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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004931
Title: Experience of ragging among dental students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Students experience abuse, bullying, and harassment at educational institutions as a regular phenomenon, it is faced not only by dental students but also other health-care professionals. Ragging is one kind of teasing which is done by seniors to junior. It occurs mostly in the college. Ragging indulges the student in trouble. It involves abusing and harassing the newcomer of the college. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the perception about ragging among dental undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 1st year dental students of 2018 batch of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India. A self-administered questionnaire which assessed perceptions regarding ragging among dental students was the tool of data collection. Results: Most of the male (97%) and female (95%) participants did not experience ragging. About 45% of males and 58% of females responded in case of complaining about ragging, they will approach the dean, 30% of males and 20% of females responded in case of complaining about ragging, they will approach the Anti-Ragging Committee. Conclusion: Overall, awareness of ragging is not adequate. A prior education of students is utmost necessary. The provision of prior support for students may help to reduce anxiety among newcomers. There is a need to develop awareness among these students about various aspects of ragging and legal action against it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004874
Title: Efficacy of ibuprofen gel phonophoresis on shoulder dysfunction postmastectomy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy for Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
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Background: Postmastectomy pain can be severe enough to cause long-term disabilities and interfere with sleep, the performance of daily activities, including the use of the affected arm and leading to shoulder frozen shoulder. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the efficiency of ibuprofen gel versus phonophoresis on shoulder dysfunction postmastectomy. Patients and Methods: A randomized, controlled study with the pretest-posttest design was performed; 50 patients were 3–6 months to postmastectomy and aged 40–55 years (at the time of surgery). Patients were randomly as- signed into two groups: Group A underwent ibuprofen gel phonophoresis and Group B was treated with conventional therapy and topical application of ibuprofen gel. All treatment interventions were applied at a frequency of three sessions per week for 8 weeks. The participants were recruited from the National Cancer Institute in Cairo to be treated in the outpatient clinic, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, at the period between December 2018 and October 2019. Results: Outcome measures were taken with Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) that was developed to evaluate the shoulder pain and disability and shoulder range of motion (ROM): Active ROM of shoulder flexion, abduction, and external and internal rota- tion was measured by a digital goniometer, before the treatment, and 8 weeks after the intervention. The comparison among the two groups revealed that there was a significant decrease in pain, disability, and total percentage of SPADI of Group A compared with that of Group B (P > 0.001); also, there was a significant increase in shoulder ROM of Group A compared with that of Group B (P > 0.001). Conclusions: It was concluded that ibuprofen gel phonophoresis has greater efficacy than conventional therapy in the rehabilitation of patients with shoulder dysfunction postmastectomy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004877
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness regarding needlestick injury among dental practitioners in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the understanding regarding the needlestick injury among dental practitioners. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of needlestick injury among dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on a questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called SurveyMonkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental practitioners in Chennai participated in the study. Results: As an overall result, most of the participants are not aware of needlestick injuries and its danger in dentistry. Participants had a lack of knowledge about this injury. Conclusion: As a conclusion, the awareness of needlestick injury has to be improved among dentists. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them aware and be highly caution with needlestick injury.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004878
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice on biomedical waste management among dental students in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In dentistry, the biomedical wastes (BMWs) are produced from plastic, mercury, glass, latex, cotton, amalgam waste, X-ray processing solutions, chemicals, lead foils, disinfectants, dental casts, and impressions, waste sharps such as surgical needles, blades, extracted teeth, human tissues, discarded, expired medicines, and dental materials. These materials are known as pose high-risk wastes because they are contaminated with saliva and blood which have disease spreading microbes. Aim: The aim of the stud was to determine the understanding regarding BMW management among dental students. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of BMW management among dental students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on a questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called SurveyMonkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students (3rd year, 4th year, and interns) who currently pursuing in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai participated in the study. Results: As an overall result, most of the participants are not aware of BMW management and its usage in dentistry. Participants had a lack of knowledge about BMW management. Conclusion: As a conclusion, the awareness of BMW management has to be improved, aiming the budding dentists. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them be wise in this topic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004879
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of forensic odontology among dental students in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the understanding of forensic odontology among dental students. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of forensic odontology among dental students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called SurveyMonkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students in Chennai participated in the study. Results: As an overall result, most of the participants are not aware of forensic odontology and its benefits in dentistry. Participants had lack of knowledge and awareness of this field. Conclusion: As a conclusion, the awareness of forensic odontology has to be improved among the dentists. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them aware and be highly knowledgeable in forensic odontology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004880
Title: Mechanism and physiological effects of acupuncture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Acupuncture is an ancient traditional Chinese medicine which is based on traditional theories and concepts. Several attempts have been made to figure out the mechanism of acupuncture, and literature reveals that there are many aspects from which acupuncture mechanism can be viewed upon. Aim: This review aims to compile the theories and concepts on mechanism of acupuncture from various concepts.Conclusion: This article throws light on different views on mechanism of acupuncture, explaining the “miracle cure” by acupuncture needles based on traditional facts (namely the five-element mechanism) based on biophoton emission and Bonghan channels

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004881
Title: Beta-carotene – A versatile antioxidant in oral cancer: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to understand the significance of beta-carotene as an antioxidant in oral cancer. Objective: The objective of the study was to summarize the importance beta-carotene in oral cancer. Background: Carcinogenesis being a multistep process offers unique opportunity for its prevention. Beta-carotene and retinoids are one of the most promising agents against cancers. Fruits and vegetable phytochemical extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Beta-carotene is found abundantly in fruits and vegetables and can be consumed every day due to its ease of availability. It is available as capsules and tablets. It plays a major role in preventing common cancers such as breast cancer, oral cancer, colorectal cancer, and cervical cancer. It can affect carcinogenesis in early stages through antigenotoxic action. From a clinical point of view, beta-carotene serves as an ideal agent to be used in chemoprevention. 5–10 servings of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables daily are an appropriate strategy for significantly reducing the risk of chronic diseases and to meet their nutrient requirements for optimum health. Beta-carotene is used to prevent oral leukoplakia substantially due to its lack of toxicity. It prevents cellular damage by slowing down the oxidative stress induced by free radicals produced by the oxidizing agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004917
Title: Awareness of various types of retrograde filling material among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 6
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Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of various types of retrograde filling material among dental students. Background: Apical surgery is considered a standard oral surgical procedure. It is often a last resort to surgically maintain a tooth with a periapical lesion that cannot be managed with conventional endodontic retreatment. The main goal of apical surgery is to prevent bacterial leakage from the root canal system into the periradicular tissues by placing a tight root-end filling following root-end resection. Periradicular surgery involves the placement of a root-end filling following root-end resection, to provide an apical seal to the root canal system. Historically, several materials have been used to achieve this seal. Hence, this study is done to assess the knowledge of dental students on various root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was self-formulated and was delivered by hand and collected on completion. The medium of answering the questionnaire was English. All the responses were kept anonymous. The questionnaire contained 15 questions which were framed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice on denture magnets among dental practitioners. The questions were related to the types of root-end filling materials, advantages, disadvantages, etc. One hundred students were randomly selected to complete the questionnaire. The responses to each of the questions were entered into the Microsoft Excel sheet and summarized through the pie chart. Results: About 73% of the students were aware of the retrograde filling materials used in dentistry and 27% were unaware. About 45% of the students were aware of biodentine which is a recent advance in root-end filling materials, but majority of them were unaware of bioceramics. About 77% of the students were unaware of the different brands of composite resin used as retrograde filling materials. Conclusion: This survey shows that the dental students have a fairly rough knowledge about various types of root-end filling materials used. Yet some of them were unaware of the recent advances in retrograde filling materials such as bioceramics and biodentine, and only a very few were aware of the brands of composite resins used as retrograde filling material. Most of them had good knowledge regarding the ideal properties of root-end filling material, but they did not have enough knowledge about the individual properties of various root-end filling materials.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004921
Title: A questionnaire-based survey on post-insertion complications and gag reflex in complete dentures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Gagging is a normal protective reflex designed to protect the airway and remove irritant material from the posterior oropharynx and upper gastrointestinal tract. Gagging is one of the complications faced by the dentist and the patient during a dental procedure. It can be due to physiological or psychological factors. The stimulation of the gagging reflex, or more accurately, the vomiting reflex, is a special problem in prosthodontic service. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional investigation was conducted at Saveetha Dental College. The patients underwent prosthodontic treatment such as complete denture experiences gag reflex and the questionnaire was distributed among students as they notice the patient complaints after post-insertion of complete denture. The sample of the study was conducted among 100 students. A self-structured questionnaire pre-tested was designed to verify the prevalence of gag reflex. The questionnaire was asked about the severity of the gag reflex, history of any medically compromised condition, ill-fitting denture, burning sensation, and systemic disorder related to gag reflex. The severity of gag reflex problem for each study subject depends on patients own remark. Results: About 71% were found that patient is with the problem of gag reflex whereas 29% did not have any gag reflex, 60% were medically compromised patients, and 40% were not medically compromised, 55% complaints of burning sensation due to complete denture wear and 45% does not have any burning sensation due to complete denture, 64% has ill fitting of denture whereas 36% do not have ill fitting of the denture. About 63% of complaints of overextended denture and 37% do not have any overextension of denture. About 65% of agrees with gag reflex is associated with systemic disorders whereas 35% says no as they do not have any relation between systemic disorders with a gag reflex. Conclusion: Gag reflex can be the most common problem encountered during prosthodontics treatment and its being annoying for complete denture wearers. Treating the patient according to their own remark on gagging would make their wear of prosthesis would be comfortable.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004922
Title: Anatomy of the incisive canal in the Indian subjects
