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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005390
Title: Risk factors and protective factors of mental health during coronavirus disease-19 outbreak and lockdown in adult Indian population – A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Madha Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: The novel coronavirus (CoV) has derailed the entire world and various steps have been taken by the health authorities to tackle this pandemic. Nationwide lockdown has been imposed to control the spread of CoVs disease (COVID-19) outbreak in India, which could have psychological impact on the population. Aim: Our study aims to study the effect of the COVID-19 outbreak and subsequent lockdown on mental health status of adult Indian population along with identifying the high-risk groups. Methodology: An online survey was conducted during the 3rd phase of lockdown gathering details about sociodemographic variables, practice of precautionary measures, awareness and concerns regarding COVID-19, and mental health status of the participants through Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 questionnaire from 873 adults. Results: The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was 18.56%, 25.66%, and 21.99%, respectively, including higher number of participants with mild depression (15.1%) and stress (14.5%) and moderate anxiety (16.3%). Female gender, age <25 years, unemployment, self-business, employed in private sector, lack of formal education, larger household size, and parenthood (>2 kids) were associated with increased likelihood of negative mental health. Confidence in physician’s ability to diagnose COVID-19 infection, decreased self-perceived likelihood of contracting COVID-19, lesser frequency of checking for information on COVID-19, and satisfaction of information received were protective against negative mental health. Conclusion: This landmark study identified the protective and risk factors of mental health during COVID-19 pandemic, to help authorities and mental health workers to strategize and deliver interventional methods to maintain psychosocial well- being of the population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005411
Title: Coronavirus disease-19 - treatment options and ongoing clinical trials – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, MES Medical College, Palachodu, Malappuram - 679 338, Kerala, India.
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A novel coronavirus (CoV) was recognized as the cause of few life-threatening pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. It spread rapidly, resulting in an epidemic throughout China, and spreading all over to become a pandemic. Globally, more than 2 million confirmed cases of CoV disease (COVID)-19 have been reported, and more than 1.5 lakh deaths have already occurred. In February 2020, the World Health Organization named the disease COVID-19, which stands for COVID-2019. Initial transmission to humans is thought to have occurred from the wet market of Wuhan. But later on, there was rampant human to human aerosol transmission even from asymptomatic carriers. The range of symptoms varies from mild to critical. Most are mild cases requiring only homecare management and isolation to prevent spread to relatives. However, on the other hand, patients with severe manifestations often need oxygenation, intensive care unit care, and positive pressure ventilation, and few were found to succumb despite these measures. For those hospitalized and for those exposed to known cases, the most alarming fact is that no drugs or vaccines are yet shown efficacy against treatment or prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2. Now the treatment is based on drugs that are approved on compassionate ground- based on in vitro studies and small clinical data. This paper reviews various available treatment options, including antiviral agents, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, immunomodulators, interleukin-6 inhibitors, convalescent plasma transfusion, and vaccines in detail, to provide an overall idea about where do we stand in treating and preventing COVID-19.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005277
Title: Awareness of salivary biomarkers among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: In dentistry, biomarkers quantify the biological parameters by detecting the cancerous cells in oral cavity. In general, the type of tumors is assessed to advance the diagnostic treatment strategy and increase the rate of survival. Salivary biomarkers analyze an array of proteins, mRNA, and DNA for the oral and systemic diseases. This method is much feasible and reproducible as it is considered as a first choice of non-invasive screening approach that can be collected easily for repeated number of times, easy transfer, storage, shipping, and affordable. Aim: This study aims to determine the understanding regarding salivary biomarkers and its functions in dentistry among dental students. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of salivary biomarkers and its functions in dentistry among dental students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on questionnaire which consists of 11 questions through a web-linked application called SurveyPlanet. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students who currently practicing in Chennai participated in the study. Results: Majority of the dental students within the study were aware of the salivary biomarkers and its usage. Conclusion: As a conclusion, the awareness of salivary biomarkers also its functions and development among dental students in Chennai is adequate, but certain knowledge has to be brushed up among them for a higher level. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them treating their patients with more consent and awareness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005276
Title: The knowledge attitude and practices of oral hygiene practices among caregivers of children with cerebral palsy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia
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Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neuromuscular disorder affecting children due to developmental disturbances in the fetal or infant brain. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral hygiene among caregivers of children with CP. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done among 111 parents or caregivers of children with CP by distributing a self-prepared questionnaire. A descriptive analysis was done for the data collected. Results: Brushing with toothbrush and toothpaste was the most commonly practiced oral hygiene method. The prevalence of dental caries was 56.4% and periodontal diseases were 36.4% and 64% of parents recognized the importance of oral care. Conclusion: There is an increased prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease in children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005275
Title: Attitude and perception of dental students and alumni of a private dental college toward implant course in undergraduate curriculum – A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Dental implants placement has a high rate of success due to which it is a widely accepted treatment option for treating edentulism. Even though not all dentists wish to be trained or are trained to provide implant-based treatment, it is necessary for all of them to receive sufficient training to inform patients of the advantages and disadvantages of implant treatment. Hence, the aim of the study was to assess the attitude and perception of dental students and alumni toward implant course in undergraduate curriculum. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive survey. A customized questionnaire was administered to 100 dental students and 100 alumni of the college regarding the perception toward implant course in undergraduate curriculum. Results: Data were analyzed using counts and percentages. The study constituted of 20% of male and 80% of female students and 40% of male and 60% of female alumni. Appropriate academic year to include implant course in undergraduate program according to the students was internship whereas for the alumni was postgraduation. Conclusion: The undergraduate syllabus must be revised and sufficient training regarding dental implant placement must be provided to the students so that they can provide information about the pros and cons of placing implants to the patients and also to make them confident enough to deal with implant cases in their clinical set up.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005274
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward oral health among interns of a private medical college, Chennai – A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral health is the mirror of general health. Medical practitioners should possess basic dental knowledge for early detection of signs and symptoms of dental diseases in patients, to provide appropriate treatment or advice to these patients and to act as public health educators. Many studies have shown that lack of knowledge among medical students regarding dental diseases. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate oral health awareness, attitude, and practice among medical students. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 medical interns were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed their knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding oral health. Results: Knowledge regarding oral health among the students was positive, but attitude and practice were negative. About 93.3% of the students were aware that the main cause of dental caries was sugar and bacteria. About 40% of the students visited a dentist only when they had pain. About 70.8% of the students cleaned their teeth twice daily. All the participants used toothpaste and toothbrush to clean their teeth (100%). Majority of the participants (47%) changed their toothbrush once in every 3–6 months and 59% consumed sugar frequently. Conclusion: The better result among medical students could be due to their better knowledge and socioeconomic conditions. More awareness should be created among general population to improve the oral health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005273
Title: Assessment of oral health status and framework of oral health policy for the women residing in Poonamallee, Chennai – A pilot study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Women have unique oral health concerns. Changing hormones levels during menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause can raise the risk of oral health problems. In sub urban and rural areas, there is lack of knowledge of oral health and no proper facility for them to utilize the dental services. Hence, this study was conducted to assess their oral health status and give recommendations for oral health policy for them. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. The WHO Oral Health Assessment Form for adults and children (2013) was used to assess the oral health status of 300 women. Based on the findings, oral health policy was formulated. Results: Data were analyzed using counts and percentages. Index age groups (12 years, 15 years, 35–44 years, and 65–74 years) were taken for assessing the oral health status. Dental caries was most prevalent in the age group of 35–44 years (57%). About 6% of the women belonging to age group of 35–44 years required urgent treatment. Based on the findings, recommendations for oral health policy were given. Conclusion: It was concluded that dental care services for rural women population should be developed to reduce and prevent further oral problems. Hence, the need for framing oral health policies is the need of the hour.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005272
Title: Attitude and perception toward rural health-care service among interns of a private dental college, Chennai, India – A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Majority of India’s population resides in rural areas. They are unable to access quality health care due to the shortage of qualified health professionals in rural areas. Various reasons contribute to the shortage, which include poor living facilities for the family, no financial progress, and lack of opportunities for developing clinical skill. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the perception and attitude of dental interns toward serving in rural areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 77 graduating interns were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire included their career preferences on graduating and reasons for their choice, respondent perceptions about working in rural areas. Results: About 50.6% of the interns were aspiring for postgraduation seats. Seventeen interns (22.1%) were satisfied with the existing health services in Tamil Nadu and 61 interns (79.2%) would like to serve in rural areas. Only 8 (13.1%) interns wanted to settle permanently in rural areas and serve rural people. The major reason for willingness in rural areas was less stressful work (50.8%) followed by serving needy people (45.9%). The major reasons for not willing to serve in rural areas were no living facilities, no clinical infrastructure, and lack of incentives and promotions. Conclusion: Since very few students were willing to work permanently in rural areas, educational programs in colleges should be conducted to raise awareness among the students about the existing rural health services and motivate them to serves in rural health sectors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005153
Title: Preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity, and analysis of total phenol content of crude methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the methanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre. Antioxidants play an important role in protecting cellular damage by reactive oxygen species. Plants containing phenolic compounds have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant potential of the methanolic extract of Dioscorea villosa was studied using different in vitro free radical scavenging models such as 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide. The DPPH results have been compared with the standard ascorbic acid. Result: The extract showed the good dose-dependent free radical scavenging property in both the models used in this study. Conclusion: This study suggests that the Gymnema sylvestre plant extract has antioxidant activity, which might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of various oxidative stress- induced diseases. The results of the present study also indicate that the plant parts possess many phytochemicals which could be beneficial for human health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005220
Title: Effect of warm-up on avoiding muscle soreness in quadriceps muscle in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: ACS Medical College and Hospital, Dr. MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of warm-up on delayed onset of muscle soreness at the Quadriceps femoris following leg resistance exercise. Methodology: Fifty volunteers (men) were randomly assigned to the warm-up (10 min prior to the resistance exercise) and control group performing resistance exercise only. The resistance exercise consisted of quadriceps exercise with external loading of 50% (men) of body mass. Primary outcomes were muscle soreness and pain threshold along quadriceps femoris muscle. Data were recorded before the resistance exercise and after the exercise. Pain and muscle soreness were evaluated by Numerical rating scale(NRS) and soreness grading scale. Results: Muscle soreness & pain threshold at the quadriceps muscle belly was significantly reduced for the warmup group. This study indicates that warm-up exercise performed prior to resistance exercise may prevent muscle soreness at quadriceps muscle, but it does not prevent loss of muscle force. Conclusion: Executing warm up before physical activities such as running and high-intensity sports might be beneficial and prevent muscle soreness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005219
Title: Awareness of iron supplementation and its related factors among students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to create awareness of iron supplementation and its related factors among students. Introduction: Iron is an important component responsible for maintaining of body functions such as regulating immune systems, brain function, and muscle strength. Mainly, the iron is present in the red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen to the tissues; this process is achieved by the presence of the protein called hemoglobin. A sufficient amount of iron is important for the normal function of the vital organs of the human body. Materials and Methods: The present study has conducted questionnaire-based survey using SurveyPlanet as a survey tool. The responses from the individuals have been recorded and represented as pie charts. Results: The present study has observed that 36.30% get iron by consuming green leafy vegetable, 24.10% through whole grain cereals, and 14.20% through dry fruits, tiredness (50%), pale skin (28.10%), noticeable heart beats (15.60%), and head ache (6.30%) due to iron deficiency. Further the study observed that requirement of iron is necessary for proper cell functions through producing energy (43.90%) and need for oxygen consumption through blood (46.30%), menstruation may affect iron balance (84.60%), to overcome iron deficit to overcome iron deficit condition 72.40% consuming iron tablets [Figure 5], iron consumption causes weight gain (54.50%) [Figure 6]. Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that this study may cause awareness among student population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005218
Title: Fiber-reinforced composite in dentistry – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Restorative dentistry is constantly evolving as a result of innovative treatment solutions based on new materials, treatment techniques, and technologies, with composite materials being a prime example. The advent of fiber reinforcement has further increased the potential uses of composites within restorative dentistry. This paper discusses fiber types, structure, and the physical properties of fiber-reinforced composites, in addition to outlining some of the potential clinical applications of this exciting group of materials, thus updating the reader on the new treatment possibilities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005217
Title: Evaluation of cytotoxicity of a novel intracanal drug
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Various natural medicaments are being explored for use as an irrigant and intracanal medicament in endodontics. However, it is important to evaluate its cytotoxicity before usage in root canals. This study is aimed at evaluating the cytotoxicity of a potential intracanal drug. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Hekla lava and calcium hydroxide on the L929 fibroblast cell line. Materials and Methods: Formulations of Hekla lava and calcium hydroxide were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity. There were 96-well plastic culture plates filled with 200 μl of medium containing in each well. The plates were then incubated at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2 and 95% air for 24 h to permit attachment of the cells to the plates. The 3-(4, 5 dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used for measuring the cell viability. The plates were placed on a shaker for 15 min and the absorbance was read on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader at 570 nm. Results: The percentage of cell viability was calculated as the relative absorbance of the sample versus control wells as follows: % cell viability = mean optical density of experimental well/mean optical density of control well ×100. Treatment of L929 fibroblasts with 10 mg/mL of Hekla lava extract and calcium hydroxide resulted in 90% and 74.45% cell viability, respectively. Conclusion: Concentration played a significant role in the cytotoxicity profiles of Hekla lava and calcium hydroxide. No or minimal cytotoxicity was observed with a decrease in concentration. Calcium hydroxide became more toxic with exposure to cells when compared with Hekla lava.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005216
Title: Assess the analgesic effect of breastfeeding in infants during immunization
