsorption from sea water. The FT-IR spectroscopy analysis of the so produced chitosan showed considerable quality of the product as per with the industrial grade chitosan. At the same time proving the former a better choice than the latter for the adsorption of heavy metal (Hg) from the marine resources.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-MD-0000378
Title: Segregation and categorization of chitinase producing bacteria using exoskeleton of Penaeus indicus as a substrate from Sagar Island, Sunderbans.
Category: Marine Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The enzyme chitinase, produced by various bacteria in both terrestrial and marine environment is used for the degradation of chitin which possesses several industrial applications. In the present study acid treated rudimentary exoskeleton of marine white shrimp, Penaeus indicus, powder is used as a substrate for the segregation of chitinase producing bacteria, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Sagar Island of Sunderbans coastal environment.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-NPs-0000357
Title: Evaluation and Expression of Uncertainty in the Measurement of Iodine Value in Mustard Oil
Category: Natural Products
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The significance of uncertainty must be known as the performer of the test to eliminate any error which carrying out testing as it is a part of measurement. The uncertainty of measurement defines the rate of lowest possible deviation from the true value and it is also defines the level of confidence. Quality of analysis has assumed great significance in view of the fact that measurement provides the very basis of all control actions. The analysis process is at best an estimate of or approximation to the true value. The uncertainty of measurement is a right tool, associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes the dispersion of the true value which could reasonably be attributed to the measurand.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000356
Title: Spectrophotometric Estimation of Gemifloxacin in bulk and Pharmaceutical dosage form by UV Spectrophotometry
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study describes a simple, accurate, precise and cost effective UV-VIS Spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Gemifloxacin, a fluroquinolone derivative, in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The solvent used was double distilled water and the lmax or the absorption maxima of the drug was found to be 269nm. A linear response was observed in the range of 2-10μg/ml with a regression coefficient of 0.999. The method was then validated for different parameters as per the ICH [2] (International Conference for Harmonization) guidelines. This method can be used for the determination of Gemifloxacin in quality control of formulation without interference of the excipients.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-SDS-0000346
Title: Synthesis, characterization and anti-inflammatory activity of 4-(substituted phenyl)-5-(2,4- dinitrophenyl)-3-methyl-1,3a,4,5-tetrahydropyrazolo-[3,4-c] pyrazoles
Category: Synthetic Drug Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Ethyl acetoacetate (I) was stirred with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to get 5-methyl-2,4 dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one (II). This was refluxed with different aryl aldehydes in glacial acetic acid in presence of fused sodium acetate to get corresponding (4E)-4-(substituted benzylidene)-5-methyl-2,4–dihydro-3Hpyrazol- 3-one (IIIa-f). These were treated with 2,4-dinitro phenyl hydrazine to get a series of 4-(substituted phenyl)-5-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-3-methyl- 1,3a,4,5-tetrahydropyrazolo-[3,4-c]pyrazole (IVa-f). The structures of the compounds have been established based on their analytical and spectral data. All the compounds have been screened for their anti-inflammatory activity.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000347
Title: Combinatorial chemistry and its application - a review
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The use of combinatorial chemistry techniques has been explored as an alternative to conventional approaches for the synthesis of compounds in the drug discovery process. This technique is the starting point for the development of synthesis concepts that were intended to cover and explore the chemical space without having to prepare every individual compound. Combinatorial Chemistry technologies were developed in response to the increased screening capacities that are available when drug discovery changed its screening paradigm from a pharmacology-based approach to target oriented lead finding. This article will illustrate technique used in combinatorial chemistry, some of the advances made in recent years and their application in the synthesis of different peptides, oligosaccharides and other molecules.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-CE-0000348
Title: Tannin acyl hydrolase from Trichoderma viride
Category: Chemical Engineering
