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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005365
Title: Knowledge of dental care of pregnant women: An assessment among interns in dental college
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of dental interns who will be the future practitioners regarding management of dental needs of pregnant patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among dental practitioners. Sample size of 100 was determined and the questionnaire containing 19 closed-ended questions that were administered to the participants. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: On analyzing the questionnaire, it was found that out of 100 participants, 61% of participants were male and 34% of the participants were female. Majority of them were aware that the safest trimester for dental treatment was 2nd trimester. About 51% of the participants were not confident in performing dental procedures when they get pregnant patients to treat. About 51% of the participants have treated pregnant patients in their practice. About 97% of the participants feel that there is a need to update their knowledge in the dental management of pregnant patients. Conclusion: This study has given valuable understanding of the existing scenario between the potential dental practitioners and their insight into the treatment of pregnant patients. Reconsidering their knowledge, a considerable knowledge in certain areas is seen, but still, they should have more education and training in their post and undergraduate life for enhancing their knowledge of how to manage the pregnant dental patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004843
Title: Cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid fever inpatient in the private hospital in Subang, Indonesia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl Raya Bandung Sumedang Km 21, West Java 45363, Indonesia.
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Background: Typhoid fever is a systemic infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhi. This disease is an important problem, especially in developing countries, including Indonesia. Subang’s Health Service found 451 cases of typhoid fever in 2018. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of the inpatient typhoid fever treatment in a private hospital in Subang, Indonesia. Subject and Methods: The study used a retrospective method, including alternative criteria for cefixime and ciprofloxacin, patient criteria, research perspectives, outcome determination, cost components, and pharmacoeconomic analysis. Data were conducted to statistical analysis using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test followed by the Mann–Whitney test. Results: A total of 114 patients met the inclusion criteria. Typhoid fever was affected most teenagers and young adults (17–25 years). Analysis of length of stay (LOS) showed a significant difference between LOS using cefixime and ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0004). The total cost showed no significant difference between the total cost of cefixime and ciprofloxacin (P = 0.878). The cost-effectiveness ratio for therapy with cefixime and ciprofloxacin was 368,985 ± 14,247 indonesian rupiah, the indonesia currency (IDR)/day and 363,053 ± 12,276 IDR/day, respectively. Conclusion: The treatment of cefixime was more cost-effective than ciprofloxacin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004834
Title: Antibacterial activity of nutmeg oleoresin, rosemary oleoresin, and ginger oleoresin – An in vitro study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of nutmeg, rosemary, and ginger oleoresins against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus. Materials and Methods: The oleoresins used for the study were obtained from Synthite Industries Pvt. Ltd., Kerala, as a gift sample. To test the antibacterial effect of the oleoresin, agar well diffusion method was used and its effect was assessed by measuring the zone of inhibition. Results: All the oleoresins showed very good antibacterial activity. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect was observed with all oleoresins except nutmeg oleoresin against Pseudomonas where low concentration showed better activity. In this study, maximum inhibition was shown by rosemary oleoresin against Pseudomonas followed by nutmeg oleoresin against Enterococcus. Conclusion: The present study concludes that nutmeg oleoresin, rosemary oleoresin, and ginger oleoresins were active against E. coli, Pseudomonas, S. mutans, and Enterococcus. Hence, they may be used for the control of infections caused by these organisms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004819
Title: Occurrence of behavioral changes and its management in persons with mental illness due to lunar effects
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A belief that still endures is that the position of the moon and the phases cause certain physiological, psychological, and behavioral changes in humans and animals. The tidal changes in oceans are due to the gravitational force that is induced on earth by the moon. The full moon (FM) and new moon (NM) can beget social tension, mood swings, and disharmony in humans. There are incidences of increased road accidents, crime, and suicides on lunar cycles. The study states the behavioral changes in special children that include mentally ill, mentally retarded, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) persons. The study also indicates the management methods and medication to be followed during lunar cycles. Aim and Objective: This study aims to study the behavioral changes in mentally ill, mentally retarded, and ASD person in lunar cycles and their management techniques. Materials and Methods: The study is conducted in a population of 40 between the age group of 15 and 45 years that is divided into Samples I and II. Sample I population is the person who are treated at home and Sample II population is an inclusive of person treated in an institute. The study is conducted for a period of 2 months that comprises 2 days of FM and 2 days of NM. Fifteen queries were inquired, which are parted into A, B, and C and the observation is presented in bar graph representation. Results and Conclusion: The study explores the changes in Sample I who does not undertake medication while Sample II experiences a trivial behavioral change in their behavior. This minor change is due to the effect of medication that is specified, and hence, not much changes are observed in Sample II when compared with Sample I. These changes can be overcome by the management techniques that include the recreational activities, medical facilities, counseling facilities, and vocational training courses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004820
Title: Green synthesis of garlic oil-mediated selenium nanoparticles and its antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Nanoparticles, or matter ranging between 1 and 100 nm size, are of immense value in today’s technological ventures, in all fields. Besides, if made of biodegradable materials, the preparation supports sustained drug release for a long time. Green chemistry is thus incorporated in nanotechnology. This study involves the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNP) incorporating garlic oil. Garlic is already known for its medicinal properties, of which its antimicrobial and cytotoxic nature will be studied. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of garlic oil-mediated SeNP. Methodology: Preparation of garlic oil incorporated SeNP was followed by a test for its antimicrobial activity using agar well diffusion method and cytotoxicity, using brine shrimps. Results: Garlic oil-mediated SeNP exhibits significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that garlic oil-mediated SeNP have a good antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity at high concentrations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004821
Title: The evaluation of cariogenic bacteria levels in subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment by assessing the efficacy of yogurt containing probiotic bacteria
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Probiotic is the that term used for bacteria which are defined as microorganisms which when given in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The effect of Lactobacillus having beneficial effect in the prevention of caries has been reported but not well recorded. The most common strains used for this are of the lactic acid bacteria Bifidobacterium strains and Lactobacillus. Probiotics have been previously evaluated by giving in different modes such as milk, cheese, ice cream, capsules, supplements, yogurt, chewing gum, and lozenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of giving probiotic yogurt as an adjuvant and that contains strains of Lactobacillus casei on the Streptococcus mutans levels in the unstimulated saliva sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Our sample consisted of 20 patients (11 females and 9 males) undergoing treatment with fixed orthodontic appliance treatment were selected for this double-blinded study where the dentist and investigator. Ten randomly selected subjects were asked to consume the probiotic yogurt twice daily in the morning and night for 15 days. Ten subjects were given yogurt to consume that did not have any added probiotics. Probiotic yogurt was given to patients to consume one bottle of 200 ml in the morning and at night. Saliva samples of the patients were collected in unstimulated manner using a sterile container. Results: After the use of the probiotic yogurt, in some of the subjects, there was a reduction in the S. mutans levels; and in two subjects, there was not much significant reduction. The subjects in the study group had a lesser count of S. mutans than those in the control group. Conclusion: This indicates that daily usage ingestion of a L. casei Shirota derived probiotic through a yogurt form could reduce the levels of S. mutans in saliva around orthodontic brackets and bands and wires. These findings need to be validated with future long-term randomized clinical studies with a larger sample size.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004822
Title: Free radical scavenging activity of developed herbal formulation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Dr. N.G.P. Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Medicinal plants have played a key role in the prevention and treatment of diseases since ancient period. They are also potential sources of drugs and nutrients. Boerhavia diffusa and Achyranthes aspera are widely used medicinal plants in Ayurvedic treatment for a variety of ailments including kidney diseases. The present study was designed to assess the free radical scavenging capacity of herbal formulated medicinal plants, B. diffusa and A. aspera. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extracts of herbal formulation were prepared and evaluated for their free radical scavenging capacity using various in vitro chemical assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’‐azinobis(3‐ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid), ferric reducing antioxidant power, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. Results: The ethanolic extract of herbal formulation showed potential radical scavenging activity against the radicals generated in vitro as the result was compared with the standard at the same concentration. Conclusion: The present research concluded that herbal formulated medicinal plants, B. diffusa and A. aspera, were found to be more effective due to the combined activity of the individual components. Hence, it is concluded that herbal formulation of these plants may provide efficient, supportive, or alternative treatment procedures for numerous health ailments.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004823
Title: Recent review on lipid drug conjugates for the treatment of glioblastoma
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (Grade IV glioma) is one of the most dangerous tumor of the central nervous system, which is the reason for about 4% of the cancer-related deaths, which makes it one of the deadliest cancers in the world. Well based on the present treatment regime, the average survival rate is 14 months and survival rate is 3–5% for 2 years. Hence, the development of novel drug delivery was necessary. The main challenge in the treatment of glioblastoma is drug penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The review discusses the features of the BBB and its structural changes with different tumor growth stages, various techniques to improve the delivery of brain drugs, i.e., tight junction opening, drug chemical alteration, efflux transporter inhibition, convection enhanced delivery, craniotomy-based drug delivery, and nanosystems for drug delivery. A wide variety of nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed to target GBM surface markers, overexpressed receptors, aberrant genes, and signaling pathways, in addition to contemplating barriers targeting strategies. Among the nanocarriers explored, lipid NPs claim important and unique features, including the versatility in promoting both passive and active drug targeting, making them excellent candidates for brain drug delivery and one of the most appealing to overcome the obstacles of the current GBM treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004824
Title: Rheumatoid arthritis: An overview of epigenetics and pathogenesis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a progressive autoimmune disease specified by significant morbidity, loss of functional capacity, and whose pathogenic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The greater risk of RA is for women when compared to men. The evidence obtained from analyses of genetic tissue and clinical studies suggest an immune‑mediated etiology correlated with dysregulation of stromal tissue, which spreads chronic inflammation and joint destruction together. RA includes a complicated genotype interplay and environmental triggers. The presence of circulating autoantibodies, various chemokines, and modified metabolism occurs in the body helps in the characterization of RA. From the earlier studies, it is known that the suppression of pro‑inflammatory cytokine‑mediated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, mitogen‑activated protein kinase, or Syk activation may be adequate but not in terms of clinical aspect. Nevertheless, a large proportion of RA patients do not show much response to the current therapies. New interventions and medications are urgently required. This review addresses the recent awareness of the epigenetics, pathological pathways in the progression of RA, and also a short overview of the current therapies of RA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004825
Title: Innovation in medical device at glance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore, Karnataka, India
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It takes more than just a smart idea and creative engineering to design a new medical device. Innovation and development of new products is the lifeblood of companies in research and development (R&D)-intensive industries, but faulty goods can cause huge damage. It is not just a fresh presentation but it also should be beneficial and viable. Concepts for technology also come from experts who are familiar with the challenges that need to be overcome. Clinicians and health-care professionals receive the number of thoughts to solve their problems by innovating fresh goods. In the design of a medical device, biomedical engineers also play a very important role. The software will also assist in the advancement of medical devices, allowing medical technology manufacturers to leverage artificial intelligence and machine learning and ensuring better tracking of applications from pre-market growth to post-market outcomes. The forms of innovation in medical devices are incremental innovation, in which products are easy and the consumer risk level to the patients. The new innovative medical device example is Integra LifeScience Omnigraft Dermal Regeneration Matrix. The creation of medical products is predominantly through the first recognition of the issue and then the development of the theory and then the thorough production of the drug. With better treatments, minimal hospitalization, and increased patient satisfaction, the innovation in medical device improves. The system must fulfill a need, resulting in better performance, and at the same time have to be relatively low cost. The life cycle of medical devices is not an easy, linear progression from basic research to applied research, production, and marketing. Instead, it is a dynamic system of five parallel tracks including administrative, R&D, advertising, production, and legal matters.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004826
Title: Knowledge and awareness of blood/body fluid spill management among the third year dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and to create awareness of the blood or fluid spill management technique among the 3rd year dental students. Materials and Methods: A survey questionnaire has been provided to the 3rd year dental students, which consists of pre-training blood/fluid spill management questions. One hundred dental students were made to fill this questionnaire and a training of the protocol was been taught. After this, the post-training survey questionnaire was been provided to them and the results after the training were been noted. Results: From the results, we come to know that before the training the students knew that there is a management for this blood/fluid spill, but they were unaware of the steps in the blood/fluid spill management protocol. Conclusion: Thus, this study ensures that the protocol of the blood/fluid spill management is educated to all the pre-clinicians of the 3rd year dental students before entering the clinical exposure. Hence, this study helps the students to get to know more about the precautions and the prevalence occurring due to the improper management of the blood/fluid spill.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004827
Title: Blow the balloon for the ease – A cross-sectional study on wheezing patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of balloon blowing exercise on wheezing patients. Introduction: Wheezing is a dynamic sign, occurs when airflow through narrowed airways, by creating vibrations in the audible frequency. In this highly polluted society, all age groups are affected invariably with respiratory diseases, in which wheezing is the most common condition. To control the severity of wheezing, Balloon blowing exercise has been introduced. It is cheap and can be followed by all age groups. The principle followed in blowing the balloon exercise is to increase the maximum expiratory volume of lungs. Materials and Methods: The sample size of 15 students of the age group 18–20 years was selected. They were given the balloon and asked to blow the balloon for the consecutive 30 days, both in the morning and evening for 15 min. The lung functions such as FVC, FEV1, and PEF were measured using spirometer before and after the exercise. Results and Discussion: There is a significant increase in the forced vital capacity (FVC) of wheezing patient after balloon blowing exercise. Among the respiratory function test parameters, only FVC showed a significant increase of P = 0.056. Since it is a pilot study, it had many limitations. Therefore, future studies need to be conducted with more subjects, measuring the balloon resistance accurately. Conclusions: Blowing the balloon strengthens the respiratory muscles and results in increased of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). This exercise improves pulmonary function and reduces the risk of lung disorder from wheezing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004828
Title: Submission pathway for post-approval changes in Japan
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore, Karnataka, India
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Post-approval changes are the changes made to the drug product which is already approved by the regulatory agency of any country. Changes or variations in any information relating to licensed or approved drug products, including information relating to the composition of listed drugs or other aspects of their manufacture and the labeling of the drugs, shall be reported to the agency forth with and the adjustment or modification shall not take place until approved by the agency.. Chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) changes are inevitable due to many reasons, including changing needs, new findings, and continuous improvement. Therefore, regulations require that all changes be evaluated carefully and follow the proper regulatory path for implementation, regardless of whether it is an investigational or a commercial product. Failure to comply with the regulatory requirement for post-approval CMC changes can potentially lead to “misbranded or adulterated” status for a given product. This should be taken very seriously for marketed products because of the potential safety/efficacy impact for the vast number of patients as well as legal, regulatory and business impact for the sponsor. Changes occur to have business continuity in case of quality problems, to maintain the economy, process improvisation, alternate addition of sources, or exclusion. The applicant of registered generics who intend to make post-approval changes should follow the guidance or regulation in accordance with the agency which is different for each country. The changes can be major, moderate, or minor depending on the changes likely to affect the quality, safety, and efficacy of the product. Irrespective of the category of the changes, every change is to be brought to the notice of the regulatory authorities in stringent, structured, and stipulated format that is recommended for the regulatory advancements.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004829
Title: Age-related differences of heart rate and respiratory rate in the age group of 45–55 years – A regression analysis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) differences between the age group of 45–55 years and correlate it with the age. Introduction: HR is the number of contractions (beats) of the heart/min (bpm). It is usually equal or close to the pulse measured at any peripheral point. The normal resting adult human HR is 60–100 bpm. Tachycardia is a fast HR, defined as above 100 bpm at rest. Bradycardia is a slow HR, defined as below 60 bpm at rest. When the heart is not beating in a regular pattern, this is referred to as arrhythmia. The RR is the number of breaths/ min. The typical RR for a healthy adult at rest is 12–18 breaths/min. Abnormal RRs – apnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, tachypnea, hypopnea, bradypnea, orthopnea, platypnea, Biot’s respiration, Cheyne–Stokes respiration, and Kussmaul breathing. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 100 healthy individuals was considered for this study between the age group of 45 and 55 years were selected randomly. Their HR and RR were measured at rest manually and were statistically analyzed. Results and Discussion: According to the regression analysis, 52% of the RR has a correlation to age, whereas only 32% of the HR has a correlation to the age. Conclusion: From the graph, it is evident that as the age increases, HR and RR decreases. Moreover, RR is more relevant according to the regression analysis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004830
Title: Awareness of annual doctor checkups among general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to create awareness on the importance of annual doctor checkups and the improvement of overall health status. Introduction: In a physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination, a medical practitioner examines a patient for any possible medical signs or symptoms of a medical condition. Annual health examination helps in early diagnosis of any malignancies, cardiovascular diseases, etc. It generally consists of a series of questions about the patient’s medical history followed by an examination based on the reported symptoms. People in rural areas have no sufficient knowledge on the importance of annual health checkups. This study is conducted to evaluate and assess the knowledge of various age group people toward regular health checkups including healthy and unhealthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 100 people containing 15 questions based on demographic data, frequency of visiting doctor, health status, etc. and the obtained results were analyzed statistically. Results: Only 32% of the people go for regular checkups and majority of the people visit hospitals only when they fall sick. This is because they are not aware and they do not focus on their health and regular body health checkup. Conclusion: People are needed to be educated through health-care professionals and by conducting camps on the importance of annual doctor checkups as primary prevention and for screening.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004831
Title: Perception of prosthodontic need of patients during and after extraction – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: The aim of this study is to identify the perception of patients about the impacts and needs of prosthesis at the time and after extraction of the tooth. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the patients’ perception of tooth loss and prosthesis before and after treatment. Materials and Methods: Teeth play an important role in mastication. Tooth loss can be treated with various types of prosthetics, depending on the severity, which aids in maintaining the mastication properly. Most of the patients are not seeking treatment immediately after tooth loss even when it is needed due to unawareness of the treatment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the patients’ perception of the impacts and prosthesis need at the time and after extraction of the tooth. A convenient sample of 101 patients was clinically evaluated and answered for the questionnaire about prosthetic needs. Data were collected at the time of extraction and at the time interval of 1 month. Statistical analysis has been done with the collected data. Results: This study is designed comparatively to evaluate and analyze the patients’ perception of the impacts and needs of the prosthesis at the time and after tooth loss. The reason of this study is to aware people about their knowledge of benefits, risk, and impact on the prosthesis and impacts on untreated tooth loss. Conclusion: Self- perception about tooth loss and prosthodontic needs at the time and after an interval of 3 months from extraction did not have much significant change among patients. Better function and oral discomfort were mentioned as a major benefit and risk of prosthesis. Treatment demand was low due to lack of knowledge and awareness, poor interest, and motivation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004832
Title: Effect of herbal drug supplementation in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sulfonylureas
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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Sulfonylureas are the agents that cause or stimulate secretion of insulin, which are beneficial in the Type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. There will be a high chance of drug interaction to the patient those who consume sulfonylureas along with other herbal medicines. The aim of this analysis is to present the herbal drugs with potential interactions of antidiabetic sulfonylureas. Sulfonylureas are mainly metabolized by the enzymes CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 and the herbs such as St. John’s wort and Ginkgo biloba produce CYP2C9 influenced metabolism of sulfonylureas. Whereas, fruits, including pineapple juice, pomegranate, and cassia, hinder its metabolism. Herbs with antidiabetic nature such as Aloe vera, sesame, neem, ginseng, and Andrographis paniculata pharmacodynamically increase the hypoglycemic activity of sulfonylureas. Several herbal supplements can interact pharmacokinetically and some herbal medicines are pharmacodynamically associated with sulfonylureas.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004833
Title: CHARGE syndrome (congenital anomalies): A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Maternal and Child Health, College of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman, Oman
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This case report describes a full-term baby girl with a CHARGE syndrome (CS) born to a 21-year-old mother at 38 weeks of gestation with consanguineous marriage. The baby had birth weight 2.86 kg and length 47.5 cm. She was diagnosed with bilateral choanal atresia, tetralogy of Fallot, coloboma of the iris, and ears abnormalities. Heart defects and breathing problems are usually threatening the life of babies with CS. CS was diagnosed clinically with the presence of the four major criteria (coloboma, choanal atresia, characteristic ears, and cranial nerve [CN] dysfunctions). Various imaging investigations contributed to the detection of the different internal ear and CN anomalies. Besides, this case summarizes the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to reflect on the patients’ health outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004835
Title: Effects of shock wave therapy on inflammatory markers in diabetic and non-diabetic frozen shoulder
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy for Internal Diseases, Faculty of Physical Therapy, October 6 University, Giza, Egypt
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Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of shock wave therapy on inflammatory markers in diabetic and non-diabetic frozen shoulder. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 50 subjects with frozen shoulder. They were classified according to the fasting blood sugar (FBS) level into two groups. The diabetic group had FBS level of more than or equal to 126 mg/dl, while the non-diabetics group had FBS level of <100 mg/dl. Both groups received shock wave therapy in addition to a therapeutic exercise program for 4 weeks. The outcome measures, including visual analog scale (VAS), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), shoulder range of motion (ROM), and inflammatory markers levels, were evaluated pre- and post-treatment for both groups. Results: Comparing both groups post-treatment showed that there was a statistically non-significant difference between both groups regarding VAS, SPADI, shoulder ROM, and inflammatory markers (P > 0.05). However, there was a greater percentage of improvement in non-diabetic group than in the diabetic group. Conclusion: Shock wave is effective in reducing pain, disability, and inflammatory markers, as well as improving shoulder ROM in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients with frozen shoulder, with a greater improvement in non-diabetics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004836
Title: Defects of motor performance in children with different types of specific learning disability
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
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Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the defects of fine and gross motor functions in children with a specific learning disability (SLD) and its association with different types of SLD. Methods: The cross-sectional study conducted on 200 children (100 with SLD and 100 typical), their ages ranged from 9 to 13 years (92 boys and 108 girls). The defects of motor performance were evaluated by Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Its total composite composed of four composites; fine manual control, manual coordination, body coordination, and strength and agility. Results: There were significant differences in scores of BOT-2 of composites and all subtests of children with an SLD (P ˂ 0.05) with typical ones. The fine motor integration, upper limb coordination, balance, and bilateral coordination were associated with dyscalculia, dyslexia, and mixed type (P ˂ 0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that the total motor performance of children with SLD is very below average. The balance is affected in dyslexia than other types while the bilateral coordination is affected in dyscalculia than other types and running speed and agility are affected in mixed type. Hence, it is important to evaluate the motor performance of associated skills early before school age.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004837
Title: Assessment of the molecular effects of Nd: YAG laser on Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria using random amplified polymorphic DNA marker
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, Tikrit University, Iraq.
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Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the bacterial species that infected of the human, animal, as well as on the skin where tissue damage causes burning or injury, providing an environment conducive to the growth of P. aeruginosa. It causes 10–15% of these infections by opportunistic nurses who can cause various infections such as urinary tract infection, infection of the middle ear, inflammation of the brain membranes, and respiratory infection, including pneumonia. This study aims to assess the genetic effects of Nd-YAG laser on P. aeruginosa bacteria isolated from some clinical and environmental sources using random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) marker. Materials and Methods: Clinical samples were isolated from wound, burns, and middle ear infections patients coming to Salahuddin General Hospital while environmental samples isolated from water and soil. After the diagnosis of P. aeruginosa bacteria depending on the macroscopic and biochemical test, bacterial samples irradiated by Nd-YAG laser with wavelength 1064 nm using energies (300 mj and 500 mj) with (15 and 25 s) and genomic DNA was extracted from all samples, then RAPD-PCR marker using six random primers were carried out. Results: The results showed a clear effect of Nd-YAG laser on P. aeruginosa bacteria by comparing RAPD profiles of treated samples as loss of normal bands and the appearance of new bands with control (unexposed). The genetic template stability (% GTS) was significantly decreased in the DNA of wound water, soil, ear, and burn This indicates that the laser had a mutagenic effect on the genetic material. Conclusion: The Nd- YAG that laser causes genetic changes in the DNA of P. aeruginosa, so lasers can be used in treatment and sterilization. The RAPD-PCR method could be used to evaluate the biological effects of radiation on bacteria as a biomarker assay.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004838
Title: Cytokines levels among patients with celiac disease and celiac-coexist with infections in Najaf Province
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Health, College of Health and Medical Techniques/Kufa, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Najaf, Iraq
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Background: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease recognized as gluten sensitive enteropathy as well its considered as “chronic inflammatory disease of small intestine recognized by malabsorption after ingestion gluten” maybe associated derivatives of barley and rye or coming from the wheat of people with a particular history. Materials and Methods: Ninety CD patients with age vary 4–60 years, each female and male. All patients are diagnosed by clinicians in hospitals by serological and histological assessments and diagnosis of other infections present with CD in the same patients at the same time. Serum samples were measured for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL) (IL-10, IL-12, IL-2, IL-5, and tumor necrosis factor- alpha [TNF-α]). Results: Individuals with active CD had significantly larger of pro-inflammatory cytokines, for example, IFN-γ and TNF-α, which 8.9 ± 1.12 and 8.38 ± 1.27, respectively, and the T helper-2 cytokines, for example, IL-10 (12.1 ± 0.72) and IL-5 (35.85 ± 1.01) compare to controls. In addition, a relationship has emerged between CD and other diseases, where we found the highest incidence (33.3%) of gastrointestinal tract infections associated with CD and in the second place viral infections and a percentage (22.2%). Produce cytokine in CD patients with they have other infections in the same time as well as IL-5 and IL-10 appear a significant (P < 0.001) in cytokine levels, but IL-12 had been decreased, though the minimization was not significant (P < 0.001) and no difference was discovered for TNF-α at diagnosis when compared CD patient without other infection. Conclusion: The present study revealed that female is more infected than the male with CD. Gastrointestinal tract infections are more common in patients with CD. A significant elevation of a IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-5, no difference of IL-2 and IL-12 in patients with CD and compare with the healthy human.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00004839
Title: The effect of Lactobacillus species on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Medicine College, Wasit University, Kut, Iraq.
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Background: Probiotic is live microorganism include many species the most commonly used, as probiotic is Lactobacillus species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is considered a main cause of nosocomial infection. The aim of the present study was the commercial effect of some antibiotics and Lactobacillus species on the P. aeruginosa biofilm forming and also detection of formation biofilm using traditional methods and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: P. aeruginosa was isolated from different source patient’s hospital and the isolates identification using (API 20E, Vitek2 compact system, and 16S rRNA gene). Three traditional methods used to detection of formation biofilm (microliter plate (MTP), tube method (TM), and Congo red agar [CRA]). For probiotic, commercially variable capsule of Lactobacillus acidophilus (Holland and Barrett, USA), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (Health Genesis, USA) has been used while for estimation activity of Lactobacillus species on the P. aeruginosa, biofilm forming disc agar and well diffusion method was used. In addition, susceptibility testing was performed using 12 antibiotics. Molecular method (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) used to detection of some virulence gene (algD, algU, and algL). Results: Fifty-four isolates identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The majority of infection is belonged to ear infections (20), followed by nasal (12) and burns (12) infections. The result of the detection biofilm showed all isolates of P. aeruginosa produce biofilm using MTP, (48) isolates produce biofilm using TM, while in CRA (51) isolates produce biofilm. The molecular detection of the biofilm gene using PCR demonstrated 54 (100%) of isolates carried algD, 52 (96.30%) were positive for algU, and 41 (75.9%) of isolates had algL. The antibiotics susceptibility testing of P. aeruginosa revealed their sensitivity to imipenem and amikacin while showing a highly resistant pattern to ceftazidime, cefepime, carbenicillin, ofloxacin and aztreonam, piperacillin/tazobactam, tobramycin, levofloxacin, ticarcillin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively. L. rhamnosus was showed the highest inhibition zone rather than L. acidophilus in both methods (disk agar and well diffusion method). Conclusions: P. aeruginosa showed multidrug resistant and had ability to produce biofilm. Lactobacillus species have ability to inhibit growth of P. aeruginosa.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004840
Title: Study some immunological parameters for Salmonella Typhi patients in Hilla city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Hillah, Iraq
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Background: Salmonella spp. are creatures which might discover likewise normal commensals in the gastrointestinal tracts of man also animals or alternately result in malady that reaches from self-set looseness of the bowels. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) is responsible for a potentially fatal multisystemic illness, these known as typhoid fever or enteric fever. Materials and Methods: Subjects for this study included 40 patients with typhoid fever. Forty blood samples were collected from patients with typhoid fever and clinically diagnosed by doctors based on clinical symptoms of high fever for at least 2 days and severe headache with nausea, abdominal pain, and joints, include 30 females and 10 males with age 10–40 years, the control group study included 15 people apparently healthy that included nine males and six females with age average 20–30 years. Results: Patients of typhoid were divided by age into group, the age group (11–20) was the first age group, the disease rate was 25%, while the second age group (21–30), the disease rate was 55%, was the highest, and the third age group (31–40), the disease rate was 20%. Results of the distribution of study group by gender showed infection that appears in both sexes, with a significant association between the study groups and sex patients of typhoid disease which was more in female. Bacterial growth on growth media after incubation of the plates for 24–48 h showed that the bacterial colonies growing on the growth media were as follows: Transparent with a black center, colorless or pale pink. While microscopic examination, Salmonella, Gram stained bacteria, are characterized by Gram-negative rod cells. The results of the measurement of the concentration of the C-reactive protein showed an increase in the concentration of the age group. The distribution of typhoid patients immunoglobulin (IgM and IgG) measured by rapid cassette, IgM was highest among patients with typhoid (95%), while IgG was 45% and IgM and IgG were among patients (40%). Conclusion: Typhoid fever disease is more common among females than males. Patients with typhoid fever have elevated levels CRP.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004841
Title: Antibiotics resistance and molecular characterization of biofilm former bacteria, isolated from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis in Wasit Province, Iraq
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Microbiology, Medicine College, Wasit University, Al Kut, Wasit, Iraq.
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Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) considered one of the common diseases, affecting nearly 10% of the general population, defined as an inflammatory disorder of the paranasal sinuses and linings of the nasal passages that last more than 12 weeks. The aim of the study is the determination of more predominant bacteria in patients’ complaints from CRS in Wasit Province. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty patients were included in the present study with a case history of CRS. Isolated bacteria were identified by API system and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species- specific primer pairs for 16S rRNA gene. Biofilm-related gene, icaA, icaD, and PpyR, was detected by PCR. Furthermore, antibiogram was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The results showed that 140 samples were positive for bacterial growth while only 10 were negative culture. The more predominant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus compile 41 (27.33%), 34 (22.66%) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 33(22%) for Staphylococcus epidermidis, 12 (8%) for Streptococcus pneumonia, 9 (6%) for Klebsiella pneumonia, 8 (5.33%) for Proteus mirabilis, 3 (2%) for Enterobacter aerogenes. According to gender, female was more affected than male, the age groups (15–24 years and 35– 44 years) were the highest affected among others. Most of the infected patients were students. The biofilm-related genes were diagnosed among most three predominant species, icaA for S. aureus, icaD for S. epidermidis, and PpyR for P. aeruginosa. The results revealed that 38 (92.68%) of S. aureus, 33 (100%) of S. epidermidis, and 34 (100%) of P. aeruginosa have icaA, icaD, and PpyR, respectively. The highest resistance of isolates for antibiotics was S. aureus for erythromycin (82.92%), S. epidermidis for cefpodoxime (90.90%), S. pneumonia for erythromycin (41.66%), P. aeruginosa for cefpodoxime (100%), K. pneumonia for ceftazidime (100%), P. mirabilis for ceftriaxone (100%), and E. aerogenes for erythromycin (100%). The results revealed that the most effective antibiotics were ciprofloxacin and imipenem for all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion: The study concludes that the predominant causative agents of CRS in Wasit Province were bacterial with capacity to form biofilm formation accompanied by antibiotic resistance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004842
Title: In vitro anticarcinogenic effect of Cymbopogon citratus on oral cancer cell lines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro anticarcinogenic effects of Cymbopogon citratus on oral cancer cell lines. Introduction: Oral cancer is a growing health problem in several regions of the world. It is the sixth most common cancer globally. Antioxidants present in green leafy vegetables and other dietary supplements inhibit the process of oxidation associated with free radicals. The current study involves the assessment of in vitro anticarcinogenic activity of the C. citratus on oral cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: In vitro anticarcinogenic activity of C. citratus on oral cancer cell lines is evaluated by MTT assay. Results: The percentage of cell inhibition in oral cancer cell lines increased with an increase in the concentration of C. citratus. Conclusion: It is summarized that C. citratus decreased cell proliferation in oral cancer cell lines. Thus, it can be concluded that C. citratus has a good anticarcinogenic effect on oral cancer cell lines and can be used in treating oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00004844
Title: Awareness on benefits of chia seeds among college students
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Chia (Salvia hispanica), a biannually cultivated plant, is categorized under the mint family (Labiatae), superdivision of Spermatophyta, and kingdom of Plantae. Chia seeds are superfood in reducing cardiovascular risk, losing weight, and improving immunity against respiratory infections. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, 100 teenagers were participated. A questionnaire of 15 questions was prepared to assess the knowledge of college students on the benefits and uses of chia seeds, daily consuming levels, and on its ill effects too. The collected data were compiled and analyzed. Results: About 77% of people are aware of chia seeds as they have observed in their food or drink. Only 5% of respondents are aware that chia seeds can prevent cardiac disease. About 85% of people are unaware that how much they can consume per day. Conclusion: The college students are not aware of the benefits of chia seeds too. Chia has a promising future, they are economical, and they are one of the most nutrient-rich foods in the world.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004845
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and perception on the importance of hematological report among general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Blood test is the prime investigation advised by the doctors for the diagnosis of the disease and prognosis of the treatment. A simple blood test helps in identification of abnormal functions of any organs, recent and chronic infections, bleeding disorders, inflammation, and certain cancers such as leukemia. Early markers for myocardial infarction and rheumatoid arthritis are easily identified by the elevation of enzymes in blood. The aim of the study is to create awareness among the people about the importance of hematological report and its role in early diagnosis of tertiary diseases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among 100 people chosen randomly. The questionnaire was circulated through SurveyPlanet. The questionnaire contains 19 questions that contain various tests and knowledge about it. The results were collected and analyzed by statistics. Results: It was observed that more than 96% of people were aware of certain tests that they undergo and the disease transmitted through blood. However, in contradiction, they were not aware of the biomarkers indicating the heart disease and protein markers indicating inflammation. Conclusion: It was noted that the knowledge about blood test is known to the people and still there are topics in which still they remain unaware and awareness is needed for the betterment of people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004846
Title: Knowledge and attitude of probiotics among outpatients visiting dental operatory
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The word probiotics have been given a number of different definitions over the years, with the current definition being “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a medical advantage on the host.” Most probiotic products contain bacteria from the genera Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium, although other genera, including Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Propionibacterium, and Saccharomyces (a yeast), have been developed as probiotics. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared with 15 questions. It was circulated to the patients and attenders visiting dental operatory of Saveetha Dental College. The survey was conducted among various age groups not <16 years of age. The questions are framed based on their knowledge and perception toward probiotics. Results: About 76% were aware of probiotics and its uses and effects, in which 90.5% were aware that food they consume contains probiotics. Moreover, 85.2% of the population identified that probiotic is a constituent of living microorganisms. Different sources of probiotics were consumed, of which majority was yogurt (32.4%), milk (27%), apple (12.2%), cucumber (10.8%), soup (9.5%), and brown rice (8.1%). Probiotics are used as therapeutic drug for mostly gastrointestinal condition (63%). Conclusion: Most of them knew the beneficial effects of probiotics to human body in terms of food digestion and immunity. Furthermore, in general, they were aware that dairy products were food source of probiotics. However, they still lack on information on the other health benefits of probiotics as well as food source of probiotics aside from dairy foods.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004847
Title: The effect of Teflon coating on the resistance to sliding of orthodontic archwires
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to compare the effect of Teflon coating on the frictional properties on different archwires used in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: Two types of commercially available archwires with round and rectangular sections of different materials with and without Teflon coating were tested. The brackets were then bonded onto extracted lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar brackets. The brackets were then inserted into gypsum blocks. The resistance to sliding (RS) of each bracket-archwire-plate combination was tested by passing the wire through the test brackets at a rate of 10 mm/min, with a frictional testing apparatus, mounted on the crosshead of a universal testing machine. Results: Teflon-coated archwires produced lower frictional levels than their corresponding uncoated archwires. Coating archwires with Teflon may be a possible way to reduce RS. Conclusion: Teflon-coated archwires produced lower frictional levels than their corresponding uncoated archwires.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00004848
Title: Effect of Haematococcus pluvialis crude astaxanthin extract on uric acid and hepatic enzymes
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Algal Biotechnology Laboratory, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
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Background and Aim: In humans, uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism. Due to the low solubility of UA in water, excess of it can form gout. Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered “super anti-oxidant.” Materials and Methods: In the present investigation experimental rats weighing 200– 220 g were given high protein diet (HPD), crude astaxanthin (CA), and CA along with HPD (CA HPD) (250 mg/kg b.w./per day) Results: About 10% increase of UA was observed in HPD group whereas in CAs and CA HPD, the UA level was significantly lowered by 34% and 24%, respectively, when compared to the normal group (NC). Serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels were elevated by 158% and 217% in HPD. In CA, the SGPT and SGOT levels were lowered by 45% and 36%, respectively. Similarly, in CA HPD, the SGPT and SGOT levels were elevated by 132% and 97%, respectively, when the groups were compared with the NC. Conclusion: The result indicates that H. pluvialis CA has the ability to prevent damage caused by high consumption of proteins and therefore, can be used in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004865
Title: Challenges of gestational diabetes mellitus – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a very much portrayed disease influencing a critical populace of pregnant ladies around the world. GDM comprises a noteworthy danger of creating Type 2 diabetes mellitus to the mother and embryo in later life. Patients with GDM are at higher hazard for sort 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular ailments, etc. Diabetes mellitus is an incessant sickness that requires proceeding with restorative consideration and progressing persistent self-administration instruction and backing to avert intense inconveniences and to decrease the long-haul difficulties. In certain populaces, for example, Asians, especially Indians the commonness of diabetes are expected to excessive weight gain, preeclampsia, and cesarean segments. After conveyance, these babies have a higher danger of creating hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory misery disorder and consequent corpulence, and type 2 diabetes. Inadequately controlled GDM brings about maternal and fetal mortality and bleakness. Heftiness and progressed gestational age are other hazard factors for GDM. The point of this original copy is to fundamentally audit GDM in a nitty-gritty and far-reaching way so as to give logical investigation and cure. This audit gives an outline of medical issues identified with GDM, counting the difficulties of viewing with finding.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005322
Title: Clinical practice guideline for intracanal instrument retrieval
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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A fractured endodontic instrument within the root canal is an infelicitous occurrence that may obstruct the root canal procedure and the outcome. The purposes of these clinical practice guidelines of fractured instruments were to review the treatment options, influencing factors, and complications and processes for their management. An online search was conducted in peer- review journals listed in PubMed to retrieve clinical and experimental studies, case reports, and review articles by utilizing the following keywords: Instruments, files, obstructions, fractured, disunited, broken, abstraction, retrieval, management, bypassing, and complications with or without root canal and endodontic. The conservative management includes abstraction of or bypassing the fragment or filling the root canal system to the coronal level of the fragment. Surgical intervention remains an alternative approach. These approaches are influenced by a number of factors and may be associated with complications. On the basis of current clinical evidence, a decision-making process for management is suggested. Clinical guidelines for the management of intracanal separated instruments have not been formulated. Decisions on management should consider the following: Restraint of the root canal accommodating the fragment, the stage of root canal preparation at which the instrument fractured, the skill of the clinician, the armamentaria available, the potential complications of the treatment approach adopted, and the strategic consequentiality of the tooth involved and the presence or absence of periapical pathosis. Clinical experience and understanding of these influencing factors, as well as the ability to make a balanced decision, are essential.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005323
Title: Market authorization approval pathway for biologicals in Brazil
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00005324
Title: Does a total of secondary metabolites from fermented Bogor bean seeds (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) inhibit foodborne fungi?
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM 21 Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia.
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Objective: The fermented Bogor bean seed was investigated for the antifungal secondary metabolites against foodborne fungi. Materials and Methods: Before fermented, the bean seed was pasteurized, then the seed was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The supernatant of the fermented product was isolated and tested for the antifungal activity against isolated foodborne fungi using the agar diffusion method. The foodborne fungi were isolated from spoiling cooked rice and reinoculated on to the Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. The presence of ethanol was qualitatively tested using K2 Cr 2 O7 ; meanwhile, the ethanol concentration was measured by determining the endpoint of the titration method. Results: The fermentation product was white, smells of alcohol, and had a pH of 4. The seed fermentation produced alcohol in a low concentration, that is, 8.43% (v/v). The isolated foodborne fungi on the rice were 5.65 × 103 colony-forming unit/g. The fermented product needed a high concentration (80% v/v) to achieve moderate antifungal activity of the bean seed against the isolated of foodborne fungi. Conclusion: The secondary metabolites of the Bogor bean seed fermentation showed the antifungal capability in inhibiting the foodborne fungi.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00005325
Title: Development and validation of a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for quantification of omadacycline in plasma
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled mass spectrometry (MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of omadacycline in human plasma. Materials and Methods: Following liquid-liquid extraction, the analyte and internal standard were separated using an isocratic mobile phase on a reverse phase C 18 column and analyzed by MS in the multiple reaction monitoring modes using the respective [M+H] + ions, m/z is 556.0– 155.0 for omadacycline. Results: The calibration curve ranges from 10 pg/mL to 3000 pg/mL with desirable linearity and r2 >0.99. The lower limit of quantitation was 10 pg/mL, with a relative standard deviation of <1.3%. This LC-MS method was validated with between batch and within-batch precision of 0.02–2.19% and 0.43–2.39%, respectively. The between-batch and within-batch accuracy were 98.83–100.83% and 97.96–100.88%, respectively. Conclusion: This validated method is simple, rapid, cost-effective, and repeatable enough to be used in pharmacokinetic studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005326
Title: Phytochemical analysis and preliminary anti-inflammatory activities of crude Acacia etbaica Schweinf leaf extraction lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Aksum University, Axum, Ethiopia
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Introduction: Acacia etbaica Schweinf belongs to the family Fabaceae traditionally used to treat stomach pain, swelling, livestock eye infection, itching/scabies, and fire burn. In Ethiopia, the leaves of A. etbaica Schweinf used for the treatment of inflammatory disease. Objective: The present study was conducted to qualitative phytochemical analysis and preliminary in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of A. etbaica Schweinf leaves on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Materials and Methods: Different organic solvent extracts of the dry powdered of A. etbaica Schweinf were obtained by serial exhaustive solvent extraction method using Soxhlet apparatus and was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening followed by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cell viability, Griess assay for nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that both acetone and ethanolic leaf extracts of A. etbaica contained significant amount of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The MTT assay of ethanolic leaf extract of A. etbaica Schweinf at different concentrations (25–500 µg/ml) on RAW 264.7 cells has not shown significant cell toxicity. The NO level was significantly decreased in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells at different (25, 50, and 100 µg/ml) concentrations with IC50 of 191.11 ± 1.96 µg/ml. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ethanolic leaf extract of A. etbaica Schweinf shown significant inhibitory effect on production of NO in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The preliminary anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of A. etbaica Schweinf due to the presence of cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, sterols, quinone, anthraquinone, and phenolic compounds.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005327
Title: Comparison of instrumentation time and obturation quality between hand H-files and Kedo-SH files in root canal treatment of primary teeth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Teeth with irreversible pulpitis with or without periapical abscess are usually treated by performing pulpectomy procedure. The conventional method of treatment was using hand instrumentation. Aim: The present study aims to comparatively evaluate the instrumentation time and obturation quality using pediatric manual (Kedo-SH) with conventional manual (hand H-files) instrumentation technique for pulpectomy in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A randomized control trial where pulpectomy was performed on 40 primary molars equally distributed for instrumentation with conventional H-files and Kedo-SH hand files. The instrumentation time and obturation quality were noted. Results: Kedo-SH hand files showed less instrumentation time with better obturation quality as compared to the conventional H hand files. Conclusion: Pediatric manual Kedo-SH files have better obturation quality and minimum instrumentation time.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005328
Title: Molar-incisor hypomineralization: A rare case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Molar-incisor hypomineralization is an idiopathic dental condition affecting permanent first molars and incisors. A 7-year-old male patient reported with severe dental sensitivity and difficulty in mastication. On clinical examination, severe enamel structural defects were observed on all four first permanent molars and lower permanent incisors, including primary second molars. On radiographic examination, the enamel appeared thinned out and of decreased thickness. Thus, early diagnosis, prevention of caries, or post-eruptive breakdown and interception comprise the management of molar-incisor hypomineralization.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005329
Title: Dermal test of Sepia pharaonis ink extract proves to be safe in albino rabbits
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, ACS Medical College, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim and Objective: To measure the degree of skin irritation in albino rabbits using Sepia pharaonis ink extract (SPIE). Materials and Methods: The procedure followed was as per Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines for dermal irritation. Three albino rabbits were selected. Twenty-four hours before the test, the dorsal aspect skin of the rabbit was prepared for the test. 0.5 gm of the SPIE patch was prepared. The patch was applied to the dorsal aspect of the body. Patch 1 for 3 mins, Patch 2 for 1 hr, and Patch 3 for 4 hrs were applied and removed, observed for 24 hrs initially followed-up to 14 days without any patch to grade the corrosion or erythema. Dermal irritation test grading was done. Results: skin irrtation grading revealed no Oedema or Erythema in the Albino Rabbit. Conclusion: Sepia pharaonis ink extract in Albino rabbits ensures the safe use of the product in the mere future for the public without any Anaphylactic reaction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005330
Title: Awareness of effect of balanced diet on lifespan – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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A balanced diet contains carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water in proper proportions to maintain a healthy life. A balanced diet is essential for the body as the organs require proper nutrition to work efficiently. The body is prone to various diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. Hence, a balanced diet is necessary to combat these disorders. The aim of this study is to create awareness of the impact of balanced diet on lifespan in society.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005331
Title: Measurement of blood pressure and pulse rate by listening music during exercise and after exercise
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Music is considered as a developmental adaptive value as reward system among humans. Hence, nowadays music has become greater intervention in clinical settings. Physical exercise is correlated with changes in cardiorespiratory parameters and increases psychological stress and exertion. Following exercise, these parameters return to the resting values once the O2 debt is recovered. The main aim of this study is to determine the blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate during and after exercise with the music listening. Materials and Methods: The sample size of this study was 30 healthy individuals. The soft music was selected for the study for the duration of 5–7 min. Normal BP and pulse rate of the participants were noted before the exercise. During and after exercise, music was allowed to listen by the participants with an interval of 3–5 min. Then, the BP and pulse rate are recorded and statistically analyzed using paired t-test. Results: BP and pulse rate were higher after exercise without intervention of music than listening music during and after exercise. Music was listened after exercise for 5–7 min and their BP and pulse rate were reduced than without intervention of music. Conclusion: The present study indicates that music has an important role in reducing BP and pulse rate during and after exercise. Thus, listening to music not only makes us happy but also has a significant effect on the body.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005332
Title: Three-dimensional printing – A boon for periodontal regeneration
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Tissue engineering/regenerative medicine aims “to stimulate regeneration of tissues and organs by either implanting biomaterials for in vivo regeneration or by constructing substitutes in vitro.” Tissue engineering is a translational research area including a broad range of disciplines, such as stem cell biology, material sciences, medicine, chemistry, and manufacturing. Recently, nanotechnology was introduced as a new area in tissue engineering and in periodontal tissue engineering, with emerging studies demonstrating significant influence of nanoscaled topography and geometry on cell differentiation, behavior, and enhanced three-dimensional (3D) regeneration. A recent study showed that nano-proresolving medicines designed specifically for the treatment of inflammation-induced bone loss resulted in the increased bone formation in a large animal model. Ongoing research into the importance of nanoscale features for regeneration of periodontal complex tissues will further elucidate the required scaffold design parameters and therapeutic capabilities of nanotechnology-based applications. There is a need for effective strategies for implementation of tissue engineering into day-to-day practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005333
Title: Study on hypoglycemic potential of crude acetone fruit extract of Sambucus nigra
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. Sambucus nigra is a flowering plant in the family of Adoxaceae. It is commonly known as elder or black elder. This plant is used as a medicinal plant by native people as folk medicine. Herbal medicines are used nowadays for curing many diseases. This study aims to prove the hypoglycemic activity of S. nigra. Materials and Methods: The dried fruit of S. nigra was crushed in mortar and pestle to prepare crude acetone fruit extract by solvent extract method. Then, hypoglycemic potential was analyzed by α-amylase inhibitory activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Results: The aqueous extract of C showed positive results for α-amylase inhibitory activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Discussion: Diabetes mellitus is turning into a common disorder in India. Even though there are many medications for diabetes, it has many side effects. In case of herbal medicines, there are no or reduced side effects and it will also be accessible even in rural areas. Since the extract is proved for its antidiabetic activity, it can be further purified and analyzed for drug formulations. Conclusion: This study has analyzed the hypoglycemic potential of S. nigra. S. nigra, therefore, represents a possible dietary adjunct for the treatment of diabetes and a potential source for the discovery of a new orally active agent(s) for future diabetes therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005334
Title: Phytochemical analysis and hypoglycemic effect of Trachyspermum ammi essential oil
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder that is caused either due to less production of insulin or decreased activity of insulin or its action. Antioxidants are one important way of controlling diabetes and this is available naturally from plants and one such plant which Trachyspermum ammi is a medicinal plant proved to be having many medicinal properties apart from having antioxidant activity, thereby acting as a good source for treating various diseases. Aim: The aim of the present study is to screen the phytochemical constituents and to assess the in vitro hypoglycemic activity of T. ammi essential oil. Materials and Methods: The oil was purchased online and in vitro hypoglycemic activity was assessed by evaluating the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition. Phytochemical screening was done using standard phytochemical procedures. Results: The result showed that T. ammi oil has both alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity and activity increases with increase in concentration. The phytochemical analysis showed that the oil is rich in alkaloids and terpenoids. Furthermore, moderate amount of carbohydrate and lesser amount of flavonoids and phlobatannins are also seen. Conclusion: Hence, from the above study, it is seen that T. ammi essential oil possess in vitro hypoglycemic activity which might contribute to its antidiabetic activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005335
Title: Determination of anti-inflammatory potential of crude ethanolic leaf extract of Coldenia procumbens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Coldenia procumbens Linn. is a prostate annular crawling herb. It is found in tropical and subtropical areas. It is commonly called as Seruppadai in Tamil Nadu. It is proven to perform various pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antianalgesic effect. It also has flavonoids, tannins, etc., as significant constituents. Understanding the cause of inflammation and its long-term and short-term consequences helps us to understand its importance to be treated. Materials and Methods: This study aims to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of C. procumbens ethanolic extract using protein denaturation inhibition assay and human red blood cell membrane stabilization method. Diclofenac is considered as the standard and effective synthetic drug against inflammation. Making the control samples and various test samples at different concentration of the extract, the anti-inflammatory potential is determined with comparison to the synthetic drug. Results: From the study, it is evident that the plant extract possess anti-inflammatory potential. Then further studies can be made to develop C. procumbens extract as natural alternative medication to the synthetic standard drugs. Conclusion: Natural plant extracts should be subjected to various analyses to replace all the synthetic drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005336
Title: Impaired Hippocampal-Dependent Learning and Memory of Wistar Albino Rats Exposed to Electromagnetic Radiation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (Deemed University), Thandalam, Chennai - 602 105, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: People are now being exposed to various degrees of man-made electromagnetic field sources and their exposure levels are increasing with technological advance. The World Health Organization classifies electromagnetic radiation (EMR) as “possibly carcinogenic for humans,” particularly brain cancer. The release of this WHO statement prompted many people to call for a “precautionary approach” to mobile phone usage. The use of mobile phones is increasing day by day, and it is estimated that approximately 600 million people worldwide are using mobile phones currently. Various reports from studies are conducted to elucidate the effect of mobile phone radiation on memory function, which are still so conflicting; so, the present study was aimed to show the effects of mobile phone radiation on memory in rats using Y-maze method and to study the morphological changes in the hippocampus. Materials and Methods: This study is a completely randomized controlled animal experiment. EMR was set by keeping a global system for mobile (GSM) (0.9/1.8 GHz) mobile phone in silent mode (no ring tone and no vibration) in the cage (36 cm × 23 cm × 21 cm). Animals were exposed to EMR by having the mobile phone in answer mode for 2 h/day for 28 days. After 28 days of EMR exposure, spatial learning and memory were assessed by Y-maze study and the morphological changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining of the hippocampus. Conclusion: The results conclude that EMR exposure from mobile phones can significantly affect the spatial learning and also induces morphological changes in the CA1 region of hippocampus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005337
Title: Cytotoxic effects of Triphala extract on human fibroblast cells – An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Irrigation helps to achieve a clean and debris free canal in endodontic therapy. Extrusion of irrigant occurs in both vital and non-vital teeth even if the roots are fully mature with intact apexes. Blunderbuss canals, perforations, and improper techniques can also allow the solution to permeate into surrounding periodontal tissues. Tissue cytotoxicity is, therefore, of great concern when choosing an endodontic irrigant. Aim: The study aims to assess the cytotoxicity effects of Triphala extract on human fibroblast cells compared to that of currently used endodontic irrigants. Materials and Methods: Human fibroblasts were grown on cell culture plates and were placed in contact with various concentrations of test irrigants. The cytotoxicity of these materials was evaluated 24 h after incubation using MTT assay. Means and standard deviations of absorbance were calculated for each group and statistically analyzed to determine the presence or absence of significant difference between the means. The 50% inhibitory concentration values were calculated, ranked, and statistically analyzed using the sign interval for median. Results: The mean absorbance values of cytotoxic assay were 0.312, 0.283, 0.241, 0.171, 0.061, 0.866, and 0.105 for Triphala extract 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 Ug/ml concentrations, 2% chlorhexidine, and 3% sodium hypochlorite. The 50% inhibitory concentration values for 2% chlorhexidine, 3% sodium hypochlorite, and Triphala extract were 40.70 µg/100 µl, 52.85 µg/100 µl, and 89.2 µg/100 µl, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, Triphala extract showed significantly lesser cell cytotoxicity toward human periodontal ligament fibroblasts cells compared to 3% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine, suggestive of it being a potential root canal irrigant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005338
Title: Oral Health status in public transport workers in Chennai City
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the oral hygiene status of the transport workers, to assess the brushing habits and other oral hygiene aids among them, and to assess the prevalence of dental caries and partial edentulous in them. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared and randomly distributed toward public transport workers in Chennai. Multiple-choice questions regarding oral health were given: A total of 100 workers were interviewed. Results: Based on the question asked, the oral hygiene of public transport workers shows that they have the knowledge of oral hygiene but neglect in their daily oral habits. Conclusion: We should bring awareness toward public transport workers through advertisement and dental health professional should supply the patients with adequate knowledge of oral health and instill a great value of significance in complying to the oral hygiene.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005339
Title: Knowledge and awareness about beneficial effects of Epsom salt among the teenagers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Epsom salt is a potent mineral compound with a mixture of magnesium and sulfate ions. Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It is involved in more than 325 biochemical reactions that benefit the heart and nervous system. It performs a crucial role in relieving pain, as it acts as an anti-inflammatory agent and also a remedy for muscle cramps. The present study aims to create awareness and knowledge about the beneficial effects of Epsom salt among the teenagers. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried upon 100 teenagers who were between 13 and 19 years of age. A survey was conducted; questionnaire was prepared and distributed among them. Participant’s demographics include name, age, and the sex was asked. The questions comprised the health benefits of Epsom salt, such as the chemical name of the salt, normal level of consumption. Results and Discussion: In this study, about 55% of females and 45% of males were participated. The survey questionnaire comprises about the beneficial effects of Epsom salt, in which 59% heard about the Epsom salt and 42% were not heard. About 48% of teenagers knew the chemical name of Epsom salt and 52% of them were not. About 66% of participants were not aware that Epsom salt can be used as a bath salt and only 34% of aware of it. Conclusion: The knowledge about this salt can help every individual to live a painless and healthy life by using Epsom salt as a natural remedy in their daily life. The present study carried on the teenagers revealed that the majority of them were not aware of the beneficial effects of Epsom salt. Hence, this survey would have created significant knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of the Epsom salt among the teenagers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005340
Title: A survey on the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy among the diabetes mellitus patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a serious public health issue which is growing worldwide. It has been creating a great alarm among the general public for the past few decades. Diabetes mellitus has been known since antiquity, its treatments were known since the middle ages, and the elucidation of its pathogenesis occurred mainly in the 20th century. India currently represents about 49% of the world’s diabetes burden, with an estimated 72 million cases in 2017, a figure expected to almost double to 134 million by 2025. Hence, it becomes really very important to monitor the disorder frequently and to provide the affected with good treatment for better prognosis. On the other hand, peripheral neuropathy is a common and a serious complication. People with diabetes mellitus are more prone to peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is a condition characterized by damage of peripheral nerves that carry signals between the central nervous system and all other parts of the body. It can affect a range of different kinds of nerves and so it can affect a wide variety of locations in different ways. The severity of the disease depends on the type of nerve affected. Aim and Objective: Our study aims in the correlation of signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and diabetes mellitus and also at the provision of detailed statistical analysis on the symptoms experienced by the patients and classification of peripheral neuropathy on the basis of severity of the disease and the type of nerve affected. Materials and Methods: A survey is conducted among 50 diabetic mellitus patients residing in the locality of Chennai. A questionnaire is prepared with the help of the Google forms software and is distributed through the population of study. And the answers are recorded. The questionnaire comprised two sections. The first section aimed at collecting the demographic details of the patients and the second section aimed at collecting the information regarding the clinical manifestations related to peripheral neuropathy and the results are analyzed. Results and Conclusion: In the present study, the majority of the diabetes mellitus patients, i.e., about 60% of them are peripheral neuropathic. Then they are categorized into mild, moderate, and severely peripheral neuropathic based on the severity of the disease which is about 26%, 26%, and 8%, respectively, and predominantly motor neuropathic, predominantly sensory neuropathic, and motor sensory neuropathic based on the type of nerve affected, which is about 56%, 2%, and 2%, respectively.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005341
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward biofunctional prosthetic system among undergraduate dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the understanding regarding the usage of biofunctional prosthetic system (BPS) denture among undergraduate dental students. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of BPS system denture among undergraduate dental students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called SurveyMonkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students (3rd year, 4th year, and interns) who currently pursuing in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, participated in the study. Results: As an overall result, most of the participants are not aware of BPS system denture in dentistry. Participants had lack of knowledge about BPS system. Conclusions: As a conclusion, the awareness of the usage of BPS system denture among undergraduate dental students has to be improved. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them treating their patients with BPS denture aiming for less timing consumption.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005342
Title: Awareness of a healthy diet for healthy teeth among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A healthy diet plays an important role in the oral cavity. A well-balanced diet helps in preventing oral diseases, including dental caries, dental erosion, and periodontal diseases. Oral health is essential for the overall health of an individual. Fibre rich fruits and vegetables, calcium, and phosphorus fortified foods are essential to maintain a healthy oral environment. The aim of this study is to create awareness for a healthy diet for strong and healthy teeth. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire, including questions based on the eating habits of the population, was distributed through an online SurveyPlanet link to a study population of all age groups of the South Indian population. The data were collected and statistically analysed. Results: Based on the results collected, we can see that about 69% answered positively when asked if having a healthy diet is important for maintaining proper oral health. Conclusion: By this survey, the importance of the relationship between oral health and general health was imposed as well as awareness of the requirement of a healthy diet for healthy teeth among the South Indian population was established.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005343
Title: Piperine on oxidative stress markers in cardiac tissue of experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rat
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Piperine is a major alkaloid found in black pepper isolated from Piper nigrum, Piperine has a long history of use in some types of traditional medicine. The alkaloid is used as an herbal product for its purported anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor properties. The seeds of the long pepper contain 1–2% of piperine and may be used in piperine production. Materials and Methods: In the given experiment, the rat is divided into four groups each group has six animals: Group-I: Normal control rats fed with normal diet and drinking water, Group -II: Type-2 diabetic rats induced by high- fat diet, Group-III: Diabetic (type-2) rats treated with piperine (40 g/kg bodyweight/day), orally for 30 days, and Group- IV: Diabetic (type-2) rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg body weight/day), orally for 30 days. Results: A significant decrease on oxidative stress markers observed in Group-III rat compared to Group-II rats. Oral administrations of piperine for 30 days significantly restored the altered level of insulin signaling molecules in the cardiac tissue of type-II diabetic rat. Conclusion: From the present findings, piperine may have therapeutic role in type-2 diabetes by controlling oxidative stress markers in cardiac tissue and hence piperine can be therapeutic antidiabetic drug for the management of type-2 diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005344
Title: Assessment of salivary transforming growth factor beta-1 level in patients with periodontitis with or without diabetes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Periodontitis is a common disease of an oral cavity which involves chronic inflammation of gingival tissue and tissues surrounding the teeth. Patients with diabetes have increased incidence and severity of the periodontal disease has been shown in earlier studies. Aim and Objectives: The present study was aimed to assess the salivary levels of human transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) protein concentration in chronic periodontitis (CP) with or without diabetes. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on subjects who are CP with or without diabetes reporting to the Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, SIMATS, Chennai, India. A sample size of 20 was taken for the study and the salivary TGF-β1 level was measured by Sandwich ELISA method and the results obtained were statistically analyzed. Results: The level of TGF-β1 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in CP who are suffering from diabetes than without diabetes (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our present finding concludes that TGF-β1 plays a significant role in the progression of CP. Chronic periodontitis with diabetes showed a high level of salivary TGF-β1 concentration than CP without diabetes. Hence, measuring salivary TGF-β1 can be used as one of the potential biomarkers for the development of diabetes with CP as a non-invasive technique.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005345
Title: Awareness on psychology of colors among IT professionals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Color psychology is the study done to know the relationship between colors and human behavior better. One’s feeling and self-expression can be communicated through colors. Colors can make people hungry, get fascinated, give positive thoughts and convince us to do certain decision. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire were prepared and administered to 105 participants through survey planet – an online survey. The study participants were IT professional of age between 25 – 35. Result: Color influences attitude and behavior of a person and also it affects their mood. There is no universal meaning for a specific color. Colors have an impact on us but we rarely even think about it in our routine life. Conclusion: There are color center in our brain from where information travel simultaneously to areas of brain that are responsible for detecting motions, shapes, edges, etc. Hence, colors impact the brain because it can greatly affect our physiology since it influences anxiety, blood pressure, pulse, etc.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005346
Title: Awareness of health hazards on consuming artificially ripened fruits and vegetables
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Health is one of the most vital aspects that is of greater concern to most of the human beings at present days. To keep people healthier they intake lots of fruits which contain more amount of nutrition and helps them to remain fit. But those fruits and vegetables have been ripened through some artificial means. Despite repeated warnings, raids and seizures, chemically ripened fruits and vegetables are flooding the markets. Such artificially ripened fruits and vegetables cause ill effects. To avoid such ill effects the consumers have to be careful while buying such fruits and vegetables. So this can be achieved by creating awareness. Aim: The aim of this study is to create awareness on the health hazards caused by consuming artificially ripened fruits and vegetables. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was prepared on the topic and distributed through and online survey planet link. The study population included hundred students belonging to the 17–22 age group. Results: Only 32.6% of the participants were aware how to differentiate between naturally ripened fruits and artificially ripened fruits. Conclusion: More awareness camps may be created in the society to educate the public on the health hazards on consuming artificially ripened fruits and vegetables.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005347
Title: Effect of diosmin on oxidative stress markers in diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in experimental rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Diosmin is a well-known flavonoid having a broad spectrum of biological activities, including antioxidant, modulator of capillary permeability, and anti-carcinogenic widely used in medicine. Aim: The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of diosmin on enzymic antioxidant enzymes in diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in experimental rats. Methodology: Rats were classified into four groups as follows: Group I: Control, Group II: N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocellular carcinogenic rats, Group III: Cancer-bearing animals treated with diosmin (200 mg/kg/body weight/day) orally for 28 days, and Group IV: Control animals treated with diosmin (200 mg/kg/ body weight/day) alone for 28 days. Oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), H2 O2, and OH* were studied. Results: The NDEA-induced HCC rats showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activity of oxidative stress markers (LPO, H2 O2 , and OH*). The oral administration of diosmin significantly reduced (P < 0.05) these enzymes. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present findings that diosmin can be a therapeutic option in HCC.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005348
Title: Awareness of childhood obesity and nutrition among parents
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Childhood obesity is a common problem globally where the child is significantly overweight for his or her height and weight. Childhood obesity can lead to diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. The causes for childhood obesity are sedentary lifestyle, binge eating, genetic disorder, and psychological factors. The aim of this study is to create awareness of childhood obesity and nutrition required for a healthy lifestyle of children among parents. Materials and Methods: Self administrated questions were designed and distributed through an online SurveyPlanet link. The study population included parents (182) belonging to the age of 30 and above. The data was collected and statistically analysed. Results and Conclusion: I t was good to hear that 87.4% of the parent population were aware of childhood. Only 12.6% was not aware of that condition. healthy. About 79.1% of the parent population tells that their child is not obese while 20.9% says that they have identified their child as overweight. The first step to overcome obesity is by recognising whether their kid is overweight or not. After recognition, only further steps to overcome it can be taken. About 89.6% of the parent population says that they educate their children on food habits while 10.4% do not educate their children. They must tell the children about the nutritional value of the food so that they know it value and do not waste them. It is actually good that parents had known a lot about childhood obesity when compared to the previous studies. The first step to prevent childhood obesity is to create an awareness among the population. Most parents of overweight children fail to recognise that their child has a weight problem.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005349
Title: Awareness of carbonated drinks on oral health among teenagers
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A carbonated beverage is a mixture of phosphoric acid, sugar, caffeine, colouring and flavouring agents. Increased consumption of carbonated beverage with high sugar content may cause tooth decay. Aim: To create awareness and guide the young generation about the healthy diet needed for their oral health and well being. Materials and Methods: A study has been conducted among 97 dental students comprising of both undergraduates and postgraduates. The survey included 21 questions and where administered through an online Survey planet link to all the participants. Results: Nearly 74.2% of the study population were aware that continuous consumption of soda would cause diabetes. Conclusion: Carbonated beverages when consumer in high amounts have a detrimental effect on the tooth surfaces. So, more awareness is required to guide the young generation about the healthy diet needed for their oral health and well being.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005350
Title: Xerostomia and dental caries – A marker for underlying autoimmune disorder
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic, autoimmune disease that is characterized by symptoms such as oral and ocular dryness, exocrine gland dysfunction, lymphocytic infiltration, and destruction of exocrine glands. The authors present a case of a 43-year-old female patient who reported with a unilateral, tender swelling posterior to the left pinna, and the ramus of the mandible and multiple carious teeth in the lower front teeth region. On clinical examination, oral dryness was noted. A series of biochemical, radiographical, and histopathological tests were done. Based on clinical examination and the investigatory procedures, a confirmatory diagnosis was given as secondary SS. This case report elaborates on the tests that lead to the final diagnosis and the treatment following diagnosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005351
Title: Expectation of undergraduates on teachers in professional colleges – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Andragogy – adult learning is a part of higher education, in which an intentional or professionally guided activity-based learning takes place to understand the concepts of subjects among the adolescent children. Teaching is a process with facilitates learning by encouraging students well versed in the subject. Learning style for learner’s most efficiently. In student-centered learning environment, the main focus is on knowledge sharing when learning is used properly, it can become a lifelong learning process. In this way, the student looks for a solution to solve the problem without complete dependence on a teacher. This study aimed to know the preference of the students on teachers’ attitudes with a survey. Materials and Methods: To investigate students’ preferences on teachers in a dental college, among the population of 100 dental students, we conducted a questionnaire survey using with a set of questions regarding, teachers’ attitude, characteristics, friendliness, and patience in and out of the classroom. Results and Conclusion: The survey was conducted among dental students and the results stated that students are more likely to appreciate teachers who are not biased, those who do not monk at students and are very patient in cooperating with the students; on the other hand, students disapprove those teachers who do not use interactive learning sessions and those who do not motivate students on extra activities. Thereby, the results conclude that students prefer teacher who are more likely to be more friendly with the students and who are always motivating an individual in not only academics but also in other fields so as to make him/her a better citizen of tomorrow.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005352
Title: Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of benazepril in rodent models
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are one of the first-line drugs for the treatment of hypertension. The occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is 2.5 times more likely in persons with hypertension than in normotensives. Combination therapy of ACE inhibitors and oral hypoglycemic drugs came into admiration to manage hypertensive diabetics which leads to hypoglycemia. Hence, the present study is carried out to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of benazepril in rodent models. Aims and Objectives: The aims of the study were to evaluate hypoglycemic activity of benazepril by recording blood glucose levels and to ensure that the hypoglycemic drugs increase body weight in the experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-induced rats were administered with benazepril, glibenclamide, and benazepril + glibenclamide for 14 days and compared with normal control and diabetic control. Blood glucose and body weight of all five groups were recorded at the 7th day and 14th day and compared. Results: Significant difference between glibenclamide, benazepril, and glibenclamide + benazepril (P < 0.0001) when compared to normal control, diabetic control and within the groups at 7th day and 14th day. Blood glucose levels were decreased and body weight increased significantly at the end of the experiment. Conclusion: Benazepril has shown hypoglycemic effect individually on long term administration and enhanced hypoglycemic effect of glibenclamide too. Hence, this study suggests that there should be caution on the usage of benazepril in patients under treatment for type II diabetes mellitus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005353
Title: Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of cinnamon extracts with normal saline as root canal irrigant – An in vivo study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the antibacterial efficacy of cinnamon extract and normal saline as root canal irrigant against root canal pathogens. Materials and Methods: Thirty primary mandibular molar teeth of children aged 4–8 years were irrigated with 4% cinnamon extract or 0.9% normal saline. The sample was collected at baseline and after instrumentation during pulpectomy with paper points. The number of colony-forming units was calculated using digital colony counter. Results: Statistically significant difference was observed in the antimicrobial efficacy of 4% cinnamon and 0.9% saline (P < 0.005). Conclusion: About 4% cinnamon can be used as a potent root canal irrigant during pulpectomy of the primary teeth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005354
Title: Myoepithelioma of the hard palate – A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts. There are three major paired salivary glands which include parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. Minor salivary glands are around 800–1000 in number and are located within the submucosa of the oral mucosa including buccal, labial, and lingual mucosa, the soft palate, the lateral parts of the hard palate, and the floor of the mouth or between muscle fibers of the tongue. Minor salivary gland tumors comprise 10–15% of salivary gland neoplasms. They represent <1% of all tumors and 3–5% of head-and-neck neoplasms. Benign minor salivary gland neoplasms are insidious, slow growing in nature with an overage course of 3–6 years, while malignant minor salivary gland neoplasms are rapidly growing, may ulcerate, and even be secondarily infected. Myoepithelioma is a benign tumor of the oral cavity arising from major and minor salivary gland tumors, accounting for 1–1.5% of all glandular tumors. These tumors comprise myoepithelial cells which are stellate shaped, known as basket cells are found as a thin layer in the glandular epithelium above the basement membrane, but generally beneath the luminal cells. They commonly involve the parotid gland, minor salivary glands of the hard palate. This case report presents the clinical features, imaging features, and treatment protocol for myoepithelioma of the hard palate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005355
Title: Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity among general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Technical and Medical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity among general population. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity among general population. Background: Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain which results due to exposed dentin in response to stimuli. It often arises due to cold drinks toothbrushing and sweet foods. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity is uncertain. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dentin hypersensitivity require accurate knowledge regarding its prevalence. Reason: Most of the patients do not seek any dental treatment for their dentin hypersensitivity as they do not perceive them to be a serious dental problem. The common path for dentin hypersensitivity is the activation of pulpal nerves. In dentistry, the major reasons for emergency dental visits are pain and discomfort. Thus, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence, common causative factors, aggravating factors of dentin hypersensitivity. Conclusion: The study was very successful in assessing the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in the chosen demographic area and also clearly discussed the possible etiological factors which shows the prevalence oh hypersensitivity in various parts of India.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005356
Title: Biomimetic Remineralization of Dentin using Polymer-Induced Liquid Precursor Process – A Review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Biomimetic approach in dentistry is a minimalistic approach in which restoration of damaged, decayed, and the fractured tooth is done and restored in the most aesthetically pleasing way. During the conventional remineralization process, the inorganic ions such as fluoride (F) react with the tooth substance to form fluorapatite crystals. Polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) system is used for minimal invasive dentistry in which calcium carbonate films are developed by the liquid-phase precursor process. These processes are then arranged in the collagen fibrils to form a network to enable remineralization process to take place. A review is done stating the demineralization and remineralization process and also calcium carbonate for the induction of remineralization using PILP system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005357
Title: Therapeutic efficacy of total flavonoid content as a potent antimicrobial in the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Camellia sinensis on oral pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, School of Agriculture and Biosciences, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences (Deemed to be University), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the antimicrobial efficacy of tea extract because plants (tea) are the premise of the normal drugs system and natural products which build glorious leads for a brand-new drug development. Camellia sinensis has a prodigious possibility to comprehend and treat various ailments, moreover, the antimicrobial efficacy on the extracts of C. sinensis have revealed encouraging results against oral pathogens in previous studies. Materials and Methods: In the current investigative study, the antimicrobial efficacy of the total flavonoid content in ethanolic and methanolic plant extracts against the bacteria isolated from the oral cavity of humans. Fourier-transform infrared analysis, antimicrobial efficiency of the oral samples was studied by well diffusion method; the wells were filled with 30 μl each of the various concentrations (50 μg, 75 μg, 100 μg, and 125 μg) of extracts. The plates were incubated at 37°C for overnight against the plant extracts prepared with Bacillus mojavensis, Enterococcus faecalis and two unknown pathogens. Results and Discussion: The methanolic extract produced good results when compared with ethanolic plant extract. The maximum inhibition was observed at 13 mm for methanolic extract and the minimum inhibition was observed at 5 mm for ethanolic extract. Conclusion: Therefore, the uncovering of the affiliation between plants and health will be responsible for launching a new generation of therapeutically vital botanicals, multicomponent botany-based medication, dietary supplements, functional foods, and plant product. The present exploration suggests that the methanolic extract with good flavonoid content exhibits potential activity and a future trend.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005358
Title: Effect of essential oils to reduce anxiety, depression, and blood pressure
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Essential oils are usually used in aromatherapy to alleviate anxiety symptoms. In comparison to traditional drugs, essential oils have less side effects and more diversified application ways, including inhalation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aromatherapy on depression, anxiety, and blood pressure by the application of lavender oil. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 30 subjects with the age of 18 years. The participants were instructed to apply few drops of lavender oil in their temples for 30 days before going to bed. Anxiety and depression were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale of 15 days interval. The scale was taken from 0 to 4. Blood pressure also was measured for them. All the readings were taken before and after using lavender oil. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: On analyzing the mean and standard deviation of before and after using lavender oil, the paired “t-test” was statistically significant. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels before application of lavender oil were 136.33 ± 13.19 and 71.6 ± 12.63, respectively, and mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after use were 118.53 ± 7.50 and 60.4 ± 7.05, respectively. Conclusion: Lavender oil was efficient in decreasing the anxiety, depression, as well as blood pressure of the participants. There was a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Thus, aromatherapy was efficacious in reducing anxiety and depression could be considered as a complementary, safe therapeutic intervention for the reduction of anxiety and depression.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005359
Title: Role of platelet concentrate in dental tissue regeneration – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Wound healing demands the complex interaction of various cell types with a three dimensional extracellular matrix and also soluble growth factors (GFs) capable of facilitating regeneration. Repair is defined as the healing of a wound by tissue that does not fully restore the architecture or the function of the part. Tissue regeneration aimed by platelet concentrates (PCs) collected from whole blood was first introduced over 20 years ago. The aim of utilizing human blood proteins as a source of GFs capable of supporting angiogenesis and tissue ingrowth based on the blood supply is a prerequisite for tissue regeneration. Platelet-rich plasma, plasma-rich GF is the first generation, platelet-rich fibrin, and concentrated GF are the second generation PC that has been used widely to accelerate the soft tissue and hard-tissue healing. This article reviews the use of these PC in dental tissue regeneration. Although the goal of complete and predictable regeneration still remains elusive, many techniques and materials have been developed that show good clinical and histological outcomes. In recent years in dentistry, there has been tremendous research in the area of recombinant GFs which is used to successfully regenerate either soft or hard tissues. In recent years, the field of regenerative dentistry has presented new possibilities for the treatment of necrotic immature permanent teeth through the development of new pulp tissue based on the meticulous combination and interplay of three key elements for tissue regeneration, namely, stem cells, bioactive molecules (e.g., GFs), and scaffolds. This review emphasis on the role of the Platelet Concentrate’s (PRP, PRGF, PRF&CGF) in regenerative dentistry

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005360
Title: Sex determination using craniometric analysis of various triangles of skull in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Vinayaka Mission’s Kirupananda Variyar Medical College and Hospitals, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (Deemed to be University), Salem, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Sex determination is an important concern for the forensic anthropologists. Sex determination by craniometric analysis of skull is done by morphological, metrical, geometric, and molecular methods for solving various medicolegal cases. Aim: The present study aims to find out the existence of sexual dimorphism through craniometric analysis of various triangles from the adult dry human skulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 adult dry human skulls (50 males and 50 females) from the departments of anatomy of various medical and dental colleges were used for this study. Digital caliper was used to measure the linear dimensions. Range, correlation coefficient, percentiles, angle, area, perimeter, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the four triangles; inion-opistocranium-asterion (IOA triangle), mastoidale-asterion- porion (MAP triangle), inion-mastoidale-asterion (IMA triangle), and opistocranium-asterion-porion (OAP triangle). The craniometric analysis was compared between the male and female skulls. Results: The craniometric parameters of male were found to be larger than female parameters. The left opistocranium-asterion length was found to be higher than the right opistocranium-asterion length. A total area of all four triangles was found to be more in male than in female. Conclusion: The craniometric analysis of IOA triangle, MAP triangle, IMA triangle, and OAP triangle can be a guide in race and gender determination of unknown individual’s skull.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005362
Title: Knowledge about exfoliative cytology among dental practitioners in Chennai city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice about exfoliative cytology among dental practitioners in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among dental practitioners. Sample size was determined as 100 and the questionnaire containing 12 closed-ended questions that were administered to the participants. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: On analyzing the questionnaire, it was found that out of 100 participants, 60% of participants came across tobacco users daily. Majority of them were aware that exfoliative cytology is a non-invasive technique and can detect early carcinogenesis. About 62% of the participants were not confident in performing exfoliative cytology in their clinic even though they came across tobacco users regularly. Only 27% of the participants have performed exfoliative cytology in their practice. About 96% of the participants feel that there is a need to update their knowledge regarding lesions and exfoliative cytology procedures. Conclusion: This research study revealed that there is a need for awareness in this and the use of exfoliative cytology as a diagnostic tool among dental practitioners. Reconsidering their knowledge, a considerable knowledge in certain areas is seen, but still, they should have more education and training in their post and undergraduate life for enhancing their knowledge about exfoliative cytology procedure.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005363
Title: Chlorhexidine and its toxicity alone or on combination with different irrigants – Review of literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Success of endodontic treatment solely depends on the complete eradication of microbes from root canal system. This is accomplished with the help of mechanical instrumentation followed by administering various irrigating solutions. The commonly used irrigating solutions in endodontics are sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine (CHX), where sodium hypochlorite is considered as a gold standard irrigant. However CHX was found to be effective against NaOCl resistant bacterial strains due to antibacterial substantivity. Therefore, no single irrigating solutions can fulfill all ideal requirements needed for an irrigant, making it mandatory to combine different irrigants for enhancing the results of endodontic treatment. However, it has proved that CHX forms precipitate with other irrigants suspected to contain the presence parachloroaniline, which hinder wound healing and worsen periapical tissue damage. The purpose of this review is to highlight the drawbacks of CHX when used in combination with different irrigating solutions, precipitate formed, guidelines to follow if deemed necessary, and other potential alternatives.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005364
Title: In vitro production of secondary metabolites from Andrographis paniculata and Rawvolfia serpentina against snake venom
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Snakebite represents a severe, life-threatening health issue in various parts of the world, mainly in tropical and subtropical nations where the majority of the world’s dangerous snakes are found. According to the World Health Organization, around 81,410 to 137,880 people die, and about three times as many amputations and other permanent disabilities are caused due to snakebite every year. The diagnosis and treatment of venomous snakebites is difficult due to the complex and diversified nature of snake venom. Medicinal plants are a rich source of many natural inhibitors and pharmacologically active compounds, and the use of plants against snakebite has been a traditional practice. Antivenom from medicinal plants has become one of the leading purposes for the treatment of snakebite. There are more than 520 plant species in India, belonging to approximately 122 families, which could be useful in handling snakebites. Andrographis paniculata and Rawvolfia serpentina are such medicinally important plants. These plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity. This study is an attempt to understand the bioactive compounds of these plants that are scientifically reported against snake venom.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005366
Title: Effects of a new answering method – concept map in theory examination among the undergraduate students in a professional course
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: An understanding of adult learning theories among students is important for several reasons. Educational philosophies and theories are an essential part of evidence-based educational practice. An understanding of different learning theories can help educators to select the best instructional strategies, learning objectives, assessment and evaluation approaches based on context and environment of learning. Educators should be able to integrate learning theories, subject matter and student understanding to improve student learning. Teaching methods have changed over the years from the normal traditional didactic teaching to various other methods such as problem based, role play, small group teaching, group discussions, and quiz-game. The assessment of the learning may be done as a theory examination, in which the students can present the answers in an essay format, short answers, and short notes. A new and emerging method is concept based flowchart-based answering method. This study focuses the effect of flowchart based answering method in comparison with essay based answering method. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was done among 100 students of Saveetha Dental College. They were taught with interactive lectures for a whole module, after the classes, the sample is divided into Group A 50 students who answered in concept map (flowchart) for all the questions and Group B 50 students who answered in a conventional essay based method. The results were statistically analyzed. Results and Discussion: It was observed from the study that Group B students who answered based on concept map had more average mean than students of Group A who answered based on conventional method in the form of essay and short notes. Conclusion: The comparative study was done as to study the effects of concept map in pathology classes. Thus, results show that flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a subject and it can also be implemented for the better understanding of concepts in colleges and schools.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005367
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and attitude about mouth masks among dental interns
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to study the knowledge, awareness, and attitude about mouth masks among dental interns. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted with 100 dental interns. The questionnaire was circulated through SurveyPlanet. It contained about 15 questions to analyze the knowledge and awareness of mouth masks among them. Results were collected and analyzed. Results: It was observed that 95% of the dental interns regularly use mouth marks while practicing ,55% of the interns answered that mouth masks should be changed every 1hour and for each patient during prolonged treatment,70% had answered correctly that American standards for testing and materials have levels 1,2 and 3. Conclusion: Within the limitations of our study we found that a moderate level of awareness of mouth masks among the dental interns is present. It is necessary for the dentists to ideally have knowledge about the mouth masks that they use on a regular basis to make decisions. Awareness should be created among the interns as well as the upcoming interns about the different levels and its usage to prevent themselves from infections.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005368
Title: Green synthesis of Celastrus paniculatus mediated copper nanoparticle and its anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: These nanoparticles have been synthesized by physical and chemical methods which are suffering from drawbacks such as expensive reagent, hazardous reaction conditions, and longer time tedious process to isolate nanoparticles. In recent times, copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPLs) are being synthesized from plant extract. With the increasing demand for safer drugs, attention has been drawn to the quality, safety, efficacy, and standards of the drugs. Hence, there is a need for standardization and the development of reliable quality protocols for drugs using modern techniques of analysis. A detailed cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory investigation has not been performed until now on the C. paniculatus. Keeping this in view, the present study was carried out to evaluate anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity. Materials and Methods: Green synthesis of Cu-NPLs was done using C. paniculatus, the cytotoxicity activity was analyzed by brine shrimp lethality assay and anti-inflammatory activity was analyzed by protein denaturation assay. Results: C. paniculatus mediated Cu-NPL exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that C. paniculatus mediated selenium nanoparticles have a good antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity at high concentrations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005369
Title: Review on: Solid dispersion bilayer tablet
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Although there are different routes of administration for drug delivery, the most commonly employed route of administration is the oral route as it attributes to ease of administration, patient compliance, patient acceptance, accurate dosing, flexibility in dosage form designing, etc. Even though the maximum percentage of drug administration is through the oral route, it is found that most of the new chemical entities or new drug molecules have been reported as poorly water-soluble drugs. Thus, formulating an oral drug delivery system for poorly water-soluble drugs has become a challenge for formulators in the pharmaceutical industries. Thus, solid dispersions have been developed to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water- soluble drugs and have been formulated into various formulations. However, during the last decade, pharmaceutical industry is moving toward combination therapy for the treatment of various diseases and disorders that require long-term therapy, where bilayer tablet is an excellent measure for controlled release formulation besides having an option of avoiding chemical incompatibilities between two application program interface by separation and cross-contamination between the layers. The current review deals with the articles of solid dispersion bilayer tablet formulations intended basically for solubility and bioavailability enhancement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005370
Title: Standard operating protocol for immunohistochemical lymphoid markers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the utilization of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for the detection of specific antigens in tissue sections. It is indicated in cases where definitive diagnosis cannot be reached due to variable or overlapping histological patterns. Aim: This study aims to formulate a standard operating protocol for immunohistochemical lymphoid markers. Materials and Methods: A total of two formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of known histopathological diagnosis were obtained from the archives of the department of oral and maxillofacial pathology. From each block, four lysin-coated slides were obtained and used for further processing. Four different protocols were followed for the processing of these slides. We compared three variations of the protocol with the normal protocol to find out the best and most suitable protocol for the use of lymphoid markers. Results: The positive slides of CD20 and CD45 of the third variation were found to be better than the normal protocol. Conclusion: This study concludes that the variation 3 is proven to be better compared to the other protocols assessed. Thus, the protocol for IHC has to be standardized according to the laboratory conditions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005371
Title: Receptors of advanced glycation end products in oral squamous cell carcinoma – A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction and Aim: Oxidative stress markers have been proven to be increased in oral squamous cell cancers; has a very important role in the mechanism by which Advanced Glycation End products–Receptors of Advanced Glycation End products accumulation takes place and whose presence is proven to increase cellular dysfunction, vascular alteration, apoptosis and also activate inflammatory pathways. The aim of the study is to systematically evaluate the role of Receptors of Advanced Glycation End products (RAGEs) in oral squamous cell cancers. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed of Pub-Med, Google, medline and Cochrane for relevant studies that examined the association between RAGEs in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Results: The findings suggest that these receptors and its associated ligands play an important role in the growth and the spread of the tumour and thus influence the prognosis and life expectancy of the affected individual The evidence studied through this systematic review is promising for clinical use of these molecules such as RAGEs in prognostic considerations or as a molecular target therapy. Conclusion: The available literature establishes a role of RAGE in invasion, migration, angiogenesis in oral malignancies; this early evidence is promising for clinical use of these molecules for prognostic considerations or as molecular targeted therapy.