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Child Health Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Routine vaccination is an inherent part of the health-care delivery system as it is the most effective health intervention in reducing the morbidity and mortality due to “Vaccine Preventable Diseases.” Most of the injectable vaccines are administered early in child’s life and always lead to some amount of fear to the parents as well as to the child. Breastfeeding is practical as it is easily achievable from the perspectives of health-care providers. Breastfeeding has analgesic effect during BCG immunization. A painful experience can have immediate, short term, long term, physiological, and behavioral effects in infants. Aims: The objective of our study is to assess the analgesic effect of breastfeeding in infants and level of pain during immunization at selected Government Hospital, Thiruvallur. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out between 27 February, 2020, and 12 March, 2020, enrolling infant between ages of 1 month and 12 months, attending immunization outpatient department. The babies in the experimental group were given breastfeeding during immunization. Results: In the experimental group, the mean score of pain among infants was 2.63 with standard deviation of 1.13 and the mean score of pain in the control group was 7.53 with standard deviation of 1.01. The calculated Chi-square and t-test value of t = 17.732 were found to be statistically highly significant at P < 0.001 level. Conclusion: This clearly infers that there was a significant reduction in the level of pain during immunization among infants in the experimental group who were breastfed during immunization than the infants in the control group.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005215
Title: Impact of poultry consumption by adolescent females – An analytical study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Faculty of Management, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Poultry products are proven to be the single, cheapest, and highest source of all proteins and nutrients required by people of all ages. However, there is a misconception that the consumption of poultry and related products also leads to the early onset of puberty among growing female children resulting in physical and emotional problems in their lives. Empirical studies place the mean age of puberty attainment by girls at 8–13. The present study is to prove or disprove this misconception. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample size of 2446 female adolescents in Tamil Nadu using a comprehensive questionnaire to elicit their normal food habits, including poultry products, to seek a truthful response to evaluate their age of puberty attainment. This study uses logistic regression to identify the parameters and combination of parameters that lead to early puberty in girls. The critical combinations that lead to early puberty include (i) family disease history + BMI + family puberty history and (ii) non-vegetarian eating habits + meat eating + red meat- eating habits. The combination that does not lead to early puberty is (i) egg eating + chicken eating. The analysis revealed that the non-food or non-physical factors than food habits had a more dominant role in determining the puberty attainment among such adolescent females.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005214
Title: Management of Sodium Hypochlorite Accident – Clinical Practice Guidelines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, India
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Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) extrusion beyond the apex, also known as “a hypochlorite accident,” is a well-known complication that seldom occurs during root canal treatment. Knowledge of hypochlorite extrusions during endodontic treatment is primarily based on previously published case reports. The management of hypochlorite extrusions appears to be very empirical. This article proposes guidelines that pave way for better understanding of the factors, management, and prognosis of hypochlorite accidents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005213
Title: A comparative study to assess the knowledge on learning disability among primary school teachers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Child Health Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: A learning disability is a neurological disorder. In simple terms, a learning disability results from a difference in the way a person’s brain is “wired.” Children with learning disabilities are as smart as or smarter than their peers. However, they may have difficulty reading, writing, spelling, and reasoning, recalling and/or organizing information if left to figure things out by them or if taught in conventional ways. A learning disability cannot be cured or fixed; it is a lifelong issue. With the right support and intervention, however, children with learning disabilities can succeed in school and go on to successful, often distinguished careers later in life. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the level of knowledge on learning disability among rural and urban primary school teachers, to compare the level of knowledge on learning disability among rural and urban primary school teachers, and to find out the association between the levels of knowledge on learning disability among rural and urban primary school teachers with selected demographic variables. Materials and Methods: A descriptive research design with purposive sampling technique was adopted to conduct a study among 30 rural and 30 urban primary school teachers. Data were gathered using structured questionnaires. Confidentiality was maintained throughout the procedure. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Among 30 rural primary school teachers shows that level of knowledge regarding learning disability on (13%) had inadequate, (24%) had moderate, and (63%) had adequate knowledge. Were as urban school teachers (13%) had inadequate and (17%) moderately adequate knowledge and (70%) had adequate knowledge. The study shows that there is no significant association between the level of knowledge regarding learning disability among rural and urban primary school teachers with demographic variables such as age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, religion, type of family, income, residence, and year of experience. Conclusion: The studies concluded that there is no significant difference between the level of knowledge on learning disability among rural and urban primary school teachers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005212
Title: Preliminary phytochemistry, gas chromatography– mass spectrometry, and high-performance thin-layer chromatography fingerprint analysis of ethanol extract of Costus speciosus rhizomes and its thera
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Research and Development, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Costus speciosus is an ornamental plant mainly found in Southeast Asia. It is used in complementary and alternative medicine and claimed to have various therapeutic uses. Objective: The present study was done to highlight the phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract of C. speciosus using preliminary phytochemical assays, gas chromatography– mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint analysis for flavonoids. Results: The ethanol extract was prepared by Soxhlet method. The percentage yield was approximately 9.26 wt/vol. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, glycosides, alkaloids, phytosterols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic compounds. The GC–MS analysis showed six major peaks which were later identified to be 1-Dodecene, tridecane, 1-Hexadecene 2(4H)-Benzofuranone, 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro- 4,4,7a-trimethyl, phytol acetate, hexadecanoic acid, and ethyl ester. HPTLC fingerprint analysis of flavonoids showed the presence of nine different types of flavonoids. Conclusion: Our study concludes that the various isolated phytochemicals including flavonoids could be the cause for the potential therapeutic benefit of Costus speciosus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005211
Title: Non-surgical endodontic management of furcation perforation using Advanced Platelet-rich Fibrin as an internal matrix and Biodentine: A clinical report with 18-months follow-up
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Objective: Furcation perforation are procedural errors which result in mechanical communication between the root canal system and the external tooth surface, and pose a challenge in diagnosis and management. The objective of this paper is to report a case of nonsurgical endodontic management of an iatrogenic furcation perforation using advanced platelet-rich fibrin as internal matrix along with Biodentine. Case report: A 36-year-old male patient was referred from a private dental clinic for continuation of endodontic treatment in a maxillary molar, due to a procedural error. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed an iatrogenic furcation perforation. The perforation was repaired using Advanced Platelet rich fibrin (A-PRF) as an internal matrix along with Biodentine. Results: At 18-month follow-up, the patient was clinically asymptomatic and radiographic findings were normal. Conclusion: Perforations have been considered as one of the common causes of failure in endodontics. Early diagnosis and non- surgical approach to seal the perforation with a bioceramic-based material are considered the standard treatment protocol. Although biomaterials such as Mineral trioxide aggregate and Biodentine, are popularly used in perforation repair, recently the emphasis on regeneration of lost periodontium using platelet concentrates has extended the scope for application of these products in perforation repair yielding better healing. Adjunct use of A-PRF along with Biodentine resulted in successful healing in the present case. Future in vivo controlled studies are required to establish the regenerative potential platelet concentrates in perforation repair.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005210
Title: Features of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in schizotypal disorder
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, Belgorod State University, Medical Institute, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod, 308015, Russia.
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Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the features and mechanisms of development of metabolic syndrome (MS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and intermediate states of glycemia in psychosis the occurrence of these disorders, the values of total cholesterol (TC), fractions of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), triglycerides (TG), values of atherogenic coefficient (AC), insulinemia, С-peptidemia, insulin resistance (IR), and the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and in mentally healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: The frequency of carbohydrate metabolism disorders (CMD) was studied. Fasting glycemia was determined, and in the presence of its violation, a glucose tolerance test was performed. MS components were studied in patients with DM2, plasma concentrations of TC, HDL, VLDL, TG, C-peptide (CP), insulin, and HbA1c were determined in patients with DM2, AC values and IR indices were calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-IR and Caro criteria. Results: CMD in schizophrenia are more common than among mentally healthy subjects, amounting to 13.1% (P = 0.02), and the main condition here is a significant number of individuals with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among women (CMD P = 0.01; IGT P < 0.001; IFG P = 0.03). A feature of psychiatric sampling is a decrease in HDL by 16.4% (P = 0.03) and an increase in AC by 52% (P = 0.02). Mentally, ill men with MS are characterized by a significantly large value of AC (P = 0.019), insulinemia (P = 0.02), CP level (P = 0.02), HOMA-IR (P = 0.01), and caro (P = 0.04) values than in mentally ill patients with DM2 without MS. In comparison with the control, regardless of gender, the schizophrenic patients with DM2 have significantly lower values of insulin (P = 0.03), C-peptidemia (P = 0.04), and IR, according to the criteria of HOMA-IR (P = 0.01) and caro (P = 0.03). Conclusion: In a prospective comparative analysis of a sample of patients with schizophrenia (n = 336) and a group of mentally healthy individuals, a higher prevalence of CMDs in psychosis was established due to cases of IFG and IGT in women.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005209
Title: Development of solid lipid nanoparticles for enhanced solubility of budesonide as a model drug
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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The goal of the present work was to produce intestinal targeted solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of budesonide, a potent glucocorticoid used to treat ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease with approximately 10–20% low bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism. Compritol 888 ATO as lipid carrier and guar gum as surfactant have been developed to enhance the oral bioavailability of budesonide-loaded SLNs. Budesonide-loaded SLN was prepared using the process of hot homogenization. Particle size, zeta potential, trap performance, and surface morphology were characterized as SLN. Studies of the release of drugs in vitro were carried out using dialysis bag diffusion technique in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. Particle sizes of all formulations ranged from 127 ± 0.4 to 341 ± 0.2 nm and ranged from 56.38 ± 3.1 to 72.71 ± 1.2 for trapping capacity. Budesonide SLN was more effective in treating Crohn’s disease with improved oral bioavailability and could be a potential oral delivery carrier.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005208
Title: Effect of COL1A and COL3A gene polymorphisms on pelvic organ prolapse among the women of the Belgorod region
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Belgorod State University, Pobeda Street 85, 308015 Belgorod, Russia.
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Aim: The problem of genital prolapse, despite such a long history of the disease, still does not have a definite solution. At present, the problem of genital prolapse in women remains relevant due to the high impact on the social part of life. Genital prolapse and impaired function of neighboring organs significantly reduce the quality of life. Every year, there are more and more articles linking genital prolapse with connective tissue pathology and with a change in collagen structure. This paper describes the relationship of polymorphisms of the collagen genes COL1A1 and COL3A1 and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in women. This study aimed to analyze the effect of rs1800012 and rs1107946 polymorphisms of the COL1A1 gene, rs1800255 of the COL3A1 gene on the development of POP in women of the Belgorod region. Materials and Methods: In 2018, we analyzed 268 women who were residents of the city of Belgorod and the Belgorod region, among which two groups were identified. Group 1 (n = 53) included women who had signs of POP. Group 2 (n = 215) consisted of women with an objectively proven absence of prolapse. The study was carried out in the gynecological department of Belgorod Regional Clinical Hospital of St. Joasaph. Results: In our study, it was found that the frequencies of polymorphisms of the COL1A1 and COL3A1 genes in residents of the Belgorod region did not differ from those in representatives of European populations. Thus, in the studied population of Belgorod women, the allele A of the rs1800255 polymorphism of the COL3A1 gene was characterized by a protective effect in relation to the predisposition to POP. Conclusion: In our study, a high association of rs1800255 polymorphism of the COL3A1 gene to POP in women of the Belgorod region was confirmed. At the same time, no connection between the rs1800012 and rs1107946 polymorphisms of the COL1A1 gene and genital prolapse was detected.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005207
Title: Innovative methods of elementosis study in oncourological practice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Belgorod State National Research University, 85, Pobedy St., 308015 Belgorod, Russia
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Aim: The purpose of this work is to study the content of macronutrients in the tissues with oncourological pathology. Materials and Methods: Clinical examination material of 279 people was used in the work, 229 of them were men (82%) and 50 were women (18%). Elemental analysis of oxygen, carbon, calcium, nitrogen, and sulfur was carried out using a detector to record the spectra of characteristic X-ray radiation (EPAX company), which were integrated with “Quanta 600 FEG” scanning electron microscope. Results: With prostate cancer, the oxygen content decreased, so during Stage 1, the oxygen content decreased by 36.8% among middle-aged patients, and by 38.6% among elderly patients, Stage 2 – by 32.4% and 28.9%, Stage 3 – by 34.1% and 34.2%, and Stage 4 – by 30.9% and 35.1%. The nitrogen content changed insignificantly, carbon and sulfur decreased. The calcium index among middle-aged patients with Stage 1 prostate cancer increases by 10.6 and by 10.8 times among the elderly, while it is absent among the patients with Stages 2, 3, and 4. The nitrogen content among the patients with renal pathology did not change significantly, but there was a tendency of carbon, calcium, and sulfur increase and oxygen decrease. When they studied the level of macronutrients in bladder cancer, there was a tendency to nitrogen and carbon level increase, and in the groups of Stage 1 and 2 patients, the content of calcium and sulfur increased by 12.5 and 3.8 times, respectively, and oxygen was also reduced. Conclusions: We found that all groups demonstrated oxygen content decrease, most pronounced among Stage 2 patients with bladder cancer – 49.5%, which leads to tissue hypoxia in the studied organs. The nitrogen and carbon content varied slightly. The content of calcium and sulfur increases among the patients of all studied groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005206
Title: New aspects in the study of clinical and morphological features of uterine blood flow in type I diabetes mellitus in the mother
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Belgorod State National Research University, 85, Pobedy St., 308015 Belgorod, Russia.
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Aim: The aim of the study was to develop new approaches to the study of modern aspects of the clinical and morphological features of uterine blood flow in type I diabetes mellitus (DM) in the mother. Materials and Methods: Under our supervision, there were 40 pregnant women with type I DM. Clinical examination methods generally accepted in obstetric practice were used to assess the condition of the fetus, placenta, and blood flow in the fetal vessels and uterine arteries. Light microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy of two uterine fragments obtained during cesarean section were performed. Samples were examined using a FE1 Quanta 200 three-dimensional scanning microscope, analyzed, and morphometric and imaging were performed. Processing AFM images were formulated using the NOVA software (NT- MDT, Russian Federation). Results: Results obtained allow us to judge the adverse effect of diabetes on the mother’s body during pregnancy and childbirth. Among the complications of pregnancy, it should be noted: The state of preeclampsia (8%), fetoplacental insufficiency (88%), the threat of abortion (52%), and polyhydramnios (25%). Morphologically, we revealed plethora of the endometrium. A change in the shape of the myometrium with the presence of fragmentary destructive changes in the myometrium including focal necrosis and damage to the vascular system of the pregnant uterus. Conclusion: The paper substantiates the possibility of using scanning electron and AFM as express methods for morphofunctional diagnosis of a woman’s condition in pregnancy pathology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005205
Title: A rare example of a combination of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and bronchial asthma in the elderly
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, Medical Institute, Belgorod State University, 85, Pobedy St., 308015 Belgorod, Russia.