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The enzyme tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase EC 3.1.1.20) produced from Trichoderma viride (MTCC 167), was purified and characterized. Optimal conditions for the production tannase were determined using varying substrate concentrations Fermentation was carried out for 48 h for optimum enzyme production and the properties of the enzyme were investigated. The optimum conditions of temperature and pH were investigated and the effects of nitrogen sources, metal ions and chelator were studied. Tannase exhibited optimum activity at 45°C and at pH of 5.5 urea concentrations higher than 3 M were inhibitory. Increasing concentrations of sodium also led to decrease in activity. Increasing concentrations of EDTA had an inhibitory effect on tannase. Among the nitrogen sources selected ammonium ferrous sulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride enhanced tannase activity at 0.1% (W/V) concentration.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-SDS-0000349
Title: Pharmacological action and SAR of Phthalazine derivatives - A Review
Category: Synthetic Drug Study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The chemistry of phthalazine (2, 3 benzodiazine) is very well known. These systems are widely used in organic chemistry as intermediates for the synthesis of numerous compounds. On the other hand; phthalazine derivatives were extensively studied as bioactive compounds. They possess remarkable biological activity, such as anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial and vasorelaxant activity among others. Recently, the research and development in the medicinal chemistry of phthalazine produced hybrid compounds in which phthalazine moiety together with classical drug moieties are present in a single molecule. So, new anticonvulsant drugs, PDE4 inhibitor and Topoisomerase II inhibitors were developed. These review paper recent developments in the medicinal chemistry of phthalazine will be reviewed.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-GC-0000350
Title: An environment-friendly approach with green chemistry
Category: Green chemistry
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Environmental pollution and destruction on a global scale have drawn attention to the vital need for totally new environmentally friendly, clean chemical technologies and processes, the most important challenge facing chemical scientists in the field of green chemistry. The beginning of green chemistry is frequently considered as a response to the need to reduce the damage of the environment by man-made materials and the processes used to produce them. A quick view of green chemistry issues in the past decade demonstrates many methodologies that protect human health and the environment in an economically beneficial manner. This article presents selected examples of the implementation of green chemistry principles in everyday life in industry, laboratory and in education.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-0000351
Title: Medicinal plants used in the healing of skin diseases in different regions of India: A Review
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Various plant species are used in the treatment of skin diseases, like leprosy, scabies, rash, wound, psoriasis, swelling, eczema, dandruff. A large number of plants/plant extracts/decoctions or pastes are equally used by tribal’s and folklore traditions in India for treatment of cuts, wounds, and burns. The traditional healers are on the decline because the younger members of the tribe have started moving towards the towns and cities and are not willing to practice this form of medicine. There is danger that the knowledge of these medicinal plants will also die with them. It is therefore, necessary to document the plants and take efficient steps to conserve them. Skin health is increasingly becoming an important aspect of primary health care among many communities particularly because of the increased challenge of HIV-AIDS, skin conditions being among the common opportunistic diseases in immuno-compromised individuals. This study investigated the use of traditional remedies in managing various skin conditions by people of different Regions of India. The present review thus attempts to analyze the ethno botanical knowledge of medicinal herbs utilize for treatment of various skin diseases using by people of different Regions of India.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-MD-0000352
Title: Antimicrobial activity of seaweeds Gracillaria, Padina and Sargassum sps. on clinical and phytopathogensSubba Rangaiah G, Lakshmi P* and Manjula E
Category: Marine Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Because of the evolving resistance of microorganisms to existing antibiotics, there is an increasing need for new antibiotics. Since seaweeds offer particularly rich source of bioactive molecules, the present study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial potentiality of the marine algae, two species of brown algae namely Sargassum ilicifolium, Padina tetrastromatica and one red algae Gracilaria corticata collected from different coastal regions. For microbiological testing of the seaweed extracts, agar well diffusion method was used. The zone of inhibition was measured for all the Different crude algal extracts (Chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water) against six strains of Gram positive, Gram negative bacterial and Fungal organisms that cause diseases and disorders in man, animals and plants.Crude extracts revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens. Seaweed extracts in different