JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal
ISSN NO: 2321-4988
BioMedRx journal is devoted to the promotion of Bio, Pharma and related disciplines (including medical, Nursing,Paramedical, Clinical   fields).It seeks to foster multi-disciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, pharmaceutical industries and healthcare sector as well as provide a National and international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and opinions in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines.The Editor  welcome contributions of field relevance. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal particularly welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.

Manuscripts Published

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001179
Title: Transdermal Delivery: A Recent Trend in Treatment of Chronic Diseases
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Transdermal drug delivery systems are devices containing drug of defined surface area that delivers a pre-determined amount of drug to the surface of intact skin at a pre-predefined rate. The skin as a route for systemic drug administration has become very attractive since the introduction of transdermal therapeutic systems in the form of patches. The discovery of transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) is a breakthrough in the field of controlled drug delivery system Transdermal dosage forms, alternative to the conventional dosage form are becoming very popular because of their unique advantages. Like controlled zero ordered absorption, simple mode of administration and having option to terminate the action in case of adverse effect. So the TDDS makes them desirable for the treatment of chronic diseases where long term treatment is necessary. Scopolamine, clonidine, nitroglycerine, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, antiischaemic, drug molecules being extensively used in transdermal form. This article is dedicated to the review of transdermal recent research in the area of antiischaemics, antihypertensive, antiemetic, hormones, opioids, anticholinergics and other drug molecules which should be selected for TDDS reported in various pharmaceutical journals.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-00001182
Title: Cardiotonic activity of Lagenaria scieraria (Mol.) on isolated frog heart
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Lagenaria Scieraria (Mol.) standley fruit (bottle gourd), a commonly used vegetable in india is descried as cardiotonic and as a general tonic in Ayurveda. The cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of fruit peel Lagenaria Scieraria (Mol.) was studied by using isolated frog heart perfusion technique (IFHP). Ringer solution was used as a vehicle for administration of aqueous extract as test and digoxin as standard. As significant increase in force of contraction (positive ionotropic effect) and decrease in heart rate (negative chronotropic effect) was observed at smaller doses. The effect increased as dose was increased. The test extract is compared to standard of digoxin.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-BT-0000315
Title: Evaluation of anti bacterial activity of biocompatible polymer chitosan coated biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized from Klebsiella ornithinolytica
Category: Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study, anti bacterial activity of chitosan coated silver nanoparticles synthesized extracellularly by Klebsiella ornithinolytica a symbiotic bacterial flora isolated from gut of lepidopteron insect pest Spodoptera litura against clinical isolates of human pathogenic bacteria E.coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Culture filtrate derived from the liquid culture of the Klebsiella ornithinolytica was mixed with 0.1M silver nitrate, encapsulated with chitosan by ionic gelaion method.Anti bacterial activity was studied against human pathogenic bacteria adopting dynamic growth curve effect assay with different concentration of synthesized nanoparticles.Synthesized silver nanoparticles were primarly confirmed by the colour change of the reaction mixture, determination of plasmon absorption maxima, particle morphology by scanning, transmission electron microscopy, FTIR and energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy(EDX).Synthesized biogenic particles were encapsulated with chitosan and the coated nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and FTIR When the FTIR spectrum of free and coated nanoparticles were compared, it was found that almost the all the absorbed peaks were modified upon coating with chitosan and SEM analysis reveals the uniform spherical smooth morphology. within the size range of 37-40 nanometers and electron dense thin chitosan coating shell of diameter 2-3 nanometers.Anti bacterial activity with the coated nanoparticles showed distinct effect on the dyanamic growth curve of all the tested bacteria. during all the tested time periods and more effect was observed in high concentration. Increasing concentration of nanoparticles progressively inhibited the growth of all the tested bacteria The lag phase of all the tested bacteria in the nanoparticles treatment was found to be more prolonged than the control which reveals the stability of the nanoparticles used in this study. The concentration of 100 ìg ml was found to be strongly inhibitory for bacteria.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-BT-0000314