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Aim: The work presents a rare example of a combination of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (J. Forestier disease) and bronchial asthma (BA) in the elderly. Hyperostosis localized in the cervical spine, on the one hand, was a condition for the uncontrolled course of asthma and difficulties in interpreting its cause, on the other hand, it acted as a component of the pathophysiological continuum of the metabolic syndrome (abdominal obesity, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperuricemia). Materials and Methods: The article presents the clinical observations of a man S., 66 years old and 30 years old, suffering from the leukotriene form of BA (polynosis and aspirin intolerance), who was hospitalized in the pulmonology department of the regional clinical hospital. In the last 8 months there is an uncontrolled course of bronchial asthma. Results: A more complex diagnostic and therapeutic task is presented by situations where Diffuse idiopathic hyperostosis (DIG) is combined with BA, suggesting not only the correct interpretation of the reasons for the increase in the severity of the pulmonological disease but also the search for a compromise in the choice of basic anti-asthma drugs with less osteoporotic activity. Conclusion: Thus, Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DYSG), in cases of combination with BA, becomes an independent factor in the severity of the course and relapse, an additional condition for the difficulty in achieving control of respiratory pathology in the elderly, acting as a component of the pathogenetic constellation of the metabolic syndrome.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005204
Title: Features of the clinical course of dental tissue abrasion in adulthood
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Therapeutic Dentistry, Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Pobeda Street, 85, Russia.
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Objectives: In the paper, the data are given of the research on the prevalence of dental tissue abrasion (DTA) in adults of various age groups. Materials and Methods: The detailed dental examination of 1.924 patients (1.044 males and 880 females) at the ages from 21 to 89 was carried out. There were four groups: Young adults – from 18 to 44; middle-aged adults – from 45 to 59; older persons – from 60 to 74; and senile persons – from 75 to 89. Results: The prevalence of dental tissue pathology in adults depends on the age group and gender-specific features. The DTA is less common in young adults (4.98%) than in middle-aged adults (36.24%) as well as older (31.44%) and senile persons (17.2%). People of older age groups more often need treatment and preventive interventions oriented to teeth tissue. Conclusions: The study found that women are less susceptible to hard tooth tissue abrasion than men. With age, the number of people with tooth abrasion as well as its severity increases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005203
Title: The usage of endobiliary stents with antiseptic coating in the treatment of choledocholithiasis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russia
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Introduction: Choledocholithiasis is still an actual problem of the treatment of complicated forms of cholelithiasis. The difficulties in the treatment of this pathology are caused by the predominance of elderly and senile-aged patients whom biliary stenting in most cases can be used as the only method of treatment. The purpose of the study is to justify the usage of endobiliary prostheses with antiseptic coating in the treatment of patients with choledocholithiasis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the results of 95 patients’ treatment with “difficult” choledocholithiasis, and in these cases, biliary endoprostheses were used at the first stage of curing. In 56 cases (Group 1 – 58.4%), stenting was performed with “traditional” plastic prostheses without special coating, 39 stentings (Group 2 – 41.6%) were performed with plastic stents, the surfaces of which were modified with 10% Betadine solution. Results: The frequency of patient’s post-operative complications of the 1st group was 19.64% and 7.69% in the 2nd group. The decrease of specific complications such as early stent obturation and the development of purulent cholangitis were identified. The rate of complications in cases of end biliary uncoated stenting using was 7.14% and 5.36%, and these complications occurred in 2.56% and 2.56% in the group where Betadine coating was used. The term of serving of the biliary stents in the 2nd group (182.3 ± 37.1 days) was significantly higher than the term of the uncoated stents (125.8 ± 33.9 days). Conclusion: The usage of the antiseptic coating reduces the risk of developing of purulent-septic complications and increases the duration of functioning of biliary stents in patients with “difficult” choledocholithiasis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005202
Title: Imbalance in the oxidative stress system – antioxidant protection in patients with chronic pyelonephritis depending on the course of the disease
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Faculty Therapy, Belgorod State University, Medical Institute, Belgorod, Russia.
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Objectives: Assessment of the imbalance in the system of oxidative stress (OS) – antioxidant protection in patients with chronic pyelonephritis (CP) depending on the course of the disease. Materials and Methods: Patients were divided into three groups: The first group (29 patients) consisted of patients with a recurrent course of CP, exacerbations of 3 or more times per year course of pyelonephritis (CPr); the second (34 patients) – patients with active phase of pyelonephritis (CPc), having comorbid cardiovascular pathology (stable coronary heart disease with heart failure I-II FC); and the third control group (35 patients) consisted of patients with an active phase of the disease (CP) who has had a history of pyelonephritis for at least 5 years, rare exacerbations – not more than once in a year. Results: It was established that patients with a recurring CPr, an increase in OS activity and an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) production are characteristic against the background of a decrease in antioxidant protection parameters (AOP); moreover, the recurrent course of CP produced a more significant effect on patients: For patients with CPr (with 3 or more relapses per year) were characterized by lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) values compared with similar indicators in the group of patients with CP without relapse. For patients with CP and comorbid pathology, a disturbance in the oxidative balance was also characteristic, which was manifested by an increase in the average levels of MDA and diene conjugate (DC) in the blood serum (by 12.3% and 9.1%, respectively, P < 0.001) against the background of a decrease average values CAT content (by 18.2%, P < 0.001) and a pronounced tendency for a decrease in SOD. Conclusion: In comparison with the recurrent CPr in patients with comorbid pathology, OS was more pronounced, which was manifested in a significantly greater increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AOP factors. Perhaps increased free radical activity is one of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory syndrome in patients with CP and comorbid pathology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005201
Title: The prediction of the bisoprolol effectiveness in patients with stable coronary artery disease with post-infarction cardiosclerosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Family Medicine, Belgorod State University, Pobedy St., 85, Belgorod 308015, Russia.
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Aim: The article shows the benefits of treatment with bisoprolol in achieving optimal heart rate (HR) at rest (55–60/1 min) and identifies the prediction markers of its achievement in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) with post-infarction cardiosclerosis. Materials and Methods: It considers clinical and genetic data: Physical examination, 24-h electrocardiogram monitoring, 5-min study of HR variability, and Arg389Gly polymorphism of the ADRB1 gene. Results: The article proved that when an HR of 55–60 in 1 min is reached, the antianginal effect of bisoprolol is expressed better, the markers of the prognosis in the achievement of this HR are determined. Conclusion: Thus, in patients with stable CAD with post-infarction cardiosclerosis, it is not only necessary but also possible to identify factors that predict the effectiveness of bisoprolol treatment to individualize therapy with this drug.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005200
Title: An action of superlow power extremely high-frequency radiation on some microbes in vitro, human erythrocytes, and the functional status of a person
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Propaedeutics of Internal Diseases and Clinical Information Technologies, Belgorod State University, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod, 308015, Russia.
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Aim: This paper is devoted to the analysis of advanced scientific research about the role of superlow intensity extremely high frequency (EHF) effects on biological objects, including people. Materials and Methods: In this investigation was utilized Gunn diode with the flow of electromagnetic radiation superlow intensity of 10 μW and frequency 40–43 GHz. Results: The estimation of the influence of the millimeter radiation on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and the native blood has been performed. It was shown that the death of Staphylococcus is associated with the frequency of modulation signals of the radiation. The EHF irradiation of bacterial suspension for 1 min leads to the short-term disorders of the motor function of E. coli. Exposure by EHF of the super weak intensity causes inhibition of red blood cell function, which manifests itself in a decrease in their ability to aggregate. Conclusions: Our experimental data also prove that the intake of water activated by means of EHF radiation modifies the functional status of patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005199
Title: Clinical and biochemical parameters of patients with oral galvanosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Practice Dentistry, Belgorod State University, Pobeda St., Belgorod, 308015, Russia.
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Aim: The clinical and biochemical parameters of patients with oral galvanosis were studied. A comprehensive examination of patients with galvanosis, which included an assessment of dental and somatic status, as well as a study of the content of low- and medium-molecular-weight substances (LMMWSs) in plasma, erythrocytes, and mixed saliva, was held. Materials and Methods: Patients with galvanosis who were also likely to have diseases of the digestive system, diseases of the circulatory system, and diseases of the nervous system prevail among comorbidities. Consequently, the course of the underlying disease in the examined patients is complicated by concomitant somatic pathology due to the observed polymorbidity. Results: The absolute values of the current value recorded in the oral cavity do not correlate with the subjective and objective manifestations of galvanosis. A positive average correlation was found between the severity of the development of galvanosis and the level of impedance in the oral cavity (r = 0.573, P < 0.001). The high level of LMMWSs in the blood (22.12 ± 0.77 c.u.) and mixed saliva (29.88 ± 0.62 c.u.) in patients with galvanosis indicates endogenous intoxication resulting from the impairment of many organs and systems, which is confirmed by the history and examination data. Conclusion: The placement of dental material into the oral cavity increases the degree of toxic load and has a negative impact on the surrounding tissues and the body as a whole.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00005198
Title: Efficacy of etanercept compared to combination of etanercept and methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with a sparse response to methotrexate
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The primary objective of this study was to assess the relative efficacy of etanercept (ETN) monotherapy and combination of ETN with methotrexate (MTX) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with an inadequate response to MTX. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 46 patients aged 18–70 years who have already been diagnosed with active adult onset RA despite MTX monotherapy (≥7.5 mg and ≤15 mg/week) for at least 3 months. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups. Those who were given monotherapy with ETN 50 mg once weekly were assigned to Group I. Those who were given combination therapy of ETN added to the baseline dose of MTX (7.5 mg to 15 mg/week) were assigned to Group II. Modified three variable disease activity score DAS28(3) counting 28 joints DAS28(3), C-reactive protein, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was obtained from each recruited patients before commencement of therapy and at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 after commencement of therapy and was statistically analyzed. Results: The mean DAS28(3) score between two groups at week 16 showed significant difference (4.218 vs. 3.146; 95% CI ‒1.810–‒0.334; P = 0.0054; difference between mean: ‒1.072 ± 0.3662). Primary efficacy endpoint as well as secondary parameters showed better improvement in Group II. Conclusion: Group II who received a combination of ETN and MTX showed better results when compared to Group I who received ETN monotherapy in reducing disease activity and slowing down disease progression in patients with active RA with an inadequate response to MTX.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005197
Title: Biochemical studies on free radical scavenging activities and lipid peroxidation levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol combination with Liv-52 on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver disease i
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Meenakshi Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, MAHER University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol combination with Liv-52 on CCl4 induced liver disease in Wistar rats. Material and Methods: The hepatoprotective potential of vitamin D and liv-52 in rats was evaluated following intraperitoneally administration of CCl4, which enhanced hepatic oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, we found that CCl4 administration caused over expression of the free radicals and lipid peroxidation during the experiment. Results: Administration of vitamin D and liv-52 showed hepatic protection by significantly reduced expression of free radicals and LPO levels comparable to group I animals. Discussion: These findings were augmented with the biochemical results in which vitamin D and liv-52 was able to show an improvement in the liver condition. Conclusion: The results of current study indicate that, vitamin D combination with liv-52 may be a potential hepatoprotective effect against free radical scavenging activities and LPO.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005196
Title: Artificial intelligence and internet of medical things based health-care system for real-time maternal stress – strategies to reduce maternal mortality rate
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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Work pressure and stress are the major issues which affect human health, mainly in the case of pregnant women. The main purpose of this article is how internet of things (IoT) and artificial intelligence can help us to control the mortality rate. IoT allows health-care professionals to be more attentive and to communicate proactively with patients. Nowadays, many people using various smart devices/IoT devices for constant health monitoring for infants. The findings are viewed through the IoT on the smartphone. The internet of medical things (IoMT) – network of interconnected medical devices – is an application of IoT for medical and health-related uses, collection of data, processing for testing, and monitoring. These IoMT devices are rapidly changing health-care delivery. Medical devices provide to send data over a shared network through WIFI.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005195
Title: Incidence of oral stress ulcers among dentistry students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Mouth ulcers are small, painful lesions that develop in the mouth or at the base of gums. They can make eating, drinking, and talking painful. Stress, anxiety, and depression are the most common causes of oral ulcers among dentistry students as they more likely tend to bite their cheeks and lips when anxious or stressed causing trauma to mouth and eventually leading to the development of oral stress ulcers. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the occurrence of oral stress ulcers among dentistry students during their course tenure. Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted among dentistry students across various dental colleges using a questionnaire. The questions were related to the frequency of occurrence of oral stress ulcers during their course tenure. A total of 15 questions were included. Results: About 86.8% of the students have experienced the occurrence of oral stress ulcers more than twice during their course tenure, 10.2% of the students have experienced the occurrence of oral stress ulcers only twice during their course tenure, 2.68% of the students have experienced the occurrence of oral stress ulcers only once during their course tenure, and 0.32% of the students seem to have not experienced the occurrence of oral stress at all. Conclusion: The high occurrence of oral stress ulcers among dentistry students highlights the importance of providing support programs and implementing preventive measures to help students, particularly those who are most susceptible to higher levels of these psychological conditions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005194
Title: Ceramic veneers – A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Anterior teeth esthetics has always been a challenge for clinicians. For anterior teeth with spacing and discoloration with no carious involvement, ceramic veneers are one of the best treatment options. However, it requires minimal and accurate preparation along with good communication with the dental technician to fabricate the veneers. With the advent of various new types of ceramics, the choice of selection of material is also to be done diligently. This review article describes the various aspects of ceramic veneers for its preparation and fabrication which can serve as a guide for clinicians to successfully plan a case of ceramic veneers for anterior esthetics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005173
Title: A review on good distribution practices
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Quality in the manufacturing and distribution of medicinal product is regarded to be the most important component of the pharmaceutical industry. The quality of the medicinal products corresponds to its goal of patients’ healing. Distribution of the drug is a central operation in the integrated pharmaceutical supply chain management. Specific storage environments and shelf life are the two difficulties of the supply chain for pharmaceutical products. Therefore, the management of the quality of medicinal products during delivery is crucial. To resolve this issue, regulatory authorities have provided guidelines on good distribution practices (GDPs). It is regarded as an integral basis of the pharmaceutical supply chain of management for ensuring the orderly delivery of medicinal products. Everyone involved in the supply chain must conform to relevant laws and regulations to preserve the actual quality of medical products. This article basically deals with the basic concept, importance, elements, global picture, and chapters involved in the GDPs guidelines.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005172
Title: Antianxiety effect of Phyllanthus amarus ethanolic extract in arsenic administered Wistar albino rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Kanachur Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore - 575 018, Karnataka, India.