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: The nasopalatine canal (NPC), also known as the incisive canal or anterior palatine canal, is a long slender passage present in the midline of the anterior maxilla that connects the palate to the floor of the nasal cavity. The canal continues in the oral cavity as a single incisive foramen posterior to the central incisor teeth and in the nasal cavity as the foramina of Stenson, which are usually two in number. The nasopalatine duct cyst occurs in the NPC or incisive canal, and it may be difficult to decide on a radiograph whether radiolucency in that area is a cyst or a large incisive foramen. Aim: This study aims to estimate the anatomical morphology of incisive canal in the Indian subjects. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 human skulls are taken for the estimation from the department of anatomy to calculate the morphology, anteroposterior, and mesiodistal dimensions. Results: The predominant morphology of the incisive canal in Indian subjects was ellipsoid, oblong, and pear shaped: Ellipsoid – 27 subjects, oblong – 12 subjects, and pear – 11 subjects. The average location of the incisive canal from the posterior nasal spine was 46.9, anterior nasal spine was 8.2 mm, the anterior-posterior dimension of the canal was 8.2 ± 2.07 mm, and mesiodistal dimension was 4.6 ± 2.4 mm. Conclusion: The present study highlighted important variability observed in the anatomy and morphology of the incisive canal.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004923
Title: Awareness about dental trauma management among parents
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: One of the most important oral health problems is dental trauma which causes pain and distress. It can be a minor enamel chip to extensive maxillofacial damage involving the supporting structures and displacement or avulsion of teeth. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the awareness of parents concerning the management of traumatic tooth. Materials and Methods: The study was carried in parent in the age group of 25–45 years old. Both male and female parents were taken in study. About 100 parents were taken in this survey. The questionnaire is taken to both the illiterate and literate parents. About 15 questions were asked to parents. All questions in the questionnaire were close ended. To help the respondents make quick decision, they were given alternative choices, which resemble real situation with dental trauma. All returned questionnaires were coded and analyzed. Results: Majority of parents about 80% have said that they do not have any knowledge about the trauma management. About 10% of parents said that they have knowledge about dental trauma management. Moreover, the source of knowledge was internet. Conclusion: From this study, it is understood that parents have very low knowledge about the management of dental trauma. Only few parents have sound knowledge about dental trauma management. The awareness programs and camp should be conducted to provide knowledge to the parents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004924
Title: Awareness of impression procedures in implant dentistry among dental interns and clinicians
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The replacement of missing teeth is an increasing concern among the population due to functional and esthetic reasons. Along with the increase in demand for replacement, the need for fixed and permanent replacement is also increasing widely. The use of implants is increasing among the population due to its long term and fixed properties in spite of its high price. Aim: The purpose of this survey was to determine the awareness of various impression techniques used in implant dentistry among the dental interns and practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted among 100 dental interns and practitioners among the South Indian population. A set of 10 questions was created and the questionnaire was distributed. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding the awareness of impression techniques used in implant dentistry. The information was collected from the clinicians and recorded. A comparison of the answers from the collected data was made. Results: There was found to be an awareness of 100% in the impression techniques. However, the awareness of splinting and non-splinting techniques was less (80%) when compared to the open and closed tray techniques (100%). The reason could be the limited use of these practically among the dental interns and a use of these clinically would bring about a full awareness of these techniques as well. Conclusion: A positive response is seen on the basic impression techniques that include open and closed tray techniques, whereas the impressions taken on a multiple implant case with some modifications are yet to be more familiarized. As regards, short hands-on courses can help in teaching the shortcomings of impression techniques for various cases and hence to increase the knowledge on these topics of implant dentistry which is flourishing in the present day.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004925
Title: Awareness of osteoporosis among post-menopausal women in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to study the awareness of osteoporosis among post-menopausal women in Chennai. Background: Osteoporosis is a health condition that weakens bones, making them fragile and more likely to break. It develops slowly over several years and is often only diagnosed when a fall or sudden impact causes a bone to fracture. Women also lose bone rapidly in the first few years after menopause. Women are more at risk of osteoporosis than men, particularly if the menopause begins early before the age of 45 or they have had their ovaries removed. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire (Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale) based study was conducted among 50 post-menopausal women who volunteered were taken for the study. Moreover, the corresponding data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: It is evident from the study that the awareness of osteoporosis among post-menopausal women is very low. About 67% of them never heard of osteoporosis before and 33% of the population had already heard of osteoporosis. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is a common disease among women especially post- menopausal women. However, the awareness of osteoporosis among women population is very low; hence, there is an immediate need to create awareness of osteoporosis among women.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004926
Title: Awareness among dental students about hepatitis B infection – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 6
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Hepatitis B is the most serious type of viral hepatitis. The hepatitis B viral transmission occurs in the dental setting mainly due to the improper use of the safety measure by the dentists. This review is to evaluate the hepatitis B infection-related awareness among the dental students. There is a need for improving the knowledge among the students regarding the spread of the infection through the saliva contact. The most serious complication of hepatitis is fulminant hepatitis, and it can also cause hepatocellular carcinoma. The awareness and importance regarding the hepatitis B vaccination are reviewed under this topic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004927
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental practitioners on management strategies of pediatric fracture – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Fractures in children are an important public health issue and a frequent cause of emergency room visits. The purpose of this descriptive epidemiological study was to identify the most frequent pediatric fractures. Fractures are extremely common in the pediatric age group, representing a major public health problem. The lifetime risk of sustaining a fracture in childhood is approximately 42–64% in boys and 27–40% in girls, with remarkable variation in the estimates worldwide. Even though several genetic, endocrine, or systemic illnesses that affect bone metabolism may cause fractures, the majority of children with fractures are otherwise healthy. Several factors have been analyzed for their role in determining fracture risk. Aim: The aim is to analyze about the awareness among dental practitioners on management strategies of pediatric fracture. Objective: This survey is done to analyze the awareness among dental practitioners on management strategies of pediatric fracture. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was initiated from a randomly chosen population of 100 dental practitioners. A simple random sampling technique was used to identify the samples. Informed consent was obtained from the participants, and confidentiality of the records was ensured. The survey was conducted using paper and pen method. The survey instrument used was a pretested questionnaire comprising of ten questions eliciting responses pertaining to the awareness among dental practitioners on management strategies of pediatric fracture. Results: In this survey, 100% of the dental practitioners are aware of pediatric fracture. About 60% of dental practitioners say that pediatric fracture is rare. About 70% of the dental practitioners say incomplete fracture is common among dental practitioners. Only 20% of dental practitioners are aware of the clinical and radiographic features of pediatric fracture. Only 27% of dental practitioners are aware of Salter-Harris fracture classification. Only 22% of the dental practitioners are aware of management strategies of pediatric fracture. About 11% of dental practitioners say that closed reduction would be the treatment of choice for pediatric fracture management. Only 3% of the dental practitioners are aware of prefabricated acrylic splints in the management of pediatric fractures. Only 3% of dental practitioners are aware of the advantages of prefabricated acrylic splints. Only 11% of dental practitioners are aware of the advantages of closed reduction compared to an open reduction in the management of pediatric fracture. Conclusion: In this survey, the awareness among dental practitioners on management strategies of pediatric fracture is not sufficient. Hence, it can be improved by attending more conferences related to it and reading more articles relevant to pediatric fractures and its management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004928
Title: Knowledge on various types of orthodontic treatment among general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Orthodontic braces are a fixed appliance used in orthodontics to correct the alignment of teeth. There are various types of orthodontic braces available in the market, namely, self-ligating braces, ceramic braces, traditional braces, Invisalign braces, and lingual braces. Even though there are various types of braces, knowledge about these braces are still questionable. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness of various types of orthodontic treatment among the general population. Materials and Methods: The population chosen was the patients visiting Saveetha Dental College. The questionnaires were distributed to a total of 100 participants. The population chosen was between 18 and 30 years, as above 30 years, their need and perception of orthodontic treatment may vary. We have included a total of 21 questions in a survey, in which the first six questions were to evaluate the basic awareness of general, orthodontic treatment. The next set of ten questions was used to evaluate the knowledge of various types of orthodontic appliances, and the last five questions were the pictorial representation based on the various types of orthodontic appliances which were used to evaluate the subjects perception toward esthetics and comfort. Results: Most of the subjects felt that orthodontic treatment would improve aesthetics. About 18% of the population felt the treatment would improve chewing efficiency. Moreover, 11% of the population felt the treatment would improve speech. However, the majority of the subjects were not aware of the benefits that can be achieved with orthodontic braces. Conclusion: Even though the knowledge about conventional orthodontic treatment was present among most of the general population, the awareness about contemporary appliances such as the clear aligners, self-ligating brackets, and lingual appliances was considerably less. We feel that more awareness measures need to be taken up to enlighten our patients regarding the recently trending appliances.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004929
Title: Knowledge on partially edentulous condition among transgenders in Chennai city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Partial edentulism is a condition where one or more teeth are missing but never all. The consequences of not replacing missing tooth/teeth include supra eruption of the opposing tooth/teeth, mesial drifting of adjacent tooth/ teeth, inability to talk properly, changes in facial features, and sinus expansion which lead to chronic headache finally temporomandibular disorders. Studies strongly suggest that dental caries and periodontal diseases were the major causes of tooth loss in early childhood and adolescence. Transgender community does not bother about their oral health because of their lower socioeconomic status and negligence in society. Hence, this study aims at creating awareness among the transgender to avoid the above consequences. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey had been designed and was used for the study. The descriptive survey was conducted for 96 transgenders who were about 30–50 years old. Results were entered into Microsoft Excel SPSS version 20, and analyzed. Results: Most of the transgender aware of the partial edentulism state while 47% were not aware of the partial edentulism state. This implies that transgender has a good knowledge about partial edentulism. About 65% of transgender communities were aware of the treatments of partial edentulism while 35% were not that much aware of the treatments for the condition. Conclusion: The knowledge on awareness of partial edentulous condition is good but the practice and the attitude toward the replacement of missing teeth/tooth is relatively considered to be poor.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004930
Title: Knowledge of oral hygiene measures in patient with dental implants
