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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005262
Title: A study to assess the school adjustment and self-esteem among higher secondary schoolchildren (adolescent) of alcoholic parents at Ambattur
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Self-esteem is an important aspect of the adaptive processes at all stages of life. It is linked to the quality of adaptation, well-being, life satisfaction, and health. Self-esteem is not related to chronological age, but to the people’s quality of social integration and adaptive capacities to cope with life events, including physical and cognitive decline. Measures of the self-esteem and interpretation of the pertaining results vary according to various theoretical models. School adjustment can be defined as the degree to which adolescents become comfortable, engaged, and successful in their school environment. Samples include adolescents’ age group. Aim: The present study aims are to assess the school adjustment and self-esteem among higher secondary schoolchildren (adolescent) of alcoholic parent. Materials and Methods: The research design for the study is a non-experimental descriptive research design which is used to assess the school adjustment using school adjustment inventory and assess the level of self-esteem using Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Convenient sampling technique was used to select the sample. Results and Discussion: The study research shows that the self-esteem had shown statistically non-significant at demographical variables and shows that the age, sex, education, education of the father, income of the father, and habits of parent have no statistical significance at P < 0.05. The level of self-esteem mean is 19.1 and the standard deviation is 7.046.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005234
Title: Awareness of classes and types of autoclave among dental interns
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to create the awareness of classes and types of autoclave among dental interns. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted with 100 dental interns. The questionnaire was prepared using SurveyPlanet and the survey was dispensed through a digital base. The participants were comfortable with the universal language, English, and hence, no translation was provided. Once the required responses were received, the survey was closed and the data were taken and analyzed. Results: Nearly half of the population is aware of the use of unwrapped solid instruments for immediate use, 57% of them know this. Nearly 66% are aware regarding the autoclave which is used in dentistry. About 54% of the population was aware of the type of autoclave used for sterilizing these gowns. Therefore, we can see that nearly more than half of the population are aware regarding the concept of autoclave. Conclusion: Therefore, we can conclude nearly more than half of the population are aware regarding the concept of autoclave. Autoclave plays a very important role in the field of medicine as they help in sterilizing the instruments, thus preventing the spread of contagious diseases. Sterilization is a crucial part in practice and it is the duty of a doctor to follow it properly with protocols.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005232
Title: Awareness of symptoms associated with autism disorder among parents – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The prevalence of autism is growing worldwide. Due to parents being the primary caregivers in most situations, their ability to recognize the signs and symptoms of autism and respond appropriately is of paramount importance in aiming to provide the best health care to autistic individuals. This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining the parent’s knowledge and awareness of autism. Materials and Methods: This study is the questionnaire based survey. The questionnaire comprises questions pertaining to awareness of symptoms associated with autism disorder among parents. The survey was conducted in an online forum and data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: The data were collected, statistically analyzed, and interpreted. Conclusion: Autistic children are a part of society and have the right to enjoy all available resources to its optimum. It is thus important that these children are diagnosed correctly and at the earliest. This would ensure early intervention which would help them live a more enriched life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005231
Title: Phytochemical screening and in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential of jasmine oil
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 160, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Jasmine oil is an essential oil derived from the white flowers of the common jasmine plant, also known as Jasminum officinale. Jasmine oil and components of synthetic blends of jasmine essential oil have properties that offer a number of health benefits. Studies have proven the antiseptic, aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, cicatrizing, and sedative activity of jasmine oil. There is evidence that aromatherapy can effectively reduce depressive symptoms. Aim: The aim of the study was to study about the photochemistry and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory potential of jasmine oil. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening was done based on the standard screening procedures. In vitro XO inhibitory (XOI) of jasmine oil was assessed. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Jasmine oil possesses XOI activity in a concentration-dependent manner and the results revealed that the activity is found to be higher in jasmine oil when compared to the standard drug allopurinol. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of phlobatannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids with mild amounts of carbohydrates. The presence of these phytochemicals might be the underlying reason for the beneficial effects of jasmine oil. Conclusion: Jasmine oil showed the better activity compared to the standard allopurinol. Thus, jasmine oil has in vitro XOI activity and can be used in treating gout.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005230