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Introduction: Arsenic (As) causes central and peripheral nervous system disorders. Treatment of As-induced disorders remains a challenge due to the lack of effective agents. Medicinal herbs can play a pivotal role in this aspect. Phyllanthus amarus is one among the indigenous medicinal plants with a lot of health benefits. The present study assessed the antianxiety effect of P. amarus ethanolic leaves extract in As-induced central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. Materials and Methods: Healthy adult Wistar albino rats of either sex were used for the study. Antianxiety activity of ethanolic leaves extract of P. amarus was evaluated using two models – Elevated Plus Maze and Light Dark Arena. After pharmacological experiments, animals were euthanized and brain dopamine levels were estimated. Results and Discussion: P. amarus leaves ethanolic extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg significantly increased time spent in the open arms/light arena, shortened time spent in the closed arms/dark arena when compared to As treated rats. Sodium arsenite significantly decreased the activity of dopamine in the whole brain homogenate of rats. In treated groups, P. amarus ethanolic extract effectively increased the levels of dopamine; hence, it improved anxiety in the rat model. Conclusion: P. amarus leaves ethanolic extract has significant antianxiety activity in As-induced animal models.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005171
Title: Saliva as a diagnostic fluid in diabetes mellitus – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Madha Dental College, Chennai - 600 069, Tamil Nadu, India
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome affecting the entire body characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion or its action or both. Various methods are available in the diagnosis of DM, but an easy, simpler, and noninvasive method is using saliva in the diagnosis of the disease. Saliva is a complex body fluid secreted with a lot of variety of constituents. In DM, the glucose enters the saliva early from blood, leading to various amounts of glucose concentration in saliva in diabetes. Various studies have shown changes in saliva under stimulated and unstimulated conditions. It had shown weak to the strong positive correlation between salivary glucose and blood glucose levels in both Type I and Type II diabetes patients. Furthermore, studies showed that salivary glucose levels were higher in unstimulated saliva than stimulated condition and some other studies did not show any significant difference in glucose concentration in saliva under stimulated and unstimulated conditions. Thus, saliva-based tests are used to diagnose, monitor the glucose levels in diabetic patients. Hence, in conclusion, salivary glucose with other salivary biomarkers may create an effective high sensitivity and specificity for screening DM in the near future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00005170
Title: The antidiabetic tablet formulation of pisang tongka langit (Musa troglodytarum L.) extract with Polyvinylpyrrolidone variations as binders
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, 45363, Indonesia.
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Objectives: The tablet dosage form is one of the dosage forms which can keep the extract contains more stable so that its properties are guaranteed. The objective of this study was to formulate the antidiabetic tablet of pisang tongka langit (Musa troglodytarum L.) extract with polyvinylpyrrolidone variations as binders. Materials and Methods: In this research, a tablet formulation of sticks sky fruit banana extract using wet granulation method through optimization of filler and binder variation. The optimization results showed that the formula with avicel PH 101 was the formula with the best filler. Binder variations used are 1%, 3%, and 5%. Of the three formulations, physical evaluation of granules and tablets was carried out, namely flow power, rest angle, and moisture content for granules and evaluation of weight, hardness, friability, and disintegration time for tablets. A thin-layer chromatography test was applied to determine whether any changes to the active compound extract. Results: It showed that the three tablet formulations did not damage or eliminate the chemical content of the extract of the fruit of the sticks sky fruit banana. Evaluation results were used to determine the best formula for the three formulas. Conclusion: From the evaluation results, it could be concluded that the best formula as formula 1.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005169
Title: Myths and dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, DR. MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai - 600 107, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Myths are traditional believes that are being followed by many people in many parts of the world. In their day- to-day life, dental professionals come across lots of patients following the myths. Myths can be prevalent in a population due to a variety of reasons such as cultural beliefs, social misconceptions, and poor education. Even though there are many awareness programs conducted, people still follow these myths ardently. Hence, understanding about the common myths prevailing in our country would help the professional in educating and providing a better oral health care. Aim: This study aims to acquire knowledge about various myths and misconceptions about oral heath present among the people. Objective: The objective of the study was as follows: (1) To identify the common myths and misconceptions in dentistry and (2) to create awareness among people about oral health. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the outpatient department. Over 270 participants visited during the study period and agreed to participate in the study that constituted the final sample. Eleven self-structured closed-ended questions were formed and given to the participants for their answers. The collected data were subjected for statistical analysis and Chi-square test was performed. Results: The 270 participants were grouped based on gender and education status. It showed that an average of 60.7% of our total participants believe in myths out of which most of them were male. There was a high significant value for most of the questions based on education status of the participants. Conclusion: Even though people are educated about the common oral problems and hygiene practices, education about various other oral issues has to be taken to the public. Dentist and media play a major role in creating awareness among people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005168
Title: Effectiveness of aromatherapy on after pain and fatigue among postnatal mothers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Technical and Medical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Pain is pain, but it’s not all the same the international association for the study of pain. Maternal fatigue is a subjective experience of whole body, encompassing the physical, emotional and cognitive functioning in the postpartum mothers. Aromatherapy is become a frequently used non biomedical method of managing pain and it also helps in promoting, relaxation, mood stimulation, sleep promotion. Aims: The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of aromatherapy on after pain and fatigue among postnatal mothers. Materials and Methods: A quantitative quasi experimental research design was conducted among 30 postnatal mothers by using a convenience sampling technique and 15 were divided in control and experimental group. The demographic data was collected using structured interview questionnaire. The pre-test was done to assess level of after pain by visual analogue scale and level of fatigue by fatigue assessment scale for both the experimental and control group. The experimental group was given aromatherapy by lavender oil, the control group was given a routine care and then the post test was done. Results and Discussion: The study results show that the level of fatigue was considerably reduced in the experimental group than the control group in the post test at P<0.005.This indicates aromatherapy is effective non pharmacological method and cost effective method to treat after pain and fatigue among postnatal mothers. Conclusion: The result of the study is it was concluded that aromatherapy as no side effects and it is easy and comfortable method which can be practiced to treat after pain and fatigue.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005167
Title: Comparative evaluation of rapid prototyping and computer-aided milling in prosthodontics: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics and Implant Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The evolution of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture and rapid shift prototyping technologies has led to a dramatic paradigm shift in all disciplines of dentistry, especially in the fields of prosthodontics and restorative dentistry. The integration of these systems with advances in biomaterials, such as zirconia high-strength ceramics, has led to an overhaul in prosthodontic patient education and health care. This article aims at reviewing the advantages, disadvantages of the use of rapid prototyping and computer-aided milling in prosthodontics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005166
Title: Soft-tissue evaluation before dental implant placement among dental clinicians: A questionnaire survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics and Implant Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Soft-tissue esthetics are one of the major factors to be considered before and following the dental implant placement. Providing an esthetic restoration in the anterior region of the mouth has been the basis of peri-implant esthetics. To achieve this optimal esthetics, the mucosal tissue biotype plays an integral part during the implant treatment planning. The peri-implant mucosa consists of crestal bone and mucosal soft tissue around it. Both these parameters must be taken into consideration to achieve optimum implant esthetics. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, awareness, and practice among dental clinicians about the factors considered for the evaluation of the soft-tissue esthetics before dental implant placement. Materials and Methods: The study was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. A total of 120 dentists were contacted to participate in the study. The target population entailed dental clinicians practicing dental implantology. Results: The total response rate recovered was 70% and the respondents comprised 30 males and 54 females, respectively. Only 68% of the dental clinicians knew the importance of this biotype of gingival tissue. Conclusion: The results showed that the knowledge, awareness, and practice of the general dentists regarding the importance of soft-tissue evaluation before dental implant treatment was not satisfactory. The implementation of the appropriate soft-tissue evaluation during the implant therapy planning will ensure an excellent esthetic outcome.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00005165
Title: Tissue adhesive: A boon or bane
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Tissue bioadhesives are widely used in dermatology, surgery rooms, and in the field. Soft-tissue wounds and incisions are generally closed using sutures and staples, but those leave marks behind and can be very unpleasant for patients. In some cases, such as cosmetic surgery, specialty adhesives are used to fuse tissues together. However, these can be toxic and they tend to solidify into a harder form than native tissue. Here, a new approach is described for wound closure that is based on a biocompatible, low melting point four armed N-hydroxy succinimide modified polycaprolactone. It is inserted into a hot melt glue gun, melts on minimal pressure, and is extruded directly onto the wound, where it solidifies, bonding strongly with both edges of the wound and thus results in curing the wound.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005164
Title: A study to assess the effectiveness of ophthalmic exercises on visual discomfort among computer workers in selected company, Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Health Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background of the Study: Vision could be a complex perceptual process that is often mistakenly believed to be purely mechanical. The complexity of human vision implies that almost a fifth of the brain is dedicated to visual processing cells. Eye discomfort could be common ill health experienced by computer users. Often, people are unaware of existing visual problems which will only come to light once they begin using computers due to the demand for the sensory system of this work is very high. Ophthalmic exercise reduces the danger of disease. Ophthalmic exercise is important for the nice vision of someone. However, the necessity of data and attitude may cause reduced eye problems. Proper ophthalmic exercise and adequate vision conditions play a significant role in reducing eye problems in developing countries. Aim: The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of ophthalmic exercises on visual discomfort among computer workers in a selected company, Chennai. Material and Methods: A quantitative true experimental research design was conducted among 50 computer workers. A random purposive sampling technique was used to select samples. Self-administered structured questionnaires were used to collect demographic data, and visual discomfort was assessed. The ophthalmic exercises were taught to the company workers and they were asked to perform the exercise every day for 1 week. After a week, the visual discomfort was reassessed. Result: The present study also shows that the demographic variable age had shown statistically significant association with the post-test level of visual discomfort among computer workers at P < 0.05 level, and the other demographic variables had not shown statistically significant association with the post-test level of visual discomfort among computer workers. Conclusion: The study thus indicates that the computer workers had a reduction in visual discomfort score after ophthalmic exercise and is also an effective method to prevent further complications that can be caused due to the computer vision syndrome.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005163
Title: A study to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching program on knowledge regarding pre-eclampsia among antenatal mothers at government hospital, Thiruvallur
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Pre-eclampsia is the most common hypertensive disorder during the 20th week of pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia which causes high blood pressure, protein leaks from the kidneys into the urine, and other conditions can affect any pregnant women. It usually characterized by edema, proteinuria, and convulsions. Hypertension can be characterized by pressure values equal to or higher than 140/90 mmHg usually from the second trimester of pregnancy. The main objective of this study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching program regarding pre-eclampsia among antenatal mothers in government hospital, Thiruvallur. Quantitative approach and a quasi-experimental design one-group pre-test and post-test research design were adopted. The sample size was 60 antenatal mothers selected using non-probability convenient sampling technique from government hospital, Thiruvallur. The sample size for this study is antenatal mothers in the 2nd or 3rd trimester. Pre-test was conducted to assess the knowledge of antenatal mother followed by the administration of planned teaching program. The study finding revealed that after the administration of planned teaching program among antenatal mother’s, post-test mean score of knowledge was 14.40 with standard deviation 3.29 that was higher than the pre-test mean score of knowledge was 5.30 with standard deviation 2.38. Hence, there was a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge scores, and the hypothesis was accepted. The calculated paired “t” test value of t = 15.915 was found to be statistically highly significant at P < 0.001 association between post-test knowledge scores and sociodemographic variables. This clearly infers that there is significantly improvement in the post-test level of knowledge regarding pre-eclampsia among antenatal mothers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005162
Title: Assessment of knowledge and practice of self-medication among urban and rural population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical and Surgical Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Self-medication practice is expanding generally because of the accessibility of a variety of over the counter medications. Self-medication increases the odds of illegal utilization of medication and can prompt medication dependency. Because of uncontrolled utilization of OTC medications, signs and symptoms of underlying illnesses are suppressed thus occurrence of delayed diagnosis, complications, treatment failure and drug resistance are expanding. Utilization of Over the counter medication as well as self- medication is an extremely basic issue in India. Aims: The present study aims are to evaluate the knowledge and practice Of Self-medication among the urban and rural populations in selected urban and rural areas. Methods and materials: A Cross-sectional research design were used for the study. A total of 100 participants were selected using a Convenient sampling technique. Data were gathered using a self-structured questionnaire through a structured interview method. Results: The outcomes portray that majority of the rural (94%) and urban (80%) participants had adequate knowledge. The examination likewise uncovers that there was a high level of self- medication practice among rural (72%) than urban (52%) participants respectively. There was a significant association of knowledge with Education among urban participants and monthly income among rural participants. There was a noteworthy relationship of practice with the occupation among rural and type of family among rural & urban participants. Conclusion: The present study reveals that rural population had more knowledge and practice on self-medication than the urban population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005161
Title: A retrospective evaluation of the cervical dimensions of the maxillary anteriors at the level of the emergence from the soft tissue in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The emergence profile of the implant restoration is determined by the soft-tissue contour. After tooth extraction, not only does the bone resorb, but also the soft tissue over it simultaneously collapses. Maintaining the soft-tissue contour is crucial to ensure natural-appearing restoration emerging out of the gingiva. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cervical dimensions of maxillary anteriors at the level of the emergence of the tooth on CBCTs. Materials and Methods: A cross- sectional descriptive study was conducted on 100 CBCT scans from a database available at the Radiology Department of Saveetha Dental College. The buccolingual and the mesiodistal dimensions of all maxillary anteriors were measured across the height of contour of the opposing sides. Results: The average dimensions for the maxillary central incisor are 7.6 ± 0.73 mm buccolingually and 6.3 ± 0.58 mm mesiodistal; maxillary lateral incisor is 6.1 ± 0.81 mm buccolingually and 4.7 ± 0.79 mm mesiodistal, and finally, the maxillary canine is 7.7 ± 0.85 mm and 6.4 ± 0.92 mm mesiodistal at the cervical level of the tooth emergence. Conclusion: This study established the average dimensions of maxillary anteriors at the cervical level in the Indian population, but also to aid in giving an idea of the gingival contours to be established in the implant prosthesis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005160
