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Journal of Pharmacy Research-JPR Solutions - jpronline | JPR Info online Journal | Drug Invention Today
JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal
ISSN NO: 2321-4988
BioMedRx journal is devoted to the promotion of Bio, Pharma and related disciplines (including medical, Nursing,Paramedical, Clinical   fields).It seeks to foster multi-disciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, pharmaceutical industries and healthcare sector as well as provide a National and international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and opinions in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines.The Editor  welcome contributions of field relevance. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal particularly welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.

Manuscripts Published

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00001081
Title: A Case Study on Zinc Phosphide Poisoning in Tamil Nadu
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Zinc Phosphide has a long history of use and remains an important rodentcide for both commensal and select field rodents. Zinc Phosphide (Rodentcide) associated with both accidental and intentional ingestion. Despite its free availability in the Indian market for use to prevent from rat. It is an uncommon poisoning in India with only a single case report described from India. We report single cases of fatal rodentcide poisoning from a tertiary care hospital in the south state of Tamil Nadu, India.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-00001080
Title: Effect of 17alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate injections on bone profile in pregnant women with threatened abortion
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: There is no adequate evidence from well-controlled studies to substantiate the 17‎α hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17 ‎α HPC) injections effect on the mother health like her bone profile. Aims: To evaluate the effect of 17‎α HPC injections on some bone profile parameters in pregnant women with threatened abortion. Methods: This is a cohort study in which a 22 healthy married pregnant women with age range between 19- 35 years from those who were attending AL–Batool Teaching Hospital in Mosul  from the period of 1st of January 2011 to  1st of  August  2011, complaining of threatened abortion to evaluated to be treated with 17 a HPC intramuscular (IM) injections in a dose of 250 mg every week until the 24-26th week of gestation were included in this study. Another 21 healthy pregnant women who did not complaining of threatened abortion were drawn from the same population and matched with the patients group and they were considered as a control group. The blood samples were collected from both groups at the first visit then at about 26th week of gestation to measure the total serum calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), inorganic  phosphorous and albumin by commercial kits. Corrected serum calcium is calculated according to special equation. Results:. There were no significant differences in the mean serum level of all measured bone profile tests in the patients group after treatment with 17‎α HPC  and that of the control group at the 26th  week of gestation compared with the baseline level. Comparing the two groups, there were no significant differences in all measured parameters at the two collection time points. Discussion: Despite widespread clinical use of progestogens, no study exist to find the side effect of 17‎α HPC IM injections on the mother so accordingly this is the first study to evaluate the effect of 17 a HPC IM injections  every week on the indicator of bone profile of the women with threatened abortion. Conclusion: The use of weekly IM injections of 250 mg of 17‎α HPC for the treatment of threatened abortion considered to be safe regarding mother bone. 

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-DVD-00001079
Title: Preparation and Characterization of Pharmaceutical Grade Chitosan And Hydrated Chitosan Gums for Topical Preparations
Category: Development and Validation of Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The main goal of this work is the preparation and characterization of hydrated gums using chitosan for further formulation and topic applications. To achieve this goal several gums from pharmaceutical quality chitosan of low (Mw= 72.180 g/mol) and medium. (Mw= 103.000 g/mol) molecular weight with a 4% w/w were employed. The prepared hydrated gums were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy andreological analyses. The spectroscopic study shows no great difference between both gums and most of chitosan bands are exhibited. The rheological studies shows that both gums exhibit a non Newtonian flow independent of the time, with pseudoplastic for low molecular weight chitosan and plastic behavior for the medium molecular weight.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001198
Title: Formulation and in vitro evaluation of floating microspheres of acyclovir
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the present work was to prepare floating microspheres of acyclovir to prolong residence time in stomach and to sustain the release of acyclovir. Acyclovir loaded floating microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method with combination of polymers (Ethyl cellulose and HPMC K4M). The resultant microspheres were evaluated for micromeritic properties, loss on drying, particle size, percentage entrapment efficiency, buoyancy, in vitro drug release and model fitting kinetics. Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate the physical state of the drug in the microspheres. The particle size of the microspheres was in the range of 146.01-221.41µm. Percentage entrapment efficiency was between 63%-84% w/w. Microspheres remained buoyant for more than about 8 hours. The results of FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry indicated the stable character of acyclovir in microspheres and also revealed absence of drug polymer interaction. The formulation A3 showed results of in vitro drug released (91.24%) and acyclovir microspheres showed release from slow to sustained for more than 8 hours. Surface morphology by SEM analysis, and stability studies were carried out for the best formulation A3. All the stability studies for the formulation A3 showed no significant change in the percentage drug release studies and percentage buoyancy.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000969
Title: Coprocessed Novel Superdisintegrants in Design and Evaluation of Rapimelts of an Antimigraine drug
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In this current research work, Sumatriptan succinate Rapimelts were prepared using novel coprocessed super disintegrants like polacrillin potassium, crospovidone (in the ratios of 1:1 1:2 1:3) by solvent evaporation method. The developed Coprocessed mass was assigned to precompression parameters and a comparison was made with that of physical mixture of superdisintegrants. The developed mass shown favourable results compared to physical mixture. Tablets of Sumatriptan succinate were prepared by direct compression and subjected to post compression & evaluation parameters. The optimized disintegration time was found to be 10sec with CP2D formulation. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 15sec) the promising formulation CP2D was tested for its drug release pattern using phosphate buffer PH 6.8 and shown drug release 98.2% in 10minutes following Non Fickian transport. FTIR spectral studies did not indicate any excipient incompatibility, either during mixing or after compression. Finally it was observed that directly compressible orally disintegrating tablets of Sumatriptan succinate with lower friability, acceptable taste, and shorter disintegration times were obtained using coprocessed polacrillin potassium, crospovidone at optimized concentration (1:2) along with Dicalcium phosphate. Thus aided in the faster release of drug thereby improve the patient compliance.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000968
Title: Synthesis and antimicrobial screening of some novel substituted 4’-amino-1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Claisen-schmidt base catalyzed condensation reaction of 4’-amino acetophenone with different substituted benzaldehyde afford some substituted 4’-amino chalcones. The newly synthesized chalcones screened for antimicrobial activity. Most of these compounds showed potent activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-BM-0000967
Title: Investigation on isolation and identification of soil Mycoflora from terrestrial region on Melathiruppalakkudi, Thiruvarur District, Tamilnadu.
Category: Botany and Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Studies were carried out on the fungi present in four different seasons on the terrestrial region soil. Fungi isolation was done by the soil dilution method incubated at 28°C for 72 hours. The predominant fungal species were identified Viz., Aspergillus nidulans, A.tamarii A.versicolor A.wentii A sulphureus Cladosporium herbarum Geotrichum candidum Geotrichum sp. Gliocladiopsis sumatrensis Humicola sp. Penicillium janthinellum P. chrysogenum P.citrinum P.lanosum P.notatum Scopulariopsis sp. Sporotrichum sp. Trichoderma koeningii T.lignorum Torula sp. Trametes hirsuta Trichocladium achrasporum Trichoderma glaucum Trichoderma harzianum and Trichodochium sp. The physicochemical characteristics of soil samples were found to affect the distribution and population of fungi.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000966
Title: Design and evaluation of sublingual immediate release films for treatment of osteoporosis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Raloxifene hydrochloride is recommended for treatment of osteoporosis. However, its oral bioavailability is 2 % due to extensive hepatic first pass metabolism and half-life is 27.7 hours after. Also nil solubility of drug makes it difficult for bioavailability achievement. Hence, it was envisaged to solubilize drug and developed by sublingual drug delivery system. Drug and polymers were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy which found no interaction. For solubilization of drug in water, inclusion complex of raloxifene hydrochloride and β-cyclodextrin (1:2 and 1:4) were prepared and optimized by kneading method. Phase solubility studies revealed that, solubility of raloxifene hydrochloride was increased by complexation with β-CD and by addition of co-solvent ethanol and increase in pH. Sublingual immediate release films were prepared by solvent casting method by using inclusion complex of raloxifene (1:4), HPMC K4M, PVP K30, mannitol and xylitol. All formulation batches were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, mechanical studies, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo diffusion and in vitro drug release. Studies revealed that, with increase in HPMC K 4M concentration, tensile strength was increased whereas percent elongation and folding endurance were decreased whereas mucoadhesion strength was increased. Desired release was obtained in batch F2 with 94.71 ± 0.53 % in vitro release and 89.439 ± 0.426 % ex vivo permeation in 1 hour. Batch F2 (HPMC K4M and PVP K 30 in 3.5:1.5) exhibit best formulation. Stability studies on batch F2 revealed no significant reduction in drug content, in vitro dispersion time, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000965
Title: In vitro cytotoxicity activity of Gyrocarpus asiaticus bark extract
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of Gyrocarpus asiaticus. For evaluation HeLa and HCT6 cell lines were treated with the various concentrations of Methanolic extract of the bark. The result showed an IC50 value of 31.59µg/ml and 30.24µg/ml respectively in HeLa and HCT16 cell lines. It revealed that the plant had a potent cytotoxic activity against these cell lines. The cytotoxicity against other cell lines will be evaluated shortly.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000964
Title: Phytochemical screening, total phenol content and antioxidant activity of different parts of Stachyterpheta urticifolia (Salisb) Sims
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity of methanol, ethanol and acetone extracts of Stachyterpheta urticifolia (Salisb) Sims various parts and the determination of their total phenolic content as well as phytochemical screening. The extracts obtained from different parts were screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and FRAP methods. The amount of total phenols was analyzed with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, flavanoids, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, quinines, alkaloids, tannins and phenols in various extracts of root, stem, leaf and inflorescence. It was identified that the phenolic component is responsible for antioxidant activity. Methanol leaf extracts have more phenolic content when compared to ethanol leaf extracts and acetone leaf extracts. The methanol leaf extract have excellent antioxidant potential when comparative to ethanol leaf extracts and acetone leaf extracts. In DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the low IC50 value was showed by methanol leaf extract followed by ethanol leaf extracts as opposed to that of the scavenging effect of ascorbic acid. Conclusions: The study suggests that S. urticifolia methanol leaf extracts exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their medicinal functions.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000963
Title: Seasonal occurrence of endomycophytes from inner bark of Putranjiva roxburghii wall.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Endophytic fungi from inner bark of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall were studied in three different seasons during 2009-2010. A total of 30 endophytes were recorded during rainy season, followed by 21 each in winter and summer season. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Bispora punctata., Curvularia lunata., Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium sp.,were found to be dominant endophytes followed by Drechsclera sp., Nigrospora sp., Rhizophus stolonifer and Cladosporium species.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000962
Title: Antimicrobial activity of Piper betle (L.) leaf extracts against pathogens of cereal crops
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Twenty phyto-pathogenic microbial strains were tested against chloroform and methanol crude extracts of Piper betle (Piperaceae) leaves by Agar well diffusion method. The extracts studied showed significant antimicrobial activity against all pathogens tested at a concentration of 5mg/ml dilution. It stands at 10ìg/ml of synthetic fungicide bavistin and 1mg/ml bacteriocides of chloramphenicol. This study proves that P. betle leaves have significant potential in the integrated pest management of common contaminants in storage grains and soil borne fungal pathogens of cereal crops. Further laboratory based studies prove that P.betle doesnot affect the seed germination in cereal crops.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000961
Title: The therapeutic and regenerative effects of Periosteum in the treatment of gingival recession :A Systematic Review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim:The aim of this systematic review is to review the literature on regenerative effects of periosteum in the management of gingival recession. Materials and methods:An Electronic search through PUBMED upto 2013 and manual search was performed and a hand search of peer- reviewed journals of periodontology for relevant articles were performed. Studies included were randomized control trials, case series , case reports & animal studies with data on the regenerative effects of periosteum in treatment of gingival recession and its comparison with other techniques were included .Results :A total of 5 studies were included .The studies on gingival recession showed improvement in all parameters when compared to baseline values, 1 randomized control showed that periosteum is equally effective as Sub epithelial Connective Tissue Graft .

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000960
Title: Additive effect of platelet rich fibrin in treatment of Intrabony defects- a systematic review and meta-analysis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Over years various treatment modalities have been used in the management of periodontal intra bony defects effectively. Application of Autologous platelet concentrates has been widely applied to treat periodontal intra bony defects either solely or in combination with various other regenerative procedures. Aim: To systematically evaluate the additive effect of Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) in treatment of intra bony defects when used along with other regenerative procedures in terms of clinical and radiological outcomes. Material and methods: Randomized clinical trials evaluating the additive effect of Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) in treatment of intra bony defects were identified through screening in electronic databases and hand search in relevant journals. Reporting and methods were evaluated through an analysis of risk of bias and quality scores. Meta-analysis was also carried out for the variable of interest. Results: Four clinical trials were identified accomplishing inclusion criteria after full text reading and focused on evaluating additive effect of Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) when used with open flap debridement. Conclusion: Platelet rich fibrin(PRF) can prove to be effective as a sole regenerative material, for treatment of intra bony defects, in combination to open flap debridement.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000959
Title: Formulation and evaluation of immediate release tablets of Carvedilol
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objective of the present study was to develop immediate release tablets of carvedilol in order to achieve rapid release in GIT which might result in enhanced absorption and thereby improved bioavailability. Six batches of solid dispersion were prepared using different ratios (1:4, 1:6 & 1:8) of hydrotropes (Nicotinamide & Urea) along with constant concentration of solubilizer (1% PEG). The best batch was selected to prepare immediate release tablets. The present worker prepared immediate release tablets comprising solid dispersion of carvedilol as main constituent in six preliminary batches using croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone as Superdisintegrants in different ratios along with other polymer and excipients. Secondary batches were prepared based on 32 factorial design with amount of Superdisintegrants (crospovidone) and hardness as two independent formulation variables. Two dependent response variables were considered i.e disintegration time and percentage invitro drug release. The desirability fraction revealed agreeable with experimental values. All the batches of immediate release tablets were evaluated with reference to different pre-compression and post-compression parameters The in-vitro drug release determination (97.759%) and results of accelerated stability testing revealed no physical and chemical changes in the tablets during three months studies.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000958
Title: In vitro study of antioxidant and anticancer activities of new [4- Hydroxy- phenyl -4-{6-(acryloyloxy)hexyloxy}- benzoate] molecule
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A new molecule of 4-hydroxy phenyl -4-{6-(acryloyloxy)hexyloxy}-benzoate was synthesized and screened for antioxidant activity.This new compound was synthesized through modifying the hydroxyl group of phenol basic nucleus and acryloyloxy and hexyloxy aliphatic groups was attached.In the present study the antioxidant and anticancer activities of new [4-hydroxy phenyl -4-{6-(acryloyloxy)hexyloxy}-benzoate molecule were studied.The antioxidant activity of new molecule was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging activity,scavenging of hydrogen peroxide,reducing power method,scavenging of nitric oxide and the calculated IC50 values for new molecule and reference standard Gallic acid were (141.4µg/ml,0.14µg/ml for DPPH method),(117.0µg/ml,5.60µg/ml for nitric oxide method).The cytotoxic studies indicate that the new molecule inhibit HeLa(cervical cancer) cell viability in a dose dependent manner.The IC50values calculated were >100µg/ml for new molecule,9.165µg/ml for standard drug cisplatin.These findings reveal that the new molecule 4-hydroxy phenyl -4-{6-(acryloyloxy)hexyloxy}-benzoate has good cytotoxic and antioxidant activities and could be an alternate candidate for the development of new biologically active compounds.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000957
Title: Assay method development and validation for simultaneous estimation of amiloride hydrochloride and furosemide tablet by RP-HPLC
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, specific, precise, and accurate method development and validation of amiloride hydrochloride and furosemide tablet formulation by RP-HPLC was developed. The method employed Kromasil C18 (250×4.6mm,5ì) column as stationary phase. The mobile phase consisted of 0.005M. Hexane-1-Sulfonic acid sodium salt in water and methanol (50:50v/v) pH 4.0 by 1M acetic acid as eluent, at a flow rate of 1ml/min. Detection was carried out at wavelength 361nm. The retention time of amiloride hydrochloride and furosemide were found to be 5.2 and 6.9 minutes respectively. Linearity was established by over the concentration range of 2.5 to 7.5 ìg/ml for amiloride hydrochloride with correlation coefficients (r2) 0.9997 and 20 to 60 ìg/ml for furosemide with correlation coefficients (r2) 0.9992. The percentage recovery obtained for amiloride hydrochloride and furosemide were 99.42% and 99.67% respectively. The method has been validated as per ICH guideline and successfully applied to estimation of amiloride hydrochloride and furosemide in tablet dosage form.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000956
Title: A Review On: Separation of different process related impurity in tablet formulation of drug
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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As new molecular entities are evaluated in clinical development the understanding, identification, quantification and control of impurities in drug substances are essential. As chemical processes used to produce drug substances mature from the early phases of development through registration, a concomitant maturing of process-related impurity understanding and control is required. Tablet formulations which are used in different diseases condition containing impurity as per ICH guidelines limit. This paper outlines the separation of different process related impurity in tablet formulation. All authors develop the analytical method for separation and increase resolution of different process related impurity with active pharmaceutical ingredient in tablet formulation.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000955
Title: Formulation, Characterization and Evaluation of Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System of Repaglinide
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The oral route of drug administration is the most preferred route of delivery due to its ease of ingestion. But for much class II drugs it is inefficient mode of delivery due to limited drug absorption resulting in poor bioavailability. The objective of the present investigation was to formulate self emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) of Repaglinide to enhance its solubility and absorption. The solubility of Repaglinide was checked in different oils, surfactants, and co surfactants and ternary phase diagrams were constructed to evaluate the stable self emulsifying domain. The Repaglinide SEDDS were prepared using oleic acid (oil), Tween 80 (surfactant), and Transcutol HP (co surfactant). The particle size distribution, zeta potential, and polydispersity index were determined. The release of Repaglinide from SEDDS capsules was studied using USP dissolution apparatus I and compared the release from pure drug and marketed tablet (Novo norm). The in-vitro drug release studies of Repaglinide SEDDS formulation showed complete release in 60 min. The absorption of Repaglinide from SEDDS resulted in about 1.9 fold and 1.5 fold increase in bioavailability when compared with the pure drug and Novo norm respectively. This study confirmed that the SEDDS formulation can be used as a possible alternative to traditional oral formulations of Repaglinide to improve its bioavailability.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000954