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The purpose of a prosthodontic treatment is to replace a certain number of lost or damaged teeth to achieve a functional and esthetic rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system. Tooth decay, gingival inflammation, and periodontal disease are quoted as the most common biological complications of fixed prosthodontic appliances. It is well known that these conditions are caused by bacteria settled in the dentogingival plaque accumulated due to insufficient oral hygiene in patient with fixed prosthodontics appliances. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of oral hygiene measures in patient with dental implants. Materials and Methods: In this study, patients rehabilitated with dental implants visiting and rehabilitated in Saveetha Dental College were taken in the study, about 50 patients were taken in this study, the age group from 20 to 50 years was taken in the study. Both males and females were included in the study. The questionnaire was framed on the basis of assessing the awareness about hygiene maintenance for their implants. About 10 questions were asked to the patients who had rehabilitated with dental implants. The questionnaire involves brushing technique, types of brushes used for implants, does the patients were using mouthwash and floss for maintenance of implants, and also patients were asked about whether they were using any special aid for implants. Results: About 80% of patients said that they are aware of oral hygiene measures needed for implants, and mostly, they got awareness through their dentist; likewise, 10% of patients were not aware of the need of hygiene measure in maintaining the dental implants. They also said that implants required only the common measures taken for oral health maintenance. Conclusion: The group of patients taken in the study has low awareness of dental implant hygiene maintenance and consequences. The knowledge of the maintenance of dental implant in patients is insufficient. The same conclusion can be drawn regarding the application of this knowledge.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004932
Title: Awareness of blood donation among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Human blood is an essential element of human life and there are no substitutes to blood as yet. Thus safety and availability of blood and blood products is an important issue of concern. Blood can save millions of life. The requirement of blood and blood products in a country depends on the population, health-care structure, prevalence of conditions requiring regular transfusions, such as hemophilia and thalassemia; however, the problem regarding a permanent shortage of blood is observed in blood services all over the world. Volunteer blood donors account for less than half of the blood supply in developing countries; and few countries have mobilized efforts to encourage voluntary blood donation. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and blood donation practices among college students. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 male students participated in this study. The questionnaire used in this study had a total of 20 questions, of which 17 assessed knowledge about blood donation, two assessed the practice of blood donation, one assessed the attitude based on blood. The responses were collected and analyzed. Results: Majority of students were aware of their blood group, but 80% of the students did not have much idea about the volume of blood that can be donated. Many people were aware of suitable age for blood donation (60%). Percentage of people who were unaware of normal blood pressure is 56%, minimum hemoglobin level was 50% and common diseases transmitted through blood transfusion were 78%. Least number of people was aware of how often can an individual donate blood (40%) and amount of blood collected during blood donation process. Majority of students were unaware of the contraindications of blood donation. This shows the poor knowledge on blood donation. About 74% of students have not donated blood and 82% of students were ready to encourage relatives to donate blood. Conclusion: This study shows a lack of knowledge about blood donation among college students; therefore, knowledge and awareness of blood donation has to be imparted.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004934
Title: Exercise pattern among undergraduate dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Exercise is an activity that improves or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. Physical exercise promotes health in a variety of physiological and psychological ways in both adolescents and adults. There are various factors that affect the exercise habits of college students. Some of these factors include sleep habits, diet, social life, homework, and other extracurricular activities. Aim: This study aims to determine the exercise pattern among undergraduate (UG) dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was administered through an online survey and spread among 100 UG dental students to determine the exercising pattern among the students and thereby to understand the various factors that affect the exercise habits of the UG dental students. Results: On the basis of the results obtained, it was found that majority of the UG dental students do not exercise regularly. Only 10–20% of the selected population have a regular exercising habit. Conclusion: Although college students are aware of some of these influencing agents, they do not always take the necessary steps to change their habits. The present study suggests that establishing exercise skill and habit should be listed as one of the core educational goals for students in university.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004935
Title: A survey on knowledge, attitude, and perception of antibiotic resistance and usage among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Prescribing antibiotics by dental practitioners have become an important aspect of the daily dental practice. Dentists have been reported to prescribe 10% of all common antibiotics. Antibiotics are often prescribed for shorter durations as a substitute of definitive treatment in case of odontogenic infections. The use of antibiotics for all endodontic infections has been deemed unnecessary and application of alternative treatment option has been suggested. Most patients either overuse the medication, do not complete the full course, self-medicate, or purchase over-the-counter drugs by supplying a previous prescription. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and perception of antibiotic resistance and usage among undergraduate dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was distributed among 200 undergraduate dental students belong to the third year, final year, and internship in Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: Knowledge about antibiotic resistance and their pattern of prescription, awareness about usage, and perception about cause and management of this issue. The questionnaire contained 17 questions of both multiple-choice and closed-ended questions. Some questions also allowed multiple answers. Data were collected and statistical analysis was done to obtain the survey results. Results: Twenty-four students (62%) reported that excessive antibiotic usage leads to resistance. One hundred and sixty students (80%) prescribe antibiotics on a daily basis with amoxicillin (95%) being the most commonly prescribed drug. Majority of the students 66% (n = 132) prescribed antibiotics for an average of 3 days. More than 90% of students reported that rational use of antibiotics and avoiding self-medication can help curb this issue. Conclusion: This survey was able to assess the knowledge, attitude, and perception of undergraduate students toward antibiotic resistance and provided an overview of this topic. Most undergraduate dental students are aware of the prevailing concern over antibiotic resistance, but there is a need to set guidelines and spread awareness among the public as well.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00004936
Title: Faculty perception on the use of iPads in teaching dental topics
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nad
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Introduction: In many states across India and even different countries, people consider iPad as a source of learning tool. As per the total population across the world, it has been proved that the use of iPads is more among primary and secondary school students. Since iPads are compact, they can be used as high-end device for learning needs of students. Aim: This study is to know about the faculty perception on the use of iPads in teaching dental topics. Materials and Methods: A survey is employed by preparing a questionnaire comprising 13 questions focused on the use of iPads in teaching profession. The questions were addressed by the target population of this study, the dental teaching faculty in survey planet, which was used as an online tool to answer and submit the questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed. Results: The survey results reveal that the respondents have differences in their opinions in using iPads as a teaching aid or tool. Conclusion: This survey shows different opinions regarding the use of iPads among different participants due to various reasons like perception of the skill required and disadvantages like students distraction during study time. This survey gives an insight into the student’s attitude in using iPads as their learning tool.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004937
Title: Failures in fixed partial denture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Rehabilitation performed with a fixed partial denture (FPD) is one of the most accepted and desired by patients. However, it is a long procedure and generates high expectations from the patient. Once the professional knows the factors that create dissatisfaction or contribute to failures, the dentist could minimize them and thus meet that all the patient’s need and establish the most appropriate planning. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of failures/ clinical complications of the prosthesis after 1 year. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients were included in the study. Clinical and radiographic evaluations of the prosthesis were performed. Data were tabulated and patients with failure in prosthesis were calculated in percentage. Results: A total of six patients had failures out of 30 patients examined. In same patients who had clinical failures, they also had failures in the radiographic examination. About 20% of patients examined had failures in FPD after 6 months of insertion. Altogether, five clinical failures were observed and the most common was dental caries in two cases (6.6%), followed by gingival recession in one case (3.3%), the presence of pocket (3.3%), and one case of cementation failure (3.3%). Radiographic examination showed that from the total number evaluated, five patients (16.6%) had some kind of failure. Conclusion: Patients were satisfied after the observation period of 6 months 1 year. The main failures detected were: Crown cementation failure and ceramic fracture; gingival recession and periodontal pocket; and manufacture and cementation of short intraradicular post with increased diameter and crown cervical misfit.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004938
Title: Awareness about pulpoperiodontal lesions among dental students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 6
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Introduction: Infections can be transmitted from the pulp to the periodontium and vice versa. When the pulp tissue is healthy or vital, the chances for a bacterial invasion and subsequent periodontal breakdown are negligible. When there is a necrotic pulp with a periodontal breakdown, it occurs due to the Gram-negative bacteria colonizing the necrotic pulp. In case of multirooted teeth, when there is a vital pulp in one canal and necrotic pulp in another, there still exists a periodontal breakdown. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the awareness of the treatment of pulpoperiodontal lesions among the undergraduate dental students. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire-based survey. The questions were framed based on the following: Types of pulpoperiodontal lesions, diagnosis of these lesions, and the management of these lesions. The participants were undergraduate students of a city-based dental college. The printed versions of the questionnaires were distributed to the participants of this study and the responses were collected. There were a total of 500 participants in this study who all were volunteers. The results were collected and statistical analysis was done. Results: More than 55% of the respondents were aware of all these pathways of communication. About 80% of the respondents were aware of all these pathways Simon’s classification of endo-perio lesions. Only 20% of the participants were aware of the most common bacteria associated with endo-perio lesion. Conclusion: The survey reveals that many students are not aware of the bacterial source of infection in pulpoperiodontal lesions. There also exists a lack of clarity in the sequence of treatment for different lesions. Hence, further awareness must be created in this regard.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004939
Title: Awareness of age estimation using teeth among dental practitioners and students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Age is an important factor for all the human beings whether it is living or dead. It is useful for day-to-day life works such as educational purpose, governmental purpose, job purpose, medical purpose, crime investigation, court of law, clinical practices, research, and reconstructive identification purpose in case of dead individuals. Of many procedures for age estimation such as chronological age, bone age, mental age, and others, dental age estimation is considered to be an important procedure as tooth development shows less inconstancy than other developmental features or in relation to chronological age and also teeth are most tough and resilient part of the skeleton. High survivability of teeth exposed to severe physical factors, such as fire and water immersion, makes assessment of developing teeth the method of choice in forensic age estimation. Aim: This study aims to assess the level of the awareness of age estimation techniques using teeth among dental practitioners and students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective population survey was conducted among dental practitioners were assessed in dental colleges, Chennai. The questionnaire was designed and adapted to suit the local context. A self-administered, structured questionnaire written in English and validated through a pilot survey included 15 closed-ended questions on knowledge, awareness, and practice of age estimation using teeth among dental students and practitioners. The survey was conducted among dental practitioners (n = 100) – convenient sample size selected with reference to the previous studies. They were visited by a single investigator or by requesting them to attend online survey link, and all available and willing participants were given the questionnaire on the day of the visit. The responses were analyzed and evaluated. Results: This study conducted among dental practitioners (n = 100) regarding their awareness about age estimation using teeth, revealed general lack of knowledge, poor attitude, and lack of practice prevailing among this sample size, but their interest to enrich their knowledge is never fading. Conclusion: These studies have revealed that it is important to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. It is also important in India as more and more child and adolescent abuse cases being reported. Their accurate age estimation becomes forensic odontologist prerogative. This can be applied in various conditions of Indian judiciary till Indian population, special studies are developed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004940
