JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal
ISSN NO: 2321-4988
BioMedRx journal is devoted to the promotion of Bio, Pharma and related disciplines (including medical, Nursing,Paramedical, Clinical   fields).It seeks to foster multi-disciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, pharmaceutical industries and healthcare sector as well as provide a National and international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and opinions in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines.The Editor  welcome contributions of field relevance. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal particularly welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.

Manuscripts Published

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-BC-0000309
Title: Lipid profiles and marker enzymes in alcoholic hypertensive patients with/without diabetes
Category: Biochemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Lipid profiles and Marker enzymes has been implicated in the progression of alcoholic hypertension and diabetic hypertension. Method: The lipid profiles and Marker enzymes of plasma were investigated in alcoholic hypertensive patients and alcoholic hypertensive patients with diabetes and compared with normal subjects. Results: A significant increase is observed in the levels of total cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and VLDL Cholesterol, TG levels and TC/HDL ratio (P<0.05) in the alcoholic hypertensive patients with/without diabetes and the further increase in the levels of TG and TC/HDL ratio is significantly higher in alcoholic hypertensive patients with diabetes. HDL cholesterol levels significantly decrease in alcoholic hypertensive patients with/without diabetes and further decrease is noted in alcoholic hypertensive patients with diabetes as compared to alcoholic hypertensive patients without diabetes. The activities of AST, ALT increase significantly in alcoholic hypertensive patients with/without diabetes and a further increase is observed in alcoholic hypertensive patients with diabetes as compared to alcoholic hypertensive patients without diabetes. No significant difference is observed in the activities of CK-MB and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-] among the normal subjects, alcoholic hypertensive patients with/without diabetes. Conclusions: An increase the levels of TG, TC/HDL ratio and decreased the levels of HDL cholesterol were observed in alcoholic hypertensive patients with diabetes and a more pronounced increase in the activities of AST, ALT among marker enzymes.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000308
Title: Antioxidant and anticancer effects of Excoecaria agallocha and avicennia
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study selected mangrove plant leaf extracts were screened. The mangroves, such as Avicennia and Excoecaria Agallocha (Euphorbiaceae) were selected for this study. The crude extracts from dried leaf of the mangroves were extracted using soxhlet extraction method and obtained extracts were concentrated by using rotary evaporator. Two solvents Methanol and Ethyl acetate were used to extract the leaf material. The crude extracts obtained were evaluated for the antioxidant and anticancer activity of mangrove plants of Avicennia and Excoecaria Agallocha using DPPH and MTT Assay respectively. Our results clearly indicate that the antioxidant and anticancer activities of the plant Avicennia and Excoecaria Agallocha.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000307
Title: Free radical scavenging activity of essential oil compounds citral, limonene, menthone and thymol by using different methods
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The essential oil compounds like Citral, Limonene, Menthone and Thymol was tested for a possible antioxidant activity. A rapid evaluation for antioxidants, using TLC screening methods, showed that Citral, Limonene, Menthone and Thymol demonstrated respectable radical scavenging property. These four constituents and the essential oil possessed variable antioxidant activity when tested in the diphenylpicrylhydracyl assay. All of the extracts had strong antioxidant activity in comparison to the standard compound curcumin. The antioxidant activities of the oils were evaluated in terms of their free-radical-scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Lipid Peroxidation, catalase and superoxide Dismutase. The antioxidant assays showed that the compounds possess very high radical scavenging activities DPPH IC(50) for thymol 1.2, limonene 24.8, citral 30.6 and menthone 79.6 µL/mL , Percentage reduction in Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production (Lipid Peroxidation) for thymol 69.4, limonene 59.3, citral 52.1 and menthone 51.9 mg/mL, catalase production for thymol 43.8, limonene 42.6, menthone 41.3 and citral 40.2 mmol H2O2/min/mg of protein, superoxide production for thymol 434.8, limonene 404.4, menthone 372.2 and citral 372.1 Units /mg of protein. The results show that the essential oils possess significant antioxidant activity which is comparable to that of curcumin. These results suggest that the compounds citral, limonene, menthone and thymol act as a chemopreventative agent, providing antioxidant properties and offering effective protection from free radicals.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000306
Title: Phytochemical study of methanolic leaf extract of Eupatorium glandulosum .L