Title: Evaluation of in vitro antidiabetic potential of lavender oil
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The lavender essential oil has been used cosmetologically and therapeutically for centuries, which is one of the few essential oils that can be used neat on the skin and especially on the wound. This essential oil reported to show antibacterial, antifungal, carminative, sedative, antidepressive, and effective for burns and insect bites. Aim: The present study is focused on evaluating the in vitro antidiabetic effect of this essential oil. Materials and Methods: The in vitro antidiabetic effect of lavender oil was evaluated by assessing the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition. Results: The results showed that the oil possessed inhibitory activity on both the enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Thus, the study can be concluded that lavender oil possessed a potent in vitro antidiabetic effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005229
Title: Awareness of maintenance of patients records among dental professionals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Good medical records are essential for the continuity of care of your patients. It comprises the patient’s demographic information, history of illness, diagnosis, and treatment plan. Medical records also serve as a source of communication for multiple unrelated health-care providers. The aim of this present study is to create awareness of maintenance of patients records among dental professionals. Materials and Methods: A self structured questionnaire is administered to the participants through an online survey planet link. Results and Conclusion: The medical records act as the central repository for a patient with the health care provider. Hence, it is important to create awareness among dentists to maintain a patient record. More awareness may be created among dental professionals to maintain proper records of the patient either manually or digitally.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005227
Title: Awareness of cancer vaccines among college students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cancer is a very common disease and is characterised by the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of the cells. A cancer vaccine treats existing cancer or prevents the development of cancer. Vaccines that treat existing cancer are known as therapeutic cancer vaccines. Cancer vaccines leave the immune system with a “memory” that helps it respond to those antigens in the future. Cancer treatment vaccines boost the immune system’s ability to recognise and destroy antigens. The aim of this study is to create awareness of cancer vaccines among college students. Materials and Methods: A self structured questionnaire was administered to the participants through online survey planet link. Results and Conclusion: This study may depict the knowledge and awareness of the presence of cancer vaccines among the participants. More awareness may be created about these vaccines to delay the progress of cancer in the society.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005226
Title: Knowledge of pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption among dental practitioners – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption (PEIR) is a lesion often located in the dentin adjacent to the amelodentinal junction in the occlusal aspect of the crown of the developing tooth. It is only an incidental radiographic finding. Radiographs must be taken for detecting the progression of caries. Depending on the progression, treatment can be suggested. Surgical extraction of the developing tooth is indicated if pulpal involvement is present. PEIR is also known to be associated with various syndromes. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevalence of PEIR among dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 150 dental practitioners in South India with the help of a questionnaire consisting of 15 questions and the knowledge of PEIR among dental practitioners was analyzed. An appropriate statistical analysis was conducted and results were obtained. Reason: Assessing the knowledge of PEIR, we can create more awareness of the same among dental practitioners.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005225
Title: A survey study on the knowledge of passive smoking among uneducated people
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke, by persons other than the active smoker. It occurs when tobacco smoke enters an environment, causing its inhalation by people within that environment. Moreover, the secondhand smoking can be reduced by banning smoking on public places which not only protect people from the health risk of secondhand smoking but also reduce the likelihood that children will start smoking. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and to create awareness of passive smoking. Materials and Methods: A group of 100 uneducated people were selected. A questionnaire-based study was done among them where the questions are mainly based on their awareness of passive smoke, the effects of passive smoking, and certain other questions related to the study. The questionnaire was made in the regional language and distributed. Then, the data were collected and analyzed. Results: The positive outcome of this study is that the majority of the study population was aware of the health consequences of active smoking. Conclusion: From the results, it is concluded as they had an awareness of the effects of smoke and diseases caused due to it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005224