Title: Bio-insecticidal potential of amylase inhibitors
Category: Biotechnology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Agricultural crops are facing several losses due to pest. Pesticides, biopestcides , plant defence compounds are different ways to protect the agricultural crop losses. The enzyme inhibitors act on insect gut digestive a-amylases and proteinases, which play a key role in the digestion of plant starch and proteins. Starchy leguminous seeds are an important staple food in manycountries. These seeds are rich in protein, and carbohydrate therefore suffer extensive predation by bruchids (weevils)and other pests. Insects like weevils are highly dependent on starch for their energy supply. In this review, we summarize the effects of pesticides, need of bio pesticides, different types and sources of plant α-amylase inhibitors their interaction with insect a-amylases and subsequent insect mortality.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-BiO-0000313
Title: Future Plague Vaccine: Study by Reverse Vaccinology Approach
Category: Bioinformatics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Yersinia pestis, causative agent of Bacillus plague is a serious threat worldwide and yet no vaccine has been developed because of its antigenic variability. In study, we have reported 36 cell surface antigens; those could be involved in advancing vaccine research trials. The study is based on bioinformatics analysis using the reverse vaccinology approach in which SignalP3.0, LipoP1.0, TMHMM, PSORTB, and BLASTP programs collectively put forward the most conserved proteins selected as vaccine antigens.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000312
Title: Evaluation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant potential of Rotula aquatica Lour.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant potential of Rotula aquatica Lour. by assessing enzymatic and non enzymatic parameters. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by standard procedures. Results and Discussion: Three different parts of Rotula aquatica viz leaf, stem and root were analysed. Among the three samples root showed maximum contents of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as Catalase, Peroxidase, Glutathione s-transferase, Glutathione peroxidase, Polyphenol oxidase, Ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and Total polyphenol. R. aquatica plant possesses effective antioxidant activity. This feature perhaps may be due to the presence of respective Phytochemicals like tannins, flavonoids and glycosides etc in this species. Conclusions: The results clearly indicated that, among the three samples the root showed good antioxidant activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-HPRS-0000311
Title: Carbapenem resistance and biofilm production in environmental strains of Acinetobacter isolated from different hospital ward.
Category: Hospital Pharmacy Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Acinetobacter is an emerging nosocomial pathogen because of its multidrug resistance nature and its ability to survive on various abiotic surfaces in hospital environment. Environment contaminated from infected or colonized patients may contribute to dissemination of pathogens. The main objective of this study is to isolate Acinetobacter from different inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and to analyze its drug resistance pattern and biofilm formation. The sampling was done on various sources including ;bed ,wash basin, cleaning solution, suction tubes, catheter, ventilator, bed, bed mattress, dressing table, dressing trolley and soap. Total swabs collected were 108 from different ward surfaces in hospital. Among 108 swabs, 20 Acinetobacter strains were isolated from Intensive care unit (ICU) and Post Operative ward. Out of 20 isolates, 13(65%) were A.baumannii, and 7 (35%) were Acinetobacter lwoffii. The environmental strains showed high level resistance to carbapenem group of drugs (which are the drug of choice for treatment of Acinetobacter infection).Environmental Acinetobacter strains also showed for biofilm production.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000310
Title: Formulation and evaluation of Paliperidone Nanocrystals
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study an attempt has been made to develop nanocrystals of Paliperidone in order to enhance solubility and dissolution rate by decreasing particle size of drug and also sustained the drug release profile by using Eudragit L100 as polymer. The Paliperidone nanocrystals with small and uniform particle size were successfully prepared by nanoprecipitation method using Eudragit L100 as polymer at different ratios in the presence of stabilizers (PVP K30, Poloxamer 188, Poloxamer 407, combination of PVP K30 and Poloxamer 407 and combination of PVP K30 and Poloxamer 188). The compatibility studies by infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry showed no interaction between the drug and polymers. The nanocrystals were evaluated for entrapment efficiency, morphology, size distribution, zeta potential, solubility and stability studies. The entrapment efficiency of the all the formulations were increased with increasing the concentration of polymer. The presence of stabilizers made the nanocrystal formulations more stable with high entrapment efficiency (78.41%). The solubility and in vitro dissolution studies suggested that the nanocrystal formulations can improve the bioavailability of the Paliperidone by improving its solubility and dissolution rate when compared to pure drug. Formulation (F20) exhibited the sustained drug release of 56.02% at the end of 12 hours. In vitro release kinetics exhibited sustained release and followed Fickian diffusion by all the formulations. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) confirmed that there was no change in the crystalline state by this size reduction process. Results of stability studies are favourable for the development of this nanocrystal formulation.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-00001180
Title: Antihyperlipidemic activity of Malus domestica and Namily vitaceae fruit peel extract in hyperlipidemic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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According to the reports of world health organization hyperlipidemia causes most of the deaths due to cardiovascular diseases world wide especially ischemic heart diseases. Currently available synthetic drugs in the treatment have lot of side effects triggering us to look for alternative medicine especially use of phytochemicals increasing day by day world wide has they are less damaging. A literature claims that flavanoids can reduce hyperlipidemia. Malus domestica and Namily vitaceae fruits were selected for the present study, focus to confirm the flavanoid presence and its antihyperlipidemic activity of hydro alcoholic extract of the hand peeled fruits against atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic albino rats. 200ìg/kg (p.o) administration of the test extract to the fatty meal induced hyperlipidemic rats shows significant decrease in the levels of total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL and significant increase in HDL levels. Results suggest that the hydro alcoholic extract of the Malus domestica and Namily vitaceae fruits containing flavanoids possess significant antihyperlipidemic activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-00001181
Title: Effect of chrysin on nephroprotective and antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Prevention or reversal of diabetic nephropathy is a major challenge in the current management of diabetes. Oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant activity are considered to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether administration of chrysin could prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy induced by oxidative stress in rats. Wistar male albino rats were allocated into four groups. Group I rats received DMSO, Group II rats received STZ, Group III rats received chrysin and Group IV rats received STZ and chrysin. Blood samples were collected for the estimation of blood glucose, urea, uric acid and creatinine. Kidney of the sacrificed rats were excised and homogenized for the assay of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin A) and enzymatic antioxidants Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione transferase (GST). There was a significant (p<0.001) increase in the level of blood glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and lipid peroxidation product TBARS in STZ induced diabetic group and significant (p<0.001) decrease in chrysin treated group while the levels of glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A, activities of SOD, CAT, GPx and GST were significantly (p<0.001) reduced in STZ induced diabetic group and significant (p<0.001) increase in chrysin treated group. The findings of the present study concluded that chrysin treatment has beneficial effect on renal tissues subjected to STZ-induced oxidative stress by directly quenching lipid peroxides and indirectly enchancing production of endogenous antioxidants.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pha-00001183
Title: Evaluation of wound healing and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of Vitex negundo Linn.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Vitex negundo , five leaved chaste tree (verbenaceae) is a large aromatic pubescent annual shrub used herb in Ayurveda, Indian tradition system of medicine. The present study was aimed at evaluating the wound healing and anti bacterial activities of Vitex negundo.The leaves of Vitex negundo Linn. were collected, shade dried and exhaustively extracted by soxhlet apparatus with different solvents like petroleum ether, toluene, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and mixture (ethyl acetate: dichloromethane :chloroform ) (1:1:1) of the solvents according to their ascending order of polarity. All the above extracts were evaluated in both excision and incision wound models using albino wister rats at the dose level of 500 mg/kg. The anti microbial activity (zone of inhibition) was carried out by cup plate method against both gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) , gram negative bacteria (proteus vulgaris, Escheria coli, Enterobacter aerogens ) and Fungal strains like Candida albicans, Asperigillus niger, Asperigillus flavus.The parameters of studies included rate of wound contraction, period of epithelisation in excision wound model and wound breaking strength of the regenerated tissue in incision wound model. The studies were used to evaluate effect of wound healing. Both the toluene extract and mixture (ethylacetate: dichloromethane: chloroform) (1:1:1) of the solvent extract showed promising wound healing activity when compared to the control & other extracts. The crude leaf extracts exhibited significant zone of inhibition which were compared with standard drugs Ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001184