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The Eupatorium glandulosum L. commonly known as the “goat weed” leaf paste is used to treat cuts and wounds. Eupatorium species are well known for their medicinal value. To validate the significance of the species, the leaf extract of the plant was evaluated and analyzed for the presence of phytochemical constituents. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, tannins and phenols, of which total phenolic content (232.65 µg/mg) and flavonoid content (178.2 mg/g) of leaf have been studied and revealed higher values.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-DVD-0000305
Title: Validated HPLC Method Development for Simultaneous Estimation of Paracetmol and Flupiritine in bulk drug and in formulation dosage forms
Category: Development and Validation of Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, sensitive, accurate and precise RPHPLC method for the simultaneous determination of paracetmol and flupiritine in a bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations was developed. . Chromatographic separation was achieved on thermo hypersil BDS column, with phosphate buffer- methanol (50:50v/v, pH, 2.3) as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0mL/min.Quantification was achieved with PDA detector at 250nm.The retention time for paracetmol and Flupiritine was found at 3.4 and 5.4minutes respectively. The linearity for both the drugs were observed in the concentration range of 50-150µg/ml with mean accuracies 98%-101%. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation because of no chromatographic interferences from blank and placebo were found. The method retains its accuracy and precision when the standard addition technique was applied.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000304
Title: Study on the diuretic activity of various extracts of Cayratia carnosa (Wall. Ex Wight) Gagnep. in albino rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation was aimed to investigate the diuretic activity of Cayratia carnosa (Wall. Ex Wight) Gagnep. The shade dried coarse powdered of the whole plant of Cayratia carnosa was subjected to systemic soxhlet extraction successively with petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water. Total aqueous extract was also prepared separately from the fresh plant powder by cold maceration method. Among these, ethanolic, aqueous and total aqueous extracts at 200 & 400 mg/kg, p.o were investigated for the diuretic activity in male albino rats using standard methods because these three extracts alone contains the maximum number of phytoconstituents. The diuretic activity was assessed in terms of urine output and levels of sodium, potassium and chloride in urine. The results obtained revealed that the ethanolic extract at 400 mg/kg, p.o showed marked diuretic potency which was comparable to that of frusemide.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-0000303
Title: Anticancer Activity of Cleistanthus collinus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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To evaluate the anticancer activity of methanolic extract and its fractions from the bark of Cleistanthus collinus against Earlisch Aceites Carcinoma (EAC) cells, HT 29 (colon cancer), H a549 (lung cancer) and MDA 231 (breast cancer) cells. Traditionally, the whole plant is used as poison and anticancer. Anticancer activity was studied using the methods viz. trypan blue and MTT assay. The ethyl acetate and its chromatographic fraction, and aqueous residue-I showed promising activity against cell lines used in the study. The observations suggest that the chromatographic fraction possesses potential anticancer activity and dose dependent.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000302
Title: Chitosan – polymer for drug delivery
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Chitosan, a polymer derived from crustacean chitin, has a number of properties that make it potentially valuable as a pharmaceutical excipient. Its use in various application has received considerable attention. One obvious advantage of this material is that it can be obtained from ecologically sound natural sources, namely crab and shrimp shell wastes. Chitosan has been widely studied in the biomedical field and has been found to be highly biocompatible. To maintain only some areas of investigation, chitosan has been studied as a wound dressing as a haemostatic material in the form of gels or sponges and as suture, in the form of fibers. Some chitosan –based products, e.g. wound dressing have reached the market. Chitosan has also been marketed through the world in non-medical products as a fat binder in chlolesterol- lowering and slimming formulations. It has been claimed that chitosan entraps lipids in the intestine because of its cationic nature. Chitosan may also have technical applications including e.g. use as a seed coating and nitrogen source in agriculture and as an adsorbent for water-purification.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-BT-0000301
Title: Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using E. coli
Category: Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The ecological affable production of nanoparticles is an innovative step in the field of nano bio technology. In this present study, the Bio synthesis of silver nanoparticles was conceded out by means of microbe such as Escherichia coli as a reducing agent. The UV spectroscopy was used for quantification of silver nanoparticle synthesis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were studied.Antimicrobial activities of Silver nanoparticles were studied by disc diffusion method.The Biocidal activity also confirms the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles .

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000300
Title: Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of Metoprolol tartrate microspheres using natural, semi synthetic and synthetic polymer as controlled release dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate microspheres as controlled release preparations of a drug, Metoprolol Tartrate, using natural polymer, Egg albumin; semi synthetic polymer, Ethyl cellulose and Synthetic polymer, (Eudragit RL 100) as the polymeric materials. Eudragit and Ethyl cellulose based Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method and Egg Albumin based Microspheres was prepared by co-acervation Phase separation method using petroleum ether and coconut oil as dispersion and continuous phase systems. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for their drug content and entrapment efficiency, particle size, compatibility using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in-vitro drug release and stability studies. The in vitro release studies was performed by buffer change method to mimic Gastro Intestine Tract (GIT) environment in pH 1.2,(acidic) and pH 7.4, phosphate buffer (Alkaline). The prepared microspheres were pale yellow, free flowing and spherical in shape. The mean particle size of the microspheres was found in the range of 50 to 335μm. The drug-loaded microspheres showed 70-88% of entrapment and release was extended up to 12 h releasing 86% of the total drug from the microspheres. The infrared spectra showed stable character of Metoprolol Tartrate in the drug-loaded microspheres and revealed the absence of drug-polymer interactions. Scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the microspheres were spherical and porous in nature. The best-fit release kinetics was achieved with Koresmeyer-Peppas plot followed by Matrix.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000299
Title: In vitro anti diabetic and anti oxidant activity of methanolic extracts of Cissus pallida and Cissus vitegenia
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Cissus pallida and Cissus vitegenia were traditionally used herbs in various ailments. Their parts were used in ulcer, wound healing, skin disorders, management of diabetes etc. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of stem and roots of Cissus pallida and aerial parts of Cissus vitegenia methanolic extracts. They were tested by invitro methods of alpha glucosidase inhibition assay and free radical scavenging action by DPPH and Total phenolic content. The results obtained for the assay method reveals the antidiabetic action by the significant percentage inhibition of the enzyme. Also the DPPH and Total phenolic content results reveals the significant free radical scavenging action of the methanolic extract. The results obtained were significant and the free radical production may account for the etiology of various diseases. Hence the above said herbals can be extensively used for various ailments and also in metabolic disorders.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000298
Title: Preliminary phytochemical analysis of Excoecaria agallocha and Avicennia
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study, the mangroves, Avicennia and Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae), were selected for this study. The crude extracts from dried leaf of the mangroves were extracted using soxhlet extraction method and obtained extracts were concentrated by using rotary evaporator. Two solvents Methanol and Ethyl acetate were used to extract the leaf material. Extracts from mangroves and mangrove-dependent species have proven effective against human, animal and plant pathogens, but only limited investigations have been carried out to identify the metabolites responsible for their bioactivities. Hence it is of interest to investigate the phytochemical analysis of mangrove plants such as Avicennia and Excoecaria Agallocha.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-DVD-0000297
Title: New RP-HPLC method development and validation for analysis of combreastatin
Category: Development and Validation of Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A new, accurate and rapid isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography assay has been developed and validated for the estimation of combreastatin in tablet formulation. This method was achieved by using C-18 column (250x4.6mm, 5µm in particle size) at ambident temperature and coupled with a guard column of silica in mobile phase (methanol:water:0.1%TEA 75:15:10(v/v/v)) at the pH value was adjusted upto 5.9. The flow rate was 1ml/min and the drug was detected by using UV detector at the wavelength of 247nm, the run time was 10min and the retention time was 4.02 minutes. The percentage of RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2% and it was validated as per ICH (International Council of Hormonisation) guidelines. The proposed method was found to be accurate, repeatability and consistent. It was successfully applied for the analysis of the drug in marketed formulation and could be effectively used for the routine analysis of formulation containing the drug without any alteration in the chromatography conditions.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-0000296