Title: Retraining cervical joint position sense in smartphone users: Comparison of two exercise regimes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Vels University, School of Physiotherapy, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) versus craniocervical flexion training (CCF) on cervical joint position sense of smartphone users. Methodology: An experimental study was done with 49 female subjects of age 18–25 years. They were divided into Groups A and B: CCF group and PNF group, respectively. Subjects who scored ≥99 in Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version and fulfilling the exclusion criteria were taken into the study. The study duration was 4 weeks. Pain, cervical AROM, and joint position sense were assessed using numeric pain rating scale, goniometer, and joint position sense error testing, respectively. Results: Paired t-test was used to statistically analyze the data. Both the groups showed equal significance in terms of retraining joint position sense with P ˂ 0.001. Group A and Group B showed comparatively more significance in reducing pain and increasing cervical AROM, respectively. Conclusion: Both the exercise regimes proved effective in retraining cervical joint position sense of smartphone users.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005159
Title: The digital single lens reflex versus iPhone 7 plus in dental photography - A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Intraoral and extraoral photography is employed in orthodontics for documentation purposes. The ideal characteristics orthodontic photography is minimally distorted images or 1:1 magnification, a good depth of field and adequate illumination. Ideally, all the above characteristics should be standardized within one series of images, as well as consistent over long periods of time. The aim of this survey was to compare the image characteristics and operator perception of dental intraoral photographs taken using a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera and the dual camera of iPhone 7 plus. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of twenty images based multiple choice questions taken using a DSLR camera and an iPhone 7 plus were distributed among 100 orthodontists in the city. Various image characteristics such as contrast, brightness, depth of field, color reproducibility, clarity, and noise were used for the evaluation of photographs. Results: The primary outcome measure of this study was to assess the orthodontists’s perception toward the various image characteristics of intraoral photographs taken professionally using DSLR camera and the iPhone 7 plus. Discussion: About 84% of the participants felt that the pictures taken on the DSLR were better, 13% felt that the intraoral photographs on the dual camera of the iPhone 7 plus were better, while a meagre 2% found no significant difference.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005158
Title: Assessing the application of anatomical knowledge in clinical practice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Technical and Medical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the necessity of anatomical knowledge in clinical practice among dentists. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the necessity and importance of anatomical knowledge in clinical practice among dentists. Introduction: The anatomy is a fundamental subject and a branch of medical sciences dealt with the study of body parts with relations of each and every individual structure through dissection. The anatomy is the fundamental subject in biological, medical, dentistry, and other paramedical fields. It is achieved by dissecting and demonstrating the cadavers, and the knowledge is correlated with living subjects during medical examinations. Among the basic medical subject, the anatomy is such an important and difficult subject. The difficulties are mainly due to new terminologies and medical languages. There are studies that have conducted a questionnaire-based surveys to determine how anatomical knowledge is sustained and how the professionals are used in day-to-day surgical and clinical practicing. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire-based survey was conducted among dental students and practitioners in Chennai. The collected data were analyzed and expressed in a pie chart. Results: The present study has observed that the most of the individuals felt that the difficult subject amongst basic medical sciences subject is an anatomy. Conclusion: The present study, thus, concluded that knowledge of anatomy is of utmost important for successful clinical, dental, and others paraclinical practicing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005157
Title: Preliminary phytochemical analysis and total phenol content of aqueous leaf extract of Pterocarpus marsupium
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Pterocarpus marsupium also known as Malabar kino. It belongs to Fabaceae family and its native is India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. It is a part of herbal medicine used as a treatment for chronic diarrhea and gastric infection. Aim: This study aims to estimate the phytochemical analysis and total phenolic content of P. marsupium. Materials and Methods: The plant sample was bought from herbal health care center. The herb P. marsupium was used in this study. The aqueous extract of P. marsupium was prepared. The phytochemical analysis was qualitatively analyzed and total phenol content was quantitative analyzed. Results: The phytochemical analysis has revealed the presence of an increased concentration of alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids. The total phenolic content of P. marsupium was quantitatively measured to be 3.3 mg/g. Discussion: From the study, it is evident that the leaf extract is rich in phytochemical and total phenol content. Any herbal extract rich in total phenol content can act as potential antioxidant. Conclusion: P. marsupium is a plant with great potential and need to be further explored by future research.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005156
Title: Preliminary phytochemical analysis and total phenolic content of the ethanolic seed extract of Ocimum sanctum
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Ocimum sanctum L. commonly known as holy basil, tulasi, or tulsi, an aromatic perennial plant belonging to the family Lamiaceae is considered as an Ayurvedic herb of Southeast Asia with a long history of traditional use. The phytochemical compounds present in it is highly complex containing many nutrients and other biologically active compounds which pose it as a medicinally valuable plant, that is, being used for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, etc. Materials and Methods: The seed extract of O. sanctum was analyzed for its phytochemical constituents and total phenolic content. Results: In the present study, the ethanolic seed extracts of tulsi were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening tests. It was found that it contains alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, and phlobatannins and total phenolic content on an increased amount. Conclusion: Investigations on the phytochemical aspects of the plant reveal high potential of tulsi to be used as a medicine for quite a number of life-threatening ailments, especially cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005155
Title: Comparison of learning efficiency of urine analysis using conventional test tube method and reagent strip method among undergraduates attending pathology practicals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the learning efficiency of urine analysis obtained through conventional test tube method and reagent strip method among the undergraduates during their pathology practical examination. Background: This study was to identify the pros and cons of each method of urine analysis practiced and to analyze the most precise method of analysis. Results: From the study, it can be concluded that the learning efficiency of urine analysis using the reagent strip method is better than the conventional strip method. It is also time consuming and easy to be performed. Conclusion: The use of reagent strip method rather then conventional test tube method is less time consuming, reduces the ease of work and also helps us to perform multiple tests at the same time. Hence the use of reagent strip method can be recommended to perform urine analysis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005154
Title: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of jasmine oil – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Inflammation is a part of the complex biological response of vascular to harmful damaged cells, pathogens, or irritants. It is characterized by redness, swollen joints, joint pain, its stiffness, and loss of joint function. Jasmine is a small shrub, native, and cultivated in the warm part of Asia. The traditional use of this plant has analgesic, antidepressants, antiseptic, sedative, and tonic effects. Essential oil of jasmine is used as a fragrance for skincare products and reduces skin inflammation, tones the skin, and lifts up the mood. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of jasmine oil. Materials and Methods: Jasmine oil was purchased online and in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated using human red blood cells membrane stabilization method by hypotonicity-induced membrane lysis. Results and Discussion: Results showed that jasmine oil significantly increased the RBC membrane stability and decreased the hemolysis, which are measures of anti-inflammatory activity. The oil showed a dose-dependent increase in the activity. However, the activity was less when compared to the standard drug diclofenac. Conclusion: From the above study, it was found that jasmine oil possessed potential in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005152
Title: Nutraceutical regulations in ASEAN countries
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysore, Karnataka, India
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In today’s era of increased standards of lifestyle and life expectancy, there has been a constant demand of the supplements by the consumers. Nutraceuticals are one such example of the supplements. Although very big opportunity is there in this business, there are no uniform regulatory requirements in different regions. Every nation is looking forward toward nutraceutical sector to keep the population of its nation healthy and safe by introducing certain rules and regulations. In general, the developed countries have regulations in place, but there are some countries such as countries in Asia pacific regions or in ASEAN countries which are yet to tune their regulations for nutraceutical products. The ASEAN countries involve highly commercialized markets such as Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The overall nutraceuticals market of ASEAN countries is growing at a CAGR rate of 8.4% approximately. In this, about 40% of the population consumes nutraceuticals on daily basis. ASEAN countries are coming up with harmonized regulation for dietary supplements. This could be one of the greatest opportunities for the manufacturers to introduce their products in ASEAN market. A special unit of Traditional Medicines and Health Supplements Product Working Group (TMHA PWG) helps the manufacturer to understand the regulatory procedure of these countries. Despite of countries own special requirements; the manufacturers can follow the standards and harmonized guidelines given by this working group. This present article is a first initiative to introduce the regulatory procedure and requirement for the international business developers to launch any new nutraceutical product into the ASEAN market.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005151
Title: Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of Coldenia procumbens
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Despite the growing and advancing technological methods of treating various diseases, the most straight forward and uncomplicated method of treating diseases without any side effects dates back to ancient ayurvedic medicine and herbs. Materials and Methods: Phytochemicals of the extract was qualitatively analyzed and the antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of the extract was estimated. Result: The ethanolic extract of this herb showed a significantly high concentration of phytochemicals and concluded that this herb could be useful in curing various diseases apart from being a part of higher in vitro studies. Conclusion: The present study aims at determining the antioxidant potential and the phytochemical constituents of an annual herb vastly found in India and South Africa, namely, Coldenia procumbens.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005150
Title: Preliminary phytochemical analysis and total phenol content of aqueous fruit extract of Sambucus nigra
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Sambucus nigra is a deciduous shrub and a flowering plant belonging to the Adoxaceae family. It is native to most parts of Europe and North America. The ancient Romans used it in the treatment of chest diseases and were used in folk medicine in Turkey. Several types of bioactive compounds such as antioxidants, Vitamins A and C, and protein can be derived from the extract of the black elderberry fruit. Materials and Methods: S. nigra dried fruit powder was purchased from online herbal and care and cure center. About 79% aqueous fruit extract of S. nigra was prepared. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was done to find the phytochemical constituents of the extract and also total phenol content was quantitatively estimated. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phytochemicals such as phlobatannins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids. Carbohydrates were found comparatively more than the other phytochemicals. The total phenol content of the extract was found to be 5.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/g. Conclusion: S. nigra fruit extract was found to be rich in antioxidants due to its high phenol content. Further, in vivo researches are required to analyze its antioxidant and anticancer potential to find applications in health care.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005149
Title: Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of Capparis tomentosa Lam.: A review
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Raya University, Ethiopia.
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Capparis tomentosa belongs to the family Capparaceae commonly referred Afrikaans. The species is reported to occur in Botswana, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland (which is documented as native), and Kenya (exotic). Conventionally, this plant has been used for cooking and medicinal purpose and its flower buds are trading in the international market and also its consummation. It is used for medicinal purposes, as food spice, in ritual cleansing, and for decorative purposes in Zimbabwe, Senegal, South Africa, and in Kenya where it is native. In herbal and traditional medicine, C. tomentosa is used to treat rheumatism, madness, snakebite, chest pain, jaundice, malaria, headache, coughs, pneumonia, constipation, infertility, and to prevent abortions. It is used to treat leprosy, tuberculosis, and gonorrhea. The phytochemicals that give the plant its unique biological activity are alkaloids, L’stachydrine, saponin glycosides, alkaloids, phytosterols, terpenoids, tannins, sterol, polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthranoids. Two important alkaloids, stachydrine, and 3-hydroxy-4 methoxy-3-methly-oxindole have been isolated from C. tomentosa. In this review, it has been shown that the plant parts (root, leaves, and fruit) have many traditional values, pharmacological uses, and phytochemical constituents that are an excellent source of healing or curing various diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005148
Title: Appraisal of Jatropha curcas leaf characteristic as a natural anti-vaginal candidiasis
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia.
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Aim: The aim of the study was to appraise the antifungal properties of Jatropha curcas leaf ethanolic extract against Candida albicans as the most causative pathogen of vaginal candidiasis. Materials and Methods: The dried J. curcas leaf was extracted in 70% ethanol using a maceration method. The extract was then analyzed using a standard method to detect the antifungal phytochemical constituent. The antifungal potential of the extract was investigated using the agar diffusion method. To appraise the antifungal properties, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the extract was determined using the microdilution method. The MIC result then subcultured on the surface of agar media to obtain the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). As an anti-vaginal candidiasis candidate, the antifungal activity of the extract was compared to ketoconazole using the agar diffusion method. Results and Discussion: The extraction of J. curcas leaf yielded a thick extract in a weight of 228.92 g. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas leaves contained phytochemical compounds as follows: Tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and steroids. The extract exhibited a dose-dependent antifungal activity against C. albicans. The MIC value of the extract exhibited the same range of concentration as the MFC value, i.e., 0.1 < MIC < 0.2 mg/mL. The comparative test value of extracts against ketoconazole is 1:96,078.78. Conclusion: We conclude that the antifungal characteristics of J. curcas leaf ethanolic extract are a fungicidal agent with a strong antifungal activity against C. albicans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005147
Title: Awareness of book reading habit among college students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Reading is an important skill that an individual acquires from childhood through their learning skills. It is very crucial to have a well-developed reading habit when you are students as it shapes the identity and personality of the individual. The activity of reading starts during childhood and persists throughout school and college. In the current generation of advanced science and technology, one does not only stick to book reading but also involves in digital learning and newer innovations. This has aroused a requirement to spread awareness regarding book reading habits of students from a different college. Materials and Methods: This study adopted a survey method among students of different colleges to discuss book reading habits of students. Results and Conclusion: Students should be made aware of the traditional book reading habits to incorporate it into their daily life, thereby reducing screen time and provide better goal planning skills..