Title: Awareness of effects of solar energy among college students – A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Solar energy is capturing the energy from the sun and subsequently converting it into electricity. Solar-powered photovoltaic panels convert the sun’s rays into electricity by exciting electrons in silicon cells using the photons of light from the sun. Solar is a clean, renewable source of energy that can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions and decrease our impact on the natural environment. Solar energy can be used for both household and business purposes. Materials and Methods: A self structure questionnaire was administered to the participants through online survey planet link. Results and Conclusion: More awareness may be created on the government subsidy available to install solar panels, beneficial effects and applications of solar energy in the society.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005223
Title: Evaluation of protease activity in four selected grains (green cowpea, black chickpea, white chickpea, and rajma) at various germination stages
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the protease activity in three selected grains at various germination stages. Introduction: Grains and cereals worldwide are extremely important for both human and animal nutrition. More than plain grains, sprouted grains have more nutrition and energy while eating. Sprouts are rich in digestible energy, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, proteins, and phytochemicals, as these are necessary for a germinating plant to grow. The major sources of protease enzymes are animals, plants, and microorganisms. Application for protease activity is seen in dentistry, medicine, food industry, etc. Plant protease such as bromelain, ficin, and papain is widely used in food industry for various applications. Materials and Methods: There were four selected grains that are green gram, black chickpea, white chickpea, and rajma being used. These grains were collected as a sample. They were washed thoroughly for the sterilization purpose. The preparation of the sample was done using the mortar and pestle. Thus, sprouting was done for these grains for 3–4 days. They were thoroughly monitored for these days. Results: The enzyme assay was tested was all the four grains separately. Accordingly, the graph was being in cooperated to forecast the result. The protease activity of various grains was tested for 3 consecutive days. Discussion: In case of germination, the dietary fibers, carbohydrates, proteins, etc., will be at a peak level. Lot of energy is required for the germination to take place. Sprouted grains have a tremendous nutritional value as compared to the unsprouted grains. The peak level is more on day 2. Hence, extraction at this day will be easier. This extraction of protease will be of great importance for food industries. Conclusion: This study exhibits that extraction of protease done on a particular time of grains germination that can give a maximum enzyme yield. Thus, further research can be done to enhance the enzyme yield. Therefore, the sprouted grains have an immense amount of nutritional value on the particular day of sprouting; it can be used for industrials purpose.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005222
Title: Knowledge and awareness in association of malocclusion and mouth breathing in children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: To evaluate the knowledge and awareness level among parents about mouth breathing and its negative impact on their child’s developing dentition. MB can cause long, narrow faces, gummy smiles, and dental malocclusions, whereas nose breathing humidifies the air taken it which is beneficial in many ways crossing their first-line defense mechanisms. Aim and Objective: This study aims to assess the knowledge and awareness in association of malocclusion and MB in children. Materials and Methods: An online survey was done on SurveyPlanet which was circulated to 150 members of which 101 responded. The questionnaire included questions which would assess the patents knowledge regarding their child’s breathing habits and its consequences. Results: The results show that 53.2% of the parents are aware regarding the impact of MB on the alignment of teeth. About 56.7% of the children had a crowded alignment of teeth. Conclusion: From the result, it is analyzed that most of the parents are aware regarding the consequences of MB pattern and are willing to take medical guidance to correct the condition.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005221
Title: Knowledge and perception of the usage of alternative medicine in general dental practice among dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Traditional medicine (TM) is known as “complementary and alternative medicine” (CAM) in some countries. The World Health Organization defines TM as “the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in the maintenance of health and in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement, or treatment of physical and mental illness.” Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and perception of the usage of alternative medicine among dentists in general dental practice. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 150 dental practitioners in South India with the help of a questionnaire consisting of 10 questions and the knowledge and perception of the usage of alternative medicine among dental practitioners were analyzed. An appropriate statistical analysis was conducted and the results were obtained. Results: About 87% of the dentists were aware of CAM. About 56% of the dentists were aware through internet, 14% through friends and family, 17% through books, and 14% through journals. Conclusion: This study shows that though dentists are aware of CAM, the usage of CAM modalities in general dental practice is comparatively less. Perhaps, most stress should be placed on the usage of alternative medicine in dental practice and more studies in this direction may help in providing better care to the patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005192