Title: Awareness about various types of root canal sealers among dental students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tami Nadu, India
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Introduction: Root canal sealer is necessary to seal the space between the dentinal wall and the obturating core interface, fill the voids and irregularities in the root canal, and lateral and accessory canals and provide a fluid impervious seal. Aim: he aim of this study was to assess the awareness of various types of root canal sealers among dental students. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire consisted of questions with multiple responses for each question. The participants were undergraduate students of a city-based dental college. The printed versions of the questionnaires were distributed to the participants of this study and the responses were collected. There were a total of 500 participants in this study who all were volunteers. The results were collected and statistical analysis was done. Results: More than 95% of our participants were aware of the use of root canal sealers. Zinc oxide eugenol and calcium hydroxide-based sealers were chosen as most commonly used by the participants. Conclusion: The awareness of the use of sealers is high among the participant group. Still, further awareness must be created about the properties of individual sealers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004941
Title: Emerging techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of oral candidiasis – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 6
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Oral candidiasis is a fungal infection caused mostly by the species Candida albicans along with other causative agents such as Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The three main groups of candidiasis are acute, chronic, and angular. The treatment involves antifungal drugs such as nystatin, miconazole, and amphotericin B. The recent advances in elucidating the interaction between the candida organism and the environment are cellular and molecular mechanism. Polymerase chain reaction analysis, recombinant antigen technique, and candida biofilm communication have found the existence of oral candidiasis. Traditional and innovative treatment modes are done to manage oral candidiasis. This review is done to learn about the advanced and emerging technique in the diagnosis and treatment of oral diagnosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004942
Title: Knowledge of drug prescription among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The act of indicating one or more drugs to be taken by the patient, its dosage, and the interval of the treatment is known as prescribing. It is a dynamic and individualized clinical process. Cultural, social, economic, and promotional factors can influence the pattern of prescription. Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are in influenced by a variety of factors. Aim: This study aimed to find knowledge of drug prescription among dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective population survey was conducted among final year dental student was assessed, in a Private Dental College, Chennai. The questionnaire was designed and adapted to suit the local context. A self-administered, structured questionnaire written in English and validated through a pilot survey included ten close-ended questions on knowledge, awareness, and practice of drug prescription among final year dental students. A total of 100 students were included in the study. The following factors were assessed: The most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization (WHO) Guide to Good Prescribing. The survey was conducted with a convenient sample size selected with reference to the previous studies. Students were visited by a single investigator or by requesting them to attend online survey link, and all available and willing participants were given the questionnaire on the day of the visit. The responses were analyzed and evaluated. Result: Majority of students have the habit of prescribing paracetamol, followed by Ibuprofen. Amoxicillin was the common brand prescribed. Eighty percentages of students were unknown with the WHO guidelines while 58% of the students know for how long the drug had to be given and 88% of the students know about the route of drug administration. Conclusion: This study shows that the level of knowledge of drug prescription among the dental students is moderate. The knowledge of pharmacology among 4th -year students in the dental college has gaps that could affect patient safety. More studies are needed to determine whether this issue affects the quality of patient care and the effectiveness and safety of treatments. Since prescribing accurately is extremely important, it is necessary to develop therapeutic guidelines, and to provide pharmacological therapy courses. The implementation of educational programs, including the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing and Patient Safety Curriculum Guide, would be beneficial in helping students develop prescribing skills.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004945
Title: Awareness about fibroid among Indian women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Uterine fibroids are the most common benign growths which grow in the muscular wall of the uterus. They range from very tiny to larger than a cantaloupe. Occasionally, this can cause the uterus to grow to the size of 5-month pregnancy. Fibroid can occur as one or more in number. Mostly fibroid growth itself will not cause symptoms, size and location cause pain and other symptoms in women. Aim: The aim of the study is to find the awareness about fibroid among population. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study is done among women population age group falls between 18 and 60. The study is conducted to the normal women around the particular area. About 50 women were taken in this study, questions were asked before test their awareness about uterine fibroid. This study is conducted for both the educated and the illiterate women. This questionnaire involves causes, symptoms, complication, investigation, and also the treatment of the uterine fibroid. Results: About 8% of the people told that the fibroid occurs in the age below 20, and about 80% of the people told that the fibroid occurs in the age between 20 and 35, and 2% of people said that the fibroid occurs in the age above 35. Most of the people answered that the source of information is media and fewer said the neighborhood and many know about fibroid by the occurrence in their family. Almost all people think that fibroid occurs in the families. Conclusion: Adequate health education programs should be planned throughout the year and should be widely spread. The study points to the insufficient knowledge of women about uterine fibroid and negative influence of low knowledge.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005376
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and perspective of on the effects of disruption of sleep-wake cycle and the increased risk of cancer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Insufficient sleep, delayed sleep-wake behavior, and sleep disturbances are common among youth and with more time in spent front of screens; youth have less time available to sleep. Second, psychological and physiological arousal due to the content of the media and social interaction may also interfere with the ability to fall and stay asleep. Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge and attitude toward the disruption of sleep-wake cycle and the effects of the disruption of the cycle on the risk of development of cancer. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based survey was conducted with 414 individuals who are working in the IT field; it consisted of questions which addressed to the timing and the quality of sleep and assessed their knowledge and attitude toward the disruption of the cycle and the risk of cancer associated with the disruption of the sleep-wake cycle. All the received responses were tabulated and the results were represented graphically. Results: It was seen that these 57% and 69% of the individuals had no knowledge that the disruption of sleep leads to many diseases and cancers, respectively. Although this survey we were able to record the apparent lack of knowledge of the disruption of the sleep-wake cycle, neglect toward proper sleep and the apparent lack of care for appropriate sleep-wake cycles. The findings of the present study point to a need to improve the understanding of the term “insomnia” and the risk that comes with it. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest the lack of concern for proper sleep and the absence of knowledge of the ill effects of improper sleep-wake cycles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005379
Title: Pharmacological strategies in the management of endodontic pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077,
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Tissue injury and other pro-inflammatory stimuli activate phospholipases that, in turn, release arachidonic acid from cell membranes. The arachidonic acid, in turn, forms the substrate for the enzymes cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase, leading to the synthesis of the various eicosanoids. COX constitutes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of prostaglandins. Other groups of drugs, such as corticosteroids, opioids, and various other groups of drugs, proved to have a role in pain reduction. Hence, to control the release of inflammatory mediators and to alleviate the pain, various pre- and post-operative strategies were followed in endodontics. The aim of the present review is to update on current pharmacological strategies in the management of endodontic pain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005380
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental students about dosage of medical emergency drugs used in the dental office
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental students about dosage of medical emergency drugs used in the dental office. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire descriptive study was conducted, including dental students from the 4th year and interns, comprised 10 questions that were distributed and collected. The questions were about dosage of commonly used medical emergency drugs such as diazepam, adrenaline, glyceryl trinitrate, and aspirin used in the dental office and their availability. Results: A total of 200 dental students were given questionnaire of which all the students answered the questionnaire, were 148 males and 52 females. The age distribution was in between 18 and 24 years. Overall 49.9% of students answered correct dosage to the medical emergency drugs used in the dental office. Conclusion: Management of medical emergency in a dental clinic requires detailed knowledge of drug used and its dosage. The results of the present study concluded that the knowledge among dental students about the dosage of medical emergency drugs used in the dental office has to be further enhanced and thorough training in the management of medical emergency in a dental office which is essential.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005381
Title: Survival of microbes on toothbrushes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Toothbrush is the widely used personal oral hygiene aid, and hence, it must be properly stored, disinfected, and changed at periodic intervals. Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the survival of bacteria on toothbrushes, to know the persistence of the bacteria from the time of colonization, and to check the fungal growth on toothbrushes for a period of 1 week. Materials and Methods: An intro investigation was conducted involving 20 students from whom used toothbrushes were collected and the bristles of the toothbrushes were cut close to the base. To standardize, 20 bristles were cultured each time in a group on blood agar media and microbial count was checked at four different time intervals and results were analyzed using Mann–Whitney U-test and descriptive statistics. Results: The average bacterial count observed on the 1st day was 76 which increased gradually with an average of 124 on the 4th day. There was a further raise in the average bacterial count to 190 on the 5th day followed by a marginal reduction to 172 on the 7th day. The same pattern of fungal growth pattern was observed with 10% on the 1st day, 30% on the 4th day, 40% on the 5th day, and 25% on the 7th day. Conclusion: Bacteria are viable on toothbrush bristles even up to 1 week and there were environmental fungi grown in the meantime. This study highly recommends an adoption of appropriate storage practice for toothbrushes after routine daily usage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005383
Title: Antibacterial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia against Enterococcus faecalis – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The causative factor of root canal infections is primarily the microbial inhabitation, which leads to the spread of infection. The literature shows that frequent usage of antibiotics induces resistance and threatens the effectiveness of the treatment. Hence, the current issue that is faced globally is the development of resistant microbial species. To combat this interest, toward the herbal modes are increased in recent days. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial effect of the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia was investigated against Enterococcus faecalis. Agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Results: The MIC of the ethanolic extract of M. citrifolia extract was found to be 250 µg/ml, and the MBC was 400 µg/ml. Conclusion: Methanolic extract of M. citrifolia was in effective on E. faecalis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005384
Title: Effects of raw garlic (Allium sativum) along with regular treatment in hypertensive patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, PhD Scholar, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research (Deemed to be University), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. 
