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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).



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Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002751
Title: A review on carbon nanotubes and its applications
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palamuru University, Mahbubnagar, Telangana, India
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Carbon nanotube invention for drug delivery and medical applications is the best technology of nanoscience and nanotechnology and mainly applicable in cancer therapy due to their properties of cellular uptake, high drug loading, and thermal ablation. Distinguishing between normal healthy cells from affected cells is challenging and in modern times therapy using carbon nanotubes is most effective. Carbon nanotubes are synthetic nanomaterial that is made of carbon atoms and consisting of graphitic shells.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002754
Title: Phytochemical evaluation and anticancer activity of Ocimum sanctum L. - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Nachimuthu Polytechnic College, Pollachi, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The purpose of the paper is to review especially the phytochemical evaluation and anticancer activity of Tulsi. Methods: Several publications and books were electronically searched in Google using the keywords “Tulsi as a medicinal plant,” “Tulsi and its anticancer activity,” and “Anticancer activity of Ocimum sanctum. The search was restricted to books and articles related to anticancer activity of Tulsi from the year 1972 to 2017 by encountering the title and abstracts, and further short listing articles for full content. Conclusion: The present review revealed that Ocimum sanctum possesses an extensive anticancer efficacy still limited because of the lack of clinical trials on humans.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002966
Title: A review on genetically altered transgenic animals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Progressive Education Society’s Modern College of Pharmacy, Yamunanagar, Nigdi, Pune, Maharashtra, India
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Transgenic animals are genetically altered animals having the traits that mimic symptoms of the specific human pathologies. They provide a genetic model of various human diseases that are important in understanding the disease and developing new targets. In early, 1980 Gordon and Ruddle described the first gene addition experiment using the microinjection technology, and since then the impact of transgenic technology on basic research has been significant. For many years, transgenic animals employ to study the gene function and creating the models for the study of the human diseases. This approach has become more justified after the complete sequencing of several genomes. Transgenic animals are ready to become industrial bioreactors and for the preparation of pharmaceuticals in milk and probably in the future in egg white. Improvement of animal production by transgenesis is still in its infancy. Numerous useful applications like biologically safe new-generation drugs based on human regulatory proteins are been developed. Various concern aspects in the coming years are the regulatory guidelines, ethical issues, and patents related to the use of transgenic animals. The modern medicine is on the threshold of a pharmacological revolution. Use of transgenic animals will provide solutions for drug research, xenotransplantation, and clinical trials and will prove to be a new insight into drug development.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002752
Title: Antitoxin activity of different extracts of aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea against Naja naja venom
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy, Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad - 500 085, Telangana, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-snake venom activity of Tephrosia purpurea against Naja naja venom. Methods: Three different extracts, namely T. purpurea aerial parts pet ether extract (TPAPE), T. purpurea aerial parts ethyl acetate extract (TPAEA), and T. purpurea aerial parts ethanol extract (TPAEN), screened for anti-snake venom activity by lime flocculation test and edema-forming activity. Results: In lime flocculation test, neutralizing efficacy was justified by the production of flocculation when 1 mg/ml of different extracts reacted with 0.1% of venom. Lethal dose 50 (LD50) was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg. 1:10 (venom: plant extract) and 1:20 (venom: plant extract) are the two very low doses than LD50 were taken for in vivo studies. In edema-forming activity, negative control animals showed significant increase in edema after injection of venom, whereas animals treated with TPAPE, TPAEA, and TPAEN showed significant dose- dependent reduction in paw edema as compared to negative control. Order of efficacy of extracts is TPAPE<TPAEAConclusion: Thus, we can conclude that different extracts of T. purpurea are potential in neutralizing toxic effects of N. naja snake venom and can be further explored to develop it therapeutically as efficient tool in treating snakebite envenomation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002753
Title: Management of fractured instruments during dental treatment by dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to conduct a survey to estimate the level of the management of fractured instruments during a dental procedure by dental practitioners. Objective: The survey is conducted to analyze the dental practitioners’ level of management when the instrument fractures during a dental procedure. Background: With the increased practice of rotary endodontics in recent years, separated rotary nickel–titanium files in root canals are the most commonly reported mishap, causing lot of stress and anxiety among clinicians and patients. The fracture of an instrument is a recognized complication in endodontics. The immediate response to a fractured instrument is frequently to regard the treatment as a failure. No clear guidelines can be drawn from the literature available because there are either too few studies of the effects of broken files on prognosis or the few studies that have been performed involved so few patients. Reason: This survey is done among dental practitioners to analyze the efficiency of them to manage the procedure after an instrument breaks. The results are very important to evaluate the skills of a practitioner and to help them gain more knowledge.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002755
Title: Vehicle stability enhancement of captopril extemporaneous preparation