Title: Effect of Gymnema sylvestre on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metformin in diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Gymnema sylvestre (GS) and Metformin both reducing insulin resistance. GS stimulate ß-cell function, increase ß-cell number, increases the enzyme activity responsible for glucose uptake and utilization. Metformin (MF), a biguanide increases glucose uptake and utilization in skeletal muscle and reduces hepatic glucose production. The effect of the combination of GS (100 mg/kg p.o and 500mg/kg p.o.) and MF (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg p.o.) on the pharmacokinetic parameters of MF was studied in STZ induced diabetic rats after single dose administration and multiple dosing for 15 days. Pharmacodynamic interactions were as well as studied by determing the effect of combination therapy on the serum glucose levels of STZ induced diabetic rats before and after multiple dosing for 14days. Histopathological studies were carried out by excising the pancreas after the treatment and the effect of combination on the volume of beta cells were compared to that of single (either MF alone or GS alone) administration and control. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed a decrease in the bioavailability of MF when given in combination with GS. The decrease in bioavailability was contributed by decrease in absorption rate constant and increase in clearance where as in the Pharmacodynamic study the combination in general showed decrease in serum glucose levels which was contributed by the hypoglycemic property of GS. But the combination did not decrease the serum glucose levels comparable to MF when given alone. Histopathological studies revealed that combination of GS with MF increased the volume of islets cells of pancreas. These observations show that Gymnema sylvestre is a potent hypoglycaemic but it contributes to a decrease in hypoglycemic effect of Metformin.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000953
Title: Comparative Fluorescence analysis and Qualitative Phytochemical analysis of Citrus limettioides, Citrus pseudolimon of Nainital District
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Air dried leaves of Citrus limettioides and Citrus pseudolimon, were subjected Fluorescence analysis and Quantitative Phytochemical analysis. Fluorescence analysis was done in U.V. –Visible Chamber and Quantitative Phytochmeical was done by UV-Vis. Spectrophotometer (Shimadzu) Double beam. Citrus limettioides leaves shows that it is rich in Total phenolic content, Total flavonoids content, Total tannin content were up to a significance level, Citrus pseudolimon having rich Total starch residue and Total sugar content. Standard were uses as gallic acid, quercetin, and tannin acid for Total phenolic, Total flavonoids and Total tannin content. D- Glucose were used as a standard for Total starch residue and Total sugar Content.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000952
Title: Synthesis and evaluation of new Indole derivatives for antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of indole derivatives were synthesised and profiled as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory compounds. The compounds VIa, VIb and VIg were found to be relatively more effective against Gram positive organisms. Compouds VIa, VIb, VIg and VIi were more effective against Gram negative organisms. Compounds VIb,VIc and VId were found to be effective against C.albicans and A.niger organisms. Compounds VIb and VIe showed more potent anti-inflammatory activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000951
Title: Formulation and evaluation of antimicrobial topical semisolid dosage form containing whole plant extract of Biophytum sensitivum
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, many of which possess antimicrobial activity in their biologically active forms or inactive precursors that are relatively safer than synthetic antibacterial compounds, offering profound therapeutic benefits and more affordable treatment (Trease et al. 1972) [1]. The beneficial medicinal effects typically result from the combinations of such secondary metabolites present in the plant to prevent or cure infectious conditions. One approach might be the testing of plants traditionally used for their antibacterial activities as potential sources for drug development. One of such folklore medicinal herb, Biophytum sensitivum (L) DC. (Oxalidaceae) is a small annual plant, growing throughout in wet lands (mostly plains) of tropical Africa, Asia and India; normally in the shade of trees and shrubs, in grasslands, open thickets, at low and medium altitudes and in the foothills of Himalayas. The parts of the plant has been known to possesses a wide spectrum of medicinal properties namely antiseptic properties, including positive effects in variety of skin infections, bruises, wounds & ulcer, burns & contusions, inflammatory diseases, and diabetes [2,3]. In this present study, the antibacterial potency of herbal creams and gels formulated with methanolic extract of Biophytum sensitivum was evaluated. The preliminary in vitro antibacterial activity of the dry methanolic extracts of dried whole plant of Biophytum sensitivum was determined against four different bacterial strains (Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtillis) using the agar well diffusion method to find the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth. Herbal creams and gels were prepared by incorporating the dry methanolic extract of whole plant of Biophytum sensitivum of into emulsifying cream and aqueous washable gel base and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial efficacy. This study shows that Biophytum sensitivum has high potential as antibacterial agent when formulated as cream and gel for topical use and could therefore explain the successes claimed in the folklore use of the plant in the treatment of common skin conditions.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000950
Title: Development and evaluation of a polyherbal topical formulation
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Ayurvedic literature finds mention of various plants used in skin care. Oil extracts of crude drugs are used in varied skin conditions and to nourish and revitalize the skin. However, oils for topical use are not aesthetically appealing. Hence, there is a need for a consumer friendly topical formulation containing oil extracts. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the therapeutic properties of a novel emulsion formulation. An oil extract containing Rubia cordifolia, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Symplocos racemosa was prepared . The mentioned plants have antiseptic, skin soothing and anti-inflammatory properties. The oil extract in this study forms the oil phase for the formulation of the emulsion system. Creams are a carrier system for oily extracts due to their numerous advantages like aesthetic appeal, better efficacy, stability and appearance. The formulation was evaluated for various stability indicating parameters, skin irritation and wound healing activity in vivo by excision wound healing model on rats. The formulations of herbal oil into an emulsion based system proved to be stable and non irritant. Formulation that contained 20% oil extract exhibited remarkable wound contraction proving its efficacy as a topical formulation beneficial in minor skin conditions.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000949
Title: Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of naproxen and paracetamol in their combined solid dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Naproxen and Paracetamol available in tablet dosage form.The RP-HPLC method utilizes isocratic elution technique with C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., particle size 5 µm) with mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile : Buffer (50:50 % v/v). The flow rate was 0.8 ml/ min and effluents were monitored at 240 nm. In HPLC method parameters validated were linearity 1.8-4.2 µg/ml and 3.0-7.0 µg/ml NAP and PCM respectively having correlation coefficient is 0.999. Accuracy for NAP and for PCM was found to be within the range and for precision %RSD was < 2 for both methods.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000948
Title: Formulation and evaluation of Tropicamide nanoparticulate ophthalmic dosage forms
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Formulation of a new tropicamide nanoparticulate (1%) ophthalmic suspension and gel was presumed to elicit a better contactibility of the drug at the site of action. These formulations were evaluated based on physiological, physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters. They were prepared aseptically keeping particle size 175 nm. Various additives i.e. viscosity enhancers, preservatives, chelating agent etc. were used to increase transient residence time including antimicrobial preservatives. Buffering agents with buffering capacity NMT 0.05% were used & pH adjusted at optimum stability. The finished products were subjected to stress conditions to check physical stability of the formulation. The prepared formulations i.e. nanoparticulate gel and suspension were found to be significantly efficacious in experimental animals. The gel formulation resulted in apparently significant in-vitro drug release (52.2% in 180 min.) comparative to the normal. The medriatic effects observed with nanoparticulate gel and suspension were found to be (15.5±0.67) mm and (13.2±0.31) mm respectively.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000971
Title: Quantification of Total Flavonoid Content and antioxidant activity in comparison to a reference flavonoid as in vitro quality evaluation parameter for assessing bioactivity of biomarkers in herbal ext
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study involves in vitro quantification of total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of two sample plants, Clerodendrum infortunatum and Biophytum sensitivum and comparison of their quality assessment of bioactivity with respect to standard flavonoid, like Narigenin, Rutin & Quercetin. Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. (Lamiaceae), commonly known as Bhant in Hindi, had been used in Indian folk medicine in the treatment of bronchitis, asthma, fever, burning sensation, diabetes, diseases of the blood, inflammation, and epilepsy. Biophytum sensitivum Linn. (Oxalidaceae) had also been found as traditional medicine in treating ailments such as inflammation, arthritis, wounds, tumors and burns, gonorrhea, stomach ache, asthma, cough, degenerative joint disease, urinary calculi, diabetes, snake bite, amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea. The total flavonoid content (TFC) of methanolic extract of C. infortunatum roots (MECI) and methanolic extract of B. sensitivum whole plant (MEBS) were determined by using aluminum chloride colorimetric method. Since these phenolic compounds and flavonoids are of pharmacological interest in traditional medicine, coupled with the use of these plant extracts and their formulations, prompted to evaluate C. infortunatum and B. sensitivum for their antioxidant potential by DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power ability. The percentage inhibition by DPPH method was compared in terms of IC50 value, which was found to be about 34.46 mcg/ml and 12.30 mcg/ml of MECI and MEBS, when compared with IC50 value Quercetin (48.79 mcg/ml). The reducing capabilities by FRAP assay were also found to be in dose dependent manner. The present findings provided information about total flavonoid activity (TFC) which could further trigger partial or full isolation and standardization of the biomarker compounds like polyphenolics and flavonoids for in vitro assessment and correlating their bioactivity of diabetes in comparison to a standard reference antidiabetic drug.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000970
Title: Isolation and Characterization of Natural Mucilage’s from Benincasa Hespida
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The products from natural sources have become an integral part of human health care system and serves as an alternative to synthetic products because of side effects, toxicity, local accessibility, eco-friendly nature and lower prices compared to important synthetic products. The natural polymers have always an exceptional property which makes them distinct from synthetic polymer and ash gourd is one such example which shows more valuable properties making it a useful excipient for wide range of applications. Development of new excipients is time consuming, involves tedious procedures and is highly expensive. Instead, identification of new uses for the existing substances is relatively inexpensive and less time consuming. Natural gums and mucilage’s have been widely explored as pharmaceutical excipient. Mucilage’s are polysaccharide complexes formed from sugar and uronic acid units. Mucilage’s form slimy masses in water are typically heterogeneous in composition. The pulp and seeds of Ash gourd contain a proportion of mucilage and it also being used for different therapeutic purposes. However there are no reports on isolation and characterization of mucilage of Benincasa hespida. Hence the present study was designed for isolation and characterization of mucilage from the pulp and seeds of Benincasa hespida and explores its use as a pharmaceutical excipient. Various methods to isolate mucilage were tried and simple, economical and optimum method was developed. Physicochemical properties of Benincasa hespida such as appearance, odour, solubility, Bulk and Tapped Densities, Hausner’s Ratio, swelling index, pH, compressibility and Angle of Repose were studied.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-MD-0000947
Title: Studies on biodiversity of Actinobacteria isolated from Mangroves of Vellappallam, Tamilnadu part of Bay of Bengal, india.
Category: Marine Drug
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Marine environment is a potential source of secondary metabolites which provides an encouraging source for development of novel natural pharmaceuticals. Among the marine organisms, actinomycetes are a group of bacteria that are widely distributed and are known to play a very supporting role in the degradation of organic matter. The mangrove soil samples were collected from various locations in Vellappallam, and around Vedharanyam,[near Point Calimere, Lat. 10_ 18’ N and Long. 79_ 51’ E (seashore)], at Nagapattinam Dt. Tamil Nadu India. Soil samples were collected from the study site at randomly during the study period and physicochemical characteristics of sediment soil in marine environment of Tamilnadu part of Bay of Bengal, India. Various stations at different parts of the marine sites were selected for sampling and the following physicochemical parameters were recorded at different seasonal intervals. Totally 35 strains were isolated from marine sediment samples of Tamilnadu part of Bay of Bengal, India. Among them, 35 isolates were morphologically distinct on the basis of colour of spore mass, melanin pigment, reverse side pigment, soluble pigment, aerial and substrate mycelium formation and sporophore morphology. 35 isolates were identified as genus Streptomyces, (5) Actinopolyspora (10), Actinomadura (5), Nocardiopsis (7), Micromonospora (8) and Actinomyces (5).

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000369
Title: Evaluation of effect of methanolic extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in the asthmatic animal.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by various airway obstruction, airway inflammation and bronchial hyper responsiveness. Air-way hyper-responsiveness (AHR) involves infiltration of leukocytes into the airway wall, which is associated with increased expression of cytokines, enzymes, and adhesion molecules within the airway. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the mast cell stabilizing and bronchial hyperactivity of methanolic extract of Stereospermum suaveolens Linn(MESS), bark in experimental animals. For evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of MESS was studied on broncho alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the ova albumin sensitized mice, Lung histopathology in mice and mast cell stabilizing activity was studied using compound 48/80 as degranulatimg agent in rat model. Treatment with MESS showed Significant decreased in the total leukocyte and differential leukocyte count in the BALF and serum IgE antibody count of the ova albumin sensitized mice was observed by administration of MESS (250, 500 and 750mg/kg, p.o., for 7 days,). Methanolic extract show dose dependently protected the mast cell disruption induced by compound 48/80 in rat model. The extract significantly result (*p<0.05, **p<0.01) for both hyperactivity airway response model in mice and mast cell protection in rat model. Antioxidant assay show the significant result for this plant extract. Based on overall result, protection of mast cell, inflammatory mediator level, lung histopathology and lung wet weight to dry weight ratio and lung wet weight to body weight ratio, it was found that MESS has not only mast cell stabilizing activity but also decreases bronchial hyperactivity by decreasing the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the airway and inhibition of release of histamine like mediators from the mast cell by stabilizing it.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-GM-0000368
Title: Prevalence and Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial agents causing Respiratory tract infection in Children
Category: General Medicine
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Respiratory tract infection is the most common acute illness in pediatrics, ranging from self limited infection like common cold to life threatening infections like pneumonia and epiglottitis.The aim of the study is to detect the prevalence of bacterial etiology of respiratory tract infection in children and analyze antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative pathogens. This is a prospective study done in pediatrics department SRM medical college. Samples such as throat swab, sputum, pleural aspirate, blood etc were collected from children (age group from 6 months to 14 years old).Bacterial isolates were identified by routine biochemical reaction and antimicrobial susceptibility was done as per CLSI guidelines. Among 750 cases, 430 were upper respiratory tract infection and 320 were lower Respiratory tract infections. In upper respiratory tract infection, most common isolate was Group A Streptococcus 64(40%), followed by Group G Streptococcus 38( 24%), Group C Streptococcus 29(18%), Staphylococcus aureus18(12%), Moraxella catarrhalis7 (4%), Streptococcus pneumonia 1(1%).In lower respiratory tract infection, the most common was Streptococcus pneumonia 19(27%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae17(24%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus12(17%), Hemophilus influenzae5(7%), Escherichia coli7(10%), Group A Streptococcus 7( 10%). Most of the bacteria showed varied resistance to commonly used drugs.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-CADD-0000946
Title: Computer aided drug design(CADD) for rheumatoid arthritis using QSAR approach
Category: Computer Aided Drug Design
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) study was performed for 74 compounds to test their inhibitory concentration activity(IC50) for 4,6-bis-anilino-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives for the disease Rheumatoid arthritis it has the important target of Insulin like growth factor 1 receptor(IGF-1R). The compounds are divided in to training set and test set using the leave 3 out method. Multiple linear regression analysis was done by calculating various molecular descriptors such as molecular volume, molecular mass, molecular refractivity, log P, kappa 1 index, K alpha 1 index etc. The (regression coefficient r = 0.843232) & ( r=0.711043) then cluster analysis was done for single linkage, group average & complete linkage method to compare which method is best to show maximum clusters. Using the software Tool for structure activity relationship (TSAR) 3.3 version is performed for QSAR study to prove which drug is best for rheumatoid arthritis disease

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-CADD-0000367
Title: A computational biology research –brain way to combat obesity through Melanocortin receptor
Category: Computer Aided Drug Design
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Brain is a constant user of metabolic fuel, nurtured by other tissues. It is to be note worthy that this energy is used in the maintenance of transmembrane potential. Inhibition of certain hormone receptor in the brain has been shown to pose an effect the cholesterol metabolism and may be a way of protecting against cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol level is maintained by balancing dietary cholesterol metabolism of lipoprotein in various tissues. Defective cholesterol regulation mainly to ischemia. This is due to elevated blood Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) whereas High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood is proven to be beneficial .Inhibiting the brains Melanocortin system by increasing the circulatory HDL or by blocking Melanocortin Receptor by performing Computer Aided Drug Design (CADD) would prove to be profitable And this “magic drug would combat obesity” faster and better.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-BT-0000366
Title: Oral health knowledge and behaviour among Life science Post graduates of Tirupati A Cross-sectional Study
Category: Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Personal health practices have an important role in promotion of oral health of an individual. Dental diseases are irreversible, damage cannot be reverted. The knowledge among the people is of pivotal importance as these diseases cannot be identified at initial stages. Raising public awareness about dental check up may assist in early diagnosis. This study aims at finding out oral health knowledge and oral health behavior among Tirupati students. Methods: A structured Questionnaire was distributed to Post graduate students of Tirupati (N=190) during the academic year 2011-12. The respondents have filled in the forms in their class itself and ample time was given to respond. The questionnaire consisted information on general background, oral practices and oral health knowledge. Results: Oral health knowledge seemed to be very limited. More than half of the students didn’t visit a dentist for almost 2 years now. Only few knew the importance of fluorides in caries prevention. Very less proportion practiced dental flossing and used mouth washes. Only 10% of study group knew that a father could transmit S.mutans to the child. 68.42% knew that extraction is the not only possible treatment. Only 10.53% of the study group could attain a score of 5 but none could score the maximum points. Conclusion: It can be concluded that students had limited knowledge on oral hygiene and ideal oral hygiene practices. Their brushing practices are still far behind the international recommendation of twice a day. The establishment and strengthening of oral hygiene education, including the importance of tooth brushing for prevention of periodontal disease, has been proposed.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000365
Title: In vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extracts from Kirganelia reticulata Baill.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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From the earliest times, herbs have been prized for their pain-relieving and healing abilities and today we still rely largely on the curative properties of plants. One such medicinal plant is Kirganelia reticulata Baill. belonging to family Euphorbiaceae, is a monoecious scandent shrub. Leaf is used for bleeding gums, diarrhoea in infants, burns, suppuration, chapped skin, small pox and syphilis. Inflammation is a local response of living mammalian tissues to injury. It is a pathophysiological response of living tissue to injuries that leads to local accumulation of plasmatic fluid and blood cells. The anti-inflammaroty activity of methanol and chloroform extracts were assessed using Carrageenan induced rat paw edema. The paw volume was measured at an interval of 30 mins up to 3 hrs by mercury displacement method using plethysmograph. 200 mg/kg b.w was taken as the therapeutic oral dose for the extracts. The analgesic effects of the plant extracts were evaluated using two models such as Acetic acid-induced writhing response and Formalin test in rats. Our methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory activity at various acute phases of inflammation and on formation of edema. The significant pain reduction from methanol extract might be due to the presence of analgesic principles acting with the prostaglandin pathways. The results obtained prove methanol extract to be potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. It supports the traditional claim of the plant to be a source of drugs.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000364