Title: Design, synthesis, antiHIV and antiviral activities of novel N(2,4-dioxo 4,4-diphenyl imidazolidin-1-yl) benzamides
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Compounds possessing diphenyl imidazolidin diones are well known for their various biological activities. A total of 31 such compounds were designed and scores of the compounds were calculated by Autodock. The compounds that have shown good resultsin the study were synthesized. The structures of the prototype were confirmed with UV, IR, NMR and mass spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-HIV and antiviral activities. Anti-HIV activity on HIV-1 was performed in human T-lymphocyte (CEM) cells using Azidothymidine (AZT) as standard. Antiviral activity on HSV-1 (KOS) was performed in HEL cell cultures using acyclovir and ganciclovir as standards.Six compounds exhibited good inhibitory effects on HIV-1, where as five compounds exhibited satisfactory inhibitory effects on HSV-1. Novel compounds N( 2,5- dioxo 4,4-diphenyl imidazolidin -1-yl) benzamides are found to be promising as anti-HIV and antiviral agents. Further optimization of the compounds should be under taken so as to obtain anti-HIV and antiviral agents of good therapeutic potential.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-DVD-0000295
Title: Development of analytical method for simultaneous estimation of Amoxicillin and Carbocisteine in solid dosage form by RP-HPLC
Category: Development and Validation of Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and carbocisteine in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. The separation was made by C18 column (250 cm × 4.6 mm, 10ìm) using water - acetonitrile (90:10) at pH-3.0 was selected as mobile phase. The detection was carried out at wavelength 220 nm. Water and acetonitrile combination used as diluents. The validation of the method was performed, and linearity, precision and accuracy were confirmed. Method has been successfully used to analyze amoxicillin and carbocisteine from pharmaceutical formulation.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000294
Title: Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets of gliclazide
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objective of the present study was to develop “once daily” sustained release tablets of Gliclazide by wet granulation using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMCK100M) Ethylcellulose and their combination as polymers taken as 10%, 20%, and 30% of the total weight. Gliclazide is an oral hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The sustained release tablets were prepared by direct compression method .The drug excipients mixtures were subjected to preformulation studies like angle of repose , loose bulk density, tapped bulk density , compressibility index and hausner’s ratio etc. The powder blend showed satisfactory flow properties. The tablets were subjected to thickness, weight variation, drug content, hardness, friability, in- vitro drug release and stability studies. All the formulations showed good results which were compliance with pharmacopoeial standards. In-vitro drug release studies were carried out using USP dissolution apparatus type 1 at 100rpm with 900ml phosphate buffer solutions (pbs) of pH1.2 for first 2 hrs and pH 7.4 for remaining hrs, maintained at 37±0.5ºC. The release kinetics was analyzed using the zero-order, first-order model equation, higuchi’s square-root equation and the korsmeyer-peppas model. In-vitro release studies revealed that the release rate decreased with increases in polymer proportion. the sustained release Formulation F9 containing 30% of HPMC K100M &Ethylcellulose combination were found to show good initial release( 15.7±1.45 in two hours)and extended the drug in sustained manner up to 10 hour and can overcome the disadvantages of conventional tablets of Gliclazide . The n value obtained from korsmeyer –peppas model confirmed that the drug release was non-fickian diffusion mechanism. F9 formulation kept stable under accelerated conditions of temperature for 3 months since there were no significant changes in appearance and slight changes in hardness, friability, drug content and in- vitro drug release studies.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-BT-0000292
Title: Early perinatal exposure to bisphenol-a results in decreased feto placental growth during pregnancy in albino rat
