JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal
ISSN NO: 2321-4988
BioMedRx journal is devoted to the promotion of Bio, Pharma and related disciplines (including medical, Nursing,Paramedical, Clinical   fields).It seeks to foster multi-disciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, pharmaceutical industries and healthcare sector as well as provide a National and international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and opinions in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines.The Editor  welcome contributions of field relevance. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal particularly welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.

Manuscripts Published

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001198
Title: Formulation and in vitro evaluation of floating microspheres of acyclovir
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the present work was to prepare floating microspheres of acyclovir to prolong residence time in stomach and to sustain the release of acyclovir. Acyclovir loaded floating microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method with combination of polymers (Ethyl cellulose and HPMC K4M). The resultant microspheres were evaluated for micromeritic properties, loss on drying, particle size, percentage entrapment efficiency, buoyancy, in vitro drug release and model fitting kinetics. Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate the physical state of the drug in the microspheres. The particle size of the microspheres was in the range of 146.01-221.41µm. Percentage entrapment efficiency was between 63%-84% w/w. Microspheres remained buoyant for more than about 8 hours. The results of FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry indicated the stable character of acyclovir in microspheres and also revealed absence of drug polymer interaction. The formulation A3 showed results of in vitro drug released (91.24%) and acyclovir microspheres showed release from slow to sustained for more than 8 hours. Surface morphology by SEM analysis, and stability studies were carried out for the best formulation A3. All the stability studies for the formulation A3 showed no significant change in the percentage drug release studies and percentage buoyancy.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-0000971
Title: Quantification of Total Flavonoid Content and antioxidant activity in comparison to a reference flavonoid as in vitro quality evaluation parameter for assessing bioactivity of biomarkers in herbal ext
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study involves in vitro quantification of total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of two sample plants, Clerodendrum infortunatum and Biophytum sensitivum and comparison of their quality assessment of bioactivity with respect to standard flavonoid, like Narigenin, Rutin & Quercetin. Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. (Lamiaceae), commonly known as Bhant in Hindi, had been used in Indian folk medicine in the treatment of bronchitis, asthma, fever, burning sensation, diabetes, diseases of the blood, inflammation, and epilepsy. Biophytum sensitivum Linn. (Oxalidaceae) had also been found as traditional medicine in treating ailments such as inflammation, arthritis, wounds, tumors and burns, gonorrhea, stomach ache, asthma, cough, degenerative joint disease, urinary calculi, diabetes, snake bite, amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea. The total flavonoid content (TFC) of methanolic extract of C. infortunatum roots (MECI) and methanolic extract of B. sensitivum whole plant (MEBS) were determined by using aluminum chloride colorimetric method. Since these phenolic compounds and flavonoids are of pharmacological interest in traditional medicine, coupled with the use of these plant extracts and their formulations, prompted to evaluate C. infortunatum and B. sensitivum for their antioxidant potential by DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power ability. The percentage inhibition by DPPH method was compared in terms of IC50 value, which was found to be about 34.46 mcg/ml and 12.30 mcg/ml of MECI and MEBS, when compared with IC50 value Quercetin (48.79 mcg/ml). The reducing capabilities by FRAP assay were also found to be in dose dependent manner. The present findings provided information about total flavonoid activity (TFC) which could further trigger partial or full isolation and standardization of the biomarker compounds like polyphenolics and flavonoids for in vitro assessment and correlating their bioactivity of diabetes in comparison to a standard reference antidiabetic drug.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-0000970
Title: Isolation and Characterization of Natural Mucilage’s from Benincasa Hespida
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The products from natural sources have become an integral part of human health care system and serves as an alternative to synthetic products because of side effects, toxicity, local accessibility, eco-friendly nature and lower prices compared to important synthetic products. The natural polymers have always an exceptional property which makes them distinct from synthetic polymer and ash gourd is one such example which shows more valuable properties making it a useful excipient for wide range of applications. Development of new excipients is time consuming, involves tedious procedures and is highly expensive. Instead, identification of new uses for the existing substances is relatively inexpensive and less time consuming. Natural gums and mucilage’s have been widely explored as pharmaceutical excipient. Mucilage’s are polysaccharide complexes formed from sugar and uronic acid units. Mucilage’s form slimy masses in water are typically heterogeneous in composition. The pulp and seeds of Ash gourd contain a proportion of mucilage and it also being used for different therapeutic purposes. However there are no reports on isolation and characterization of mucilage of Benincasa hespida. Hence the present study was designed for isolation and characterization of mucilage from the pulp and seeds of Benincasa hespida and explores its use as a pharmaceutical excipient. Various methods to isolate mucilage were tried and simple, economical and optimum method was developed. Physicochemical properties of Benincasa hespida such as appearance, odour, solubility, Bulk and Tapped Densities, Hausner’s Ratio, swelling index, pH, compressibility and Angle of Repose were studied.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PDRS-00001197
Title: Nutritional composition of raw fresh and shade dried form of spinach leaf (Spinach oleracea)
Category: Plant Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Green leafy vegetable consumption has been associated with decreased risk of persistent metabolic diseases. The present study examined the proximate and mineral composition of spinach leaves (spinach oleracea) belong to the family Amaranthaceae grown in Tiruchirappalli District, TamilNadu. Fresh spinach leaves were obtained from local market of Tiruchirappalli District, TamilNadu. Random selection of leaves was done by purchasing from randomly selected sellers in the market. The purchased leaves were cleaned by washing with water to remove dirt and other contaminants. The raw fresh and powder obtained from shade dried leaves of spinach were sent to the laboratory for analysis. From the results, raw fresh spinach was found to be a good source of vegetable protein (11.10%) and fiber (21.38%). Other proximate parameter studied include moisture (36.8%), Ash (6.96), Carbohydrate (20.28%) and fat (3.47%).Mineral magnesium content in raw spinach was found to be abundant (205.10mg/100g).The powder obtained from the shade dried spinach leaf contain rich source of vegetable protein (19.10%) and other parameter includes moisture(11.17%),ash(5.57% ),carbohydrate(41.49% ),fat (7.11% ) and fiber(15.48 % ). The result suggests that Spinach (spinach oleracea) has a high potential health benefits for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and osteoporosis. The result obtained serve as a nutritional data base for local consumers, as well as for further research purposes .Combination with other foodstuffs is recommended to meet satisfactorily the nutritional needs. Spinach (spinach oleracea) has high potential as a leafy vegetable in the preparation of different south Indian dishes and treatment of various diseases due to its nutritional potentials.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-SDCS-00001199
Title: Biological evaluation of some novel quinoxaline bearing azetidinones including leptospirocidal study
Category: Synthetic Drug Chemistry study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Ten new Quinoxaline bearing Azetidinone were synthesized by cyclo-condensation of Schiff bases of Quinoxaline-2,3-dione and tested against Mycobacteium tuberculosis H37R at a concentration of 10µg/mL by Microplate Alamar Blue assay method, were already reported by us. In continuation of our research work, we now tested its Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-microbial properties including leptospirocidal activity. Acute oral toxicity studies were performed according to OECD Guideline 423. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory activity was performed by Tail Immersion method with swiss mice and Carageenan –induced Paw Edema method using rats respectively. Diclofenac Sodium (20mg/kg, i.p) and pentazocin (mg/kg, i.p) respectively was used as Standard drug for comparison. In most of the synthesized compounds graded dose response was observed. Anti-microbial potency was also assessed against various micro-organisms and the outcome was compared with the standard drug Ciprofloxacin and Ketoconazole for anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity respectively. Almost all exhibited moderate to good anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity with an MIC range of 8-19 µg/mL. in vitro Leptospirocidal activity of the synthesized compounds was scrutinized using cultures of Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae in EMJH medium at 37°C. It was concluded that among the synthesized compounds hydroxy substituted compounds and methoxy substituted compounds shows high percentage of Inhibition against the tested micro-organisms compared to standard drug Benzyl Penicillin.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-BM-00001200
Title: Studies on Analysis of few secondary metabolites and antimicrobial activity of Ganoderma lucidum
Category: Botany and Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical studies and antimicrobial activity study the secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum using HPTLC analysis and also assess the antimicrobial activity of selected mushroom against the selected pathogens of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ganoderma lucidum was collected in our College Campus during rainy season. Phytochemical analysis of flavonoids and phenolic compounds were analysed by HPTLC method. Further the powder of Ganoderma lucidum was used by antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Acetone, ethanol and methanol used as extractive solvents. Results Six kinds of flavonoids and four kinds of phenolic compounds were reported in Ganoderma lucidum. Maximum antibacterial activity of crude extracts of methanol extracts Ganoderma lucidum (24 ± 0.666mm) shows high level of antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Acetone and ethanol extracts shows good antibacterial activity (17±0.666mm, (20±0.577) respectively, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were most susceptible than the gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). The zones of inhibition in both the extracts are less than the methanolic extracts against the pathogens. Conclusion Ganoderma lucidum is now mostly used in neutraceuticals products throughout the world. Further investigation is also required to go through the detailed analysis of bioactive compounds in mushroom.