Title: Validation of silver nanoparticles isolated from roots of Plumbago zeylanica L. - An ethnomedicinal plant for skin diseases.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Plumbago zeylanica L. multipurpose medicinal herb for the treatment of various skin diseases. Objectives: An attempt has been made to screen this important medicinal plant for secondary metabolites; and biogenesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and test their antimicrobial efficacy. Materials and methods: Root extract of Plumbago zeylanica was prepared and screened for different secondary metabolites; this aqueous extract was subjected to AgNO3 to synthesize silver nanoparticles (SNPs), synthesis was confirmed by U.V-VIS spectroscopy and characterized by AFM; and toxicity of SNPs was tested against bacteria and fungi by paper disc diffusion method. Results and Discussion: The results indicate that the root of Plumbago zeylanica is source for different secondary metabolites like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and triterpenoids. The SNPs formation from root extract was confirmed with the help of UV-VIS spectroscopy and characterized by AFM. The size of the SNPs was measured 40.9 nm with various shapes. The SNPs are having high toxic effect towards microorganisms than that of plant extract. Moreover the SNPs of Plumbago zeylanica root extract having high toxicity towards bacterial species than that of fungal species. Conclusion: The secondary metabolites of Plumbago zeylanica will be helpful to the phytochemists and pharmacologists for identification of new active principles and the environmentally benign SNPs can be used effectively against drug resistant bacterial and fungal strains.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000363
Title: Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of substituted pyrimido[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazole derivatives
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of substituted pyrimido[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazole derivatives were synthesized by reaction of 2-aminobenzothiazole, aromatic aldehyde and active methylene compound in ethanol through MCR mechanism. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by their physical and spectral data. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their in-vitro anti inflammatory activity by using inhibition of albumin denaturation technique. Most of the derivatives showed enhanced anti-inflammatory activity as compared to the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Compounds 1f, 1g, and 1i have shown the excellent anti-inflammatory activity with 78.57 %, 77.55 % and 75.51 % inhibition of albumin denaturation respectively.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000362
Title: Evaluation of anticancer activity of Andaman freeze dried powdered Morinda citrifolia L. fruit against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell induced liquid and solid tumor in Swiss Albino mice.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the antitumor effect of powdered freeze dried Noni against Swiss albino mice bearing liquid tumor in peritoneal cavity and solid tumor in hind limb induced by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Methods: For liquid tumor study Noni at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight were administered to mice carrying EAC cell line up to 14 consecutive days. Half of the mice were sacrificed, for the assessment of antitumor activity by evaluating tumor parameters and hematological parameters and rest half were left for the survival studies by mean survival time (MST) and percent increase in life span (%ILS). For solid tumor study, tumor was induced by implanting EAC cell subcutaneously in the hind limb of mice. Same doses were used and mice were sacrificed after 21 days for evaluating tumor weight and tumor volume. Histopathological studies of tumor, liver and kidney were performed. Results: In liquid tumor, it was found that Noni significantly (p<0.01) decreases tumor volume, tumor weight, viable tumor cell count and increases the life span of mice bearing EAC cell lines. Hematological parameters gained their normal values. In solid tumor, Noni at both doses decreased tumor weight and Noni 500mg/kg decreased tumor volume significantly (p<0.05). Histopathological findings revealed that Noni showed less proliferation with some necrosis and apoptosis along with hepatoprotective and renoprotective action on liver and kidney. Conclusion: It was revealed from the experimental results that the powdered freeze dried Noni has potent antitumor activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001179
Title: Transdermal Delivery: A Recent Trend in Treatment of Chronic Diseases
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Transdermal drug delivery systems are devices containing drug of defined surface area that delivers a pre-determined amount of drug to the surface of intact skin at a pre-predefined rate. The skin as a route for systemic drug administration has become very attractive since the introduction of transdermal therapeutic systems in the form of patches. The discovery of transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) is a breakthrough in the field of controlled drug delivery system Transdermal dosage forms, alternative to the conventional dosage form are becoming very popular because of their unique advantages. Like controlled zero ordered absorption, simple mode of administration and having option to terminate the action in case of adverse effect. So the TDDS makes them desirable for the treatment of chronic diseases where long term treatment is necessary. Scopolamine, clonidine, nitroglycerine, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, antiischaemic, drug molecules being extensively used in transdermal form. This article is dedicated to the review of transdermal recent research in the area of antiischaemics, antihypertensive, antiemetic, hormones, opioids, anticholinergics and other drug molecules which should be selected for TDDS reported in various pharmaceutical journals.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-00001182
Title: Cardiotonic activity of Lagenaria scieraria (Mol.) on isolated frog heart
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Lagenaria Scieraria (Mol.) standley fruit (bottle gourd), a commonly used vegetable in india is descried as cardiotonic and as a general tonic in Ayurveda. The cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of fruit peel Lagenaria Scieraria (Mol.) was studied by using isolated frog heart perfusion technique (IFHP). Ringer solution was used as a vehicle for administration of aqueous extract as test and digoxin as standard. As significant increase in force of contraction (positive ionotropic effect) and decrease in heart rate (negative chronotropic effect) was observed at smaller doses. The effect increased as dose was increased. The test extract is compared to standard of digoxin.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-BT-0000315
Title: Evaluation of anti bacterial activity of biocompatible polymer chitosan coated biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized from Klebsiella ornithinolytica
Category: Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study, anti bacterial activity of chitosan coated silver nanoparticles synthesized extracellularly by Klebsiella ornithinolytica a symbiotic bacterial flora isolated from gut of lepidopteron insect pest Spodoptera litura against clinical isolates of human pathogenic bacteria E.coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Culture filtrate derived from the liquid culture of the Klebsiella ornithinolytica was mixed with 0.1M silver nitrate, encapsulated with chitosan by ionic gelaion method.Anti bacterial activity was studied against human pathogenic bacteria adopting dynamic growth curve effect assay with different concentration of synthesized nanoparticles.Synthesized silver nanoparticles were primarly confirmed by the colour change of the reaction mixture, determination of plasmon absorption maxima, particle morphology by scanning, transmission electron microscopy, FTIR and energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy(EDX).Synthesized biogenic particles were encapsulated with chitosan and the coated nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and FTIR When the FTIR spectrum of free and coated nanoparticles were compared, it was found that almost the all the absorbed peaks were modified upon coating with chitosan and SEM analysis reveals the uniform spherical smooth morphology. within the size range of 37-40 nanometers and electron dense thin chitosan coating shell of diameter 2-3 nanometers.Anti bacterial activity with the coated nanoparticles showed distinct effect on the dyanamic growth curve of all the tested bacteria. during all the tested time periods and more effect was observed in high concentration. Increasing concentration of nanoparticles progressively inhibited the growth of all the tested bacteria The lag phase of all the tested bacteria in the nanoparticles treatment was found to be more prolonged than the control which reveals the stability of the nanoparticles used in this study. The concentration of 100 ìg ml was found to be strongly inhibitory for bacteria.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-BT-0000314
Title: Bio-insecticidal potential of amylase inhibitors
Category: Biotechnology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Agricultural crops are facing several losses due to pest. Pesticides, biopestcides , plant defence compounds are different ways to protect the agricultural crop losses. The enzyme inhibitors act on insect gut digestive a-amylases and proteinases, which play a key role in the digestion of plant starch and proteins. Starchy leguminous seeds are an important staple food in manycountries. These seeds are rich in protein, and carbohydrate therefore suffer extensive predation by bruchids (weevils)and other pests. Insects like weevils are highly dependent on starch for their energy supply. In this review, we summarize the effects of pesticides, need of bio pesticides, different types and sources of plant α-amylase inhibitors their interaction with insect a-amylases and subsequent insect mortality.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-BiO-0000313
Title: Future Plague Vaccine: Study by Reverse Vaccinology Approach
Category: Bioinformatics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Yersinia pestis, causative agent of Bacillus plague is a serious threat worldwide and yet no vaccine has been developed because of its antigenic variability. In study, we have reported 36 cell surface antigens; those could be involved in advancing vaccine research trials. The study is based on bioinformatics analysis using the reverse vaccinology approach in which SignalP3.0, LipoP1.0, TMHMM, PSORTB, and BLASTP programs collectively put forward the most conserved proteins selected as vaccine antigens.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000312
Title: Evaluation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant potential of Rotula aquatica Lour.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant potential of Rotula aquatica Lour. by assessing enzymatic and non enzymatic parameters. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by standard procedures. Results and Discussion: Three different parts of Rotula aquatica viz leaf, stem and root were analysed. Among the three samples root showed maximum contents of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as Catalase, Peroxidase, Glutathione s-transferase, Glutathione peroxidase, Polyphenol oxidase, Ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and Total polyphenol. R. aquatica plant possesses effective antioxidant activity. This feature perhaps may be due to the presence of respective Phytochemicals like tannins, flavonoids and glycosides etc in this species. Conclusions: The results clearly indicated that, among the three samples the root showed good antioxidant activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-HPRS-0000311
Title: Carbapenem resistance and biofilm production in environmental strains of Acinetobacter isolated from different hospital ward.
Category: Hospital Pharmacy Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Acinetobacter is an emerging nosocomial pathogen because of its multidrug resistance nature and its ability to survive on various abiotic surfaces in hospital environment. Environment contaminated from infected or colonized patients may contribute to dissemination of pathogens. The main objective of this study is to isolate Acinetobacter from different inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and to analyze its drug resistance pattern and biofilm formation. The sampling was done on various sources including ;bed ,wash basin, cleaning solution, suction tubes, catheter, ventilator, bed, bed mattress, dressing table, dressing trolley and soap. Total swabs collected were 108 from different ward surfaces in hospital. Among 108 swabs, 20 Acinetobacter strains were isolated from Intensive care unit (ICU) and Post Operative ward. Out of 20 isolates, 13(65%) were A.baumannii, and 7 (35%) were Acinetobacter lwoffii. The environmental strains showed high level resistance to carbapenem group of drugs (which are the drug of choice for treatment of Acinetobacter infection).Environmental Acinetobacter strains also showed for biofilm production.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000310
Title: Formulation and evaluation of Paliperidone Nanocrystals
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study an attempt has been made to develop nanocrystals of Paliperidone in order to enhance solubility and dissolution rate by decreasing particle size of drug and also sustained the drug release profile by using Eudragit L100 as polymer. The Paliperidone nanocrystals with small and uniform particle size were successfully prepared by nanoprecipitation method using Eudragit L100 as polymer at different ratios in the presence of stabilizers (PVP K30, Poloxamer 188, Poloxamer 407, combination of PVP K30 and Poloxamer 407 and combination of PVP K30 and Poloxamer 188). The compatibility studies by infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry showed no interaction between the drug and polymers. The nanocrystals were evaluated for entrapment efficiency, morphology, size distribution, zeta potential, solubility and stability studies. The entrapment efficiency of the all the formulations were increased with increasing the concentration of polymer. The presence of stabilizers made the nanocrystal formulations more stable with high entrapment efficiency (78.41%). The solubility and in vitro dissolution studies suggested that the nanocrystal formulations can improve the bioavailability of the Paliperidone by improving its solubility and dissolution rate when compared to pure drug. Formulation (F20) exhibited the sustained drug release of 56.02% at the end of 12 hours. In vitro release kinetics exhibited sustained release and followed Fickian diffusion by all the formulations. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) confirmed that there was no change in the crystalline state by this size reduction process. Results of stability studies are favourable for the development of this nanocrystal formulation.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BC-0000309
Title: Lipid profiles and marker enzymes in alcoholic hypertensive patients with/without diabetes
Category: Biochemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Lipid profiles and Marker enzymes has been implicated in the progression of alcoholic hypertension and diabetic hypertension. Method: The lipid profiles and Marker enzymes of plasma were investigated in alcoholic hypertensive patients and alcoholic hypertensive patients with diabetes and compared with normal subjects. Results: A significant increase is observed in the levels of total cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and VLDL Cholesterol, TG levels and TC/HDL ratio (P<0.05) in the alcoholic hypertensive patients with/without diabetes and the further increase in the levels of TG and TC/HDL ratio is significantly higher in alcoholic hypertensive patients with diabetes. HDL cholesterol levels significantly decrease in alcoholic hypertensive patients with/without diabetes and further decrease is noted in alcoholic hypertensive patients with diabetes as compared to alcoholic hypertensive patients without diabetes. The activities of AST, ALT increase significantly in alcoholic hypertensive patients with/without diabetes and a further increase is observed in alcoholic hypertensive patients with diabetes as compared to alcoholic hypertensive patients without diabetes. No significant difference is observed in the activities of CK-MB and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-] among the normal subjects, alcoholic hypertensive patients with/without diabetes. Conclusions: An increase the levels of TG, TC/HDL ratio and decreased the levels of HDL cholesterol were observed in alcoholic hypertensive patients with diabetes and a more pronounced increase in the activities of AST, ALT among marker enzymes.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000308
Title: Antioxidant and anticancer effects of Excoecaria agallocha and avicennia
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study selected mangrove plant leaf extracts were screened. The mangroves, such as Avicennia and Excoecaria Agallocha (Euphorbiaceae) were selected for this study. The crude extracts from dried leaf of the mangroves were extracted using soxhlet extraction method and obtained extracts were concentrated by using rotary evaporator. Two solvents Methanol and Ethyl acetate were used to extract the leaf material. The crude extracts obtained were evaluated for the antioxidant and anticancer activity of mangrove plants of Avicennia and Excoecaria Agallocha using DPPH and MTT Assay respectively. Our results clearly indicate that the antioxidant and anticancer activities of the plant Avicennia and Excoecaria Agallocha.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000307
Title: Free radical scavenging activity of essential oil compounds citral, limonene, menthone and thymol by using different methods
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The essential oil compounds like Citral, Limonene, Menthone and Thymol was tested for a possible antioxidant activity. A rapid evaluation for antioxidants, using TLC screening methods, showed that Citral, Limonene, Menthone and Thymol demonstrated respectable radical scavenging property. These four constituents and the essential oil possessed variable antioxidant activity when tested in the diphenylpicrylhydracyl assay. All of the extracts had strong antioxidant activity in comparison to the standard compound curcumin. The antioxidant activities of the oils were evaluated in terms of their free-radical-scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Lipid Peroxidation, catalase and superoxide Dismutase. The antioxidant assays showed that the compounds possess very high radical scavenging activities DPPH IC(50) for thymol 1.2, limonene 24.8, citral 30.6 and menthone 79.6 µL/mL , Percentage reduction in Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production (Lipid Peroxidation) for thymol 69.4, limonene 59.3, citral 52.1 and menthone 51.9 mg/mL, catalase production for thymol 43.8, limonene 42.6, menthone 41.3 and citral 40.2 mmol H2O2/min/mg of protein, superoxide production for thymol 434.8, limonene 404.4, menthone 372.2 and citral 372.1 Units /mg of protein. The results show that the essential oils possess significant antioxidant activity which is comparable to that of curcumin. These results suggest that the compounds citral, limonene, menthone and thymol act as a chemopreventative agent, providing antioxidant properties and offering effective protection from free radicals.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000306
Title: Phytochemical study of methanolic leaf extract of Eupatorium glandulosum .L
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The Eupatorium glandulosum L. commonly known as the “goat weed” leaf paste is used to treat cuts and wounds. Eupatorium species are well known for their medicinal value. To validate the significance of the species, the leaf extract of the plant was evaluated and analyzed for the presence of phytochemical constituents. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, tannins and phenols, of which total phenolic content (232.65 µg/mg) and flavonoid content (178.2 mg/g) of leaf have been studied and revealed higher values.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-DVD-0000305
Title: Validated HPLC Method Development for Simultaneous Estimation of Paracetmol and Flupiritine in bulk drug and in formulation dosage forms
Category: Development and Validation of Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, sensitive, accurate and precise RPHPLC method for the simultaneous determination of paracetmol and flupiritine in a bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations was developed. . Chromatographic separation was achieved on thermo hypersil BDS column, with phosphate buffer- methanol (50:50v/v, pH, 2.3) as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0mL/min.Quantification was achieved with PDA detector at 250nm.The retention time for paracetmol and Flupiritine was found at 3.4 and 5.4minutes respectively. The linearity for both the drugs were observed in the concentration range of 50-150µg/ml with mean accuracies 98%-101%. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation because of no chromatographic interferences from blank and placebo were found. The method retains its accuracy and precision when the standard addition technique was applied.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000304
Title: Study on the diuretic activity of various extracts of Cayratia carnosa (Wall. Ex Wight) Gagnep. in albino rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation was aimed to investigate the diuretic activity of Cayratia carnosa (Wall. Ex Wight) Gagnep. The shade dried coarse powdered of the whole plant of Cayratia carnosa was subjected to systemic soxhlet extraction successively with petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water. Total aqueous extract was also prepared separately from the fresh plant powder by cold maceration method. Among these, ethanolic, aqueous and total aqueous extracts at 200 & 400 mg/kg, p.o were investigated for the diuretic activity in male albino rats using standard methods because these three extracts alone contains the maximum number of phytoconstituents. The diuretic activity was assessed in terms of urine output and levels of sodium, potassium and chloride in urine. The results obtained revealed that the ethanolic extract at 400 mg/kg, p.o showed marked diuretic potency which was comparable to that of frusemide.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000303
Title: Anticancer Activity of Cleistanthus collinus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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To evaluate the anticancer activity of methanolic extract and its fractions from the bark of Cleistanthus collinus against Earlisch Aceites Carcinoma (EAC) cells, HT 29 (colon cancer), H a549 (lung cancer) and MDA 231 (breast cancer) cells. Traditionally, the whole plant is used as poison and anticancer. Anticancer activity was studied using the methods viz. trypan blue and MTT assay. The ethyl acetate and its chromatographic fraction, and aqueous residue-I showed promising activity against cell lines used in the study. The observations suggest that the chromatographic fraction possesses potential anticancer activity and dose dependent.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000302
Title: Chitosan – polymer for drug delivery
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Chitosan, a polymer derived from crustacean chitin, has a number of properties that make it potentially valuable as a pharmaceutical excipient. Its use in various application has received considerable attention. One obvious advantage of this material is that it can be obtained from ecologically sound natural sources, namely crab and shrimp shell wastes. Chitosan has been widely studied in the biomedical field and has been found to be highly biocompatible. To maintain only some areas of investigation, chitosan has been studied as a wound dressing as a haemostatic material in the form of gels or sponges and as suture, in the form of fibers. Some chitosan –based products, e.g. wound dressing have reached the market. Chitosan has also been marketed through the world in non-medical products as a fat binder in chlolesterol- lowering and slimming formulations. It has been claimed that chitosan entraps lipids in the intestine because of its cationic nature. Chitosan may also have technical applications including e.g. use as a seed coating and nitrogen source in agriculture and as an adsorbent for water-purification.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BT-0000301
Title: Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using E. coli
Category: Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The ecological affable production of nanoparticles is an innovative step in the field of nano bio technology. In this present study, the Bio synthesis of silver nanoparticles was conceded out by means of microbe such as Escherichia coli as a reducing agent. The UV spectroscopy was used for quantification of silver nanoparticle synthesis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were studied.Antimicrobial activities of Silver nanoparticles were studied by disc diffusion method.The Biocidal activity also confirms the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles .

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000300
Title: Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of Metoprolol tartrate microspheres using natural, semi synthetic and synthetic polymer as controlled release dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate microspheres as controlled release preparations of a drug, Metoprolol Tartrate, using natural polymer, Egg albumin; semi synthetic polymer, Ethyl cellulose and Synthetic polymer, (Eudragit RL 100) as the polymeric materials. Eudragit and Ethyl cellulose based Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method and Egg Albumin based Microspheres was prepared by co-acervation Phase separation method using petroleum ether and coconut oil as dispersion and continuous phase systems. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for their drug content and entrapment efficiency, particle size, compatibility using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in-vitro drug release and stability studies. The in vitro release studies was performed by buffer change method to mimic Gastro Intestine Tract (GIT) environment in pH 1.2,(acidic) and pH 7.4, phosphate buffer (Alkaline). The prepared microspheres were pale yellow, free flowing and spherical in shape. The mean particle size of the microspheres was found in the range of 50 to 335μm. The drug-loaded microspheres showed 70-88% of entrapment and release was extended up to 12 h releasing 86% of the total drug from the microspheres. The infrared spectra showed stable character of Metoprolol Tartrate in the drug-loaded microspheres and revealed the absence of drug-polymer interactions. Scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the microspheres were spherical and porous in nature. The best-fit release kinetics was achieved with Koresmeyer-Peppas plot followed by Matrix.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000299
Title: In vitro anti diabetic and anti oxidant activity of methanolic extracts of Cissus pallida and Cissus vitegenia
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Cissus pallida and Cissus vitegenia were traditionally used herbs in various ailments. Their parts were used in ulcer, wound healing, skin disorders, management of diabetes etc. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of stem and roots of Cissus pallida and aerial parts of Cissus vitegenia methanolic extracts. They were tested by invitro methods of alpha glucosidase inhibition assay and free radical scavenging action by DPPH and Total phenolic content. The results obtained for the assay method reveals the antidiabetic action by the significant percentage inhibition of the enzyme. Also the DPPH and Total phenolic content results reveals the significant free radical scavenging action of the methanolic extract. The results obtained were significant and the free radical production may account for the etiology of various diseases. Hence the above said herbals can be extensively used for various ailments and also in metabolic disorders.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000298
Title: Preliminary phytochemical analysis of Excoecaria agallocha and Avicennia
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study, the mangroves, Avicennia and Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae), were selected for this study. The crude extracts from dried leaf of the mangroves were extracted using soxhlet extraction method and obtained extracts were concentrated by using rotary evaporator. Two solvents Methanol and Ethyl acetate were used to extract the leaf material. Extracts from mangroves and mangrove-dependent species have proven effective against human, animal and plant pathogens, but only limited investigations have been carried out to identify the metabolites responsible for their bioactivities. Hence it is of interest to investigate the phytochemical analysis of mangrove plants such as Avicennia and Excoecaria Agallocha.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-DVD-0000297
Title: New RP-HPLC method development and validation for analysis of combreastatin
Category: Development and Validation of Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A new, accurate and rapid isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography assay has been developed and validated for the estimation of combreastatin in tablet formulation. This method was achieved by using C-18 column (250x4.6mm, 5µm in particle size) at ambident temperature and coupled with a guard column of silica in mobile phase (methanol:water:0.1%TEA 75:15:10(v/v/v)) at the pH value was adjusted upto 5.9. The flow rate was 1ml/min and the drug was detected by using UV detector at the wavelength of 247nm, the run time was 10min and the retention time was 4.02 minutes. The percentage of RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2% and it was validated as per ICH (International Council of Hormonisation) guidelines. The proposed method was found to be accurate, repeatability and consistent. It was successfully applied for the analysis of the drug in marketed formulation and could be effectively used for the routine analysis of formulation containing the drug without any alteration in the chromatography conditions.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000296
Title: Design, synthesis, antiHIV and antiviral activities of novel N(2,4-dioxo 4,4-diphenyl imidazolidin-1-yl) benzamides
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Compounds possessing diphenyl imidazolidin diones are well known for their various biological activities. A total of 31 such compounds were designed and scores of the compounds were calculated by Autodock. The compounds that have shown good resultsin the study were synthesized. The structures of the prototype were confirmed with UV, IR, NMR and mass spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-HIV and antiviral activities. Anti-HIV activity on HIV-1 was performed in human T-lymphocyte (CEM) cells using Azidothymidine (AZT) as standard. Antiviral activity on HSV-1 (KOS) was performed in HEL cell cultures using acyclovir and ganciclovir as standards.Six compounds exhibited good inhibitory effects on HIV-1, where as five compounds exhibited satisfactory inhibitory effects on HSV-1. Novel compounds N( 2,5- dioxo 4,4-diphenyl imidazolidin -1-yl) benzamides are found to be promising as anti-HIV and antiviral agents. Further optimization of the compounds should be under taken so as to obtain anti-HIV and antiviral agents of good therapeutic potential.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-DVD-0000295
Title: Development of analytical method for simultaneous estimation of Amoxicillin and Carbocisteine in solid dosage form by RP-HPLC
Category: Development and Validation of Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and carbocisteine in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. The separation was made by C18 column (250 cm × 4.6 mm, 10ìm) using water - acetonitrile (90:10) at pH-3.0 was selected as mobile phase. The detection was carried out at wavelength 220 nm. Water and acetonitrile combination used as diluents. The validation of the method was performed, and linearity, precision and accuracy were confirmed. Method has been successfully used to analyze amoxicillin and carbocisteine from pharmaceutical formulation.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000294
Title: Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets of gliclazide
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objective of the present study was to develop “once daily” sustained release tablets of Gliclazide by wet granulation using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMCK100M) Ethylcellulose and their combination as polymers taken as 10%, 20%, and 30% of the total weight. Gliclazide is an oral hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The sustained release tablets were prepared by direct compression method .The drug excipients mixtures were subjected to preformulation studies like angle of repose , loose bulk density, tapped bulk density , compressibility index and hausner’s ratio etc. The powder blend showed satisfactory flow properties. The tablets were subjected to thickness, weight variation, drug content, hardness, friability, in- vitro drug release and stability studies. All the formulations showed good results which were compliance with pharmacopoeial standards. In-vitro drug release studies were carried out using USP dissolution apparatus type 1 at 100rpm with 900ml phosphate buffer solutions (pbs) of pH1.2 for first 2 hrs and pH 7.4 for remaining hrs, maintained at 37±0.5ºC. The release kinetics was analyzed using the zero-order, first-order model equation, higuchi’s square-root equation and the korsmeyer-peppas model. In-vitro release studies revealed that the release rate decreased with increases in polymer proportion. the sustained release Formulation F9 containing 30% of HPMC K100M &Ethylcellulose combination were found to show good initial release( 15.7±1.45 in two hours)and extended the drug in sustained manner up to 10 hour and can overcome the disadvantages of conventional tablets of Gliclazide . The n value obtained from korsmeyer –peppas model confirmed that the drug release was non-fickian diffusion mechanism. F9 formulation kept stable under accelerated conditions of temperature for 3 months since there were no significant changes in appearance and slight changes in hardness, friability, drug content and in- vitro drug release studies.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BT-0000292
Title: Early perinatal exposure to bisphenol-a results in decreased feto placental growth during pregnancy in albino rat
Category: Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Bisphenol A is an estrogenic environmental toxin widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and flame retardants. The impact of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) exposure on human health is receiving increasingly focused attention. It is now well established that there is ubiquitous human exposure to BPA. The primary exposure route to BPA occurs mainly by consumption of contaminated foods and beverages that have contacted epoxy resins or polycarbonate plastics. Early perinatal exposure to this compound may produce a broad range of adverse effects, including sexual differentiation, behaviour, miscarriage, damaged DNA, low birth weight pups, decreased reproductive hormone levels, early puberty etc . The aim of this study was to determine the effects of BPA on feto placental, uterine growth in pregnant rats. Two different concentrations (50 mg/Kg/body weight, (low concentration) 500 mg/kg/body weight (high conc.) of BPA, were administered to pregnant rats orally from the 8th gestational day to 15th day (8 days total). Results showed that reduction in placental weights were more substantial with BPA at 500mg/kg body weight, compared with 50mg /kg body weights. These findings indicate that early perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in decreased feto placental and increased uterine wet weights.Histopathological changes were carried out to determine changes in tissue structure by morphometric analysis, DNA fragmentation induced by BPA was analysed by using agarose gel electrophoresis. Thus evidence from laboratory studies suggest that BPA may act as a toxicant for developing tissue.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MD-0000291
Title: Evaluation of anti-angiogenic effect of crab shell chitin by chorioallantoic membrane assay
Category: Marine Drug
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Chitin is a natural, non-toxic biopolymers shows many beneficial biological properties. In present study antiangiogenic potential of chitin extract from crab shell (Barytelphusa guerini) was evaluated by chick chorioallantoic membrane assay in vivo. The treatment doses of various chitin concentrations (50μg, 100μg, 300μg, 500μg, 700μg & 1000μg/ml) were administered at 96 hours by the window method and evaluated at 144 hrs of development. The results showed that chitin extract at low concentration showed no sustentative difference in blood vessels with area extension from normal and control CAMs. On the contrary, high dose concentration showed significant reduction in both the secondary and tertiary blood vessels without affecting area occupied by them comparable to PBS treated control CAM. It blocked the growth of capillaries with regression of the large vessels and created a region of avascularity on the CAM. These results indicated that chitin extract of crab shell has antiangiogenic potential at high dose of administration. It might be because of preventing signaling of angiogenic agents from epithelial cells or by inducing apoptosis. It may account for some recent clinical observations in the prevention of conditions involving pathological angiogenesis.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000290
Title: Comparative dissolution studies of an extended release formulation of Tolterodine tartrate and Tamsulosin Hcl
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A comparative study was undertaken on dissolution studies of marketed formulations which contain Tamsulosin HCl (TAM) and Tolterodine Tartrate (TOL) in a combination of 0.4 mg and 4.0 mg respectively in an extended release form. The dissolution method developed was then used to study three marketed formulations, quantification being done using a validated HPLC method. Comparison of dissolution data was done using the Moor and Flanner model independent method which included determination of Similarity factor and Difference factor. The kinetics of the dissolution process were determined by analyzing the dissolution data using four kinetic equations; namely zero order, first order, higuchi square root and hixson Cube root equation. The results obtained were within the acceptance criteria. The kinetic study indicated that the dissolution data followed first order kinetics and hixson Crowell cube root equation as straight line were obtained with a slope of approximately one and small value of intercept.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000289
Title: Evaluation of Acute Toxicity for Solanum Xanthocarpum Fruits
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The study was designed to evaluate the acute toxicity study of powder of fruits of Solanum Xanthocarpum. The fruits were collected from the basin of river Bhima during summer season in 2012 dried in shade to a constant weight and grinded by high power electric mixture and sieved. The acute toxicity study of fruit powder is carried out as per OECD guideline in Swiss mice weighing 35 to 50 gm. The dose of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 gm/kg body weight plant material were administered orally in the form of aqueous slurry. The groups were almost continuously observed for mortality and behavioral changes during first 24 hrs and then daily for fortnight. The observations of changes in body weight, food and water intake as well as cage side observations were reported during acclimatization as well as during study period. There was no abnormality observed in any group. The results provide evidence that Solanum Xanthocarpum fruits were found to be nontoxic in nature.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000288
Title: Formulation, optimization and evaluation of fast disintegrating tablet of hydrochlorothiazide
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was aimed towards formulation and development of fast disintegrating tablet of hydrochlorothiazide by direct compression method using three different super disintegrating agents. The absorption rate of hydrochlorothiazide is 50-60% and the drug undergoes hepatic metabolism, so the attempt has been made to administer it as fast disintegrating tablet to increase it’s oral bioavailability. Fast disintegrating tablet was formulated using three different super disintegrants in the concentration of 3%, 4 % and 8% alone or in combination of super disintegrants. The formulation is optimized for the concentration of super disintegrants to give minimum disintegrating time with maximum drug release profile. Disintegration time, % friability and In vitro drug release were taken as the basis to optimize the fast disintegrating tablet. On the basis of results of preliminary batches, the formulation H5 containing crospovidone and croscarmellose were selected as independent variables for the 32 full factorial design as it shows less disintegration time with less percentage of friability. A 32 full factorial design was used to study the effect of croscarmellose sodium and crospovidone on disintegration time, % friability and In-vitro drug release. The responses were analyzed using ANOVA and by the polynomial equation, it was found that the concentration of croscramellose sodium and crospovidone significantly affects disintegration time and % friability. Optimized formulation H8 containing crospovidone (6%) and croscarmellose sodium (4%) showed the faster disintegration time (5 to 6 sec), less friability (0.35%) and increased % drug release (99.22% in 30 mins) as compared to other formulations. From the results of 32 full factorial design it can be concluded that crospovidone and croscarmellose sodium in combination is having better disintegrating property than alone or in combination with sodium starch glycolate. Formulation H8 containing 6% crospovidone and 4% croscarmellose sodium gives better disintegration and dissolution profile. Thus combination of crospovidone and croscarmellose sodium can be successfully used in the formulation of fast disintegrating tablets.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000287
Title: Approaches used in Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System: An Overview
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Colon targeted drug delivery getting the importance day by day as it can be found as a potential site for systemic drug delivery of the most of proteins and peptides. The effective treatment of diseases associated with colon can be easily done with colon targeted drug delivery system. As the prevalence of diseases associated with colon increases day by day due to stress life. It is most important to treat these diseases locally with CTDDS. The present review is an attempt made to reveal the importance of CTDDS in treatment of local diseases associated with colon and the various novel approches designed to achieve desired therapeutic action and bioavailaility.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000286
Title: Novel Controlled Gastroretentive Drug Delivery Systems: A Review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Controlled release (CR) dosage forms have been extensively used to improve therapy with several important drugs. However, the development processes are faced with several physiological difficulties such as the inability to restrain and localize the system within the desired region of the gastrointestinal tract and the highly variable nature of the gastric emptying process. This variability may lead to unpredictable bioavailability and times to achieve peak plasma levels. On the other hand, incorporation of the drug in a controlled release gastroretentive dosage forms (CR-GRDF) which can remain in the gastric region for several hours would significantly prolong the gastric residence time of drugs and improve bioavailability, reduce drug waste, and enhance the solubility of drugs that are less soluble in high pH environment. Gastroretention would also facilitate local drug delivery to the stomach and proximal small intestine. Thus, gastroretention could help to provide greater availability of new products and consequently improved therapeutic activity and substantial benefits to patients. Controlled gastric retention of solid dosage form may be achieved by the mechanisms of floatation, mucoadhesion, sedimentation, expansion or by a modified shaped system. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature and current technology used in the development of gastroretentive dosage forms.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000285
Title: Evaluation of Dregea volubilis leaf extract for its potential against stress induced amnesia in experimental rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The world is focusing more upon the herbal medication for curing various ailments. The trend of validating the plants with traditional medicinal usage is increasing. The present investigation deals with the protective effect of Alcoholic extract of Dregea volubilis leaves (AEDV) against stress induced amnesia. In the present study the extract (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o) was investigated for its Nootropic potential in normal and stress induced rats. The invitro antioxidant activity was carried out to correlate its protective affect against stress. Conditioned avoidance response using Cook’s pole climbing apparatus was used in normal and stress induced rats to assess cognitive-improving activities. The invitro antioxidant activity was carried out by reducing power assay. Daily administration of Dregea volubilis at doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o enhanced cognition in dose dependent manner in normal rats. Fast retrieval was observed in extract treated stress induced rats, compared to that of stress control group. In Ferrous reducing power assay significant increase in absorbance was observed with extract in dose dependent manner and the results were comparable with that of standard, Ascorbic acid. The present study justifies scientific support for the protective effect of Dregea volubilis against stress induced amnesia & useful in combating the stress induced CNS disorders.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000283
Title: Hepatoprotective effect of methanol seed extract of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hoschst ex. A. Rich, Harms) against carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in wistar rats
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of methanol seed extract of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (African yam bean) on some antioxidant and liver marker enzymes of rats treated with CCl4 as well as the acute toxicity test of the extract. Twenty four (24) Wistar rats were randomly distributed into 6 groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 rats were not induced with CCl4 and were given normal rat feed and water (normal control). Groups 2-6 were induced with CCl4. Group 2 rats received no treatment (negative control) and those in group 3 received 300 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (standard drug). Groups 4, 5 and 6 were treated respectively with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of S. stenocarpa methanol seed extract. The acute toxicity test (LD50) of the extract showed no toxicity up to 5000 mg/kg body weight. This showed that the seed of the plant is safe for human and animal consumption. The glutathione concentration, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity of the rats increased significantly (p<0.05) in a dose dependent manner in all the treatment groups. The methanol seed extract had a positive effect on the antioxidant enzymes of rats treated with CCl4. There were no significant (p>0.05) increase in the alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity of rats in all the treatment groups. These suggest that S. stenocarpa seeds possess some antioxidant and non-hapatotoxic properties.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000282
Title: Hydrogel based biodegradable enteric coated alginate beads for colon targeted drug delivery of embelin
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Alginate, a natural polysaccharide has been extensively used as a matrixing agent for number of allopathic drugs. In the present investigation attempt is made to develop a sustained release multi particulate dosage form containing herbal molecule. Embelin, a well-proven anthelmentic from herbal origin was formulated in to gel beads of sodium alginate. A 23 full factorial design has been adopted for optimization of cross-linked sodium alginate beads containing embelin. Sodium alginate (10% w/v) was used as a polymer. Based on preliminary studies, the constraints of independent variables X1 (concentration of cross linking agent), X2 (type of hardening agent) and X3 (drying temperature for beads) have been fixed. The dependent variable that has been selected was Y1 (time taken for 80% drug release from beads, T80). The application of factorial design gave systematic approach in optimization on formulation variables. Concentration of cross linking agent (10% and 20% CaCl2) and type of hardening agent (Isopropyl alcohol and Glutaraldehyde) were found to be effective in controlling the gel bead size and T80. The drug release was found to follow Korsmeyer model of diffusion. A USP dissolution guideline, similarity factor f2 for drug release from gel beads with and without colonic fluid showed dissimilarity in drug release pattern. Further, optimized gel beads were film coated with HPMC phthalate to prevent the early release of embelin in upper GI tract and allowing majority of drug to release in lower intestine.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-HPRS-0000281
Title: A prospective clinical evaluation of quality of life and co–morbidity of patients with chronic blood transfusion and chelation therapy
Category: Hospital Pharmacy Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The patient with hemoglobinopathy like Thalassemia major (TM), Bone marrow dysfunction, and Sickle cell disease are requiring chronic blood transfusion in their life time to survive. Among these, thalassemia major is one of the most common hemoglopinopathy in world wide. This study was done to assess the quality of life of the patients with chronic blood transfusion and chelation therapy. The Quality of Life Scores were obtained through the self-administered SF-36 questionnaire. The study subjects were asked to answer the SF-36 questionnaire every three months once. After 6 months the SF 36 General Health mean score was 63.58 ± 12.98 (P < 0.05). The highest mean score was 69.37 ± 11.61. The mean difference after the final reviews was statistically significant. The preponderance of scores used to assess quality of life suggests that there is a direct and independent effect on quality of life when treated with transfusion and ironchelation therapy.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-IALI-0000280
Title: Preliminary phytochemical analysis, antibacterial activity and GC-MS analysis of Kalanchoe floribunda Wight&Arn.