Category: Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Bisphenol A is an estrogenic environmental toxin widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and flame retardants. The impact of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) exposure on human health is receiving increasingly focused attention. It is now well established that there is ubiquitous human exposure to BPA. The primary exposure route to BPA occurs mainly by consumption of contaminated foods and beverages that have contacted epoxy resins or polycarbonate plastics. Early perinatal exposure to this compound may produce a broad range of adverse effects, including sexual differentiation, behaviour, miscarriage, damaged DNA, low birth weight pups, decreased reproductive hormone levels, early puberty etc . The aim of this study was to determine the effects of BPA on feto placental, uterine growth in pregnant rats. Two different concentrations (50 mg/Kg/body weight, (low concentration) 500 mg/kg/body weight (high conc.) of BPA, were administered to pregnant rats orally from the 8th gestational day to 15th day (8 days total). Results showed that reduction in placental weights were more substantial with BPA at 500mg/kg body weight, compared with 50mg /kg body weights. These findings indicate that early perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in decreased feto placental and increased uterine wet weights.Histopathological changes were carried out to determine changes in tissue structure by morphometric analysis, DNA fragmentation induced by BPA was analysed by using agarose gel electrophoresis. Thus evidence from laboratory studies suggest that BPA may act as a toxicant for developing tissue.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-MD-0000291
Title: Evaluation of anti-angiogenic effect of crab shell chitin by chorioallantoic membrane assay
Category: Marine Drug
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Chitin is a natural, non-toxic biopolymers shows many beneficial biological properties. In present study antiangiogenic potential of chitin extract from crab shell (Barytelphusa guerini) was evaluated by chick chorioallantoic membrane assay in vivo. The treatment doses of various chitin concentrations (50μg, 100μg, 300μg, 500μg, 700μg & 1000μg/ml) were administered at 96 hours by the window method and evaluated at 144 hrs of development. The results showed that chitin extract at low concentration showed no sustentative difference in blood vessels with area extension from normal and control CAMs. On the contrary, high dose concentration showed significant reduction in both the secondary and tertiary blood vessels without affecting area occupied by them comparable to PBS treated control CAM. It blocked the growth of capillaries with regression of the large vessels and created a region of avascularity on the CAM. These results indicated that chitin extract of crab shell has antiangiogenic potential at high dose of administration. It might be because of preventing signaling of angiogenic agents from epithelial cells or by inducing apoptosis. It may account for some recent clinical observations in the prevention of conditions involving pathological angiogenesis.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-BM-00001171
Title: Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Hypocrea virens
Category: Botany and Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Nanomaterials play a key role in many technologies of the furture. One key aspect of nanotechnology concerns the development of reliable experimental protocols for the synthesis of nanomaterials over a range of chemical compositions size and high monodispersity. In the present study, focusing is given on the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Hypocrea virens. Generally the said fungus is called a potential bio control agent which control the pathogen Ceratocystis paradoxa causing pineapple disease on sugarcane. The Hypocrea virens fungal biomass of extra and intracellular extract to aqueous AgNo3 solution for a period of 72 hours showed the appearance of a dark brown colour in the fungal biomass after reaction with Ag+ ions is a clear indicator of the reduction of the metalions and formation of silver nanoparticles in the fungal biomass. The presence of uniformly distributed silver nanoparticles on the surface of fungal cells is observed, indicating that the nanoparticles formed by the reduction of Ag+ ions are bound to the surface of the cells. The silver nanoparticles seen extra cellular in the mycelia may be due to weakly bound silver nanoparticles during preparation of the films for FT-IR, UV, SEM investigation. The results of antifungal activity showed maximum inhibition in controlling the pathogen in the case of silver nanoparticles treated when compared to without silver nitrate treated.