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Introduction: In traditional medicine, garlic has been widely used to treat various diseases which also include hypertension (HTN). However, the effect of garlic preparations on HTN in combination with modern medicine has not studied. Materials and Methods: The research design adopted for the study was quasi-experimental design and purposive sampling technique. A total of 60 HTN patients as per JNC classification Stage I and II were enrolled. First, the data collection started from the control group along with their regular treatment up to 8 weeks. After that, the experimental group (regular treatment and raw garlic administration 5 g/day at early morning up to 8 weeks) was enrolled and another 8 weeks taken for data collection. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured during the pre-test, end of the 4th and 8th weeks in both groups. Sphygmomanometer and stethoscope were used to measure the BP. Results: The study shows the effect of raw garlic on hypertensive patients. The mean value of SBP was 145 mmHg and 135 mmHg with the mean difference of 6.6 mmHg (P = 0.000***S) and the mean value of DBP value was 96 mmHg and 87 mmHg with the mean difference of 7.5 mmHg (P = 0.000***S) in the experimental group, respectively. The results show the insignificant relationship between the control and experimental groups. Conclusion: The experimental group found to be more effective than the control group in controlling BP among hypertensive patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005385
Title: Hibiscus sabdariffa (Hibiscus) extract as an alternative to hematoxylin and eosin stain in histopathology – A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Hematoxylin is the most commonly used stain in histological laboratory. It is obtained from the heart wood of logwood tree, Haematoxylon campechianum. Durability, easy differentiation, and comparative permanency make it the most popular nuclear stain. However, there is apparent world-wide shortage of hematoxylin. Most commonly used counterstain with hematoxylin is eosin. Eosin is a synthetic xanthene dye. Although it is very efficient, it is hazardous to human and animal health and to the environment. The worldwide shortage of hematoxylin and the hazardous effects of chemicals and synthetic dyes like eosin has led to the development of alternative organic and eco-friendly dyes from these natural sources. The use of these non-allergic, non-toxic, and biodegradable stains has become the need of the hour due to the increased environmental awareness. The aim of this study is to systematically review the use of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Hibiscus) extract as an alternative to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain in routine histopathology. Materials and Methods: Articles were searched in PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and a thorough GOOGLE SEARCH was also performed. Manual search of journals was also done. A total of 4 relevant articles were reviewed and analyzed, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: About 75% of the studies showed that aqueous extract from dried calyces of H. sabdariffa (Hibiscus) can be used as an alternative to hematoxylin as nuclear stain. About 25% of the studies proved that extract from H. sabdariffa (Hibiscus) cannot be used to replace hematoxylin and eosin stain in routine histopathology. Conclusion: From our review, we can infer that H. sabdariffa (Hibiscus) extract can be used as an alternative to H&E stain in routine histopathology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005386
Title: Awareness of professional indemnity insurance among dental practitioners in Chennai – A knowledge, attitude, and practice survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Law has become an integral part of healthcare due to increased technical knowledge, paradigm shift in the patient’s attitude toward doctors, consumerism, and litigation. The patients can now sue the doctors for unprofessional conduct, medical negligence or mistakes during treatment. Thus, doctors are often at the receiving front of huge financial liability. To protect the health-care providers from these huge financial risks, professional indemnity insurance was introduced. The professional indemnity insurance covers a wide plethora of possible scenarios, including negligence, loss of document, unintentional breach of confidentiality, and defamation and loss of goods or money. It is the responsibility of the dentist to be well aware of the availability of the professional indemnity insurance, methods to procure it, the purchase cost, and premium amount and to avail these policies to have a secure practice. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of professional indemnity insurance among dental practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing 13 questions was created using Google forms and validated. The link to this questionnaire survey was circulated to all the dental practitioners across Chennai by e-mail. One hundred and forty-six responses were received up till January 2019. All the responses that were received were tabulated and represented graphically. Results: About 57.53% of the participants (n = 84) in the current study were unaware of professional indemnity insurance and only 13.7% (n = 20) of the participants were currently insured. Conclusion: Most of the dental practitioners are not aware of professional indemnity insurance and are not insured. There is a need to spread awareness and knowledge among dental practitioners regarding professional indemnity insurance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005387
Title: Substitutes for Hydrophobic Pen
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: PAP pen is a hydrophobic marker which is used during immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to provide a barrier and hold the antibody solution within a targeted area on the slide. This commercially available product is costly and can be used only for limited number of sections. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the hydrophobic ability of six different commonly used materials and a newly designed instrument with commercially available hydrophobic PAP pen. Methodology: Square coverslip, DPX with square coverslip, glue gun, nail polish, double side tape, and instrument designed using AutoCAD drafting software were used. A drop of water mixed with orange color paint was placed on the created barriers around the tissue sections. Hydrophobic property of the materials used was checked at frequent intervals of 15 s, 2 min, 5 min, ½ h, 1 h, and 3 h. Results: DPX with cover slip, nail polish, and the instrument Hydroholder can be used as alternatives to commercially available hydrophobic PAP pen. Conclusion: Hydroholder can be easily stored and will have a long shelf life when compared to the conventional PAP pen. Nail polish and DPX with coverslip can be used in emergency situations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005388
Title: Honey as natural supersession along with disposable pipette extraction to abbreviate its carcinogenicity for mounting the histopathological slides
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The mounting medium is the solution in which the specimen is embedded, generally under cover glass. It may be liquid, gum or resinous substance, soluble in water, and alcohol. The main purpose of mounting media is to physically protect the tissue sections. It should not shrink or cause the stain to diffuse or fade and it should be colorless, transparent, dry, and must harden relatively quickly. Disposable pipette extraction (DPX) is the most common mounting medium used but is toxic and carcinogenic. Considering this, we combined honey as a natural alternative to reduce the DPX concentration as well as to increase the shelf life of mounting medium with the preservative property of honey. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate honey as an alternative slide coating agent for albumin to coat the histopathological slide. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one slides were divided into seven groups with n = 3. Each group of slides was mounted with 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of honey mixed with DPX, respectively. Evaluation was done by two observers who were blinded to the choice of mounting agent. Scoring was done for the variables such as intensity of staining, integrity of tissues, cytoplasmic details, nuclear details and presence or absence of background staining, handling property, and adhesiveness. Results: Honey has better property as mounting agent than DPX for histopathological procedures. Inter- observer reliability was found to be perfect agreement with K = 1. Table 1 shows the scoring for various variables. Figure 1 and Graph 1 show cytoplasmic staining, nuclear staining, tissue integrity of both epithelial and connective tissue cells, and handling property was better with 100% scoring at 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 80%, 90%, and 100% concentration of honey. There is no statistical significant difference in cytoplasmic staining, nuclear details, tissue integrity, and handling property if different concentration of honey mixed with DPX was used as mountant. Adhesiveness was with maximum score 3 at 10% concentration of honey mixed with DPX. There was statistic difference in score between 10% and 25%, 50%, 75%, and 80% of concentration of honey with reduction in score to 80%. As the concentration of honey increases to 90% and 100% the adhesiveness was compromised. Background staining increases by 25% as the concentration of honey increases from 10% to 100%. Conclusion: Honey can be used as a mounting medium if the background staining can be troubleshooted and adhesiveness can be increased by adding minimal amount of resin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005389
Title: Microwave decontamination and ultraviolet disinfection of manual toothbrushes
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Management and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamalle High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu,