Category: Instrumental analysis led to identification
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Traditional medicine also known as indigenous or folk medicine comprises medical knowledge systems that developed generations with in various societies before the era of modern medicine. In the present study deals with the phytochemical, antibacterial activity and GC-MS analysis of the medicinal plant Kalanchoe floribunda Wight & Arn. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plants confirms the presence of various secondary metabolites like alkaloids, phenols, proteins, saponins, sterols. Antibacterial activity of Kalanchoe floribunda leaf extracts (Ethyl acetate, Ethanol and Distilled Water) on pathogenic bacterial strains (Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhi) was tested by agar well diffusion method. Ethyl acetate leaves were also should maximum inhibition on Enterobacter aerogenes (10mm) and Klebsiella oxytoca (10mm). Seven compounds were identified in the ethyl acetate extract of Kalanchoe floribunda by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000278
Title: Toxicity testing strategies – current innovations and future outlook
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Humans are often exposed to chemicals in the form of pharmaceutical substances, household products, pollutants and it is vital to screen these chemicals for their toxicity so that it can be used safely without subjecting human lives at risk. Scientific advancements in the field of toxicology paved a better platform for evaluating these chemicals. A plethora of techniques are used for this purpose which includes toxicity test using animals, in vitro testing methods for enhanced toxicity testing (cell culture systems, stem cells, toxicogenomics, in silico techniques - Toxicity database, QSARs, Human knowledge-based methods) etc. These techniques vary in their scope, use, reliability, limitations so a search is needed to find out a testing method which fulfils all aspects of a testing method. This review highlights the general toxicity testing approaches, current developments in the field of toxicology, basics and significance of alternative testing methods in toxicological research for enhanced toxicity testing.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000277
Title: Formulation and evaluation of venlafaxine hydrochloride mouth dissolving tablets by effervescent technique
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Venlafaxine hydrochloride is used in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The objective of the present study was to prepare the mouth dissolving tablets of venlafaxine hydrochloride by effervescent method. sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid were used as effervescent agents. Tablets are prepared by direct compression process with crosscaremellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate as super disintegrants and mannitol as bulking agent. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, in vitro dispersion time, weight uniformity, wetting time and for in vitro drug release. Further the tablets were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy and by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Among all the formulations the tablets prepared by with sodium starch glycolate as super disintegrant and tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate as effervescent agents showed faster disintegration and rapid drug release.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000276
Title: In vitro evaluation of the anthelmintic and antibacterial activities of three nigerian medicinal plants
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The methanol extracts of the leaves of Asystasia gangetica, roots of Urtica dioica and whole plant of Spigelia anthelmia were screened for anthelmintic and antibacterial activities using in vitro models. Anthelmintic test was done using the local earthworm Nsukkadrilus mbae, while antibacterial activity against laboratory strains of Eschericia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were evaluated by agar diffusion technique. Extracts of the three plants caused a significant (P<0.05) concentration-related reduction in time of onset of paralysis and death of Nsukkadrilus mbae compared to piperazine. The magnitude of anthelmintic effect was in the order S. anthelmia > A. gangetica > U. dioica. In the antimicrobial activity test, only S. anthelmia inhibited microbial growth with magnitude of susceptibility in the order E. coli > S. aureus > B. subtilis, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 11.69, 12.59 and 14.42 mg/ml respectively. In conclusion, extracts of A. gangetica, U. dioica and S. anthelmia have significant anthelmintic activity, while S. anthelmia also possesses antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus and B. subtilis.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000275
Title: GC-MS analysis, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Thespesia populnea Linn. Leaf – in vitro study
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Thespesia Populnea (T. populnea ) Linn has been used conventionally to treat various diseases like rheumatism, diabetes and also as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, ethanolic extract of T. populnea leaves was screened for chemical constituents (Chemical methods and GC-MS analysis) and pharmacological properties such as antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS models) and antibacterial property (Agar-well diffusion and micro broth dilution methods) by in vitro assays. The leaf extract showed significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Preliminary phytochemical screening discloses the presence of bioactive constituents including flavanoids phenols and alkaloids. Results of GC-MS analysis showed 19 different phytocompounds. The present results suggest that the ethnopharmacological role of T. populnea could be attributed from active principles.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000274
Title: Effect of geographical properties on the phytochemical composition and antioxidant potential of Moringa oleifera flowers
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Moringa oleifera is a major tropical plant with highly valued nutritional and medicinal properties. The present study is undertaken to analyze the phytochemistry and antioxidant activity of the flowers of this plant and study the influence of the geographical properties on them. Antioxidant activities of extracts of M. oleifera flowers from four different districts of Tamilnadu, India with varying geographical properties, were investigated. Free radical scavenging potential was evaluated in vitro by using diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Other antioxidant assays like Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, Superoxide Anion Radical scavenging assay, Metal chelating assay, Phosphomolybdenum assay, Ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method were also adopted. Phytochemicals in the flower extracts were screened qualitatively. Phenol and flavonoid contents of the samples were estimated. Significant differences were observed in the antioxidant machinery of the extracts. Though the presence of phytochemicals among the samples remained the same, their quantity varied as noticed from their phenol and flavonoid contents which correlated to their antioxidant activities. The methanol extract of M. oleifera flowers from Tirunelveli district with loamy red soil, moderate monsoon and less pollution, exhibited the highest antioxidant potential. Its phenol and flavonoid contents also seemed to be maximum when compared with the other samples. Results suggested the profound effect of geographical properties on the phytochemical composition which further influenced the antioxidant potential of M. oleifera flowers.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000273
Title: Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds from the Petroleum Ether Extracts of Leaves of Xanthium Strumarium Linn.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Xanthium strumarium Linn. belonging to the family compositae, commonly known as ‘burweed’ and chotagokhru in hindi contains a number of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, phytosterols, glycosides, bioflavonoids, phenols, terpenoids and sugar. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize phytoconstituents from the petroleum ether extract of leaves of Xanthium strumarium Linn. Methods: Petroleum ether extract was saponified with alcoholic KOH and then subjected to column chromatography and eluted with different solvents of increasing polarity, composed of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate to isolate the constituents. Isolated compounds were purified by PTLC, CC and recrystallization method. The structure of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectroscopic evidences (IR, UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, MS). Results: Phytosterol such as stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and two long chain alcohols pentatriacontan-1-ol and tritriacontanol isolated from the petroleum ether extract of leaves of the plant. Conclusions: Xanthium strumarium contains stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, pentatriacontan-1-ol and tritriacontanol which are responsible for various pharmacological activities of the plant.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000272
Title: In vitro antioxidant activity of Sophora interrupta by ABTS and hydrogen peroxide method
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant property of Sophora interrupta which belongs to the family Fabaceae. To carry out this study, the methanolic extract of the whole plant was used. The methods used were hydrogen peroxide and ABTS methods. In both methods Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. In Hydrogen peroxide method, the IC50 value of the extract was found to be 112µg and the IC50 of Ascorbic acid was found to be 37µg. In ABTS method, the IC50 of the extract was 135µg and Ascorbic acid was 37µg.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000271
Title: Diclofenac potassium–loaded dika fat solid lipid microparticles: in vitro and in vivo characterisation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the work was to formulate diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo properties of the solid lipid microparticles (SLMs). Diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs were prepared by hot homogenization technique using admixtures of Phospholipon® 90G and dika fat (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 %w/w) as the lipid matrix. Characterisation based on particle size, particle morphology, pH, drug content and encapsulation efficiency were carried out on the lipospheres. In vitro release was carried out in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) without enzymes (pH 7.4) using the USP paddle method. Anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic properties of diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs were studied. From the results, the photomicrographs revealed spherical particles that ranged from 1.82 – 2.90 µm. SLMs formulated with lipid matrix 2:1 and containing 0.25 % diclofenac potassium had the highest encapsulation of 72 % and was significantly different from the other batches (p < 0.05). The in vitro release showed that SLMs having higher ratios of phospholipid (LM 2:1) i.e. batches C1 to C3 had more prolonged drug release rate with maximum drug release at 100 min, while SLMs formulated with lipid matrix having equal concentration of phospholipid and dika fat (A1 – A3) or having higher amount of dika fat (B1 – B3) exhibited faster release of drug with maximum drug release at 90 min. Diclofenac potassium SLMs prepared exhibited good anti-inflammatory properties and also inhibited the ulcerogenic potentials of diclofenac potassium. Therefore, diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs exhibited good in vitro and in vivo properties.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000270
Title: Comparitive study on phytochemicals from leaves of Mentha piperita (Mint), Psidium guajava (Guava) and Moringa oleifera (Drumstick)
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Propanolic extract of leaves of three plants namely mint (Mentha piperita), guava (Psidium guajava), drum stick (Moringa oleifera) were prepared separately. Comparison for the presence of some important phytochemicals like, terpenpoids, reducing sugars, tannins, cabonyl, flavonoids, phlobatanins, steroids etc. were studied. It was found that saponins, terpenoids and reducing sugar was present in all the three plant extracts. Carbonyl and flavonoids were present in guava leaves. Moringa leaves exhibited the presence of carbonyl, flavonoids, phlobatanin and steroids. In the mint leaves tannins, carbonyls, flavonoids, phlobatanin and steroids were conspicuous by their absence.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000269
Title: Synthesis characterization and biological activities of Schiff bases of Isatin
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study, five new Schiff bases of Isatin were synthesized. These new compounds were formed through the condensation reaction between Isatin with 2-aminobenzoicacid, 4-aminobenzoicacid, urea, thiourea and, Pyridin-2-amine. The synthesized compound structures were characterized by FT-IR and H1NMR spectroscopy. The biological activities of the compounds were predicted by using PASS (online software for bioactivity prediction).The newly synthesized Schiff bases of , (3Z)-3-[(pyridin-2-yl)imino]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-one has shown twitching activity, Nicotinic alpha2beta2 receptor antagonist and fibrillation atrial activity. 2-{[(3Z)-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-3-ylidene]amino}benzoic acid shows better activity in acute neurological disorder. [(3Z)-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-3-ylidene]thiourea acts as a best Thioredoxin inhibitor.4-{[(3Z)-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-3-ylidene]amino}benzoic acid was found to have hypothermic activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000268
Title: Microwave assisted synthesis, characterization & biological evaluation of 2-(phenoxymethyl)-1-[5-(substituted aryl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl]-1H-benzimidazoles
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In an effort to develop novel 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, with various substituents characterizing and biologically screening them for anticonvulsant and antibacterial activities, a series of benzimidazole containing 1,3,4- oxadiazoles were synthesized by microwave assisted methods from presynthesized acetohydrazide by refluxing them with substituted aromatic acids at appropriate temperature in the suitably designed experimental conditions. The synthesized compounds were characterized by means of their IR, HNMR data, Mass spectrophotometry and elemental analysis. All compounds were tested for their anticonvulsant (using MES method) and antibacterial (against E. coli, S. aureus etc) activities.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000267
Title: Assay of Some Adreno-corticosteroid Drugs with Pyridinium Fluorochromate Reagent
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present paper, we have reported a simple and convenient titrimetric method for determination of adreno-corticosteroid drugs e.g. betamethasone sodium phosphate, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, prednisolone sodium succinate and triamcinolone in pure form and in their pharmaceutical preparations such as betnesol (Inj), cortil (Tab), decdon (Inj), dexasone (Tab), Primacprt (Inj), wycort (Inj), wysolone (Tab), predone forte (Syrup), tricort (Inj) and ledercort (Tab) with pyridinium fluorochromate (PFC) reagent. It is a versatile oxidizing agent of chromium (VI) and it is being increasingly used as an oxidant for several classes of organic compounds. The value of percentage error, coefficient of variation (CV) and standard deviation (SD) prove the method to be precise and reproducible. To establish authenticity of the method, recovery experiments were also carried out by standard drug addition method. It was noted that the excipients present in pharmaceutical preparations do not interfere in the estimation.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000266
Title: Designing, structural, redox and biological investigation of copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), Zinc(II) and vanadium(IV) complexes derived from 1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl- 4-imino-(3-oxo-N-phenylbutamide
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A Schiff base namely tetradentate N2O2 donor has been prepared by condensation of acetoacetaninilido-4-aminoantipyrine and 5-(a-imino)-indole-3-propionic acid (tryptophan) in 1:1 molar ratio. Copper(II), Nickel(II), cobalt(II), Zinc(II) and VO(II) complexes of this Schiff base have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, Magnetic measurements, IR, UV- Vis., 1H- NMR, FAB Mass, and ESR spectral data. The IR data show that the ligand is coordinated to the metal ion in a tetratendate manner with N2O2 donor site of the enolic –OH group, carboxylate oxygen and two azomethine nitrogen. Magnetic measurements and electronic spectral data of the chelates suggested that all the complexes are square planar geometry except VO(II) complex which has square pyramidal geometry. 1H-NMR spectra of the Schiff base and its zinc complex reveal that carboxylate proton of amino acid and enolic hydroxyl proton of acetoacetanilido-4- aminoantipyrine moiety were displaced during complexation. The ligand and the metal complexes were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities against various bacterial and fungal strains. The results showed that all the chelate have better activity than the free ligand.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000265
Title: Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial effect of Amaranthus caudatus
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Amaranthus caudatus is a medicinal plant belongs to the family Amarannthaceae. The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents and assayed for antibacterial effect of this plant. In the phytochemical screening, different types of solvent like ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether were taken which revealed that the leaves extract of Amaranthus caudatus contain flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, proteins as secondary metabolites and chemical compounds. The microorganisms assayed for antibacterial activity were against three Gram positive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus pyrogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and three Gram negative bacteria Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa The result showed that the leaf extract of Amaranthus caudatus can be used as a good herbal medicine.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000264
Title: Formulation and Physical Characterization of Microcrystals for Dissolution Rate Enhancement of Telmisartan
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Telmisartan is a potent, long-lasting, nonpeptide antagonist of the angiotensin II type-1(AT1) receptor that is indicated for the treatment of essential hypertension. Telmisartan is practically insoluble in water and its dissolution is the rate-limiting step for its absorption, which leads to variable bioavailability. The aim of this investigation was to enhance the dissolution rate of Telmisartan by formation of microcrystals using solvent change method. The in-situ micronization process was carried out using solvent change method in the presence of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizing agent that limits the size of the particles generated. Telmisartan was dissolved in methanol and the stabilizing agent in water (as a non-solvent). The non-solvent was poured rapidly into the drug solution under stirring by a magnetic stirrer, and the resultant was oven-dried. Microcrystals were characterized by optical microscopy, SEM, FTIR, XRD and in vitro powder dissolution study. Telmisartan microcrystals showed narrow particle size and change in crystalline shape from avicular shape. FTIR results showed no interaction between the drug and the stabilizer. XRD diffractograms of microcrystals showed smaller peak height than untreated Telmisartan indicates that crystal habit modification occurred in the microcrystals without any polymorphic changes. Negative Gibb’s free energy change represented spontaneous solubility of microcrystals. Dissolution efficiency of Telmisartan microcrystals at 15 min (DE15%) was increased about 9 times. Microcrystals were found to have good flow property.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000263
Title: Evaluation of Anti-Alzheimer’s properties of Bacopa monniera extract on Morphometric, Behavoural aspects and Cholinergic system in albino mice
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the present study is to assess the anti-Alzheimer’s properties of Bacopa monniera plant extract (BME) on the cholinergic system of AD-induced mice. Male albino mice, Mus musculus, of one month old weighing 20±2 grams, obtained from Sri Venkateswara Enterprises, Bangalore were used as the experimental model. They were maintained in the animal house of the Department (Behringer,1973) according to the ethical guidelines for animal protection and welfare bearing the Resolution No. 02/(i)/a/CPCSEA/ IAEC/ SVU/ KY-KK/ Dt. 21-03-2011. The mice were fed with standard pellet diet and water ad libitum. The mice were divided in to four groups as follows: Group I: Control mice; Group II: mice treated with BME; Group III(AD induced): mice treated with D-Gal & NaNO2; Group IV: AD induced mice simultaneously treated with BME. Changes in Morphometric and Behavioural aspects of four groups of mice were analised by using Morris Water Maze technique. Various constituents of the cholinergic system viz., Acetylcholine (ACh) content and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were determined in selected regions of all groups of mice at selected time intervals through standard biochemical assay methods. From our results, it was ovious that BME showed positive effects on body weight, learning skills, memory and concentration, whereas D-Gal and NaNO2 caused learning and memory deficits in mice which could be ameliorated by simultaneous administration of BME. Similar protective effectsof BME were noticed on the cholinergic system of mice brain wherein , oral administration of BME could revert both the ACh content and also AChE activity to normal levels in AD induced mice. Form these observations on Morphometric and Behavioural aspects and also on the Cholinergic system it was finally concludd that BME had potential compounds which can prevent the learning and memory deficits effectively and thus confer neuroprotection againt Alzheimers Disease.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000262
Title: Solubility enhancement and formulation of rapid disintegrating tablet of Febuxostat Cyclodextrin complex.
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Febuxostat is a non-purine, xanthine oxidase inhibitor. It is a BCS class II drug. It exhibits poor bioavailability of about 49% which is attributed to its poor solubility. The present work was aimed at overcoming these two limitations. Drug-β-cyclodextrin and Hydroxy propyl â-cyclodextrin complex were prepared and characterized by FTIR, DSC and PXRD studies. Saturation solubility study was carried out to evaluate the increase in the solubility of febuxostat. In vitro studies showed that the solubility and dissolution rate of febuxostat were significantly improved by complexation with β-cyclodextrin and Hydroxy propyl β-cyclodextrin with respect to drug alone. The inclusion complexes with β-CD prepared by spray drying method showed highest solubility (305.09%) and fast dissolution profile while inclusion complexes with HP-β-CD prepared by co-evaporation method showed highest solubility (330.24%) and it was incorporated into rapid disintegrating tablet. The tablets were prepared by using three different superdisintegrants, crosspovidone, sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium by direct compression. Tablets were evaluated for the hardness, friability, assay, thickness, disintegration time and average weight. Tablets shows enhance dissolution rate as compared to pure febuxostat.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-QSAR-0000261
Title: CoMFA and CoMSIA 3D-QSAR Studies on Phenyl ethanolamine Derivatives as Inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus Phenylalanyl t-RNA Synthetase.