Title: Application of solid dispersion technique in improving solubility of ibuprofen by poloxamers
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Primary objective of the current study was to formulate solid dispersion (SD) systems of practically water insoluble drug, Ibuprofen with Poloxamer. SDs with Poloxamer 188 and Poloxamer 407 at three different ratios (1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5) were prepared by melt dispersion and solvent evaporation techniques. Effect of different methods on solubility properties and the efficacy of the carriers to improve the dissolution characteristics were evaluated and compared. Drug carrier interactions in the prepared solid dispersions (SDs) were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and DSC thermal study. Drug-carrier physical mixtures were also prepared in the same ratio of SDs to compare the dissolution behavior. The obtained solid dispersions (SDs) were tested for drug content, saturation solubility and drug dissolution. Saturation solubility study of the SDs was carried out in phosphate buffer (pH 7.2), 0.1 N HCl solution and distilled water. Solid dispersions (SDs) were found to improve the aqueous solubility of Ibuprofen up to 14 times. Dissolution test was performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) and in 0.1 N HCl. Data obtained from the studies showed significant enhancement of the release rate and extent of Ibuprofen from the solid dispersions. Selective SDs were filled into hard gelatin capsule shells and the release characteristics of the capsules were also investigated. Drug release from capsules was also found higher than the pure drug.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001185
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation is aimed at formulating and evaluating sustained release matrix tablets of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride using different polymers such as Carnauba wax, Cetyl alcohol and Stearic acid taken at 15%, 30% and 45% of the total weight of the tablet. Venlafaxine Hydrochloride is the most widely used anti depressant agent in the treatment of major depression disease. The sustained release tablets were prepared by hot melt granulation method. The granules for tableting were evaluated for angle of repose, loose bulk density, tapped bulk density, compressibility index and hausner’s ratio. The granules showed satisfactory flow properties. The tablets were subjected to thickness, weight variation test, hardness, friability and in-vitro release studies. All the formulations showed good results which were compliance with Pharmacopoeial standards. In-vitro drug release studies were carried out using USP dissolution apparatus type I at 50 rpm with 900ml phosphate buffer solutions (PBS) of pH 6.8, maintained at 37±0.5°C. The release kinetics was analyzed using the zero-order, first-order model equation, higuchi’s square-root equation and the korsmeyer-peppas model. In vitro release studies revealed that the release rate decreased with increases in polymer proportion. The sustained release matrix tablets containing 45% carnauba wax (Formulation VF3) were found to show good initial release (23.04% in two hours) and extended the release upto 10 hours and can overcome the disadvantages of conventional tablets of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride. The n value obtained from korsmeyer-peppas model confirmed that the drug release was non-fickian diffusion mechanism.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-00001187
Title: Detection of Amino acids from the Leaves of Achyranthes aspera Linn.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Achyranthes aspera Linn. from amaranthaceae family is medicinally important plant. In Ayurvedic system of medicine, all parts of this plant are employed to treat various type of diseases. They are used in the treatment of fever, especially malaria fever, dysentery, asthma, hypertension, diabetes etc. The amino acids are the basic units of proteins and play a vital role in the metabolism of secondary metabolites. Taking into consideration the above facts the chemical analysis of the aqueous, ethanol and saline extracts of the leaves are used to detect the presence of amino acids .The proper mobile phases are selected after employing various mobile phases for the detection of amino acids by paper chromatography technique. The results are compared with the standard amino acids in all respective mobile phases. Total thirteen amino acids are detected by using three different mobile phases.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-00001188
Title: In-vitro screening of anthelmintic potential of leaves of Rotula aquatica lour