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Background: Toothbrush is the widely used personal oral hygiene aid known for its effectiveness in mechanical dental plaque control. Hence, it must be properly stored, disinfected, and changed at periodic intervals. Objective: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of microwave and ultraviolet sanitization method for toothbrushes. Materials and Methods: Twenty dental students used 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouth rinse for 2 days to reduce their oral microbial load. All the study participants were asked to brush their teeth with the toothbrush provided. The toothbrushes wrapped within the sterilized aluminum foil handed over earlier were collected on the 3rd day. The bristles were cut close to the base, weighed and standard quantities were randomly assigned to Group I (ultraviolet sanitation), Group II (microwave sanitization), and Group III (unexposed bristles as control) and subjected to microbial analysis and mean bacterial count was determined. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction between the mean colony-forming unit count of MacConkey agar in Group II than Group I. However, statistical difference was not observed in blood agar between the two groups. Conclusions: UV rays and MW rays are effective in the reduction of bacterial count on toothbrushes. Microwave irradiation was more effective when compared to ultraviolet rays.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005393
Title: Chebulinic acid downregulates angiogenic markers in A431 human skin cancer cells in vitro
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Our previous study showed that chebulinic acid (CI) has a significant role in controlling apoptotic signaling (Bcl-2, p-Bcl2, and Bcl-xL) in A431 cells at the doses of 50 and 100 µg/ml. Aim: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of CI on angiogenic markers in A431 human skin cancer cells in vitro. Study design: A431 cells treated with CI (100 µg/ml) for 24 h. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and phosphorylated Akt, β-catenin in the A431 skin cancer cells were studied by Western blot analysis. Results: Control cells (A431 cells) showed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the levels of MMP-2, VEGF, p-Akt, and β-catenin protein expression. However, CI (100 µg/ml) treated A431 cells showed a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the levels of angiogenic markers. Conclusion: Thus, the present study explores the anticancer potential (melanoma) CI in controlling angiogenic markers (MMP-2, VEGF, p-Akt, and β-catenin) in A431 cancer cells, and hence, CI can be served as one of the promising anticancer drugs for skin cancer. Further studies on the clinical evaluations of CI are warranted.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00005392
Title: Sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of amifampridine in plasma using liquid-liquid extraction technique
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of amifampridine in human plasma. Methods: Following liquid-liquid extraction, the analyte and internal standard were separated using an isocratic mobile phase on a reverse phase C 18 column and analyzed by MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode using the respective [M+H]+ ions, at m/z 110 → 96 for amifampridine. Results: The calibration curve ranges from 0.25 ng/mL to 165 ng/mL with desirable linearity and r2 >0.99. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.25 ng/mL with a relative standard deviation of <5.8%. This liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was validated with between batch and within-batch precision of 1.23–2.55% and 1.16–3.05 %, respectively. The between-batch and within-batch accuracy was 98.62–103.63 % and 98.67–103.87 % respectively. Conclusion: This validated method is simple, rapid, cost-effective, and repeatable enough to be used in pharmacokinetic studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005394
Title: An in vitro comparative evaluation of antibacterial activity of white tea extract with chlorhexidine (0.2%) on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsyt
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India
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Objectives: The objective of the study was to compare the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of white tea with chlorhexidine gluconate against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Tannerella forsythia (Tf). Materials and Methods: An ethanolic extract of white tea was prepared by Soxhlet extraction procedure. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were assessed using broth dilution method. Results: The MIC values for Pg, Tf, and Aa for white tea extract were 0.05 mg/ml, 0.05 mg/ml, and 0.0031 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the corresponding chlorhexidine values for the same are 0.0062 mg/ml, 0.0062 mg/ml, and 0.0016 mg/ml. The MBC values for Pg, Tf, and Aa for white tea extract were 0.1 mg/ml, 0.05 mg/ml, and 0.0031 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for the same are 0.0062 mg/ml, 0.0062 mg/ml, and 0.0016 mg/ml. It was observed that the MIC and MBC values for white tea extract are the same for Tf and Aa. Conclusion: Although chlorhexidine was observed to be more effective, white tea also possesses good antibacterial activity and can be explored as a potential preventive and therapeutic agent against periodontal diseases, considering the drawbacks of chlorhexidine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005396
Title: Synthesis and characterization of binary ZnO0.5 -CuO0.5 nanoparticles and their antibacterial agent
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemical Industrial, Institute of Technology/Baghdad, Middle Technical University, Iraq.
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Introduction: Inorganic semiconductors that use transition metal oxides nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper oxide (CuO) have intrigued increased interest due to their varied uses particular to antibacterial research; the use of nanoscales has many advantages, such as a high surface/volume ratio that improves ZnO0.5 -CuO0.5 . Objectives: The main purpose of this research was to identify the synthesis and characterization of nano ZnO0.5 -CuO0.5 with various concentrations and tests as bacteria and fungi. Materials and Methods: In this study, nanoparticles of binary metals oxide [ZnO0.5 -CuO0.5 ] were chemically prepared with molar concentrations (0.02, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.4 M) using polyvinylpyrrolidone as stabilizing agent and deionized water as a solvent. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The values of energy band gap various according to the molar concentration ranged from 2.8 to 3.05 eV. The crystallite sizes were observed to be 15.23, 23.87, 28.52, and 34.21 nm for 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.4 M, respectively. The synthesized pattern confirmed the existence of both hexagonal ZnO and monoclinic CuO phases as found from the XRD. Results: ZnO-CuO are active oxides in the biomedical application that based on growth metals oxide in dishes that have been tested as an antibacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis as positive Gram and Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. as Gram negative) and fungi as Candida Albicans. Conclusion: The result observed that the highest antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis) was 32 mm for 0.1 M concentration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005397
Title: Antistressor effect of Costus speciosus on noise-induced changes in antioxidant level in the cerebral cortex of brain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research and Development, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai - 600 073, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Plants have an inborn ability to biosynthesize an extensive range of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and able to attenuate reactive oxygen species -induced oxidative damage. The present study aimed at analyzing the potential effect of Costus speciosus extract on the altered antioxidant level in subacute noise stress-induced alterations in the cerebral cortex of rats. Methodology: The rats were exposed to subacute noise stress, and the effect of ethanolic C. speciosus extract on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant parameters (such as superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], malondialdehyde [MDA], glutathione [GSH], and GSH peroxidase [GPx]) was studied. Results: Subacute noise stress significantly increased the activities of SOD and MDA levels while reduced the activities of CAT and GSH levels in cerebral cortex region. Treatment with CSE extract decreased the elevated activities of SOD and MDA levels and increased the activities of CAT, GPx, and GSH levels. Conclusion: The study concluded that the stress conditions may alter the cell redox equilibrium, thus influence the antioxidant response in brain cortex. The results proved that CSE was effective in producing significant antistress effects in rats due to its improvement in antioxidant levels.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005398
Title: Orthokeratinized odontogenic keratocyst in antrum of highmore – a rare phenomenon
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is regarded as a histologically distinctive bony lesion whose diagnosis depends on well-defined histologic benchmark. Its high rate of recurrence, aggressive growth potential and its association with the basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome, and neoplastic potential makes OKC to be regarded as a separate entity. The clinical diagnosis and management of OKCs are difficult because these cystic lesions lack pathognomonic clinical or radiographic features. The aim of this paper is to report a case of OKC,which presented itself in the maxillary sinus of a young male of 21 years. Differentiating from the other rare case reports already published in the literature concerning OKC in the maxillary sinus, in our case the lesion appeared totally limited in the maxillary antral cavity, without involvement of the maxillary alveolar bone. They were surgically removed and the patient has been followed for 2 years, showing no signs of recurrence of the lesion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00005399
Title: Acetylcholinesterase and beta-secretase inhibitor: Design, synthesis, characterization, and evaluation
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Asian Institute of Medicine Science Technology University, 08100 Bedong, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.