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005146
Title: Knowledge, attitude and awareness about periodontal problems caused by smoking among smokers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India *Corresponding author: Dr. V.B.
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Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and the awareness about periodontal problems caused by smoking among smokers. Introduction: The periodontium is composed of the gingiva, alveolar mucosa, cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. These components serve to support the teeth in their alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is a general term used to describe specific diseases that affect the gingiva and the supporting connective tissue and alveolar bone, which anchor the teeth in the jaws. The periodontal diseases are among the most common chronic disorders that have plagued humans for centuries. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among 100 smokers who volunteered were taken for the study. Moreover, the corresponding data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: It is evident from the study that the knowledge and awareness about periodontal problems caused by smoking among smokers is very low. Conclusion: Periodontal problems are more common, especially among smokers. However, the awareness about periodontal problems caused by smoking among smokers is very low, hence, there is an immediate need to create awareness about periodontal problems caused by smoking among smokers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005145
Title: Recent changes in the draft new drugs and clinical trials rules in Indian regulatory system with current fees structure
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, SS Nagar, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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The draft rules shall apply to the clinical trial, bioavailability or bioequivalence study, new drugs, and regulation of ethics committee relating to clinical trial and biomedical health research. The definition of new drugs has been modified to incorporate a novel drug delivery system (NDDS), living modified organism, monoclonal antibody, stem cells, gene therapeutic products, xenografts, etc. These rules provide for constitution, registration, functions, etc., of ethics committee relating to clinical trials or bioavailability and bioequivalence study, constitution, and registration of ethics committee (EC) relating to biomedical and health research. Registration of such EC shall be regulated by an authority to be designated by the department of H.R., regulation of clinical trial, bioavailability and bioequivalence (BA/BE) study of new drugs, and investigational new drugs. Key provisions are discussed in the article.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005144
Title: Preliminary phytochemical analysis and total phenol content of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata (soursop leaves)
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Phytochemical screening refers to the extraction, screening, and identification of the medicinally active substances found in plants. Some of the bioactive substances that can be derived from plants are flavonoids, alkaloids, carotenoids, tannin, antioxidants, and phenolic compounds. Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. It is used to cure diabetes mellitus. It has been used in many cultures to treat various ailments, including headache, insomnia, diabetes, and rheumatism, to even treat cancer. Materials and Methods: The plant A. muricata was purchased in a nursery in Chennai. The plant was allowed to grow for a few days and the leaves were collected for the study. The leaves were washed and crushed in mortar and pestle with acetone. Results: The aqueous extract of A. muricata showed a good concentration of alkaloids and flavonoids, thus indicating a good antioxidant property. Conclusion: From the study, it is evident that phytochemical analysis revealed a good antioxidant property and total phenolic content is analyzed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005143
Title: Effectiveness of prone and supine position on respiratory pattern among neonates
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Newborns have irregular breathing patterns that concern new parents. They can breathe fast, take long pauses between breaths, and make unusual noises. A newborn takes 30–60 breaths per minute. This can slow down to 20 times per minute while they sleep. At 6 months, babies breathe about 25–40 times per minute. Newborns can also take rapid breaths and then pause for up to 10 s at a time. Aim: The present study aims are to assess the effectiveness of prone and supine position on a respiratory pattern among of neonates with respiratory problems. Materials and Methods: The research design for the study is pre-experimental research design with two group pre-test post-test design. Convenient sampling technique was used to select samples. Semi-structured interview was used to collect demographic data and bio-physiological method was to assess the respiratory pattern such as respiratory rate, respiratory depth, retraction, nasal flaring, and chest in drawing, wheezing, and oxygen saturation. The babies in experimental group were divided into two groups and placed in supine and prone position. After an hour, the respiratory pattern was re-assessed. Results: The study results show that the respiratory pattern variable wheezing had shown a statistically significant difference between the prone and supine position with a Chi- square value of 3.968 which was found to be statistically significant at P < 0.05. This indicates that prone position is more effective than supine position among neonates. Conclusion: Prone position also helps in maintaining respiratory pattern, especially oxygen saturation and helps in prompt recovery of the neonates from respiratory diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005142
Title: A study to assess the level of knowledge and level of anxiety on coronavirus disease 2019 among adults living in Adukkamparai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Communicable diseases are illnesses which result from infections by microorganisms called pathogens and are contagious among individuals. Bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi all cause disease which may be spread among organisms. Coronaviruses, so named due to the outer fringe of envelope proteins resembling a crown (“corona” in Latin), are a family of enveloped RNA viruses. The newest member of the coronavirus family (2019 nCoV) has been recently identified that results in acute and severe respiratory syndrome in humans. Hence, the study aimed to determine the knowledge and anxiety on COVID-19 among adults living in Adukkamparai. Material and Methods: The descriptive research design was employed with 100 samples matched the inclusion criteria and was selected by purposive sampling technique. Self- administered structured multiple choice questionnaires was administered to assess the knowledge level and Spielberger’s state anxiety scale was administered to assess anxiety level of samples. Results: The study findings inferred that the people do not have adequate knowledge on COVID-19 and had mild anxiety. Most of the adults had 57 (57%) had moderate knowledge, and 0 (0%) had adequate knowledge on COVID-19. There exists a mild level of anxiety among 61% and 28% experiences with a moderate level of anxiety and 11% experiences severe anxiety on COVID-19 among adults. The findings suggested that there was a significant association between the level of anxiety with their selected demographic variables. Conclusion: The present study had assessed knowledge and anxiety level toward COVID-19 during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak. Health education schemes aim at improving COVID-19 knowledge and helpful for encouraging optimistic attitudes and maintaining safe practices. Hopefully, under the combined efforts of Indian authorities and everyone Indian resident, India surely will win the battle against COVID-19 within the near future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005141
Title: Partial purification of leucine aminopeptidase from liver cancer patients in Iraq
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation:
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Introduction: Liver cancer is the growth and spread of abnormal cells within the liver. These tumors may be accidentally discovered when a colon Gram is performed for one reason or another and may be discovered when the patient complains of symptoms caused by the tumor, abdominal pain, a significant mass, yellowing, nausea, or liver failure symptoms. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 40 liver cancer patients and 40 apparently healthy individuals (20 males and 20 females) as control from Al-Amal Hospital, Iraq. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), GPT, GOT, ALP, and bilirubin were estimated using kits from Biolabo company (France) using colorimetric method. LAP was purified from the serum of liver cancer patients (15 mL of serum) using the following steps: (1) Addition ammonium sulfate (45%, 9 g), the precipitate was dissolved in a less amount of phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.2); (2) dialysis, phosphate buffer solution pH 7; (3) gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G50), pH 6 flow rate was 3 ml/min column (25 × 2 cm); and (4) ion exchange the flow rate was 3 ml/2 min according to the literature. Results: In this study, several biochemical parameters for liver cancer patients have been measured LAP, GPT and GOT, ALP, and bilirubin. Results showed a highly significant increase (P < 0.05) in the serum levels of LPA, GOT, GPT, ALP activity, and levels of total bilirubin in comparison with the control group. There were no significant differences between genders (males and females) and no significant differences between ages. LAP was purified from liver cancer patients using ammonium sulfate salt for precipitation then dialyses using 0.1 M Tris-HCL buffer pH7, then filtrated by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex G-50 followed by ion exchange. Kinetic study of purified enzyme shows that the optimum pH was 8.5, optimum temperature 37°C, Vma ×20.2 U/L, and Km 0.16 mM. Conclusion: There was a highly significant increase (P < 0.05) in the serum levels of LPA, GOT, GPT, ALP activity, and levels of total bilirubin in comparison with the control group. There were no significant differences between genders (males and females) and no significant differences between ages.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005134
Title: Coronaviruses seven outbreaks associated with OC43, 229E, severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV1, NL63, HKU1, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq.
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Background: Coronaviruses (CoVs) responsible for seven outbreaks during a period of six decades. Started with infection of hCov-229E at 1966 and hope to stop with severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV2 at 2020. They have a wide range of host animal and can transmit to human causing illness mainly concerned with respiratory tract infections. They originated from animal reservoirs such as bats, Chinese ferret masked palm civets, raccoon dogs, and domestic cats and can transmit the infection to human. Methodology: CT imaging, CBC, CRP, liver function, and coagulation assays were used as primary tests for suspected patients whose confirmed using real-time PCR assay along with serological test such as rapid test, ELISA, and other techniques based on antiviral specific Abs. Results: The results reveal symptoms of patients ranged from rhinorrhea, fever, cough to wide range of upper respiratory tract infections, and, occasionally, lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia and bronchiolitis. The results of diagnosis showed that CT imaging is helpful along with CBC and CRP assays as a primary screening test. The real-time PCR assay was the gold standard and sometime gives false negative may be due to inefficiency of sample collection and must be confirmed with a rapid test of ELISA IgM and IgG, especially after symptoms development. Wide range of antiviral was used for treatment success to cure the CoVs infections. Conclusions: CoVs seem to be having tendency for animal-human transmission along with targeting a special type of cells like those of respiratory tract to cause asymptomatic to severe infections easy to treat with prominent antiviral agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005106
Title: A prospective study on the knowledge of cervical cancer among female college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among Women. Cervical cancer ranks as the number one cancer among Indian females which accounts for 35% of all cancers in women. Objective: The Present study aims to access the female college students in Chennai. The high mortality rate is due to late stage reporting of the disease. Early detection of clinical features and treatment thereafter can reduce the mortality rate. Methods: A Study was a prospective cross-sectional study method. Sampling is done by prevalence sampling procedure. Women who satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in the study. A Questionaire was developed to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among the female college students. Results: In this study we intended to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and prevention among 100 professional college female students with a mean age of 18 years.All the respondents were single. Majority of the respondents were not aware about the cervical cancer.PAP smear testing, and human papilloma virus vaccine in 2019. Manifestations of most cancers stigma had been defined in terms of experienced(enacted)stigma, Such as isolation orverbal stigma, and expected (fear of)stigma,need to a most cancers diagnosis be disclosed. Conclusion: The examine results provide perception at the know-how and attitudes that physicians around Mangalore, India, have inregard to HPV and the potential for an HPV vaccination implementation application. This organization of health practitioner individuals has now not formerly been surveyed and shows new ways to approach a ordinary HPV vaccination program in India. Stigma was a feared final results of a most cancers analysis and defined as a barrier to screening, early analysis and remedy seeking for girls with symptoms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005107
Title: A review – The phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Tephrosia maxima
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute (Deemed to be University), Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Tephrosia maxima is found in India, Sri Lanka, and East Africa. The different parts of the plant such as leaves, seeds, and root of this plant have been used in ayurvedic medicine. These plant parts have been used in the treatment of different disorders. It has various active compounds. The present objective of the study is to discuss the various phytoconstituents and their pharmacological activities of the plant against numerous disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005108
Title: Comparison of reticulocyte count by two manual methods
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India *Corresponding author: Dr. M. P. Brundha, D
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Aim: This study aims to compare the conventional method and paper hole method for counting reticulocytes. Introduction: Reticulocytes are the immature cells formed during erythropoiesis. It can be seen in the peripheral blood. It appears slightly larger than a mature erythrocyte and has remnants of RNA within the cell. Reticulocyte count helps to analyze the specific cause of anemia. Materials and Methods: The blood samples were collected from the clinical laboratory of Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences. The counting of the reticulocytes was performed using two methods, conventional and paper hole method in the Department of Pathology at Saveetha Dental College. The data were collected and tabulated. Results: The results revealed that the paper hole method of counting the reticulocytes is more efficient as it takes lesser time to count the cells. Conclusion: The results from the present study show that the paper hole method can be used on cases where time is a major factor. The paper hole method is more efficient compared to the conventional method when time is a factor.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005109
Title: Awareness on uterine fibroids among menopausal women – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Uterine fibroids are the most common benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. The pathophysiology of uterine fibroids remains unknown, even though it is hypothesized that each fibroid is derived from a mutation in a single smooth muscle cell. Uterine fibroids are the most common neoplasm affecting women, and it has been contended that they occur in 70% of women by the onset of menopause. Despite the prevalence and significant impact of fibroids, public awareness about these uterine fibroids is extremely low. Hence, our present study aims for the amount of awareness present about uterine fibroids among menopausal women. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire survey was done among the 50 menopausal women in Chennai comprising 20 standardized questions. The questions covered all aspects of uterine fibroids including the term, prevalence, risk factors, complications, symptoms, and treatment. All the data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: The survey participants were between 40 and –55 years of age. In our population, about 58% of the participants previously heard of the term uterine fibroids. In our study, 30% of menopausal women are diagnosed with uterine fibroids in their lifetime and they also afraid of its future occurrence. Participants who already diagnosed with uterine fibroids had shown a little higher knowledge about the symptoms and treatment then the participants who are not diagnosed with uterine fibroids. Conclusion: Although our study showed, the majority aware of uterine fibroids many in our population showed some misconceptions about uterine fibroids. Survey results further suggest that there needs improved awareness and education.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005110
Title: Addiction toward video games among dental students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze whether there is an addiction toward videogames among dental students. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in Chennai among randomly selected dental students using a questionnaire. The question was related to addiction to videogames. Results: In the present study, dental students play video games among the 100 dental students. About 80% of the students were having the habit of playing videogames, nearly about 45% videogames for about 2 h or even more than that time. An equal percentage of them tried to overcome their addiction and other half of them did not take the initiative to come out of their addiction. The daily tasks of the students were also skipped very often for 25% and 25% had never skipped the tasks. Conclusion: From the study conducted, we can conclude that dental students are addicted toward video games. Dental students, due to the heavy workload, stress they play video games, and finally, they end addicted toward video games.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005111
Title: Knowledge and awareness of rotary instrumentation in endodontics among general dentists – A questionnaire- based survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: A rotary instrument is used to remove or reduce tooth matter and to shape teeth during endodontic procedure. Rotary instrument includes burs and endodontic files. Various brands of rotary instruments are currently available in the market which includes Dentsply Protaper, Mtwo, Endostar, K3 XF files, and Hero Shaper. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of endodontic instrumentation among general dentists. A questionnaire-based study was conducted among general dentists which includes various questions on rotary endodontics to assess their awareness of rotary endodontics. Materials and Methods: A sample of 100 general dentists was included in the survey practicing in Chennai.A self-administrated questionnaire was prepared in English to assess the knowledge and practice of the use of rotary instrumentation in endodontics. The participants were asked to mark the most appropriate answer which they felt to be significant. The participants were encouraged to approach the investigator in case of any clarification. Results: A total of 100 general dentists participated in the study, of which 87% were aware of rotary instrumentation in endodontics and 13% were not aware of rotary instrumentation in endodontics. Our study shows that about 58% of general dentists have attended continuing dental education (CDE) program regarding rotary instruments in endodontics and 42% have not attended any CDE program on rotary endodontics. Nearly 37% of general dentists are aware of rotary instrumentation through dental workshops, 32% know about rotary instruments through other dentists, and 27% of the general dentists are aware of rotary instrumentation through literature articles on rotary endodontics. Conclusion: Our study concludes that most of the general dentists were aware of rotary instrumentation in endodontics. However, majority of the dentists though they are aware and do not use rotary instruments in their daily practice. Decrease in working time was the advantage observed by most of the dentists and cost is the main disadvantage according to the dentists. Therefore, more knowledge is required for the dentists so that rotary instruments can be used in their daily practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005112
Title: Antiproliferative activity of vanilla stem extract on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Porur, Chennai - 600 116, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Cancer is one of the major health problem faced by developing countries. Breast cancer was found to be the second foremost reason of the death worldwide. Many of the existing anticancer drugs have serious side effects. In the current scenario, the use of herbal extract as anticancer drugs is increasing. In India, some orchids were used as medicine, one such an orchid is Vanilla planifolia. Hence, attempt has been made to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of ethanolic extract of stems of V. planifolia (ESVP) against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The antiproliferative effect of ethanolic ESVP against MCF breast cancer cell line was estimated by the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-- tetrazolium bromide assay. Various concentrations of ethanolic ESVP were subjected to the study which includes 7.8 mcg/mL, 15.6 mcg/mL, 31.2 mcg/mL, 62.5 mcg/mL, 125 mcg/mL, 250 mcg/mL, 500 mcg/mL, and 1000 mcg/mL. The IC50 value was calculated. The effect of extract on the cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometry. All experiments were performed in triplicates and statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5 version 5.01. Results: The MCF-7 cell viability with various concentrations of ethanolic ESVP 7.8 mcg/mL, 15.6 mcg/mL, 31.2 mcg/mL, 62.5 mcg/mL, 125 mcg/mL, 250 mcg/mL, 500 mcg/mL, and 1000 mcg/mL was found to be 82.17%, 74.285%, 66.99%, 58.71%, 50.43%, 43.67%, 35.52%, and 27.30%. The IC50 value was found to be 125 mcg/ml. The cell viability activity was found to be dose dependent. In vanilla stem extract-treated MCF-7 cells, 16% cells showed apoptosis. It was higher than the control. G0/G1 stage showed 50.72% and S phase showed 12.3% and 17.42% of cells in G2/M phase. Conclusions: There was a significant antiproliferative activity observed in ethanolic ESVP against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005113
Title: Nitrosamine impurities: The European policy review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru - 570 015, Karnataka, India.