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs led to the evaluation of medicinal plants has an alternative source of anthelmentic. A multitude of plants have been used for the treatment of Helminthiasis throughout the world. One such plant is Rotula aquatica lour. The phytochemical prospection of the fresh dried leaves extracts showed the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites such as steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and phenolics, followed by their TLC profiling was carried out. Total tannin content was carried out by Folin-Denis method. The total tannin content was found to be 3.50 g and 1.62 g tannic acid equivalent per 100 g of methanolic & aqueous extract respectively by spectrophotometric method. The present research work investigated the anthelmintic activity of the methanolic leaves extract of Rotula aquatica lour (Borogenaceae), using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The methanolic extract of the crude drug at concentrations of 20mg/ml, 40mg/ml, 60mg/ml, 80mg/ml & 100mg/ml were tested which involve determination of paralysis time and death time. Piperazine citrate in same concentration as that of extract was included as standard reference. It was found that the extract exhibited significant dose dependent anthelmintic activity.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-00001189
Title: Comparative study of calix[4]arene, 18-crown-6-ether and beta cyclodextrin as ionophores in miniaturized sensors for the determination of pazufloxacin mesylate: Application to pharmaceutical formula
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Three novel pazufloxacin mesylate selective electrodes were investigated with di-octyl phthalate as a plasticizer in a polymeric matrix of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Sensors 1, 2 and 3 were fabricated using calix[4]arene, 18-crown-6 and â-cyclodextrin as ionophores, respectively. Linear response of pazufloxacin within the concentration ranges of 10-6 to 10-3, 10-4 to 10-2 and 10-4 to 10-2 mol L-1 were obtained using sensors 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Nernstian slopes of 56.64, 53.93 and 52.43 mv/decade over the pH range of 3 – 6 were observed by using the three sensors 1, 2 and 3, respectively with accuracies 100.029 ± 0.749, 100.056 ± 1.088 and 100.045 ± 0.8954 for sensors 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The selectivity coefficients of the developed sensors indicated excellent selectivity for pazufloxacin in presence of related substances and other fluoroquinolones. The proposed sensors displayed useful analytical characteristics for the determination of pazufloxacin in bulk powder, pharmaceutical formulation and human plasma. The proposed methods were compared with a reported one. No significant differences were observed.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-00001190
Title: Detection of Carbohydrates from Aglaia lawii leaves
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was undertaken to evaluate carbohydrates from Aglaia lawii leaves. Aglaia lawii (Wight) Saldanha ex Ramamoorty is a traditional medicinal plant (Meliaceae), indigenous to Vietnam having been used for the treatment of bacterial infections, liver, tumour diseases and headache. The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, especially the brain and the nervous system. Monosaccharide are the major source of fuel for metabolism, being used both as an energy source (glucose being the most important in nature) and in biosynthesis. They have important role in the metabolic pathways for synthesis of secondary metabolites and therefore their presence was detected. Leaves of Aglaia lawii were found to be a rich source of various carbohydrates. Detection of carbohydrates from Aglaia lawii leaves were carried out in different mobile phases using paper chromatographic technique. The results obtained were compared with the standard in all respective mobile phases. Two mobile phases showed promising results. Maltose, sorbitol, rhamnose and inositol were common in both phases. Total eleven carbohydrates were detected. This type of work is reported for first time.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DVD-00001191
Title: Analytical method development of Darunavir and Ropivacain as bulk drug and formulation using chromogenic reagents
Category: Development and Validation of Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Simple and rapid spectrophotometric & chromatographic methods have been developed and validated for the determination of Darunavir and Ropivacain in tablets and as bulk drug. The methods applied were involing use 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS). The formar was solubilised in an alkaline medium with NQS to form an orange-colored product with lmax at 488 nm while the later gave blue colored chromogen with lmax at 565 nm. The chromogen obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range of 5-60µg/mL. The results of the analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001192
Title: Development of solid lipid nanoparticles of rosuvastatin calcium