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Background: Apidaecin (AP) IA is an animal peptide obtained from honey bee having 18 amino acid presents in the sequence of the peptide. Objective: The objective of the study was to design, synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and beta-secretase inhibitor. Materials and Methods: Synthesis by combinatorial chemistry using FMOC chemistry protocol characterized by mass spectroscopy and sequence analysis using liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry and evaluated by Ellman’s method and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. Results: The compound AIA2 was found to be potent AChE inhibition (3.054 ± 0.58 μg/mL) as compared with control AChE inhibitor donepezil (0.065 ± 0.0050 μg/mL) and highly potent beta-secretase inhibition (0.0237 ± 0.28 μg/mL) than control AChE inhibitor donepezil (0.065 ± 0.0050 μg/mL). Conclusion: The hexapeptide related to AP IA was designed, synthesized, characterized, and evaluated. The compound AIA2 was found to be potent AChE and beta-secretase inhibition as compared with control donepezil.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005412
Title: Regulatory aspects of over-the-counter drug monograph in the USA and Canada
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Over-the-counter (OTC) drug monograph is a regulatory standard for ingredients, a kind of recipe book which covers acceptable ingredients, doses, formulations, and labeling. They are regulated by various regulatory agencies in the world, especially the USA, the UK, Australia, Canada, and Germany. This study was to understand the OTC drug monograph, analyze, and compare the insights into the regulations governing the OTC drug monograph in the USA and Canada. In the USA, OTC drug monograph products can be marketed without any approvals and fees. However, the facility has to be registered, the product must be listed on the USFDA website, possess the National Drug Code number and the US agent must be appointed by the company. In Canada, the OTC drug monograph is known as Category IV monograph. The filing of Category IV monograph is done in electronic common technical document format by submitting the necessary documents and the fees are paid as per the Health Canada. It takes 90 days to review and then it approves the application. A comparison study of OTC drug monograph filing is made by comparing the category, requirements, procedure, format for filing, fees, timeline, and format of the label, type of the label, and also the language to be used in the labeling. A significant change has been found in regulations of the USA and Canada. Health Canada has a solid requirement for Category IV monograph, while the USFDA regulatory requirements are minimal.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005413
Title: Synergetic effects of Bacillus subtilis and antibiotics against Alcaligenes faecalis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Misan, Maysan, Iraq.
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Aim: The use of beneficial bacteria in conjunction with antibiotics may decrease the effects of dysbiosis initiated by the antibiotics, and maximize the assistance of probiotics in the gut in terms of exclusion and immune stimulation. Samples of Alcaligenes faecalis from burns were nominated for detection and identification according to morphological and biochemical tests, the VITEK-2 Compact System, and molecular sequencing by 16S rRNA. Materials and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility was ascertained by determining the inhibition length of A. faecalis against three antibiotics from varied classes (based on the VITEK 2), which consequently showed resistance to ceftriaxone (10 mm), high resistance to trimethoprim– sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (8 mm), and sensitivity to imipenem (20 mm). The sensitivity of A. faecalis to Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bacillus subtilis was determined using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) with wells of diffused agar. Results: B. subtilis performed best against A. faecalis isolates compared to E. faecium and S. thermophilus, where the area of inhibition was 28 mm. This study dealt with the enhancement of the inhibition zone of antibiotics (imipenem, SXT, and ceftriaxone) by B. subtilis against A. faecalis. Conclusion: The potentiation of antimicrobial activity was observed by imipenem in combination with B. subtilis (32 mm) and B. subtilis with ceftriaxone antibiotics (20 mm). The inhibition action was not affected by SXT (8 mm).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005414
Title: Objective structured oral examination as an assessment tool in undergraduate medical students in human anatomy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, ACS Medical College and Hospital, Dr. MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Conventional viva examinations (CVEs) have been used as a mode of the assessment of medical students for years. However, many researchers have reported the non-uniformity of questions, gender bias, and lack of subject coverage as well as high anxiety, poor validity, and reliability of CVE. Thus, objective structured viva examination (OSVE) have evolved to address the concerns over CVE. Hence, the aim of the present study was to introduce objective structured viva examination (OSVE) as one of the assessment tools in anatomy and to evaluate objective structured viva examination versus conventional viva as an assessment tool for the undergraduate medical students in human anatomy. Methodology: Sixty undergraduate medical students (60) were assessed by CVE and OSVE by a different set of examiners. In OSVE, all the students were exposed to the same set of questions and given equal time to answer them. The mean academic scores obtained in both CVE and OSVE were compared and analyzed using paired t-test. Student’s feedback was obtained using 5-point Likert scale to assess their perception about both the assessment methods. Results: The mean academic score in CVE is 15.5 ± 4.1 and OSVE is 17.31 ± 4.53 (P < 0.05). Students perception toward CVE was found to be there are no chances of personal bias, constructive feedback was given, sufficient time was given to answer the question, and questions also follow an ascending order of difficulty scale. Conclusion: OSVE emerged as a better tool in terms of assessment as well as from the student’s point of view. The present study shows that the number of students passing the examination is reported to be high with higher percentage scores in OSVE compared to CVE. Hence, it can be considered as a fair and valid assessment tool. However, a good OSVE needs advanced planning, pre-validation, and proper feedback.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005415
Title: Medicinal Properties of Royal Jelly and its Role in Dentistry – A Review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, SRM Dental College and Hospital, Ramapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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The common honey bee is a fascinating little insect that offers humans some valuable natural foods with health-promoting benefits. Royal jelly (RJ) is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that have been used for centuries for its extraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findings, research, various actions, effects, and some uses of RJ. There are numerous biological properties and effects of RJ: Antioxidant, neurotrophic, hypoglycemic agent, hypocholesterolemic agent and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, general tonic, and anti-aging. This article also implies the role of RJ in dentistry. The antimicrobial activity and the biocompatible nature of RJ can be applicable to many dental procedures. RJ is one of the honey bee product and there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity in future research for our health and life benefit. More research is needed to effectively evaluate its application in dentistry. Data were chosen after the primary survey of all abstracts and selected full articles. A comparison among related data was done by the authors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005416
Title: Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic potential of Asparagus racemosus mediated copper nanoparticles
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Nanoparticles hold properties such as stability, reactivity, and physicochemical properties and measured in the range of 1–100 nm. They have a high surface area-to-volume ratio. And hence, it is a growing field in the modern era of sciences. Copper nanoparticles have certain special features functioning as less toxic, heat transfer properties, low cost, high friction of atoms, and as high surface area-to-volume ratio due to their size, shape, morphology, crystalline phase, and composition. The plant Asparagus racemosus is referred as the “Queen of Herbs” in ayurvedic health system as it treats various diseases. The current study evaluates the anti-inflammatory properties of A. racemosus extract, the green synthesis, characterization of CuNPs, and screening of their cytotoxic activity. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of A. racemosus mediated copper nanoparticles and considering the efficacy of A. racemosus mediated copper nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: The methodology includes the green synthesis of A. racemosus mediated copper nanoparticles followed by the tests for anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activity. Results: The anti-inflammatory action and cytotoxicity activity are highly significant and its efficiency increases with increase in the concentration. Conclusion: A. racemosus mediated copper nanoparticles showed expressive anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity and hence they can be used as a potent anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005417
Title: Inhibitory effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Acacia etbaica schweinf on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Aksum University, Axum, Ethiopia
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Introduction: Acacia etbaica Schweinf is a medicinal plant belonging to family Fabaceae that has long been used in traditionally to treat stomach pain, swelling, livestock eye infection, itching, and fire burn. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic leaf extract of A. etbaica Schweinf in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic leaf extract of A. etbaica Schweinf was prepared and followed by to investigate the inhibitory effect on LPS -induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL]; IL-6; and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) in RAW 264.7 cells were analyzed by sandwich enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: The ethanolic leaf extract of A. etbaica Schweinf was significantly decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in a dose depended manner in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ethanolic leaf extract of A. etbaica Schweinf is a potential candidate for the development of anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of inflammatory-related diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005418
Title: Recall act in South Africa: An overview
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Ooty, Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India
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The pharmaceutical industry is making every effort to meet all current requirements in terms of quality. However, in recent times, due to drastic increase in recalls of pharmaceutical product, major challenges such as increasing complexities of design and manufacturing processes, intensive globalization processes, more stringent inspection procedures, and manufacturer’s product liability and regulatory burdens have risen dramatically. Product recall could greatly damage the reputation, profitability, and brand integrity of a company, and therefore, the industry needs to deal with effective tactics for recall. In addition, safety must always be a concern of the people who manufacture these pharmaceuticals and are associated with them. The recall is usually due to company’s discovery, customer’s complaint, or regulatory board observation. The recall process involves a specific plan of action that addresses the complexity of the recall, the need for public warning, and the extent to which the recall will be checked for effectiveness. The regulatory board will review and/or recommend changes, as relevant, to the recall strategy of the firm. The critical recall information list includes product identity, brief description of the failure, product quantity produced in the distribution chain, and direct account. Product recall clashes affecting thousands of businesses each year: Sales, testing customer relationships, and disrupting supply chains.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005419
Title: Efficacy of 1.0% chlorhexidine gel versus 0.12% chlorhexidine rinse in reducing the incidence of dry socket following extraction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 1.0% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel versus 0.12% CHX rinse in reducing the incidence of dry socket. Materials and Methods: This clinical study was a randomized, prospective, and clinical trial with parallel groups in a single center. The study involved the treatment of 60 patients of both genders between the age group of 18 and 65 years old, from September 2017 to January 2018. Results: A total of 60 patients underwent intervention with each group comprising 30 patients. This study shows that the application of bioadhesive 1.0% CHX gel to the post-operative wound after extraction reduces the incidence of the dry socket when compared with the application of CHX rinse. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the topical application of 1.0% CHX gel postoperatively shows a significant reduction in the incidence of dry socket.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005420