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Srinakharinwirot University, Ongkharak, Nakhorn- Nayok, 26120, Thailand
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of captopril extemporaneous preparation with ascorbic acid as antioxidant. Materials and Methods: Extemporaneously prepared of captopril suspension and reconstituted powder for suspension was added ascorbic acid to increase their stability. The physical and chemical stability of captopril extemporaneous preparations were evaluated at room temperature (25–28°C) and refrigerated temperature (2–8°C). The chemical characteristics were measured by pH value and the remaining drug contents analyzed by reversed-phase high- performance liquid chromatography technique. Findings: The physical characteristics such as color, taste, sedimentation, and redispersion of both preparations were unchanged at all conditions for 28 days. The pH of both preparations was <4 at all conditions. Both captopril extemporaneous preparations in amber bottles at refrigerated temperature were stable for 28 days. At room temperature, the preparations of both suspension and reconstituted powder for suspension were stable for 28 days (% remaining; 91.26 ± 0.99) and 7 days (% remaining; 92.89 ± 3.64), respectively. Conclusion: Captopril extemporaneous preparations using ascorbic acid as an antioxidant could be prepared in suspension or reconstituted powder for suspension dosage forms. Both preparations could be stored at refrigerated temperature (2–8°C) for 28 days regarding their physical and chemical stability.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002756
Title: Antimicrobial and wound healing activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pune - 411 018, Maharashtra, India
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Aim: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. is an medicinally and cosmetically important herb in Ayurveda. Wound healing activity of flower of H. rosa-sinensis L. is reported in Ayurvedic literature. However, scientific data are not available proving its use. Antibacterial and healing compounds of natural origin can be the choice of treatment in wounds. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate wound healing and antimicrobial potency of hydroalcoholic H. rosa-sinensis L. (HA-HRS) extract gel formulation. Materials and Methods: Herbal gel formulation containing 5% and 10% HA-HRS extract was prepared and optimized for spreadability viscosity and extrudability. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extract and gel formulation showed comparable result to that of povidone-iodine standard. Wound healing potential of formulated gel was studied using excision and incision wound model. Results and Discussion: Gel having 10% HA-HRS showed complete healing compared to the control (22.41%) after the 14th day. Histopathological observation in incision model stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain showed fibroblast proliferation in dermis and increased epidermal thickness for animals treated with 10% of extract containing gel and showed normal skin histology with dermis, epidermis, and hair follicle for excision model animals. Masson trichrome staining examination revealed moderate increase in collagen content at wound increase in collagen count at wound area for both the formulations in both the models. Conclusion: Gel containing 10% HA-HRS extract can be used as good alternative to synthetic wound healers.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-SM-00002757
Title: Physicochemical characterization of the Siddha herbo‑mineral drug ‑ Panchamuga chenduram
Category: Siddha Medicine
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Literary Research and Documentation, Siddha Central Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Panchamuga chenduram (PC) is a herbo-mineral drug mentioned in Siddha text literature. Material and Methods: The aim of the study was to standardize the PC by evaluating its physicochemical characters such as color, ash values, pH value, percentage yield, and solubility which were analyzed and modern instrumental techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Result: The total ash value was found to be 9.85% w/w, acid-insoluble ash value is 0.90% w/w, water-soluble ash value is 5.7% w/w, moisture content was 8.81% w/w, and foreign organic matter was 8% w/w. The pH value is 7.5–7.7 and the yield of percentage is 47. Discussion: The ICP-OES reveals that the heavy metals such as mercury, lead, arsenic, and cadmium are within the limit. High-resolution SEM analysis of the drug indicated the existence of nanoparticles.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002962
Title: Synthesis and biological evaluation of anilino derivatives of acridines as anticancer agents
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Organic Chemistry and Chemistry of Foods, Drugs and Water Analysis, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study is to synthesize a series of aniline derivatives of acridine compounds and evaluation of their anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: A series of aniline derivatives of acridine compounds (8a-j) have been synthesized, and its structures were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques such as 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), carbon-13 NMR, and electrospray ionization -mass spectrometry (MS) and screened for their anticancer activity against four human cancer cell lines including lung (MCF-7), A549 (lung), and breast (MDA MB-231). Results and Discussion: Anticancer activity evaluation of compounds (8a-j) was carried out against a small panel of human cancer cell lines and compounds 8b, 8g, and 8h exhibited good anticancer activity against lung (MCF-7) and breast (A-549, MDA MB-231) cancer cell lines. The IC50 values were in the range of 0.13 ± 0.02–2.56 ± 1.78, 0.56 ± 0.021–2.77 ± 1.74, and 0.34 ± 0.022–1.67 ± 0.21 µM for 8b, 8g, and 8h, respectively. Conclusion: A series of aniline derivatives of acridine compounds (8a-j) have been synthesized in an efficient manner and screened for their anticancer activity, in which compounds 8b, 8g, and 8h exhibited good anticancer activity against lung (MCF-7) and breast (A-549, MDA MB-231) cancer cell lines.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002963
Title: Comparison of levo-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine contents in various extraction methods of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. using high-performance liquid chromatography based on green technology
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Srinakharinwirot University, Nakhon-nayok 26120, Thailand
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Objective: The aim of this paper was to compare the different extraction mthods for extraction of L-DOPA from Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. seeds. Method: Extract L-DOPA from 4 grams of Mucuna pruriens seeds powder by maceration, sonication, and microwave extraction with water and acetic acid (pH=3.0) as solvent for 5, 10, and 15 minutes (each n=3). Thin layer Chromatography (TLC) compared with standard L- dopa was used as screen qualitative analysis. Result: TLC profiles of L-DOPA from M. pruriens extract in butanol: acetic acid: purified water (2:1:1) showed at Rf 0.45. Quantitative analysis of L-dopa used a reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) with C18 column. Using a 0.1M KH2PO4 (pH 2.5 ) as the mobile phase, eluted at flow rate of 1 ml/min, and the injection volume was 20 µl. The developed assay for L-dopa was linear over the range of 10-50 ug/ml, (r2= 0.9999). The lower limit of detection and quantification were 0.05 and 0.5 µg/ml, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision values were 0.45-0.95% and 0.49-1.96%, respectively. The percent recovery was 99.12-102.53%. It was found that the highest of %yield of extraction was found to be 19.48% in a maceration extraction with purified water for 10 minutes. However the highest of L-DOPA in crude extract was found to be 15.01% of L-DOPA in a microwave extraction with acetic acid (pH=3.0) for 5 minutes. Conclusion: The maceration extraction with purified water gave the highest yield of crude extract while the microwave extraction with acetic acid gave the highest amount of L-dopa. The analytical method can be separate L-dopa from the others in crude extract within 10 minutes. This technique is not only specific, accurate and precise but also safe for environment (Green method). Thus, the method is recommended for routine analysis of L-dopa in mucuna extract.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00002964
Title: Reverse vaccinology approach to search Neisseria meningitides alpha 710 (serogroup B) vaccine candidate by comparative proteomics in related species
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Sai Biosystems Private Limited, Raghuji, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
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Aim: Neisseria meningitidis ALPHA710 (SEROGROUP B) is a known pathogen with severe threatening possibilities. In the present study using reverse vaccinology approach, we have reported highly conserved epitopes available in the proteome of this bacterium. Materials and Methods: Proteome of N. meningitidis ALPHA710 (SEROGROUP B) was retrieved from KEGG database, and cell surface proteins were marked by TMHMM, LipoP, Psortb, and Signal P servers. All these surface proteins were recorded for their conserved nature by searching homology with 40 other Neisseria species, and finally, epitopes were searched using “Human Leukocyte Antigens Pred” and binding energy with MHC was predicted. Results: N. meningitidis ALPHA710 (SEROGROUP B) encoded 2015 proteins out of which 32 proteins reported an antigen with conserved nature. Out of which, 23 epitopes were present on the outer cell surface and reported promising cell surface epitopes. Conclusion: N. meningitidis ALPHA710 (SEROGROUP B) encodes 23 cell surface proteins those could be used as an epitope candidate in vaccine research to control meningococcal infection.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002965
Title: Antihepatotoxic effect of the ethanolic fraction of roots of Tetracera akara (Burm. f.) Merr., on Acetaminophen‑induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacology Division, Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tetracera akara root ethanolic fraction on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats by the oral administration of paracetamol (2.5 g/kg/day for 6 days). The ethanolic fraction of T. akara root was administered to the experimental rats in varying doses of 50, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day, p. o. for 7 days. The hepatoprotective effect of the extracts was evaluated by the assay of biochemical markers of hepatic injury (total bilirubin, serum protein, alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities), antioxidant status of the liver by estimating (hepatic catalase [CAT], superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione, and malondialdehyde), and histopathological evaluation of the liver. Results: In T. akara root ethanolic fraction administered animals, the toxic effect of paracetamol was controlled significantly by restoration of the levels of serum bilirubin, protein, and hepatic enzymes as compared to the normal and the standard drug silymarin-treated groups. Oral administration of plant drug elevated the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT in liver and inhibited lipid peroxidation as evident from the reduced levels of MDA. The histopathological observations were in correlation with the biochemical findings. The animals treated with the extracts showed the presence of normal hepatic cords, the absence of necrosis and fatty infiltration, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity. Conclusion: Ethanolic fraction of the root of T. akara possesses significant hepatoprotective activity, thus substantiating the tribal claim.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002967
Title: Evaluation of in vitro anthelmintic potential of quercetin against Pheretima posthuma
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, P. E. Society’s Modern College of Pharmacy, Pune, Maharashtra, India
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Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic potential of isolated phytoconstituent Quercetin against Pheretima posthuma (Indian earthworm). Materials and Methods: Three different concentrations (10, 20, and 30 mg/ml in distilled water) of quercetin were prepared, and six worms (same type) were placed in it. Observations were made for the time taken to cause paralysis and death of the individual worms. Meantime for the paralysis (P) in min was noted when no movement of any sort could be observed, except when the worm was shaken vigorously; time of death (D) in min was recorded after ascertaining the worms neither moved when shaken vigorously nor when dipped in warm water (50°C). Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was included as reference compounds. Results: Quercetin not only demonstrated paralysis but also caused the death of worms, especially at a higher concentration of 30 mg/ml in a shorter time as compared to reference drug piperazine citrate. Conclusion: In the present study, quercetin in its pure form was investigated for its anthelmintic activity against P. posthuma. Various concentrations were used in the bioassay, which involved paralysis and death time of the worms. The phytoconstituent showed significant anthelmintic activity.