solvents exhibited different antimicrobial activities. In case of Sargassum ilicifolium, Padina tetrastromatica, of the various solvents used for seaweed extractions, maximum inhibition was noticed with ethanol extracts and minimum with chloroform crude extracts while in case of Gracilaria corticata, maximum inhibition was noticed with methanol and minimum with chloroform extracts. However, no specific solvent exhibited activity against all the test organisms effectively. Further bacterial strains were more sensitive to the extracts when compared to the fungal organisms. The overall antimicrobial activity assessed from the above results indicates the presence of active constituents in the extractions of seaweeds which can be exploited for the production of lead molecules which are of use in pharmaceutical industry.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-AC-0000353
Title: Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Estimation of Paracetamol and Aceclofenac in Combined Tablet Formulations using Hydrotropic Solubilization Technique
Category: Analytical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Quantitative estimation of poorly water-soluble drugs involves the use of organic solvents. Major drawbacks of organic solvents include high cost, toxicity, volatility and pollution. In the present investigation, the hydrotropic solubilization is employed to enhance the aqueous solubilities of poorly water-soluble drugs, paracetamol and aceclofenac in two-component tablet formulation for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination. Three simple, precise, accurate and economical procedures employed are simultaneous equation method, absorbance ratio method and multicomponent mode of analysis. All the methods utilize the combined hydrotropic blend of 20% urea solution and 20% sodium citrate solution precluding the use of organic solvent. In the mixed hydrotropic solution, paracetamol and aceclofenac shows maximum absorption at 245 nm and 274 nm, respectively and isoabsorptive point observed was 262 nm. The hydrotropic agents show no absorbance above 237 nm. The hydrotropicagents as well as tablet excipients in formulation did not interfere in the analysis. The results of analysis have been validated statistically.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000354
Title: Differential pulse polarographic determination of Mn(II) and Zn(II) in biological and human hair samples after preconcentration of its complex with 2, 2’-{benzene-1, 2-diylbis (nitrilomethylylidene]
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A differential pulse polarographic method has been developed for the determination of Mn(II) and Zn(II) in biological and human hair samples using newly synthesized reagent 2,2'-{benzene-1,2-diylbis(nitrilomethylylidene]}diphenol after preconcentration and separation using amberlite XAD-1180 in the range of pH 8.0-10.0. The sorbed elements was subsequently eluted with 10mL of 2.0 M HCl elutes was analysed by differential pulse polarography (DPP). The interference of foreign ions has also been studied. Effects of various instrumental parameters are investigated and received conditions are optimized. The limits of detections were found to be 0.0026 and 0.0032 μg mL-1 for Mn(II) and Zn(II) respectively by applying a preconcentration factor ~30. The proposed enrichment method was applied successfully for the determination of Mn(II) and Zn(II) in biological and human hair samples. The proposed method was compared with reported methods in terms of Student’s ‘t’-test and Variance ratio ‘f’-test which indicates that there is no significant difference between proposed and literature method at 95 % confidence level.

Journal: Inter. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-NPs-0000379
Title: Plant Derived Probiotics and Prebiotics: Possibilites are Immense
Category: Natural Products
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Probiotics are living microbial organisms whereas prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients which are by selectively stimulating the growth and activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon benefit our health when they are administered in the right amounts. There are many different types of probiotic cultures which can provide various benefits. Recent research shows positive affects from certain pro as well as prebiotics on intestinal microflora and/or different intestinal functions such as improving intestinal motility and managing diarrhea.For prevention and treatment of allergic diseases also, probiotic bacteria are candidate agents. Probiotics are proposed to provide beneficial immunoregulatory signals which aid in oral tolerance achievement and alleviation of symptoms of allergic diseases. Various studies have demonstrated their positive clinical effects on the prevention and treatment of atopic diseases, but immunological effects of probiotic bacteria are poorly known..The role of probiotics and prebiotics in cancer is not hidden. Evidence also suggest from a wide range of sources supports the view that colonic microflora is involved in the aetiology of cancer. The significant contribution of prebiotics in maintaining the cvs system upright is now being scientifically proven. This review is an attempt to highlight the current aspects of prebiotics and probiotics and to be aware of the recent researches being associated with them.