Title: Knowledge, attitude and practices survey – Evaluating the knowledge and awareness of post-extraction complications and management among dental graduate students and dental professional
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the extent of knowledge among various dental professionals and dental graduate students toward the post-extraction complications and management. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted which included dental undergraduates from the 3rd year, 4th year, and interns; dental postgraduates; and dental professionals. The questionnaire consisted of 14 questions. Results: A total of 120 graduates and professionals participated in the study of which 39 were undergraduates, 52 were postgraduates, and 29 were professionals. The age distribution was between 18 and 56 years. Participation varied according to the year of study and experience and the postgraduates and professionals had high awareness about the post-extraction complications and management. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the knowledge about post-extraction complications and their management among most of the undergraduate students was less adequate when compared with that of postgraduates and professionals. Good quality of treatment can be ensured when the future dentists have a good knowledge of the complications and the methods of prevention and managing them.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005421
Title: Clonidine versus metoprolol in hemorrhage control – A review of literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: One of the major risks during and after surgery is the perioperative blood loss, which significantly contributes to high death rate, post-operative complications, and usage of the health-care resources. Materials and Methods: This narrative review was based on a literature search of relevant databases up to December 2019, for publications relevant to reducing blood loss in various surgeries involving the drugs clonidine or metoprolol. Results: There are many suggested methods and techniques to reduce blood loss during major surgical procedures which broadly includes organizational, surgical, anesthetic, and hemostatic strategies. Hypotensive anesthesia produces promising results in reducing the intraoperative blood loss by lowering the blood pressure during surgery. Both clonidine and metoprolol potentiate the effect of hypotensive anesthesia and contribute to efficiently controlling the intraoperative hemorrhage. Both clonidine and metoprolol have proved its efficiency in various major surgeries such as spine surgery, gynecologic surgery, neurosurgery, and maxillofacial surgeries. Conclusion: Both clonidine and metoprolol show promising results in controlling blood loss during various surgical procedures. Although high-quality evidence exists in certain areas, the overall evidence base for reducing intraoperative blood loss with clonidine and metoprolol remains limited.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005422
Title: Comparative analysis of antibacterial activity of five essential oils against Streptococcus mutans
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India
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Introduction: Streptococcus mutans is a facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) normally found in the human oral pit and is a noteworthy supporter of tooth decay. It is a piece of the “streptococci” (plural, and non-italic lowercase), a casual general name for all species in the sort Streptococcus. An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (easily evaporated at normal temperatures) chemical compound from plants. Essential oils are also known simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An essential oil is “essential” in the sense that it contains the “essence of” the plant’s fragrance – the characteristic fragrance of the plant from which it is derived and is used for many other medical uses such as in treating bacterial and fungal infections as well as in aromatherapy. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare and analyze the antibacterial activity of five essential oils against S. mutans. Materials and Methods: The test microorganisms S. mutans was obtained from the microbiology department of Saveetha Dental College and stored at 4°C. The essential oils are lemon grass oil, cypress oil, orange oil, Brahmin oil, and pepper oil. Results: The lemon grass showed more antibacterial activity than the other oils used and showed a zone of inhibition of 50 mm longest than the other activity showed. Conclusion: The study concludes that among all the oils lemon grass showed significant length in the zone of inhibition area of 50 mm. There by proving a good antibacterial activity against S. mutans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005423
Title: Quality of salivary samples collected from porous and non-porous surfaces for dna extraction – A forensic evaluation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Saliva found on victims can be potentially recovered and typed from bite marks, cigarette butts, postage stamps, envelopes, edibles, and other objects. The detected saliva is recognized as one of the primary source of DNA by the forensic serologist. Aim: In this study, we have evaluated the quality of the salivary samples collected from porous (cloth and mud) and non-porous (cement and ceramic tile) surface for the number of cells obtained and their viability for the use of DNA extraction. Materials and Methods: Sixty samples of saliva were collected on non-porous tile and cement surface and porous cloth surface and saliva was collected at the interval of 2 and 5 days. The samples were collected, centrifuged, and analyzed with trypan blue staining. Results: There was a strong positive correlation between number of cells and viability of cells and the surface, which was statistically significant, rs = 0.726. Conclusion: Saliva is found to be an emerging forensic tool. It has found to be of great help in forensic by monitoring drug abuse, help in sex determination, and bite marks analysis which can be human and non-human. Saliva provides genetic material which can be used even if it is stored suboptimal.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005424
Title: Histopathological evaluation of the correlation of depth of invasion and the nodal metastasis – A pilot study in south indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is unpredictable lesion and thus has a marked variation in prognosis, which is probably due to the function of many variables related to biological behaviors of primary lesion. Aim: The aim of the study was to find the correlation between the depth of invasion (DOI) and the nodal metastasis and to explore the risk of occult neck nodal metastasis and local recurrence in relation to depth in early stage squamous cell carcinoma of tongue. Materials and Methods: We have retrieved records of the OSCC patients retrospectively for the past 2 years. The DOI for 30 excision specimens was measured using the magna software. Measurement was done by experienced pathologists in millimeters. Results: In our study, we have found that DOI above 6 mm was established in 80% and developed nodal metastasis with 13.33% had recurrence. Conclusion: DOI is studied in a smaller number of Indian studies, but with the increase in the multifactorial etiology in the Indian population, we suggest that there is a discerning point at 5 mm of tumor depth at which cervical metastasis is probable. Therefore, the DOI is found to be an important prognostic marker in OSCC.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005444
Title: A study to assess the effectiveness of therapeutic back massage on reduction of pain among post-operative patient
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Health Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Pain is a naturally recurring state of mind and body characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly voluntary muscles, and reduced interaction with the surrounding. Pain is a basic need of human. Massage therapy, the scientific manipulation of the soft tissue of the body, is a healing art, an act of physical caring, and a way of communicating without words. Massage therapy is a technical that promotes the manual mobilization several structures from both muscle and subcutaneous tissue, by applying mechanical force to tissue this mobilization improves lymph movement and venous return reduce swelling, mobilize muscle fibers, tendon, and skin. The massage therapy may be used to promote muscle relaxation and to reduce pain, stress, and anxiety. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of pain among post-operative mothers and to determine the therapeutic back massage to improve the level of pain to post-operative mothers. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental research design was used for the study. A total of 30 participants were selected using a purposive sampling technique. Data were selected using pain scale to control and experimental group for twice a day. For the experimental group, therapeutic massage was given twice a day. Results: The demographic variables place of residence had shown statistically significant association with post-test level of pain among post-operative patient at P < 0.05 level and the other demographic variables have shown statistically significant association with post-test level of pain among post-operative patient in the experimental group. The pre-test of the experimental group, 9 (60%), had severe pain, and 6 (40%) had moderate pain, whereas, in the post-test, 11 (73.33) had mild pain, and 4 (26.7%) had moderate pain. The pre-test of control group, 9 (60%), had severe pain and 6 (40%) had moderate pain, whereas, in the post-test, 4 (93.33%) had moderate pain, whereas, in the post-test, 4 (93.33%) had moderate pain and 1 (6.67%) had severe pain. Conclusion: The research found that back massage is effective in improving the quality of sleep and reduced pain in among post-operative patient than the back massage therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005445
Title: Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity of nanohydroxyapatite reinforced particles and Vitamin D incorporated nanohydroxyapatite particles: An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The increasing prevalence of dental problems necessitates the development of novel preventive dental materials with supreme antimicrobial efficacy to reduce global disease burden. Hence, the aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity of nanohydroxyapatite reinforced particles and Vitamin D incorporated nanohydroxyapatite particles. Materials and Methods: An in vitro experimental study was carried on three groups, namely, Group I: Nanohydroxyapatite prepared using black tea as reducing agent, Group-II: Commercially available Vitamin D powder using ethanol as solvent, and Group III and Group IV: Nanoformulation which comprised a combination of nanohydroxyapatite reinforced particles with 100 and 500 mg of Vitamin D dissolved in 3 ml of ethanol. Results: It was found that Group-II which comprised pure Vitamin D exhibited superior antimicrobial effect but was observed to be having cytotoxic effect. However, Group IV – nanoformulation with 500 mg of Vitamin D dissolved in 3 ml of ethanol showed a superior antimicrobial effect than Group I and inferior such effect when compared to Group II without demonstration of cytotoxic effects. Group IV is statistically significant at all different concentrations with P < 0.01. It was also observed that Group III and Group IV showed higher antimicrobial effect at a concentration of 100 than any other groups against Streptococcus mutans with statistical significance. Conclusion: The nanoformulation prepared which contained nanohydroxyapatite reinforced particles with 500 mg Vitamin D had supreme antimicrobial efficacy with no cytotoxic effects than any other groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005446
Title: Assessment of Exhaled Carbon Monoxide Levels, Knowledge, Awareness, Attitude, and Perception toward Tobacco Use and Oral Cancer among Residents of Thirumazhisai, Tamil Nadu
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Tobacco raises mortality and morbidity contributing to global epidemic disease burden. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess expired carbon monoxide levels, knowledge, awareness, attitude, and perception toward tobacco use and oral cancer among residents of Thirumazhisai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: This was a population-based descriptive cross-sectional study in which data were collected. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire by considering all possible variables according to information, developed on the basis of relevant literature. The questionnaire consisted of four parts. Demographic characteristics are presented in frequency and Chi-square test was used to compare the qualitative variables and parametric test like t-test was used for quantitative variables such as such as age, frequency of using tobacco, and duration of tobacco usage. Results: A carbon monoxide level between 0 and 5 ppm was demonstrated by a greater proportion of 28 smokeless tobacco users than 20 (53%) smokers which denotes the tobacco dependence levels which should also be taken in to consideration while formulating appropriate polies for restriction of tobacco. Conclusion: The major finding of the study was that the study subjects had poor knowledge, inadequate awareness, and negative attitude toward oral cancer and tobacco use.