Journal: JPR:BioMedRx:An International Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-Ph-00001201
Title: Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Gastro retentive In-situ Floating gels of Repaglinide Cubosomes
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Repaglinide is a BCS class-II antidiabetic drug used in treatment of Type-2 diabetes having a very short half-life (almost 1 hour) and absorption window in upper GIT. The aim of the present work is to formulate and evaluate a sustained release formulation of Repaglinide in form of cubosomes and Gastro-retentive in-situ floating gels of cubosomes. Methods: The drug, excipients and formulation are characterized by FTIR. Cubosomes are prepared by Top down approach employing Glyceryl monooleate (GMO) as lipid phase vehicle, Pluronic F127 as stabilizer and distilled water as aqueous phase, Repaglinide as active pharmaceutical ingredient. The resultant cubosome dispersion is evaluated for drug release by diffusion studies, subjected to zeta-sizing and visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Floating gels are prepared in a manner similar to cubosome dispersion employing gelling agents like Sodium alginate, Guar gum, Xanthan gum, Carbopol 934 B.P. The formulated gels are evaluated for viscosity, gelation property, pH and drug release by diffusion studies. Results: The compatibility studies by infrared spectroscopy showed no interaction between the drug and excipients. Cubosome formulation RF5 containing 25% GMO showed a maximum drug release of 93 % within 5 hours. This formulation exhibits an average particle size of 53.2nm and zeta potential of -70.1 mV. Characteristic cube like structures interspersed with round vesicles were observed when visualized by TEM. The concentration of GMO from above optimized cubosome formulation is used in formulation of floating gels. Sustained release up to 8 hours was observed in gels formulated with carbopol 934, guar gum and Sodium alginate (RFCNG). In vitro release kinetics exhibited sustained release and followed non-Fickian diffusion and secondary case 2 by the optimized formulations. Satisfactory viscosity and pH values are obtained. Conclusion: Cubosomes formulated with GMO serves as potential gastro retentive sustained drug delivery vehicle. Further sustained release will be achieved when they are formulated as floating gels.