Category: QSAR Studies
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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With the objective to design new chemical entities with enhanced inhibitory potencies against Phenylalanyl t-RNA Synthetase (PTS), the 3D-QSAR Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (COMSIA) studies were carried out on Phenyl ethanolamine derivatives compounds. The CoMFA model yielded satisfactory statistical data with the cross-validated q2 value of 0.88 and the non-cross-validated r2 value of 0.986. The cross-validated q2 value for CoMSIA model was 0.75 and the non-cross-validated r2 value was 0.99. The high leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validated correlation coefficient q2 reveals that the model is a useful tool for the prediction of test set of 10 compounds that were not included in the training set of 38 compounds. The results not only lead to better understanding of structural requirements of PTS inhibitors but also can help in the design of new potent inhibitors.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000260
Title: Efficient adsorption of Pb+2 and Cd+2 from effluents on Eco-Friendly and low cost adsorbent developed from Achyranthes aspera Linn. stem
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Heavy metals are major toxicants found in industrial wastewater, they adversely affect to the aquatic flora, animals and human beings . In this study, the removal of heavy metals like Pb+2 and Cd+2 from aqueous solution using eco- friendly and low cost activated carbon has been investigated . The carbon is prepared from Achyranthes aspera Linn. stem by treatment with conc. H2SO4. The powdered raw material and chemically treated material of specific micron size is used by employing various temperature. The results revealed that the removal of dye by chemically treated material is more effective than raw material at higher temperature. The experimental data is analyzed using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models and it is fit with these isotherm models. The adsorption capacity (Qm) for Pb+2 and Cd+2 is calculated at 25,35 and450C . It is found to be a potential adsorbent for removal of Pb+2 and Cd+2 from effluents.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000259
Title: Phytochemical Screening and Central Nervous System Activity of Methanolic Extract of Cucumis sativus Leaves.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Bioactive plant parts remain popular as therapeutics in all age. Their significance is intensifying day by day to provide safe, affordable and obtainable drugs for all classes of people. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the activity of Cucumis sativus leaves as analgesic and CNS depressant in model mice along with phytochemical screening. The analgesic activity of the extract was examined using acetic acid-induced writhing test (chemically induced pain) and tail immersion test (thermally induced pain) at the dose of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. CNS depressant activity was evaluated by pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis, neuropharmacological experiment by open field and hole cross tests at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the plant extract had significant (P<0.001) dose dependent CNS depressant and antinociceptive activities. The extract, at the dose of 300mg/kg showed better analgesic effects in tail immersion test, indicating its centrally acting analgesic property and exerted 63.64% inhibition of writhing response in the acetic acid-induced writhing model, which is very close to the reference drug Indomethacin (65.91%). The extract also produced a dose-dependent reduction of the onset and duration of pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis, reduction of locomotor and exploratory activities in the open field, hole cross tests. This analgesic and CNS-depressant activity of the extract might be because of presence of different chemical compounds in it. Altogether, these results suggest that the leaves extract of Cucumis sativus possesses remarkable CNS depressant and analgesic properties.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000257
Title: In vitro antioxidant potential of stem bark of Prosopis cineraria Linn.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was to design and evaluation of antioxidants activity of methanolic extract of Prosopis cineraria (Linn.). Anti-oxidants can neutralize the side effects of free radicals by scavenging or chain breaking (like vitamin A, C, -carotene, etc.) or some other mechanism of action. These antioxidants must be constantly replenished since they are ‘used up’ in the process of neutralizing free radicals. The activity of methanolic extract of stem bark of Prosopis Cineraria Linn.( MPCL) was compared with ascorbic acid as standard 10.52 µg/ml (y = 0.4992x + 101.25, 0.9921) and result is 193.54 µg/ml. Data were compared by student t – test and t- value found to be 112.08 which is considered extremely significant. The results of this study show that the MPCL can be used as easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible food supplement or in pharmaceutical industry.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000256
Title: Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. (white water lily) and its comparison with phenytoin sodium and sodium valproate in albino rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in rats. Materials and methods: Anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn.(200 and 100mg/kg oral) is evaluated in albino rats both in MES induced artificial seizures by Electroconvulsiometer and Pentylene tetrazole (70mg/kg i.p)induced seizures. Phenytoin sodium and sodium valproate were used as standard drugs for these two methods respectively. All drugs were administered orally one hour before tests. Results: Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba (200 and 100mg/kg) 1 hour before artificial induction of seizures significantly prevented Tonic hind limb extension (THLE) and also decreased the duration of seizures in MES models and was comparable to phenytoin sodium. In PTZ induced models it showed some protection compared to control but was statistically not significant. Conclusion: Nymphaea alba has significant anticonvulsant property in MES model at the dose of 100 and 200mg/kg and is comparable to phenytoin sodium. But Nymphaea alba did not show statistically significant anticonvulsant property in PTZ induced seizures.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000255
Title: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn phytosterol fraction
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. (family Euphorbiaceae) is an annual herb belonging to genus Euphorbia having many medicinal uses. The present study was carried out to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of the phytosterol fraction of E. thymifolia (ETTS). Phytosterol was separated from the petroleum ether extract of dried aerial part, by refluxing with 5% alcoholic KOH for 4 hr followed by filtration. LD50 was calculated as 283 mg kg-1, i.p and a dose level of 20, 30 and 40 mg kg-1 was chosen for in vivo studies. Analgesic activity was evaluated in mice using morphine and naloxone on Hot Plate instrument to assess the involvement of opioid receptor in analgesic activity. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity was evaluated against carrageenan induced paw edema and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant induced arthritis in rats by estimating TNF-a and knee joint Histopathology. ETTS showed significant (P < 0.01) increase in hot plate reaction time which was reversed in presence of naloxone. ETTS at 40 mg kg-1 decreased (P < 0.01-0.001) paw volume, arthritic index and TNF-a expression. ETTS showed repair of articular surfaces with small areas of erosion and irregularities with invasion of connective tissue. E. thymifolia total sterol possesses moderate analgesic, and potent anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities at 40 mg kg-1. Centrally acting mechanism may be involved in analgesic response modulating the opioid receptors having morphine like action as the effects of ETTS was blocked by naloxone. ETTS led to marked repair of articular surfaces and reduction of tissue edema and cellular infiltration.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DVD-0000254
Title: Development and validation of a thin-layer chromatography-densitometric method for the quantitation of Isovanillin from Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R.Br., its extracts and marketed formulations
Category: Development and Validation of Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A selective, precise, and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been proposed for the analysis of Hemidesmus indicus and its formulations for isovanillin content. Hemidesmus indicus is a twining shrub and a root of this taxon has been used in folk medicine as well as in ayurvedic and unani preparations. The method employed TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 as the stationary phase. Linear ascending development with toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol: acetic acid 7.5: 1.5: 0.5:0.5 (v/v) as the mobile phase was performed at room temperature (25 ± 2ºC) in a twin-trough glass chamber saturated with mobile phase vapour. Compact bands (Rf 0.39 ± 0.02) were obtained for isovanillin in Crude plant materials, Herbal extracts and Formulations. Scanning was performed in absorbance mode at 230nm. Linear regression analysis of the calibration plots showed good linear relationship between peak area and peak height (r2 = 0.9907 ±0.0002) in the concentration range 87-167 ppm. The method was validated for precision, recovery, robustness, specificity, detection and quantification limits. Recovery percentage in the sample found in between 84.14-86.73%. Quantification values of isovanillin in raw materials, extracts and marketed formulations were found to be 0.17%, 0.40% & 0.14% respectively. The developed technique is precise, specific and accurate for checking the purity of H. indicus.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000253
Title: Anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of Barleria buxifolia Linn
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Anxiety and Depression are overwhelming mood disorders which account for 15% of the world population.With the drawback of existing treatment the researchers has focused on plant extracts which are having no side effects.Barleria buxifolia (From the family Acanthaceae) is traditionally used in bronchitis and inflammation.The aim of the present study was to investigate the anxiolytic and andepressant activities.An aqueous extract of dried leaves of Barleria buxifolia(AqEOBB) was prepared.The anxiolytic and antidepressant of this aqueous extract has been evaluated by Elevated Plus Maze[EPM] model and Forced Swim Test[FST].The aqueous extract of Barleria buxifolia has shown effect in dose dependent manner.In EPM model the dose of 200mg/kg has shown significant [p<0.01] effect by increasing the number of entries and time spent in open arms when compared to control group indicating anxiolytic activity and in FST by decreasing the duration of immobity.Barleria buxifolia could be the alternative in treatment but further studies are required to evaluate the mechanism by which the anxiolytic and anti-depression activities are shown.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000252
Title: Removal of Cationic Dye from effluents using Eco-Friendly Adsorbent
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study, the use of cheap, ecofriendly and abundantly available waste weed as a raw material for producing adsorbent is investigated. Achyranthes aspera Linn. plant is widespread in the world as a weed, which is locally available on road sides and wastelands. The main aim of this study is to investigate the potentiality of Achyranthes aspera Linn stem as an adsorbent for the adsorption of malachite green. The powdered raw material and chemically treated material of specific micron size is used for the removal of the malachite green from aqueous solution. Adsorption capacity is studied by using malachite green as dye at various temperature. The results revealed that the removal of dye by chemically treated material is more effective than raw material at higher temperature. The experimental data is analyzed using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models and it is fit with these isotherm models. The adsorption capacities (Qm) are calculated as 27.4, 29.7, 28.3 at 25,35 and450C respectively . It can be useful as low cost, efficient, potential and ecofriendly adsorbent for the treatment of effluents.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000251
Title: Medicinal value of croton sparsiflorus fresh leaf and fruit extracts as shown by antibacterial activity
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Knowledge on plants by the Indigenous people provides an insight to the researchers to screen traditionally used plants for active principles against various human pathogens. Antibacterial study on Croton sparsiflorus fresh leaf and fresh fruit extracts obtained using petroleum ether showed more medicinal value on Staphylococcus aureus and less on Serratia marcescens. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria. Leaf extract had profound killing effects on bacteria.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000250
Title: Assessment of the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Acacia catechu bark: An in vitro and in vivo study
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Safer antioxidants are essential to prevent the progression of free radical mediated disorders. Plants present a large source of natural antioxidants that might serve as leads for the development of novel drugs. The present study investigates the antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of bark of Acacia catechu in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro tests in diversified fields included total antioxidant activity, scavenging activities for DPPH and H2O2, reducing power and phenolic content. The IC50 values for DPPH and H2O2 scavenging were found to be 177.53 ± 12.35μg/ml and 455.2 ± 15.48 mg/ml respectively. The plant extract reduced the most Fe3+ ions in reducing power estimation. The extract yielded 67.40 ± 0.279 mg/ml gallic acid equivalent phenolic content per 100 mg plant extract. In the in vivo experiments, the extract treatment showed significant increase in the level of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione at the dose of 100 and 200mg/kg bwt. The extract showed no toxicity, as the levels of the toxicity marker enzymes were found to be in the normal range. The present study provides evidence that aqueous extract of Acacia catechu bark shows potential antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of phenolic compounds.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DVD-0000249
Title: Development and validation of a stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for estimation of Ciclopirox olamine in bulk drug and cream formulation
Category: Development and Validation of Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, economic, selective, precise, and stability-indicating HPLC method has been developed and validated for estimation of ciclopirox olamine (CPO) both in bulk drug and in cream formulation. Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on a phenomenex C18 column with mobile phase acetonitrile-phosphate buffer 6.5 pH (70:30 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Detection was performed at 305 nm and a sharp peak was obtained for CPO at a retention time of 7.190 ± 0.045 min. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity and selectivity, robustness, detection and quantification limits, and system suitability in accordance with ICH guidelines. Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed there was a good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range 2 - 16 μg ml-1; the regression coefficient was 0.9980 and the linear regression equation was y = 10035x - 20400. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were found to be 0.005 and 0.01 μg ml-1, respectively. Statistical analysis proved the method was precise, reproducible, selective, specific, and accurate for analysis of CPO. In order to determine whether the analytical method and assay were stability-indicating, CPO cream was stressed under various conditions to conduct forced degradation studies. The wide linearity range, sensitivity, accuracy, short retention time, and simple mobile phase imply the method is suitable for routine quantification of CPO with high precision and accuracy.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DTBA-0000248
Title: Chitosan-Alginate Drug Loaded Polymer Network for Accelerated Wound Healing
Category: Drug release and biodegrading ability
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The biodegradable sponge composed of chitosan and sodium alginate at different ratio (1:3, 2:2, 3:1) was prepared and analyzed for their swelling, in vitro drug release and biodegrading ability. Plumbagin a multifunctional agent was incorporated into chitosan and alginate sponge to deter wound infection. The water uptake ability, lysozyme degradation resistance and persistence drug release was found to be more appropriate in the sponge prepared with high ratio of chitosan to alginate. An in vivo animal test employed confirms the applicability of the sponge as a wound dressing material without any adverse symptoms. The sponge had better wound healing effect than cotton gauze and by incorporating plumbagin a more accelerated wound healing was observed in animal model.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000247
Title: Antioxidant potential of tissue cultured Mentha spicata
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Environmental pollutants and food contaminants are posing an oxidative stress in humans. The body’s endogenous defenses may not be adequate to prevent the damages completely. So, it is pertinent to look for some exogenous source of natural antioxidants that can be incorporated in the diet to modulate body’s antioxidant defense mechanisms. Herbs can be important sources of natural antioxidants. Keeping this in view, present study had been carried out to evaluate antioxygenic potential of tissue culture raised Mentha spicata (SPR 8). This mentha species was found to be rich in phenolics. Various in vitro models viz. hydroxyl, nitric oxide,super oxide radical scavenging potential, iron reducing power, iron chelation and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation revealed Mentha spicata (SPR 8) to be a potent source of antioxidants. Usefulness of Mentha spicata was further proved using ex vivo models involving human erythrocytes. Being rich in iron and PUFA erythrocytes are vulnerable to oxidative damage when exposed to molecular oxygen. Moreover, human erythrocytes when incubated at low temperature tend to lose their endogenous antioxidants. The rate of loss of antioxidant potential in the presence of an extract can therefore be an index of antioxidant potential. The Mentha spicata (SPR 8) extract protected erythrocytes against induced LPO of erythrocytes as well as osmotic fragility over the incubation period of 72 h. Loss of activities of antioxidant enzymes over the incubation period was prevented to a good extent using Mentha extracts. Thus, tissue culture raised Mentha spicata (SPR 8) can be a potent source of antioxidants.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PP-0000246
Title: Assessment of impact of pregnancy-induce hypertension and patient counseling on pregnancy outcome
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A perspective study was conducted in order to assess the impact of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) on pregnancy outcome as well as to assess and improve the knowledge towards PIH among pregnant women by effective patient counseling. Fifty pregnant women were taken up for the study of which 32 women had PIH (classified as Group 1) and the remaining 18 had preeclampsia (classified as Group 2). A suitably designed questionnaire consisting of ten questions were given at baseline to assess patients’ knowledge. Then the patients received counseling and patient information leaflets (PILs). Final follow up was made by administering the questionnaire to patients to assess the improvement in their knowledge. Also the cases were followed up till delivery of the child in order to assess pregnancy outcome. At the final follow up, a considerable improvement in patient’s knowledge was observed in both the groups. In Group 1, 6.25 % of patients experienced preterm labour and in Group 2, 61.1 % of patients experienced preterm labour. Perinatal deaths were seen in 3.1 % of Group 1 and 38.8% were seen with Group 2 patients. And intrauterine growth retardation was observed in 3.1 % of patients in Group 1, and 44.5% of Group 2 patients. With both the groups, counseling made the patients understand better about the disease and therapy and thus enhanced compliance.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-IALI-0000245
Title: Simultaneous estimation of cefixime trihydrate and linezolid in tablet dosage form by derivative spectrophotometric method
Category: Instrumental analysis led to identification
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Simple, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method have been developed for simultaneous estimation of Cefixime trihydrate and Linezolid in tablet dosage form. Method involves, formation of ‘1st derivative spectroscopic method’ at 255.3 nm (zeros crossover point of cefixime) and 325.82 nm (zero cross over point of linezolid) using methanol as a solvent. The linearity was observed in the concentration range of 2 - 14 µg /ml for Cefixime trihydrate and 2 - 18 µg/ml for Linezolid. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies and were found satisfactory. Limit of detection for cefixime trihydrate and linezolid were found to be 0.54 µg/ml and 0.77 µg/ml respectively. Limit of quantification for cefixime trihydrate and linezolid were found to be 1.54 µg/ml and 1.67 µg/ml.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000244
Title: Benzimidazole chalcones: Potent glycosidase inhibitors
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Benzimidazole-2-substituted chalcones, a new class of glycosidase inhibitors are synthesized using recyclable PEG-400 as an alternative reaction solvent. Effect of synthesized compounds on glycosidase enzymes (α-amylase and glucoamylase) were studied in vitro. Chalcones bearing electron withdrawing groups exhibit strong α-glycosidase inhibitory action whereas electron donating groups displayed moderate inhibitory action. However, nitro derivative of chalcones 3d (IC50 = 1 mM), 3m (IC50 = 2 mM) and 3n (IC50 = 4.9 mM) proved to be potent inhibitors against a-amylase whereas derivative 3h (IC50 = 19 mM) was found to be moderate inhibitor of glucoamylase.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000243
Title: GC-MS study of phytochemicals in black gram using two different organic manures
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Plants are excellent source of drugs for the majority of the world population. It is a good challenge for scientists to provide efficient, safe and cheap medications. Black gram can be used as an antioxidant in treating aliments like liver diseases, cancer, diabetes, kidney diseases and for curing microbial infection. The present investigation was carried out to determine the phytochemicals present in the root nodules of Vigna mungo.L which was grown with different types of organic manures. GC-MS analysis led to identification of specific chemical compounds released from plants using two different organic manures which show antimicrobial activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000242
Title: Design synthesis characterization and dual biological activity of some novel morphanthridine 6,11 dione derivatives
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In modern medicinal chemistry, molecular modeling study is effectively participating in drug discovery process to reduce and the time and cost. The present study involved in the docking of 4-alkylamide/imides substituted 5H morphanthridine 6,11-dione [5H Dibenzo(b,e) apine 6,11-dione] derivatives 1(a-d), 2(a-d), 3(a-d) and 4(a-d) with Mono Amine Oxidase A protein to find out their potency of antidepressant activity. On the basis of docking result the molecules 1a, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3a, 3b, 4a and 4c were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antidepressant activity by Forced Swim Test. Also all the 12 molecules synthesized characterized and evaluated to their in vitro anti bacterial activity by Agar Plate Disc diffusion method.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MDSM-0000241
Title: Molecular docking of secondary metabolites from Cyperus rotundus and Cyamopsis tetragonolobus against aldose reductase - A novel drug target for diabetic cataract
Category: Molecular docking of secondary metabolites
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Diabetic cataract is one of the serious complications of diabetes mellitus, which is a major cause of blindness all over the world. Aldose reductase is the rate limiting enzyme responsible for triggering the pathogenesis of diabetic cataract. Nowadays, natural therapy is gaining more value as alternative medicine. So, it was planned to study the ability of secondary metabolites identified from Cyperus rotundus and Cyamopsis tetragonolobus to serve as antagonist to aldose reductase that may serve as new drug target. 21 compounds were identified as secondary metabolites of ethanolic extract of C. rotundus rhizome by GC-MS analysis and 34 compounds were identified from ethanol extract of C. tetragonolobus fruit. These compounds were docked with aldose reductase. Docking analysis was performed using GLIDE. We describe the docking of these identified compounds into the 3D structure of aldose reductase of human. The inhibitor binding positions and affinity were evaluated using scoring functions. The compounds 3-(2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-chromanol and 3-bromo-4-(methoxymethyl)-bicyclo [4.2.0] octa-1,3,5,7-tetraene from C. tetragonolobus were identified as potential inhibitors of aldose reductase. In addition, camphoric aldehyde and longifolenaldehyde from C. rotundus are considered for its effective binding with the target protein. 1,2-cyclopentanedione and (3,8,8-Trimethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2-naphthalenyl)methyl acetate showed more hydrogen bond interactions with effective binding to aldose reductase. Thus, it may be concluded that the identified metabolites from both the plants could serve as antagonist to aldose reductase that can be used to treat diabetic cataract.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000240
Title: In-house validation of high fat diet induced obesity models
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Obesity results from a prolonged imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, as depending on basal metabolic rate, heat production, thermogenic effects of the diet and physical activity. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) in rodents can be achieved by different regimens and approaches. Diets providing a high fat intake have been established as a “gold standard” to generate obese rodent models and have proven to initiate pathologies similar to those encountered in humans. However, this dietary treatment is far from being standardized and its relevance has been criticized on the basis of findings in humans that total energy intake rather than fat per se determines body fat accumulation in humans. Hence, varieties of high fat diet regimens have been introduced by providing a choice of several palatable food items of variable composition, appearance and texture in addition to a non-purified diet. Further male rats have been considered in developing all types of obesity models and no rationale has been provided as of this discrimination and negligence of using female rats. Another pitfall in the obesity model development is that of the choice of the strain of the rats used for the study. The basis on which the specific strain is being chosen still remains controversial. This present study aimed at comparing and validating different diet induced obesity models utilizing different high fat diet regimens in different strains and gender. Methods: Sprague-Dawley and Wistar male and female rats were offered different high fat diet regimens for 7 weeks to induce obesity. Marketed high fat diet group served as a standard. Evaluation parameters like food intake, calorie intake, water intake, % increase in body weight, plasma total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, oral glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed to assess the efficacy. Results: Diet specific, strain specific and gender specific variation was observed in case of diet induced obesity models. Marketed diet produced better lipid profile and also produced signs of diabetes and thus can be used for obesity-diabetes studies. Vegetable ghee::coconut oil diet produced higher increase in lipid profile in shorter span of dietary manipulation of 4 week and also gave confirmation of equal amount of fat ingested by the entire group. In-house prepared HFD produced better results at the end of 7 week of dietary manipulation. Strain wise Sprague-Dawley rats produced better results and gender wise males showed greater increase in lipid profile than that of females. Conclusions: The results of the study provide clear evidence that vegetable ghee::coconut oil (3:2) diet serves as a better model of hyperlipidemia/obesity as it requires shorter time of dietary manipulation and economically also is more feasible. Marketed diet produced better results but takes longer time to develop and also causes glucose intolerance and insulin resistance thus can serve as a model of obesity and diabetes. Strain wise and gender wise Sprague-Dawley rats and males respectively served as a better model for obesity. The reason for this can be attributed to the metabolic activity as concluded from the calorie intake values that persists in Sprague-Dawley rats and that in males. Further study is required to derive proper conclusions.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000238
Title: Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of plant Chrozophora plicata
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Free radical induced oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases and disorders. Antioxidants are the free radical scavengers which protect human body against the oxidative stress. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant properties of 70% ethanol extract of Chrozophora plicata plant (Leaves) by estimation of reducing power and scavenging activity of Superoxide anion, Hydroxyl radical and Nitric oxide anion. The Ethanolic extract of leaves had shown concentration dependent reducing power. This exhibited higher reducing power at 100mg concentration of extract as similar to standard drug (sodium metabisulphite 25mg). Similarly, Ethanolic extract of Chrozophora plicata also have shown concentration dependant superoxide scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and Nitric oxide radical scavenging activities at 100mg but to a lesser extent than standard drug (sodium metabisulphite 25mg). From the preliminary studies, it was found that the leaves of Chrozophora plicata plant contain triterpenoids and related compounds (sterols, alcohols and hydrocarbons), phenolic compounds (flavonoids, lignans, coumarins, tannins, phenanthrenes, quinones, phenolic acids, etc.) that are possessing antioxidant properties.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000237
Title: Anti diabetic potential medicinal plants
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Diabetes mellitus is caused due to deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas, or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced. It is a global problem and number of those affected is increasing day by day. The plants provide a potential source of hypoglycemic drugs because many plants and plant derived compounds have been used in the treatment of diabetes. Several medicinal plants have found potential use as hypoglycemic in the Indian system of medicines, including ayurveda. Many Indian plants have been investigated for their beneficial use in different types of diabetes and reports occur in numerous scientific journals. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on various plant species from Indian biosphere and their constituents, which have been shown to display potent hypoglycemic activity. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera , Cajanus cajan , Coccinia indica , Caesalpinia bonducella ,Ficus bengalenesis , Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia , Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita ,Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens , T. cordifolia , T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea .All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000236
Title: Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of novel urea derivatives as ACE inhibitors
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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ACE inhibitors have been proven to be more effective in the treatment the other established anti-hypertensive. ACE inhibition can be achieved by a drug which can bind to the Zinc atom of the metallopeptidase. Ureas are the simplest molecules with a carbonyl group which show a promising tendency to bind to the Zinc atom. A combinatorial library of 31Novel urea derivatives were synthesized and screened for ACE inhibition. Three amines with different electron withdrawing and electron donating substituents were selected and converted to Isocyanates in the first step. The urea linkage was formed by further coupling these three isocyanates with different aliphatic and aromatic amines to form. These compounds were screened for enzyme inhibition on ACE isolated from acetone treated Rat lung powder in the presence of HHL substrate and borate buffer. Absorbance was measured and compared with standard drug Lisinopril at 410nm. In this study three compounds have showed good percentage of ACE inhibition activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MD-0000235
Title: Potential bioactive compound from novel marine actinobacteria associated with antagonistic activity against human pathogens
Category: Marine Drug
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A total of fifty six marine actinobacteria were isolated from the soil sediment of South Indian coastal region. The isolates were screened for invitro anti-microbial activity study. The anti-microbial screening showed that, three isolates (1, 2 and 18) exhibited potential activity against human pathogens such as Borrelia bargdosferi, Bartonella henselae, Listeria monocytogens, Helicobacter pylori and Camphylobacter jejuni by extracting bioactive compounds using ethyl acetate, acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Among them, ethyl acetate extracted bioactive compounds from the isolate 1 exhibited virulent activity (18±0.67, 15±0.39, 11±0.75, 16±0.32 and 10±0.10) against all human pathogens than the other solvents and isolates. The partial characterization of the ethyl acetate extract (isolate - 1) by IR (Infra Red) spectra analysis revealed the possible presence of functional groups such as hydroxyl groups, unsaturated fatty acids and amine derivatives compounds in the extract. A unique 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic analysis provided strong evidence for the three novel actinobacterial strains (1, 2 and 18) namely Streptomyces acrimycini NGP (JX843532), Streptomyces albogriseolus NGP (JX843531), Streptomyces variabilis NGP (JX843530).

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000234
Title: Isolation and identification of flavonoid glycosides and natural phthalate derivative from the leaves extract of Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Two known flavonoid glycosides (luteolin-7-O-glucoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside) and phthalate derivative (dioctyl phthalate) were isolated and characterized for the first time from the methanolic leaves extract of Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn. a well known traditional plant in Mizoram, India for the treatment and management of inflammation, fever, malaria, sprain and pain. The structure of these compounds were established with the aid of spectroscopic methods (UV, Mass, IR, 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectroscopy).

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PP-0000233
Title: A study on drug-drug interactions in inpatients of general medicine department in a tertiary care teaching hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Many studies have been done on drug interactions in their local hospitals. Drug interactions may lead to an increase or decrease in the beneficial or the adverse effects of the given drugs. We want to know the incidence rate of drug interactions in a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, our hospital setting, so that this data will be useful in creating awareness among the health care professionals. To study the incidence, frequency and severity of drug-drug interactions in patients admitted in General Medicine Department of Sri Ramachandra Hospital, and to create awareness among the health care professionals. Methods:  A prospective observational study was carried out in Inpatient department of General Medicine in a tertiary care teaching hospital. All inpatients of both sex and who were taking at least four or more drugs (polypharmacy) were included in the study. Over dosage cases were excluded from the study. The medications of the patients were analyzed for possible drug interactions by using computerized data base systems. Statistical analysis was done by Pearson correlation and nonparametric correlation to see the relationship between the number of drugs prescribed and the occurrence of pDDIs. Results and Discussion:  425 cases were analyzed. 342 prescriptions were with interactions. pDDIs were identified in about 80.5% of the study subjects. Of 1872 pDDIs, the major interactions were seen in 4.5%, moderate in 75.6% and minor in 19.9% of the patients. Among the DDIs, the majority were of pharmacodynamic (69.5%), followed by pharmacokinetic (23.4%) and unknown (7.1%). Statistical analysis by Pearson correlation and also by Nonparametric correlation (Kendall’s tau) showed that there was an extremely significant linear relationship (r = 0.623, r=0.496) (p<0.0001) between the number of drugs prescribed for a patient and the occurrence of pDDIs. Conclusion: This article will be useful in rationalizing the prescribing pattern by creating awareness among the physicians about the drug interactions. Detection and reporting of DDIs should be done by all health professionals to ensure patient’s safety. The pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary team can improve the treatment to hospitalized patients and promote drug safety.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-RP-0000232
Title: A literature review on current tropical diseases and the role of Pharmacist in public health with special reference to tropical diseases
Category: Role of Pharmacist
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Tropical diseases encompass all diseases that occur principally, in this tropic. In practice, the term is often taken to refer to infectious diseases that flourish in hot, humid conditions, such as malaria, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, Chagas disease, Leprosy, and dengue etc. The World Health Organization (WHO) is providing technical support to 14 countries with persistent transmission of yaws or where the disease has reemerged as part of a renewed effort to eradicate the disease. Tropical diseases are the most common infections of the world’s poorest people living in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Occurring predominantly among people who live on below the World Bank poverty figure of US$1.25 per day. These are group of chronic parasitic and related bacterial and viral infections that actually promote poverty because of their impact on child development, pregnancy outcome, and worker productivity. Pharmacists, also known as druggists or chemists, are healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication for therapeutic uses of drugs. They are also play an important role during complete eradication of tropical diseases. National strategies for attaining health for all will normally provide for the monitoring of pharmacy manpower development and pharmacy services in the framework of health systems such as prevention and treatment of Tropical diseases. This comprehensive review article is important data base on current tropical diseases and the role of pharmacist in public health with special reference to tropical diseases.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DVD-0000231
Title: Development and Validation of UV Spectrophotometric method for estimation of glibenclamide in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms
Category: Development and Validation of Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A selective, simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of Glibenclamide in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. The drug obeyed the Beer’s law and showed good correlation. It showed absorption maxima at 300nm in methanol. The developed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy and precision. The linearity was observed between 10-100ìg/ml having line equation Y=0.0069X + 0.0209 with correlation coefficient of 0.9988. Results of the analysis were validated statistically and by recovery study.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000279
Title: Formulation development and evaluation of terbutaline sulphate mucoadhesive buccal tablets
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is bind to the gastric mucin or epithelial cell surface are useful in drug delivery for increasing the intimacy and duration of contact of drug with the absorbing membrane, this helps in sustained release of drug and prevent the metabolism of drug in gastric pH condition for the drug sensitive for acidic condition. In this work, the attempt has made to develop and evaluate the Mucoadhesive Buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate with natural polymers gaur gum, with ethyl cellulose as back layer of bilayer tablets. Terbutaline sulfate is a white to gray-white crystalline powder. It is odorless or has a faint odor of acetic acid. Terbutaline sulfate is indicated in for the prevention and reversal of bronchospasm in patients 12 years of age and older. With asthma, COPD and reversible bronchospasm associated with bronchitis and emphysema. Because of its first pass metabolism its bioavailability is in the range of 30 to 50% by orally. I R Spectroscopy did the compatible study between polymers and Terbutaline sulphate and No interaction was found between drug and polymers. Different formulations of oral Mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline Sulphate (TS) were prepared using polymer Gaur gum, in different concentrations by direct compression. Post compressed evaluation studies, hardness, thickness, friability; weight variation and drug content, mucoadhesive strength of tablets were studied. The in-vitro release of TS was studied in buffer pH 6.8 at 370C. All parameters of TS buccal tablets are passed the standard of mucoadhesive buccal tablets. It was found that mucoadhesive natural polymers exhibited better adhesiveness and mucoadhesiveness. The in vitro study of TS exhibited greater drug release profile with release of in the range of 80.57 to 100.81%.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000284
Title: Factorial Studies on Enhancement of Solubility and Dissolution Rate and Formulation Development of Efavirenz Tablets Employing β Cyclodextrin and Soluplus
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Efavirenz, a widely prescribed anti retroviral drug belongs to class II under BCS and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. Its oral absorption is dissolution rate limited and it requires enhancement in the solubility and dissolution rate for increasing its oral bioavailability. The objective of the study is to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of efavirenz by cyclodextrin complexation along with Soluplus and to evaluate the individual main effects and combined (or interaction) effects of β cyclodextrin (βCD) and surfactant (Soluplus) on the solubility and dissolution rate of efavirenz in a series of 22 factorial experiments. The solubility of efavirenz in four selected fluids containing βCD and Soluplus as per 22 factorial study was determined. Solid inclusion complexes of efavirenz-βCD were prepared with and without Soluplus by kneading method as per 22-factorial design and were evaluated. The feasibility of formulating the drug- βCD- Soluplus complexes into compressed tablets was also evaluated in a 22 factorial study . The individual and combined effects of βCD and Soluplus in enhancing the solubility, dissolution rate and dissolution efficiency of efavirenz were highly significant (P < 0.01).βCD alone gave a 2.14 fold increase in the solubility of efavirenz. Combination of âCD with Soluplus resulted in a much higher enhancement in the solubility of efavirenz, 86.96 fold than with âCD alone. Soluplus alone gave a much higher enhancement (289.49 folds) in the solubility of efavirenz. Combination of βCD with Soluplus also gave significantly higher dissolution rates (K1) and dissolution efficiency (DE20) when compared to βCD alone. βCD alone gave 2.00 fold increase and in combination with Soluplus, it gave 7.34 fold increase in the dissolution rate of efavirenz. Efavirenz – βCD, Efavirenz – Soluplus and efavirenz –βCD – Soluplus inclusion complexes could be formulated into compressed tablets by direct compression method. Efavirenz dissolution was rapid and higher from the tablets formulated employing drug- βCD- Soluplus inclusion complexes when compared to the tablets containing efavirenz alone. The tablets formulated employing drug- βCD- Soluplus inclusion complexes fulfilled the official (I.P 2010) dissolution rate test specification of NLT 70 % in 30 min prescribed for efavirenz tablets. The individual as well as combined effects of the two factors involved i.e., βCD (factor A) and Soluplus (factor B) were highly significant (P< 0.01) in enhancing the dissolution rate (K1) and dissolution efficiency (DE 30) of efavirenz. Soluplus alone also gave a higher enhancement in the dissolution rate and dissolution efficiency of efavirenz and efavirenz tablets. Hence a combination of βCD with Soluplus and / or Soluplus alone is recommended to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and dissolution efficiency of efavirenz, a BCS class II drug and its tablet formulations.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BM-00001171
Title: Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Hypocrea virens
Category: Botany and Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Nanomaterials play a key role in many technologies of the furture. One key aspect of nanotechnology concerns the development of reliable experimental protocols for the synthesis of nanomaterials over a range of chemical compositions size and high monodispersity. In the present study, focusing is given on the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Hypocrea virens. Generally the said fungus is called a potential bio control agent which control the pathogen Ceratocystis paradoxa causing pineapple disease on sugarcane. The Hypocrea virens fungal biomass of extra and intracellular extract to aqueous AgNo3 solution for a period of 72 hours showed the appearance of a dark brown colour in the fungal biomass after reaction with Ag+ ions is a clear indicator of the reduction of the metalions and formation of silver nanoparticles in the fungal biomass. The presence of uniformly distributed silver nanoparticles on the surface of fungal cells is observed, indicating that the nanoparticles formed by the reduction of Ag+ ions are bound to the surface of the cells. The silver nanoparticles seen extra cellular in the mycelia may be due to weakly bound silver nanoparticles during preparation of the films for FT-IR, UV, SEM investigation. The results of antifungal activity showed maximum inhibition in controlling the pathogen in the case of silver nanoparticles treated when compared to without silver nitrate treated.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-00001180
Title: Antihyperlipidemic activity of Malus domestica and Namily vitaceae fruit peel extract in hyperlipidemic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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According to the reports of world health organization hyperlipidemia causes most of the deaths due to cardiovascular diseases world wide especially ischemic heart diseases. Currently available synthetic drugs in the treatment have lot of side effects triggering us to look for alternative medicine especially use of phytochemicals increasing day by day world wide has they are less damaging. A literature claims that flavanoids can reduce hyperlipidemia. Malus domestica and Namily vitaceae fruits were selected for the present study, focus to confirm the flavanoid presence and its antihyperlipidemic activity of hydro alcoholic extract of the hand peeled fruits against atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic albino rats. 200ìg/kg (p.o) administration of the test extract to the fatty meal induced hyperlipidemic rats shows significant decrease in the levels of total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL and significant increase in HDL levels. Results suggest that the hydro alcoholic extract of the Malus domestica and Namily vitaceae fruits containing flavanoids possess significant antihyperlipidemic activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-00001181
Title: Effect of chrysin on nephroprotective and antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Prevention or reversal of diabetic nephropathy is a major challenge in the current management of diabetes. Oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant activity are considered to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether administration of chrysin could prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy induced by oxidative stress in rats. Wistar male albino rats were allocated into four groups. Group I rats received DMSO, Group II rats received STZ, Group III rats received chrysin and Group IV rats received STZ and chrysin. Blood samples were collected for the estimation of blood glucose, urea, uric acid and creatinine. Kidney of the sacrificed rats were excised and homogenized for the assay of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin A) and enzymatic antioxidants Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione transferase (GST). There was a significant (p<0.001) increase in the level of blood glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and lipid peroxidation product TBARS in STZ induced diabetic group and significant (p<0.001) decrease in chrysin treated group while the levels of glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A, activities of SOD, CAT, GPx and GST were significantly (p<0.001) reduced in STZ induced diabetic group and significant (p<0.001) increase in chrysin treated group. The findings of the present study concluded that chrysin treatment has beneficial effect on renal tissues subjected to STZ-induced oxidative stress by directly quenching lipid peroxides and indirectly enchancing production of endogenous antioxidants.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-00001183
Title: Evaluation of wound healing and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of Vitex negundo Linn.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Vitex negundo , five leaved chaste tree (verbenaceae) is a large aromatic pubescent annual shrub used herb in Ayurveda, Indian tradition system of medicine. The present study was aimed at evaluating the wound healing and anti bacterial activities of Vitex negundo.The leaves of Vitex negundo Linn. were collected, shade dried and exhaustively extracted by soxhlet apparatus with different solvents like petroleum ether, toluene, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and mixture (ethyl acetate: dichloromethane :chloroform ) (1:1:1) of the solvents according to their ascending order of polarity. All the above extracts were evaluated in both excision and incision wound models using albino wister rats at the dose level of 500 mg/kg. The anti microbial activity (zone of inhibition) was carried out by cup plate method against both gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) , gram negative bacteria (proteus vulgaris, Escheria coli, Enterobacter aerogens ) and Fungal strains like Candida albicans, Asperigillus niger, Asperigillus flavus.The parameters of studies included rate of wound contraction, period of epithelisation in excision wound model and wound breaking strength of the regenerated tissue in incision wound model. The studies were used to evaluate effect of wound healing. Both the toluene extract and mixture (ethylacetate: dichloromethane: chloroform) (1:1:1) of the solvent extract showed promising wound healing activity when compared to the control & other extracts. The crude leaf extracts exhibited significant zone of inhibition which were compared with standard drugs Ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001184
Title: Application of solid dispersion technique in improving solubility of ibuprofen by poloxamers
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Primary objective of the current study was to formulate solid dispersion (SD) systems of practically water insoluble drug, Ibuprofen with Poloxamer. SDs with Poloxamer 188 and Poloxamer 407 at three different ratios (1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5) were prepared by melt dispersion and solvent evaporation techniques. Effect of different methods on solubility properties and the efficacy of the carriers to improve the dissolution characteristics were evaluated and compared. Drug carrier interactions in the prepared solid dispersions (SDs) were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and DSC thermal study. Drug-carrier physical mixtures were also prepared in the same ratio of SDs to compare the dissolution behavior. The obtained solid dispersions (SDs) were tested for drug content, saturation solubility and drug dissolution. Saturation solubility study of the SDs was carried out in phosphate buffer (pH 7.2), 0.1 N HCl solution and distilled water. Solid dispersions (SDs) were found to improve the aqueous solubility of Ibuprofen up to 14 times. Dissolution test was performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) and in 0.1 N HCl. Data obtained from the studies showed significant enhancement of the release rate and extent of Ibuprofen from the solid dispersions. Selective SDs were filled into hard gelatin capsule shells and the release characteristics of the capsules were also investigated. Drug release from capsules was also found higher than the pure drug.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001185
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation is aimed at formulating and evaluating sustained release matrix tablets of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride using different polymers such as Carnauba wax, Cetyl alcohol and Stearic acid taken at 15%, 30% and 45% of the total weight of the tablet. Venlafaxine Hydrochloride is the most widely used anti depressant agent in the treatment of major depression disease. The sustained release tablets were prepared by hot melt granulation method. The granules for tableting were evaluated for angle of repose, loose bulk density, tapped bulk density, compressibility index and hausner’s ratio. The granules showed satisfactory flow properties. The tablets were subjected to thickness, weight variation test, hardness, friability and in-vitro release studies. All the formulations showed good results which were compliance with Pharmacopoeial standards. In-vitro drug release studies were carried out using USP dissolution apparatus type I at 50 rpm with 900ml phosphate buffer solutions (PBS) of pH 6.8, maintained at 37±0.5°C. The release kinetics was analyzed using the zero-order, first-order model equation, higuchi’s square-root equation and the korsmeyer-peppas model. In vitro release studies revealed that the release rate decreased with increases in polymer proportion. The sustained release matrix tablets containing 45% carnauba wax (Formulation VF3) were found to show good initial release (23.04% in two hours) and extended the release upto 10 hours and can overcome the disadvantages of conventional tablets of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride. The n value obtained from korsmeyer-peppas model confirmed that the drug release was non-fickian diffusion mechanism.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-00001186
Title: Analgesic activity of methanolic extract of Fioria vitifolia (L.)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The plant Fioria vitifolia (L.) belongs to family “Malvaceae” and considering various medicinal properties of this plant. Wistar albino rats were used for studying analgesic activity of methonalic extract of Fioria vitifolia (L.) (MEFV) at doses 500 and 250 mg/kg p.o. Various models viz. Eddy’s hot plate and tail flick model followed for analgesic study.  In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 3hrs for both the doses of 500 and 250 mg/kg p.o., and in the tail flick method the effect was observed at 2hrs for both the doses of 500 and 250 mg/kg p.o., whereas in the hot plate and tail flick model, effect was comparable with standard drug of pentazocine (10mg/kg p.o). The extract showed marked analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Alcoholic extracts produced significant results in 500mg/kg p.o and 250 mg/kg p.o, the findings indicated the analgesic activity of the plant. The activity can be attributed to the phyto-constituents viz Alkaloids, Flavonoides, Tannins, Triterpenioid and Steroids present in the MEFV extract. It can be developed as a potent analgesic agent in future.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-00001187
Title: Detection of Amino acids from the Leaves of Achyranthes aspera Linn.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Achyranthes aspera Linn. from amaranthaceae family is medicinally important plant. In Ayurvedic system of medicine, all parts of this plant are employed to treat various type of diseases. They are used in the treatment of fever, especially malaria fever, dysentery, asthma, hypertension, diabetes etc. The amino acids are the basic units of proteins and play a vital role in the metabolism of secondary metabolites. Taking into consideration the above facts the chemical analysis of the aqueous, ethanol and saline extracts of the leaves are used to detect the presence of amino acids .The proper mobile phases are selected after employing various mobile phases for the detection of amino acids by paper chromatography technique. The results are compared with the standard amino acids in all respective mobile phases. Total thirteen amino acids are detected by using three different mobile phases.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-00001188
Title: In-vitro screening of anthelmintic potential of leaves of Rotula aquatica lour
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs led to the evaluation of medicinal plants has an alternative source of anthelmentic. A multitude of plants have been used for the treatment of Helminthiasis throughout the world. One such plant is Rotula aquatica lour. The phytochemical prospection of the fresh dried leaves extracts showed the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites such as steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and phenolics, followed by their TLC profiling was carried out. Total tannin content was carried out by Folin-Denis method. The total tannin content was found to be 3.50 g and 1.62 g tannic acid equivalent per 100 g of methanolic & aqueous extract respectively by spectrophotometric method. The present research work investigated the anthelmintic activity of the methanolic leaves extract of Rotula aquatica lour (Borogenaceae), using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The methanolic extract of the crude drug at concentrations of 20mg/ml, 40mg/ml, 60mg/ml, 80mg/ml & 100mg/ml were tested which involve determination of paralysis time and death time. Piperazine citrate in same concentration as that of extract was included as standard reference. It was found that the extract exhibited significant dose dependent anthelmintic activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-00001189
Title: Comparative study of calix[4]arene, 18-crown-6-ether and beta cyclodextrin as ionophores in miniaturized sensors for the determination of pazufloxacin mesylate: Application to pharmaceutical formula
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Three novel pazufloxacin mesylate selective electrodes were investigated with di-octyl phthalate as a plasticizer in a polymeric matrix of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Sensors 1, 2 and 3 were fabricated using calix[4]arene, 18-crown-6 and â-cyclodextrin as ionophores, respectively. Linear response of pazufloxacin within the concentration ranges of 10-6 to 10-3, 10-4 to 10-2 and 10-4 to 10-2 mol L-1 were obtained using sensors 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Nernstian slopes of 56.64, 53.93 and 52.43 mv/decade over the pH range of 3 – 6 were observed by using the three sensors 1, 2 and 3, respectively with accuracies 100.029 ± 0.749, 100.056 ± 1.088 and 100.045 ± 0.8954 for sensors 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The selectivity coefficients of the developed sensors indicated excellent selectivity for pazufloxacin in presence of related substances and other fluoroquinolones. The proposed sensors displayed useful analytical characteristics for the determination of pazufloxacin in bulk powder, pharmaceutical formulation and human plasma. The proposed methods were compared with a reported one. No significant differences were observed.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-00001190
Title: Detection of Carbohydrates from Aglaia lawii leaves
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was undertaken to evaluate carbohydrates from Aglaia lawii leaves. Aglaia lawii (Wight) Saldanha ex Ramamoorty is a traditional medicinal plant (Meliaceae), indigenous to Vietnam having been used for the treatment of bacterial infections, liver, tumour diseases and headache. The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, especially the brain and the nervous system. Monosaccharide are the major source of fuel for metabolism, being used both as an energy source (glucose being the most important in nature) and in biosynthesis. They have important role in the metabolic pathways for synthesis of secondary metabolites and therefore their presence was detected. Leaves of Aglaia lawii were found to be a rich source of various carbohydrates. Detection of carbohydrates from Aglaia lawii leaves were carried out in different mobile phases using paper chromatographic technique. The results obtained were compared with the standard in all respective mobile phases. Two mobile phases showed promising results. Maltose, sorbitol, rhamnose and inositol were common in both phases. Total eleven carbohydrates were detected. This type of work is reported for first time.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-DVD-00001191
Title: Analytical method development of Darunavir and Ropivacain as bulk drug and formulation using chromogenic reagents
Category: Development and Validation of Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Simple and rapid spectrophotometric & chromatographic methods have been developed and validated for the determination of Darunavir and Ropivacain in tablets and as bulk drug. The methods applied were involing use 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS). The formar was solubilised in an alkaline medium with NQS to form an orange-colored product with lmax at 488 nm while the later gave blue colored chromogen with lmax at 565 nm. The chromogen obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range of 5-60µg/mL. The results of the analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001192
Title: Development of solid lipid nanoparticles of rosuvastatin calcium
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) are an alternative carrier system used to load the drug targeting, to improve the bioavailability by increasing its solubility, permeability and protecting the drug from presystemic metabolism. The objective of the present study was to develop and characterize solid lipid nanoparticles of Rosuvastatin calcium, because of its poor oral bioavailability, low solubility and poor permeability. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded were prepared by a hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication of lipids [glyceryl behenate (compritol ATO 888), glyceryl monostearate and glyceryl monooleate] and surfactants [tween80 and Poloxamer 188]. Earlier, Fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetric studies confirmed no interaction between drug and lipids. The prepared SLNs were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size analysis, zeta potential, in vitro drug release, scanning electron microscopy and stability. The entrapment efficiency of all the formulations (F1-F36) was within the range of 24.71% to 51.06%. Particle size range of all the prepared SLNs formulations was within the 69 nm to 987 nm, In vitro release studies, the formulation F36 showed lowest cumulative drug release (67.65%) after 12 h containing lipid compritol ATO 888 (12%) and poloxamer 188 as surfactant due to increase in particle size of 987nm. All the formulations followed first order release kinetics. Ex vivo release studies were carried out to compare the permeability of pure drug and selected SLNs formulations F21 (78 nm), F27 (99 nm) and F33 (104 nm) in the rat intestine. From the results, it was concluded that the nanoparticles formulations with least mean particle showed better permeability than the pure drug solution.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-BM-00001193
Title: Biodiversity of actinobacteria from mangrove soils of Mamallapuram, east coast of Tamil Nadu, India
Category: Botany and Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study the soil samples were collected from mangrove environment of Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu, India. The diversity of actinomycetes from the soil sample were analysed by streak plating technique. A total number of 20 actinomycetes, such as Actinobispora(3), Actinomadura, Actinokineospora, Actinosynnema, Catellospora, Jonesia, Microtetraspora(2), Nocardia(2), Pseudonocardia, Rhodococcus, Saccharopolyspora, Saccharothrix, Streptomyces(2), Streptoverticillium, Thermoactinomycetes were identified. The present study clearly showed the relationship between physico chemical parameters and the distribution of actinomycetes in marine soils. Thus the study concluded that marine environment provides interesting diversity of actinomycetes. Therefore marine actinomycetes would provide a new source for the efficient production of antibiotics, enzyme for industrial applications.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001194
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Anti diabetic Herbal Extract Preparation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The antidiabetic effect of Aqueous extract of leaves of Ipomoea digitata linn was investigated for antidiabetic activity by In-Vitro a- Amylase Inhibition Activity ,by using standard drug Glibenclamide. As the concentration of a-amylase increase the rate of reaction is also increase but the time of reaction decrease because of high concentration of a-amylase will digest the starch rapidly.Glibenclamide is a a-amylse inhibitor agent. As the concentration of Glibenclamide increase the time of reaction is also increase because the number of enzyme required for digest for starch is not sufficient. From the observation it was found that the aqueous extract of dried leaves of Ipomoea digitata Linn having the a-amylase inhibition activity. But as compare to standard drug is less activity but compare to ethanolic extract is having more significant activity .The present paper deals with formulation and evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of tablets prepared from aqueous extract of the selected plant.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-00001195
Title: Phyto-mediated synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) SOLMS
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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An environmental benign, non-toxic and safe method of synthesis of gold nanoparticles was employed using the aqueous extract of Eichhornia crassipes under various experimental conditions. The formation of gold nanoparticles was investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The size and shape of the synthesized gold nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, Scherrer’s formula and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Comparative study of experimental methods revealed that the homogenization method results in rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The size of the gold nanoparticles varies depending upon the method of synthesis.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-00001196
Title: Qualitative phytochemical screening and antimicrobial studies of Calotropis gigantea Linn latex.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Calotropis genera comprise of two species, with 90% inhabiting southern Asian country and are most endemic to the India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Srilanka, China. Objective: The present project attempts to study the antimicrobial activity of the latex of Calotropis gigantea L. Material and Methods: The latex of Calotropis gigantea L.is subjected to various extractions using ethanol and distilled water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemicals were screening and antimicrobial study was performed against different bacterial species i.e. E .coli, S.aureus, S. dysenteriae, B. subtilis using disc diffusion method. Result: The aqueous extracts and ethanolic extracts show presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, saponin and cardiac glycosides. The aqueous extract was inactive against all the samples, i.e. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Bacillus subtilis and does not show any significant antibacterial properties. The ethanol extract was active only against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and does not show any significant antibacterial properties on the remaining ones. Conclusion: Thus it may be suggested that ethanolic latex extracts of Calotropis gigantea L. may be used to treat infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-00001197
Title: Nutritional composition of raw fresh and shade dried form of spinach leaf (Spinach oleracea)
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Green leafy vegetable consumption has been associated with decreased risk of persistent metabolic diseases. The present study examined the proximate and mineral composition of spinach leaves (spinach oleracea) belong to the family Amaranthaceae grown in Tiruchirappalli District, TamilNadu. Fresh spinach leaves were obtained from local market of Tiruchirappalli District, TamilNadu. Random selection of leaves was done by purchasing from randomly selected sellers in the market. The purchased leaves were cleaned by washing with water to remove dirt and other contaminants. The raw fresh and powder obtained from shade dried leaves of spinach were sent to the laboratory for analysis. From the results, raw fresh spinach was found to be a good source of vegetable protein (11.10%) and fiber (21.38%). Other proximate parameter studied include moisture (36.8%), Ash (6.96), Carbohydrate (20.28%) and fat (3.47%).Mineral magnesium content in raw spinach was found to be abundant (205.10mg/100g).The powder obtained from the shade dried spinach leaf contain rich source of vegetable protein (19.10%) and other parameter includes moisture(11.17%),ash(5.57% ),carbohydrate(41.49% ),fat (7.11% ) and fiber(15.48 % ). The result suggests that Spinach (spinach oleracea) has a high potential health benefits for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and osteoporosis. The result obtained serve as a nutritional data base for local consumers, as well as for further research purposes .Combination with other foodstuffs is recommended to meet satisfactorily the nutritional needs. Spinach (spinach oleracea) has high potential as a leafy vegetable in the preparation of different south Indian dishes and treatment of various diseases due to its nutritional potentials.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-00001199
Title: Biological evaluation of some novel quinoxaline bearing azetidinones including leptospirocidal study
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Ten new Quinoxaline bearing Azetidinone were synthesized by cyclo-condensation of Schiff bases of Quinoxaline-2,3-dione and tested against Mycobacteium tuberculosis H37R at a concentration of 10µg/mL by Microplate Alamar Blue assay method, were already reported by us. In continuation of our research work, we now tested its Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-microbial properties including leptospirocidal activity. Acute oral toxicity studies were performed according to OECD Guideline 423. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory activity was performed by Tail Immersion method with swiss mice and Carageenan –induced Paw Edema method using rats respectively. Diclofenac Sodium (20mg/kg, i.p) and pentazocin (mg/kg, i.p) respectively was used as Standard drug for comparison. In most of the synthesized compounds graded dose response was observed. Anti-microbial potency was also assessed against various micro-organisms and the outcome was compared with the standard drug Ciprofloxacin and Ketoconazole for anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity respectively. Almost all exhibited moderate to good anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity with an MIC range of 8-19 µg/mL. in vitro Leptospirocidal activity of the synthesized compounds was scrutinized using cultures of Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae in EMJH medium at 37°C. It was concluded that among the synthesized compounds hydroxy substituted compounds and methoxy substituted compounds shows high percentage of Inhibition against the tested micro-organisms compared to standard drug Benzyl Penicillin.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-BM-00001200
Title: Studies on Analysis of few secondary metabolites and antimicrobial activity of Ganoderma lucidum
Category: Botany and Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical studies and antimicrobial activity study the secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum using HPTLC analysis and also assess the antimicrobial activity of selected mushroom against the selected pathogens of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ganoderma lucidum was collected in our College Campus during rainy season. Phytochemical analysis of flavonoids and phenolic compounds were analysed by HPTLC method. Further the powder of Ganoderma lucidum was used by antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Acetone, ethanol and methanol used as extractive solvents. Results Six kinds of flavonoids and four kinds of phenolic compounds were reported in Ganoderma lucidum. Maximum antibacterial activity of crude extracts of methanol extracts Ganoderma lucidum (24 ± 0.666mm) shows high level of antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Acetone and ethanol extracts shows good antibacterial activity (17±0.666mm, (20±0.577) respectively, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were most susceptible than the gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). The zones of inhibition in both the extracts are less than the methanolic extracts against the pathogens. Conclusion Ganoderma lucidum is now mostly used in neutraceuticals products throughout the world. Further investigation is also required to go through the detailed analysis of bioactive compounds in mushroom.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001201
Title: Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Gastro retentive In-situ Floating gels of Repaglinide Cubosomes
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Repaglinide is a BCS class-II antidiabetic drug used in treatment of Type-2 diabetes having a very short half-life (almost 1 hour) and absorption window in upper GIT. The aim of the present work is to formulate and evaluate a sustained release formulation of Repaglinide in form of cubosomes and Gastro-retentive in-situ floating gels of cubosomes. Methods: The drug, excipients and formulation are characterized by FTIR. Cubosomes are prepared by Top down approach employing Glyceryl monooleate (GMO) as lipid phase vehicle, Pluronic F127 as stabilizer and distilled water as aqueous phase, Repaglinide as active pharmaceutical ingredient. The resultant cubosome dispersion is evaluated for drug release by diffusion studies, subjected to zeta-sizing and visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Floating gels are prepared in a manner similar to cubosome dispersion employing gelling agents like Sodium alginate, Guar gum, Xanthan gum, Carbopol 934 B.P. The formulated gels are evaluated for viscosity, gelation property, pH and drug release by diffusion studies. Results: The compatibility studies by infrared spectroscopy showed no interaction between the drug and excipients. Cubosome formulation RF5 containing 25% GMO showed a maximum drug release of 93 % within 5 hours. This formulation exhibits an average particle size of 53.2nm and zeta potential of -70.1 mV. Characteristic cube like structures interspersed with round vesicles were observed when visualized by TEM. The concentration of GMO from above optimized cubosome formulation is used in formulation of floating gels. Sustained release up to 8 hours was observed in gels formulated with carbopol 934, guar gum and Sodium alginate (RFCNG). In vitro release kinetics exhibited sustained release and followed non-Fickian diffusion and secondary case 2 by the optimized formulations. Satisfactory viscosity and pH values are obtained. Conclusion: Cubosomes formulated with GMO serves as potential gastro retentive sustained drug delivery vehicle. Further sustained release will be achieved when they are formulated as floating gels.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-00001398
Title: Melatonin protects against lead-induced oxidative stress in stomach, duodenum and spleen of male Wistar rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Environmental or occupational or even accidental exposure to certain heavy metals can cause generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are major causes of various diseases. Our present investigation demonstrates that the oral supplementation of aqueous solution ofmelatonin has the potential to protect against the oxidative stress in stomach, duodenum and spleen induced by sub-chronic exposure of theexperimental rats to the heavy metal , lead (Pb). Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lead acetate (15mg/kg body weight). Another group was pre-treated with melatonin (10 mg / kg, fed orally).The positive control group was fed melatonin (10 mg / kg), and the control animals received vehicle treatment i.p. for 7 consecutive days. The alterations in the activity of the different biomarkers of oxidative stress and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were studied. Histo-morphological changes in the gastric, duodenal and splenic tissues were studied through H-E staining. Lead caused alterations in all the parameters studied. All these changes were mitigated in all the three tissues when the
rats were pre-treated with melatonin. The results indicate that melatonin protects against lead-induced damages in stomach, duodenum and spleen in experimental rats by antioxidant mechanism. Melatonin may have future therapeutic relevance in the prevention of lead-induced gastro-toxicity as well as in splenic toxicity and duodenal toxicity in humans exposed occupationally or environmentally to this toxic heavy metal and may be used for development of new drug with almost no or minimum side-effect.