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Nitrosamines belong to the family of carcinogenic impurities, which are formed by various chemical reactions. They are listed under Class 1 impurities as given in ICH M7 (R1). The presence of nitrosamines above acceptable limits is considered to produce carcinogenic effects on the human body. Regulatory attention toward nitrosamines is due to the incident that occurred in 2018, the presence of these impurities in blood pressure medicines known as “Sartans” which lead to a product recall. The European Commission has made few manufacturing changes which are required for these medicines along with a Q&A addressing the nitrosamines, particularly for market authorization holders. The present study highlights that the effect of nitrosamines on human health also provides the regulatory requirements as per ecological momentary assessments latest guidelines.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005114
Title: Impact of molecular response time achievement on survival of chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia patients treated by imatinib
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Hematology and Medical Oncology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University – Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia
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Background: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is the most common myeloproliferative disorder. BCR-ABL, the CML cell, contains oncogene makes tyrosine kinase protein which causes cells to grow and reproduce out of control. Recently, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, namely, imatinib had high efficacy in CML treatment. Importantly, quantification of BCR-ABL transcripts is the most sensitive method to monitor molecular response at deeper levels than the hematologic and cytogenetic response to achieve an excellent outcome. Objective: We described the molecular response, time achievement, and the impact on survival in CML patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective medical record of 143 BCR-ABL positive chronic phase CML patients have been treated by imatinib 400 mg. The hematological response was determined and the molecular response was assigned by BCR-ABL quantification. The time to achieve major molecular response (MMR) was defined by ≤0.10% ratio of BCR-ABL to ABL control gene and its impact on median survival. Results: In our study, the median age at presentation was 45 years (range 12–73 years). Male to female ratio was 2:1. Patients achieved MMR on 12, 18, and 24 months were 8 (5.5%), 26 (18.2%), and 26 (18.2%), respectively. Patients achieved MMR in <24 months have longer median survival 83.8 (77.4–90.8) months compared to 58.9 (51.7–66.2) of those who failed to achieve it in 24 months, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Our data have shown time to MMR achievement had an impact on survival. The patients that did not achieve MMR had a poorer clinical outcome. Early recognition and prompt treatment of these patients can improve outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005115
Title: Oral and maxillofacial manifestations of chronic kidney diseases – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) involves an irreversible loss of renal function. Renal failure can result in large spectrum of oral manifestations such as uremic stomatitis, dry mouth, taste change, mucosal petechiae and ecchymosis, renal osteodystrophy, and periodontal diseases. The dental management of CKD patients may be complex due to the medications taken by the patient for inadequately functioning kidney. The article aims to provide a knowledge of oral and maxillofacial manifestations of CKD. A literature review was done by collecting 35 articles from 2000-2017 on oral and maxillofacial manifestations and its association with Chronic kidney diseases. The objective of the study was to understand the various dimensions of CKD and its association with oral and maxillofacial manifestations which helps in easy identification and holistic treatment. The growing change in lifestyle and trends results in increased chronic renal diseases in the present-day scenario. Hence, a thorough understanding of the oral manifestations would enable the oral physicians to help the patients in need, as in few cases, oral physicians may be the first person to diagnose such patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005116
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and perception toward dental care among pregnant women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental care is an extremely important part of leading a healthy life. Bad oral hygiene can cause many problems in the body, which can lead to painful and harmful diseases. Pregnancy involves complex physical and hormonal changes that have a significant impact on almost every organ system, including the oral cavity. They need to maintain their oral hygiene as any infection in them can transfer to their fetus. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire which consisted of 20 questions was prepared to enhance the knowledge of pregnant women on the aspects of dental health during pregnancy period. The survey was conducted with the help of a digital platform such as survey planet and was transmitted to 100 pregnant women with the help of social media. Results and Discussion: Result shows that 53% of pregnant women are aware of the fact that maintaining proper oral hygiene prevents complications in child development. About 41% knows that the right period of undergoing dental treatment is the second trimester. About 44% agrees that improper oral hygiene leads to premature birth and low birth weight. Conclusion: The obtained results show that majority do not know how to maintain oral hygiene during pregnancy. They also do not know salient facts about oral health during pregnancy. This calls for an awareness program which will impart knowledge to them, for their and their baby’s healthy future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005117
Title: Awareness of menstrual disturbances among women working night shifts in information technology
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to create awareness of menstrual disturbances among women working night shifts in information technology (IT). Introduction: Menstruation involves complex interactions of inflammation and vascular mechanisms to stabilize the endometrium and allows a regulated loss of endometrial tissues and blood. When this becomes abnormal, it can cause menstrual disturbances. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among randomly selected women working night shifts in IT using a questionnaire. The questions were related to knowledge and awareness of menstrual disturbances. A total of 20 closed-ended questions were included in the study. Results and Discussion: A percentage of 59 agree to the fact that night shifts can affect their menstrual cycle. About 52.5% consider painful periods as the main indication of a menstrual disturbance, whereas 29% think that irregular periods are what menstrual disturbances are. Moreover, the remaining 18.5% consider both as consequences of menstrual disturbances. Conclusion: The women who participated in the survey are only slightly aware of how working night shifts can affect their menstrual cycle.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005118
Title: Effectiveness of gluteal and knee muscles strengthening in improving pain and disability in females with flexible flat foot
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, School of Physiotherapy, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Kelambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Pes planus causes impaired plantar load distribution, excessive stresses on foot, ankle, knee, and hip joints. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of gluteal and knee muscle strengthening on navicular drop, pain, and disability in females with flat foot. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was conducted on females between 20 and 30 years of age with u/l flat foot, consisted of a total of 30 subjects with 15 subjects equally divided into two groups using simple random sampling with random allocation. Group A was given conventional foot intrinsic strengthening exercises and Group B was given gluteal and knee muscle strengthening exercise program for 8 weeks along with contrast bath therapy. Pre-and post-intervention assessment which includes navicular drop test, foot function index, and modified sphygmomanometer assessment of gluteal and knee muscle strength of all the subjects was recorded. Results: Both the groups showed a significant improvement in navicular drop and foot function index (P < 0.05) on performing paired t-test. Paired t-test for Group B modified sphygmomanometer test showed significant improvement in hip and knee muscle strength (P < 0.05). An unpaired t-test on post-test mean results of A and B revealed navicular drop test and pain, disability, and total foot function index scores having better improvement in Group B than A (P < 0.05). Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that there was a significant effect of gluteal and knee muscle strengthening on flat foot.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005119
Title: Serum ferritin level affects T lymphocyte CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8 ratio in transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University – Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia.
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Background: Chronic blood transfusions and hemolysis are the major causes of secondary iron overloading transfusion- dependent beta-thalassemia. Iron overload can cause several organ complications including immune alteration. Infection due to immune alteration is number two leading cause of mortality in thalassemia. Research on the correlation of ferritin as iron overload marker and T lymphocyte subsets alteration in adult thalassemia patients are still rare and require further study. Objective: The objective of the study was to study the correlation of iron overload and T lymphocyte subsets CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8 ratio in adult transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia. Methods: The study was cross-sectional observational analytic study conducted on 36 subjects with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia diagnosed by clinical examination and laboratory high-performance liquid chromatography followed up at Hematology Clinic, Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia. Ferritin serum was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay method, while CD4, CD8 counts, and CD4/CD8 ratio were assessed by flow cytometry with antigen for CD3/CD4/CD8. Results: There were 36 subjects, 21 males and 15 females with median age of 23 (range 18–48). The mean ferritin serum was 5137.8 ± 2433.5 ng/ml while CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8 ratio were 695.56 ± 25.17; 822.4 ± 360; and 0.95 ± 0.42, respectively. The analysis of correlation showed that there is correlation of ferritin and CD4 (r = ‒0.34, P < 0.05), ferritin and CD8 (r = 0.43, P < 0.05), and ferritin and CD4/CD8 ratio (r = 0.34, P < 0.05). Conclusion: In this study, there was a correlation between ferritin serum and CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8 ratio. An increase of ferritin in iron overload will decrease CD4, increase CD8, and decrease CD4/CD8 ratio.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005120
Title: Management strategy for an advanced head of pancreas carcinoma patient with obstructive jaundice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University – Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia
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Background: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is still considered incurable, with overall survival 3–5 months and 5-year survival 3% in advanced stage. Obstructive jaundice often complicates head of pancreas carcinoma. Strategy for bile diversion and chemotherapy regimen choices is needed to prolong survival and good quality of live. Case: Male, 64 years old, with abdominal discomfort and jaundice. Abdominal CT scan showed caput pancreas mass 43 mm ×39 mm attached to common mesenteric artery. The FNAB showed adenocarcinoma pancreas well differentiated. The diagnosis of PC adenocarcinoma well-differentiated T3N1M0 Stage III was made. Metal stent placement by ERCP to diverse bile. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin for six cycles, results in stable disease. The patient still has good performance status (PS 0-1), so second line chemotherapy regimen with 5- fluorouracyl, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin were given for 6 cycles. In month 15, the patient wished for oral chemotherapy, and capecitabine was given. His condition deteriorated with peritoneal metastase. The patient passed away in month 26 due to pneumonia and sepsis. Discussion: In locally advanced PC, resectability assessment is important. With mesenteric artery contact, resection is impossible. Endoscopic placement of a metallic biliary stent is strongly recommended for diversion. First-line chemotherapy of gemcitabine carboplatin can be given for fit patients. In refractory stage, second-line 5-fluorouracyl, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin significantly extend overall survival. Conclusion: Management strategy in advanced pancreatic carcinoma is important due to the poor prognosis nature. Bile diversion and prompt chemotherapy regimen choice can prolong survival and improve patient’s quality of live.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005121
Title: Mechanisms of intrinsic antibiotic resistance in enterococci
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Velachery Main Road, Chennai - 600 100, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Enterococci are considered as serious nosocomial pathogens as they are likely to exhibit resistance effectively to all antibiotics meant for clinical use. The most predominant species encountered frequently among human infections includes Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be either intrinsic or acquired through mutation of the intrinsic genes or horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants. This paper reviews the mechanisms of intrinsic resistance in enterococci.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005122
Title: Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Anogeissus leiocarpa
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Aksum University, Post Box. No 1010, Axum, Tigray Region, Ethiopia.
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Background of the Study: A large number of populations use medicinal plants for their primary health care. Anogeissus leiocarpa plant was widely used in African traditional medicine and is well known for its antimicrobial activities against many pathogenic microorganisms for treating of many diseases. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanolic leaf extract of A. leiocarpa. Materials and Methods: The powdered A. leiocarpa leaf was taken to serial exhaustive solvent extraction from a low polar to a high polar solvent to ensure that wide polarity range of compounds was extracted. The in vitro antioxidant activities such as DPPH radical, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging, and superoxide radical scavenging assay were determined. All the analyses were done in triplicates and average values were taken. Results: The ethanolic leaf extract of A. leiocarpa leaf was showed that high yield value and maximum number of phytoconstituent were screened when compared to the other solvents. The in vitro free radical scavenging assays and half inhibition concentration efficiency of the ethanolic leaf extract of A. leiocarpa were increasing from super oxide, DPPH, and NO to hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Conclusion: The ethanolic leaf extract of A. leiocarpa has significant antioxidant properties and could serve as a good source of natural antioxidant, which may be helpful in preventing the destructive process of various oxidative stress- related disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005123
Title: Assessment of patients’ satisfaction level on quality of health care provided by dental hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to compare the overall satisfaction level of males and females on completion of dental treatment. It aims to assess satisfaction levels in various categories such as ambience, treatment quality, communication with doctor, empathy, and overall satisfaction. Methodology: The study was conducted with 250 male and 250 female patients aged 30–60 years seeking dental treatment. Patients were provided with feedback forms asking to grade their overall experience based on their expectations and treatment satisfaction in the hospital. The gradings were P: Poor, A: Average, G: Good, and E: Excellent. Data were compared statistically between males and females. Results: On statistical analysis, there is no significant difference between male and female responses. However, individually, they have different expectations from a health-care organization. Studying these individual expectations of patients may lead to higher quality outcomes and better satisfaction, lower costs of care, greater patient understanding of health issues, and better adherence to the treatment process. Conclusion: There is not much difference in, gender based expectations of patients from a health care organizations. However these feedback surveys helps the clinician to learn about patient expectations and built a good patient clinician relation. Further, more studies can be carried to learn in detail on gender based expectations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005124
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice of road traffic safety among the dental students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Road safety is important for all road users. Every year more than 1 million people are injured in road accidents in India. In recent years, the number of vehicles on roads has increased, as has the number of goods transported by road. This makes road safety even more important. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of road traffic safety among dental students. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional type of study, in which standardized structured questionnaire was prepared and given to dental students of various colleges. The sample size was about 250 and the duration study was 1 month. Results: The knowledge and awareness of the road traffic safety among dental students were found to be about 60%. Conclusion: The awareness of the road traffic safety among the dental students was satisfactory, and more awareness can be given through the social media.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005125
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practices among dental students about Trefoil system in implant dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Trefoil is a dental implant surgical protocol for the mandibular arch. The process includes placing three implants using analog guided surgery in a precise location so that a pre-fabricated titanium bar wrapped in acrylic and teeth can be placed within 1 week of dental implant surgery. The Trefoil concept is meant to replace mandibular Snap-on dentures. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge, awareness, and practices among dental students about the Trefoil system in implant dentistry. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire-based survey was conducted on 200 students belonging to Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. The study consisted of ten questions regarding the awareness and knowledge of the usage of the Trefoil system used in implant dentistry. The questions were designed based on research articles and extensive studies on the Trefoil system. The data were entered into an excel sheet, and the percentage was calculate. Tables were drawn and graphs were constructed. The data were analyzed and produced. Results: In this study, it was found that 27% were aware of the existence of the Trefoil system in implant dentistry and 73% were unaware of this. When the awareness of the various companies manufacturing dental implants was questioned, it was found that 64% knew about Nobel Biocare, 22% knew about 3I, 12% knew about Straumann, and only 2% were aware of Astra. In this study, it was found that 82% were aware that the Trefoil system was used exclusively in the cases of edentulous mandibles, whereas the remaining 10% chose the option of edentulous maxilla, 5% chose partially edentulous maxilla and mandible, and 3% chose none of the above. Conclusion: The awareness of the Trefoil system is inadequate. The knowledge about this system needs to be improved. Hence, dental students need to be aware of the Trefoil system as it is more advantageous and effective when compared to the conventional systems due to its revolutionary and self-adjusting fixation mechanism.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005126
Title: Knowledge and attitude of patients regarding choice of selecting of fixed partial dentures and implant
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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In modern society, obesity is a common problem in children. The main reasons for obesity are lack of physical activity, improper diet, etc. Overweight children grow to be overweight adults. Obesity can decrease the lifespan of an individual. The main reason for obesity is change in the lifestyle and children leading a sedentary lifestyle. The treatment and precautions for preventing obesity starts from being an infant, a focus on healthy foods and encouraging physical activity. This review is intended to address the causes, risk factors, complications of obesity in children, and also throws an insight into its prevention and treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005127
Title: Design and characterization of bovine serum albumin and pectin microspheres loaded with mesalamine drug targeted to the colon
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The objective of this research is to design and characterize the bovine serum albumin and pectin microspheres used as carriers for the mesalamine drug targeting the colon to cure the ulcerative colitis decease. Materials and Methods: BSA/pectin mixture microspheres containing mesalamine drug were prepared by coacervation-phase separation technique. The size of the particles was carried out using optical microscopy. Entrapment efficiency was calculated and the in vitro release studies for the drug mesalamine were conducted using the USP dissolution apparatus. Infrared spectrum studies were conducted. Results: The parameters studied are percentage drug release, entrapment efficiency, size of the particles of the microspheres, and in vitro drug release of formulated microspheres. Conclusion: The results obtained in this research work clearly indicated that the microsphere carriers prepared for the carrying the mesalamine drug improved the adherence time of the mesalamine drug which results in curing the ulcerative colitis decease effectively.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005128
Title: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general population of Daegu, South Korea. A total of 50 people in the age group 15–70 years were selected using random sampling technique Informed c
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Oral diseases are a major public health concern due to their higher prevalence and their effects on the individual’s quality of life. According to the World Health Organization, 80% of the global population suffering from oral diseases lives in developing countries, indicating that oral diseases are strongly correlated with low income. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general population of Daegu, South Korea. A total of 50 people in the age group 15–70 years were selected using random sampling technique Informed consent was obtained from each person. A self- constructed 13 multiple-choice questionnaire was distributed to all people. Results: The results of this study suggest that oral health awareness and practices among the study population are improved than the previous studies but still there is lack of awareness, thus, need to be improved.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00005129
Title: A review on current approaches of stability-indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method development and validation of antiviral drugs
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Anantapur - 515 721, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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From the times of yore, people were trying to find safe and sound ways to treat viral infections. In the current scenario, due to the emerging of new viruses, the development of drugs for their treatment is also gaining equal importance. Before launching to the market, these drugs should undergo a validation process. Numerous approaches have been adopted for the quantitative measurement of antiviral drugs such as ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, capillary electrophoresis, and chromatographic techniques such as gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. In this review, we focused only on stability, suggesting reversed phase-HPLC approaches for the effective development and validation of different antiviral drugs such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, and non-influenza drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005130
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on obturators among dental students in dental colleges of Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: An obturator is a prosthesis used to close any congenital or acquired tissue opening primarily of the hard palate or contiguous alveolar structure. It basically acts as a framework for maxillary defects. Maxillary defects are created by surgical treatment of neoplasms, congenital malformations, and trauma. The extent of the resection of any existing tumor depends on the size, location, and potential behavior of the tumor. The size and location of the defects affect the degree of impairment and difficulty in rehabilitation. Aim: The aim of the survey is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice on obturators among dental students in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 3rd years, final years, and interns in dental colleges in Chennai. A survey administered questionnaire was prepared to access the knowledge attitude and practice of obturators. A sample size of 100 students was chosen. The questionnaire was distributed through the survey planet. The data was collected, and results were tabulated. Results: From the survey conducted, it was evident that 68% of them have heard of the term obturator and 35.7% of them have heard this term in their 3rd year of study, 75% of them have not come across any patient who needs any patient who needs an obturator, 86% of them have not recommended an obturator to anyone in their practice till now, 31.3% of them feel that the most probable chief complaint of such patients is and unaesthetic appearance, 6% of the students were aware of the treatment modalities of hemimaxillectomy, 57% of them have not seen any patient with facial prosthesis,64% were aware of the method of fabrication of an obturator, and 48.5% of them think that fabrication would take 3 days-1 week. Conclusion: This study concluded the awareness about obturators among dental students was moderate. This study provided a very good insight into the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the use of obturators among dental students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005131
Title: A review on neurodegenerative disorder – alzheimer’s disease
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru - 560 035, Karnataka, India
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common problems for old age people. Etiology of AD is not clear, but genetic factors play a major role in determining a person’s risk to develop AD. Twin and family studies confirm that AD has a genetic basis. AD genetics has been split into two broad categories: Early onset (EO) and late onset. EO-AD cases are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. In this form, dominant mutations in genes such as amyloid precursor protein, presenilin (PSEN)-1, and PSEN-2. Aging is the most obvious risk factor for developing AD. There is a genetic basis for AD, of course, this relation is not complete bit, it is significant. More than 1000 genes studied in relation with AD. Against the improvements in understanding different aspects of AD, the accurate genetic foundation of AD remains unclear. Pathologically, it is characterized by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloidal protein deposits contributing to senile plaques. In this review, authors will explain about the different aspects of etiology, pathophysiological mechanisms behind the AD, and its management by conventional drug therapies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00005132
Title: Chromatographic determination of allopurinol and lesinurad simultaneously in raw and tablet forms
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Jagarlamudi Kuppuswamy Chowdary College, Guntur - 522 006, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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Objective: A novel stability-indicating high-pressure liquid chromatography procedure was developed followed by validation for the simultaneous estimation of allopurinol and lesinurad in bulk and was applied on the marketed formulations of allopurinol and lesinurad. Materials and Methods: The mobile phase used for the chromatographic runs consisted of methanol: acetonitrile:0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.2 (25:60:15 v/v/v). The separation was achieved on a ProntoSIL Hypersorb ODS C18 column (4.6 mm ×250 mm; 5 μ) using isocratic mode. Allopurinol and lesinurad peaks are well separated and detected at 239 nm using ultraviolet detector. Results: The method was linear in the quantity range of 75–600 μg/ml for allopurinol and 50–400 μg/ml for lesinurad. The method was verified in full compliance with ICH directives. Allopurinol’s detection limit (DL) and quantification limit (QL) were 0.032 μg/ml and 0.097 μg/ml, respectively, while DL and QL for lesinurad were 0.022 μg/ml and 0.067 μg/ml, respectively. The validation study results showed that developed procedure was selective (no obstruction from diluent and excipients of tablet), specific (no obstruction from degradants formed during stability testing), precise (relative standard deviation [RSD] value – <2.0%), rugged (RSD value – <2.0%), accurate (recovery percent near to 100%), and robust (difference value – <2.0%). Conclusion: The reported method can also be used effectively in marketed formulations for routine analysis of allopurinol and lesinurad.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005133
Title: Biofilm and antibiotic resistance profile among salmonella typhi isolated from patients with typhoid fever
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq
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Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) is a Gram-negative, facultative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It consists of more than 2668 different serotype. It can cause the disease in both humans and animals, which are the major causative pathogens of foodborne disease outbreaks and also a public health concern all over the world. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two S. Typhi isolates were recovered from 100 blood specimens of patients suffering from fever sign. All isolates confirmed by different types of agar media and VITEC2 compact apparatus; biofilm formation was assayed by tissue culture plate (TCP) while antibiotic susceptibility performed according to CLSI-2019. Results: The results revealed that, the isolation percentage of S. Typhi were 32/100(32%) isolates, and the biofilm formation using TCP method were documented 7/32 (22.88%) isolates for each of both strong and moderate biofilm former while 18/32 (56.25%) isolates were weak biofilm former. Concern correlation of biofilm formation with antibiotic resistance, the results showed strong association between biofilm formation and resistance to antibiotic. The results of antibiotic susceptibility test showed that S. Typhi resistance for penicillins (ampicillin was 32/32 [100%] and amoxicillin-clavulanate was 32/32 [100%]); for cephalosporins (all of cefoxitin, ceftazidime, and cefotaxime were 32/32 [100%]); for monobactam (aztreonam was 26 [81.25%]); for carbapenems (imipenem was 3/32 [9.37%]); for aminoglycosides (gentamicin was 32/32 [100%] and amikacin was 28/32 [87.5%]); and for quinolones and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin was 32/32 [100%] and levofloxacin was 6/32 [18.75%]). Conclusion: There is a strong correlation between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance among S. Typhi isolated from clinical specimens.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 13, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005135
Title: Awareness of light pollution among college students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to check the level of awareness of light pollution among college students. Introduction: It is important to know about the basic concept and definition of light pollution and my survey. Light pollution is known as excessive, misdirected, or obstructive artificial light which is usually outdoor. Light pollution is the presence of anthropogenic and artificial light in the night environment, but even carefully used light fundamentally alters naturals conditions also. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 college students. I created a self- administered, close-ended questionnaire here and was distributed among college students to learn about their knowledge of light pollution. Results and Discussion: This survey created awareness of light pollution among college students. Light pollution is harmful to environment. About 73% of students are aware that light pollution does cause harm to the environment. Conclusion: Light pollution is known to cause all kinds of problems. Studies show how it can throw sleep cycles out of whack and disrupt the natural ecosystem.