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) are an alternative carrier system used to load the drug targeting, to improve the bioavailability by increasing its solubility, permeability and protecting the drug from presystemic metabolism. The objective of the present study was to develop and characterize solid lipid nanoparticles of Rosuvastatin calcium, because of its poor oral bioavailability, low solubility and poor permeability. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded were prepared by a hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication of lipids [glyceryl behenate (compritol ATO 888), glyceryl monostearate and glyceryl monooleate] and surfactants [tween80 and Poloxamer 188]. Earlier, Fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetric studies confirmed no interaction between drug and lipids. The prepared SLNs were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size analysis, zeta potential, in vitro drug release, scanning electron microscopy and stability. The entrapment efficiency of all the formulations (F1-F36) was within the range of 24.71% to 51.06%. Particle size range of all the prepared SLNs formulations was within the 69 nm to 987 nm, In vitro release studies, the formulation F36 showed lowest cumulative drug release (67.65%) after 12 h containing lipid compritol ATO 888 (12%) and poloxamer 188 as surfactant due to increase in particle size of 987nm. All the formulations followed first order release kinetics. Ex vivo release studies were carried out to compare the permeability of pure drug and selected SLNs formulations F21 (78 nm), F27 (99 nm) and F33 (104 nm) in the rat intestine. From the results, it was concluded that the nanoparticles formulations with least mean particle showed better permeability than the pure drug solution.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-BM-00001193
Title: Biodiversity of actinobacteria from mangrove soils of Mamallapuram, east coast of Tamil Nadu, India
Category: Botany and Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study the soil samples were collected from mangrove environment of Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu, India. The diversity of actinomycetes from the soil sample were analysed by streak plating technique. A total number of 20 actinomycetes, such as Actinobispora(3), Actinomadura, Actinokineospora, Actinosynnema, Catellospora, Jonesia, Microtetraspora(2), Nocardia(2), Pseudonocardia, Rhodococcus, Saccharopolyspora, Saccharothrix, Streptomyces(2), Streptoverticillium, Thermoactinomycetes were identified. The present study clearly showed the relationship between physico chemical parameters and the distribution of actinomycetes in marine soils. Thus the study concluded that marine environment provides interesting diversity of actinomycetes. Therefore marine actinomycetes would provide a new source for the efficient production of antibiotics, enzyme for industrial applications.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001194
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Anti diabetic Herbal Extract Preparation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The antidiabetic effect of Aqueous extract of leaves of Ipomoea digitata linn was investigated for antidiabetic activity by In-Vitro a- Amylase Inhibition Activity ,by using standard drug Glibenclamide. As the concentration of a-amylase increase the rate of reaction is also increase but the time of reaction decrease because of high concentration of a-amylase will digest the starch rapidly.Glibenclamide is a a-amylse inhibitor agent. As the concentration of Glibenclamide increase the time of reaction is also increase because the number of enzyme required for digest for starch is not sufficient. From the observation it was found that the aqueous extract of dried leaves of Ipomoea digitata Linn having the a-amylase inhibition activity. But as compare to standard drug is less activity but compare to ethanolic extract is having more significant activity .The present paper deals with formulation and evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of tablets prepared from aqueous extract of the selected plant.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-00001196
Title: Qualitative phytochemical screening and antimicrobial studies of Calotropis gigantea Linn latex.
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Calotropis genera comprise of two species, with 90% inhabiting southern Asian country and are most endemic to the India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Srilanka, China. Objective: The present project attempts to study the antimicrobial activity of the latex of Calotropis gigantea L. Material and Methods: The latex of Calotropis gigantea L.is subjected to various extractions using ethanol and distilled water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemicals were screening and antimicrobial study was performed against different bacterial species i.e. E .coli, S.aureus, S. dysenteriae, B. subtilis using disc diffusion method. Result: The aqueous extracts and ethanolic extracts show presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, saponin and cardiac glycosides. The aqueous extract was inactive against all the samples, i.e. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Bacillus subtilis and does not show any significant antibacterial properties. The ethanol extract was active only against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and does not show any significant antibacterial properties on the remaining ones. Conclusion: Thus it may be suggested that ethanolic latex extracts of Calotropis gigantea L. may be used to treat infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae.