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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).



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Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00003973
Title: Study on the incidence and prevalence of oral manifestations in anemic patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The main aim of this study is to find the clinical manifestations in varied hemoglobin (Hb) level in anemia and to find the varied oral manifestations in patients with anemia. Decrease in the Hb concentration of the blood below the normal range (normal Hb levels: male - 13.5–17g/dl; female - 12–15g/dl) is known as anemia, and thereby, this study is conducted on people with pre-existing anemia. The various oral manifestations in anemic patients were examined to establish the influence and relationship between the decrease of Hb value and the different oral manifestations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00003325
Title: Development and validation of a sensitive RP-HPLC method for quantitative determination of imatinib mesylate in complex dosage forms like drug eluting coronary stents
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Browns College of Pharmacy, Khammam, Telangana, India
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Aim: The present study is aimed to develop and validate an accurate, precise, and simple reversed-phase–high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the estimation of imatinib mesylate (IM) released from the IM-coated stents. Materials and Methods: Different chromatographic conditions were tried for IM separation in the placebo (uncoated stents) and validated as per ICH guidelines. The validated HPLC method is applied to measure IM released from IM-coated stents. Results: The chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.e., 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-glacial acetic acid (65:35:0.03%, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 267 nm with photodiode array detector and IM eluted at 5.02 min (retention time) with no interfering peak of excipients used for the preparation of dosage form. The method was linear over the range from 0.3 to 9 μg/mL (R2 = 0.999). The intraday and interday precision values were <2%. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.2 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The method validated according to ICH guidelines and successfully applied for quantitative analysis and release studies of complex pharmaceutical dosage form like IM-coated stent.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00003323
Title: Novel methods of wound closure - a systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medicine and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,
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Introduction: The primary goal of wound closure is the post-operative rapid closure to reduce the side effects such as bleeding time, pain, infections, cost, and management. Objective: Approximation of injured tissues after surgery is essential to restore their structure and enhance their function. Techniques and materials used for wound closure should be biocompatible, easy to apply, microbial resistance, less time-consuming, biodegradable, and inexpensive. Search Strategy: We searched PUBMED central for related topics from 2013 to July 2017. Selection Criteria: All the studies and articles that inferred the latest and most natural sources of wound closure after third molar extraction with less side effects as to conventional wound closure techniques were included. Data Collection and Analysis: All the studies included were based on the data extraction and analysis of the studies for quality and publication bias. The data collection form was customized. The primary outcome measures were on the effect of the novel techniques of wound closure on injury, infection, risk factors, and post-operative stability. Main Result: The reviews found some clinical evidence that there is a significant difference between the different novel techniques of wound closure with respect to injury, infection, risk factors, cost, and time, and post-operative stability. Conclusion: The clinical evidence in this review is adequate to state that there is an appreciable difference in the post- operative stability between the different novel techniques of wound closure but also highlights the challenges and problems which a clinician may encounter while using these various novel techniques which otherwise would not cause any problem if using the conventional suturing technique.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00003324
Title: Negative pressure irrigation system: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this review is to analyze the data of treatment outcome and cleaning and disinfection of root canals by negative pressure irrigation systems. Objectives: The objective of this review is to comparatively analyze negative pressure irrigation systems available. Background: The etiology for the most endodontic disease is microbes. Apical periodontitis is most commonly caused by infected root canals. Hence, it is necessary to mechanically and chemically remove these microorganisms during root canal treatment. Irrigation forms a vital part of root canal debridement. The apical third of the system is the most difficult area to clean as it has complex network of complex space. Syringe irrigation is the most common method used by endodontist. Negative pressure irrigation is an alternative method that helps in dissolving the most critical part of root canals. Reason: The reason is to review and regain knowledge regarding the efficacy of negative pressure irrigation in root canal treatment.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00003326
Title: Salivary biomarkers in the detection of periodontal diseases
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Periodontitis is a disease characterized by loss of connective tissue attachment and bone around the teeth in connection with the formation of periodontal pockets due to the apical migration of the junctional epithelium. Early diagnosis and treatment of progressive periodontitis are important because of the irreversible nature of this disease. Biochemical mediators in oral fluids like saliva are highly beneficial in the determination of current periodontal status. These substances known as biomarkers help in the determination of inflammatory mediator levels, as they are good indicators of inflammatory activity. This review is about the uses of biomarkers in the detection of periodontitis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00003695
Title: An overview on bioequivalence regulatory requirements of orally administered pharmaceutical products: The US-FDA guidelines and gulf cooperation council guidelines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Drug and Food Control, Ministry of Health, Kuwait
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In the generic drug approval process, one of the major requirements is the bioequivalence study. Generic drug market is expected to rise in the coming future. Specifically, the generic product should be therapeutically equivalent and interchangeable with the reference product. The present study highlights the regulatory guidelines for the conduct of bioequivalence in the US and the Gulf Cooperation Council States. The regulatory requirements of each country vary from each other. Therefore, it is challenging for the companies to develop a single drug which can be simultaneously submitted in all the countries for approval. This paper highlights the two different international guidelines of bioequivalence and how they are varying from each other. There is no international harmonization of regulatory requirements for bioequivalence; however, bioequivalence range and statistical analysis are to some extent harmonized, but there are differences in the selection of subjects, food effects, application of multiple dose study, selection of reference products, in vitro dissolution study, etc. In bioequivalence studies, the plasma concentration time curve is generally to assess the rate and extent of absorption. Selected pharmacokinetic parameters and preset acceptance limits allow the final decision on bioequivalence of the tested products. The present study includes information about important aspects of bioequivalence study design and specification guidelines of each parameter. This provides a quick and easy overview of the regulatory considerations required for bioequivalence study in those regions.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00003327
Title: Searching possibility of vaccine leads to Histophilus somni by reverse vaccinology
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Sai Biosystems Private Limited, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
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Aim: Histophilus somni responsible for H. somni disease complex need to be controlled by vaccination in ruminants and demands vaccine epitope search. Materials and Methods: Present study searched proteome of the H. somni to select best-scored antigens and their epitopes by involving bioinformatics servers such as TMHMM, LipoP, SignalP, and Phobius that able to find out cell surface proteins. Further Blast P was used to check the conserved nature of every promising antigen by searching Histophilus other species. Finally, using human leukocyte antigen Pred, T-cell epitope prediction promising epitope and its binding energy were calculated. Results: H. somni encodes 1798 proteins out of which by reverse vaccinology approach 129 promising antigens and their epitopes were successfully reported those could be screened further in vaccine research. Conclusion: H. somni pathogenicity could be controlled by the vaccination of the ruminants if one of the 129 vaccine epitopes proved to be effective as evidenced to be promising as per reverse vaccinology approach.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00003328
Title: Deciphering the enzyme coding ability in Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 17588 hypothetical proteins by bioinformatics approach
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Sai Biosystems Private Limited Plot, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
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Objective: A study investigated Pseudomonas stutzeri hypothetical proteins for their ability to encode enzymatic function when predicted by conserved domain search and protein modeling. Materials and Methods: P. stutzeri encoding >1000 hypothetical proteins were searched for enzyme conserved domain at different confidence level using CDD-BLAST, Interproscan, PFAM, and CATH database. These enzyme domain positive hypothetical proteins were determined for structural features using PS2 protein structure prediction server and further confirmed at structural level for possible enzyme function. Results and Conclusion: The study put forward 55 hypothetical proteins encodes enzyme function of which 41 proteins successfully determined for structural features which was indicated that P. stutzeri hypothetical proteins surely encode enzyme features which need to investigate further in gene expression studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00003329
Title: Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine - Search for cell surface-exposed proteins as a subunit vaccine candidate by reverse vaccinology approach
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Hislop School of Biotechnology, Civil lines, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India,
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Aim: Development of a vaccine to fight Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections is of prime concern as the pathogen has developed multiple drug resistance. In the present study, by reverse vaccinology approach, a number of cell surface-exposed proteins are reported as potential vaccine candidate. Materials and Methods: P. aeruginosa PA 38182 encoded 7279 proteins were screened as cell surface proteins using TMHMM, LipoP, PsortB, and Signal P server. 40 screened antigens were selected and screened for suitability as epitope candidates by human leukocyte antigen Pred epitope prediction server. Results: A total of 30 high score epitopes were recorded; amongst them based on binding energy calculation, protein “putative holin” epitope emerged as the most suitable candidate. Conclusion: P. aeruginosa PA 38182 encodes 30 cell surface-exposed epitopes which could be implemented in vaccine research to control P. aeruginosa infections successfully since no approved vaccine is available for them.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00003330
Title: Comparative evaluation of different composite materials on the basis of erosion
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to compare and evaluate the erosiveness of different composite materials for Class 1 restorations. Objective: The objective of the study is to find the best tooth-colored restorative material for Class 1 cavities on the basis of erosiveness. Background/Materials and Methods: The study is done to compare three composite materials on the basis of erosiveness under in vitro condition. The three materials being used are bulk fill, incremental, and flowable type of composite. These three materials will undergo stimulated environment of erosion in artificial saliva, the extent of wear of each restorative material will then be determined by radiographic methods. Results: The results obtained through this study state that conventional composite had the least amount of erosion, followed by bulk fill composite. Whereas the flowable composite had the most amount of erosion. Reason: This study was done to know the best suited composite material on the basis of erosiveness.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00003572
Title: Screening of keratinophilic fungi keeping potential to degrade feather keratin isolated from Balaghat region
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Sai Biosystems Private Limited, Raghuji Nagar, Nagpur, India
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Background: Ability of fungi to degrade chicken feather keratin by producing keratinase and species genetic identification was carried out. Aim: Soil harboring keratinase producing fungi has confirmed by baiting method. Results and Discussion: Study identified three Aspergillus species named as Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus oryzae capable of degrading chicken feather keratin successfully when isolated from particular soil of Balaghat region. Conclusion: Soil of Balaghat showcased prominence of Aspergillus species able to degrade keratin waste profoundly with the help of keratinase enzyme as evident in the present study

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-HM-00003879
Title: Physicochemical properties of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit oil and its formulations exhibiting mosquito repellent activities
Category: Herbal medicine
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Sciences, Medicinal Plant Research Institute, Public Health Ministry, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand
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Aim: The aim of this study is to develop potential herbal formulations exhibiting mosquito repellent activities. Mosquito-Related diseases are one of the important public health problems in Thailand, especially Aedes spp., causing Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viral infection. One method to protect mosquito-bite is using herbal products which are safe, cheap, and available in local areas. Materials and Methods: Wild spikenard, or Maeng-Lak-Kha, in Thai, has the scientific name as Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit., belonging to Family Lamiaceae. This plant is a rigid, sweaty aromatic herb up to 30–150 cm in height and distributed almost every region of Thailand. In Thai folklores, it was used as a poultice for antispasmodic, antiepileptic, carminative, antibacterial, diaphoretic, lactogogue, and insect-repellant. Since it has not been reported for the mosquito repellent activity of wild spikenard oil in Thailand; therefore, it is interesting to study its composition and to develop the formulations. The oil was prepared from the fresh aerial parts of wild spikenard by hydro-distillation. The description, solubility, and identification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography were studied. After that, the formulations of the oil extracts were developed and tested for mosquito-repellent activity in the laboratory. Results: It was found that the mixtures of five essential oils in the lotions increased the mosquito-repellent activity about 7 times against Aedes aegypti, compared with the spraying solutions. In addition, the mixture of wild spikenard/may change/clove/lavender/eucalyptus oil was more active against A. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus than the other one using lemongrass oil about 0.5 and 1.5 times, respectively. The most active one was further tested using the semi-field evaluation against A. aegypti. As a result, the average repellency was shown at 93.9% in 2 h. Conclusions: The mosquito repellent activities of wild spikenard oil were synergistic with other essential oils. The investigation of these formulations will be further developed to potentiate the activities in a field test to prolong time for mosquito-bite protection.