Title: Perception of dental students on the effect of extracurricular activities on academic performance
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nad
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Introduction: Extracurricular activities refer to those non-academic activities that are undertaken by students and fall outside the curriculum of an institution. These are most likely voluntary as opposed to compulsory. Pre-clinical students spend their time mostly between curricular and extracurricular activities. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of extracurricular activities among dental students. Material and Methods: A questionnaire of 16 questions was prepared based on the involvement of dental students in extracurricular activities. On the basis of responses, a statistical analysis is performed. Results: The majority of participants (88.4%) were of the opinion that extracurricular activities should be implemented as a mandatory requirement in colleges. They were in agreement with the importance of extracurricular activities in college and how they shape an individual by improving self-esteem, communication skills, teamwork, and academic performance as a whole.Conclusion: The majority of students agree that there is a positive impact of extracurricular activities on their individual skills and steps must be taken to implement it in more colleges and universities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005191
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of the administration of Gow-Gates mandibular block among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Pain control is a primary yet challenging goal to achieve as a dentist. In patient’s opinion, their attitude toward dentists and dentistry relies on the local anesthetic experience they have had before. Various techniques are available for achieving mandibular anesthesia – inferior alveolar nerve block, Gow-Gates mandibular block, and Akinosi-Vazirani closed mouth mandibular nerve block. Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the administration of Gow-Gates mandibular block among dental students. Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted through Google Forms. The questionnaire was created in such a way that it assesses the knowledge, attitude, and practices of Gow- Gates nerve block technique. The link for the survey was circulated among dental students pursuing their 3rd year, final year, and internship in Chennai. Results: A total of 164 responses were obtained. About 70.7% of the responders were aware of Gow-Gates mandibular block technique. Only 32.9% of the respondents have had a demo on the administration of Gow- Gates mandibular block and only 23.2% of the respondents have administered Gow-Gates nerve block. Only 18.3% of the respondents were confident enough to administer Gow-Gates mandibular block without any supervision. Conclusion: The results clearly show the lack of knowledge and interest about the technique, advantages and disadvantages of Gow-Gates mandibular block.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005190
Title: Community service and outreach programs by a dentist
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the awareness and involvement of dentists in the community service and outreach programs. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Chennai among 100 dentists who had an experience of more than 10 years. It was done using a questionnaire where questions were asked about community service and outreach programs by them and the data were analyzed. Results: It was found that among 100 dental practitioners, 70 of them have a regular practice and 85 of them are involved in outreach programs. Then, 89 of them suggest that these outreach programs are more enough to improve the oral health of the rural populations. Conclusion: The study concluded that majority of the dentists has an awareness regarding outreach programs and community services. From the obtained results, the minor surgeries and treatment can be provided by these outreach programs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005189
Title: Chemomechanical caries removal – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Chemomechanical removal of caries is a new method with the advantage of selective removal of severely demineralized dentin. In addition, the method enhances the clinician’s ability to differentiate carousel tooth structure from sound tooth structure. Mechanical method of caries removal is associated with the removal of sound tooth structure, production of pain, heat, annoying sounds, and vibrations. Chemomechanical caries removal method is based on the removal of only carious dentin leaving sound dentin intact. Dental caries is currently considered as the most common oral diseases. Chemomechanical means for caries removal are beneficial both for patients and dentist. Hence, it is recommended as an alternative method of caries removal.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005188
Title: Awareness of the various retention modes used for implant dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental implant is an artificial root that is surgically inserted into the jawbone to support a single-tooth replacement, fixed partial, complete denture, or maxillofacial prosthesis. It has become increasingly important. Endosseous dental implants are typically screw shaped, inserted into either the maxilla or mandible, and serve to replace the tooth root. Aim: This study aims to estimate awareness and promote the use of various retention modes used for implant dentistry. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire has been prepared and distributed to 100 dental undergraduate students of Saveetha Dental College. There are no inclusion and exclusion criteria. The resulting data have been analyzed using statistical software. Results: In the present survey, 75 females and 25 males had been participated. In that, 98 members already done implant. Among 100 practicing dentists, 50 members recommended cement-retained restoration, 49 members recommended screw- retained restoration, and 1 person recommended attachment-retained restoration. Conclusion: From this present survey, we concluded that the awareness of various retention modes used for implant dentistry among the practicing dentists is not enough. They need some more awareness of various retention modes used for implant dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005187
Title: Awareness of teledentistry among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The use of technology in the form of smartphones and other electronic media in day-to-day life has become an integral part of life today. Technology today is seeing a paradigm shift toward better interprofessional communications which can help doctors, patients, and the masses as a whole. Putting these technological advancements to good use evolves as a major milestone in dentistry in the form of teledentistry. Aim: The present study was aimed at knowing the knowledge and awareness of teledentistry among dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared to assess the knowledge and awareness of teledentistry and was circulated among dental students. The data thus collected were analyzed and results obtained. Results: A total of 100 dental students responded to the questionnaire. In the present study, it was found that the knowledge and awareness about teledentistry were 55%, in which most of them agreed that teledentistry is a practice of dentistry through various media options with limited application in dentistry without a legal issue. Conclusion: In the present study, it was apparent that most of the respondents were lacking adequate knowledge and awareness of teledentistry. Hence, there is an immense need to create awareness among dental professionals on teledentistry as future lies in technological advancement. Teledentistry can mark the beginning of a new era in dentistry. This can be achieved by conducting continuous dental education programs and awareness campaigns/programs which helps in various levels.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005186
Title: Awareness on management of mesially tilted abutments
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Replacement of missing teeth by a fixed dental prosthesis involves careful consideration of the biomechanical principles in designing the prosthesis. Treatment planning consists of determining a sequence of treatment logically designed to restore the patients’ dentition to good health, with optimal function and esthetics. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of management of mesially tilted abutments. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 100 dental students in Tamil Nadu during the month of January 2019. A web-based questionnaire comprising 10 questions relating to awareness of management for mesially tilted abutments was formulated and circulated. The responses were then subjected to statistical analysis. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. Results and Conclusion: The study assessed that there is adequate knowledge on management of mesially tilted abutments among the students. The management of mesially tilted abutments can be further more better if we know the proper abutment selection methods. Thus, gaining an adequate knowledge would help us in the betterment of the outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005185
Title: Awareness of laser therapy among the dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental lasers are one of the newer signs and technologies which came into the various aspects of dental practice. It was first introduced in 1960 by the scientist Miaman and it was considered as the most significant development in modern dentistry. Aim: This study aims to assess the awareness of laser therapy among the dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the dental students in Saveetha Dental College. A total of 100 dental students were assessed using a standard questionnaire comprising 13 questions regarding the applications of laser treatments used in dentistry. Results: Almost 100% of the students know about the lasers used in dentistry, in which about 94% of them have knowledge of using lasers. Conclusion: All the students have knowledge about lasers being used in dentistry, but many of them do not aware of the applications of lasers used in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005184
Title: Effectiveness of emotional freedom technique tapping an acupressure on post-operative pain reduction among post-operative clients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study aims to determine the effectiveness of emotional freedom technique on postoperative pain reduction among post-operative clients. Methods and Materials: A quantitative quasi experimental research design was used for the present study. A total of 60 post operative clients who fall into the inclusion criteria was selected as samples by using purposive sampling technique among which 30 samples in the experimental group and 30 samples in the control group. The demographic data and the surgical variables was collected in both the groups, followed by that the pretest was conducted on the 0 post-operative day, immediately after 3 hr of surgery and the intensity level of pain in both the groups was assessed by using numerical pain scale and the emotional freedom technique was initated only in the experimental group. The post test was conducted on the 3rd post-operative day and the intensity level of pain was assessed by using the same numerical pain scale in both experimental and control group. Results: The results of the study revealed that there is an significant reduction in the intensity level of pain at the level of P < 0.0001 after the intervention among experimental group than in the control group. Conclusion: Thus, the study proves that acupressure can be used as an effective nursing intervention for reducing the post operative pain among the post operative clients and it is a easily applicable technique and also considered as cost effective method with no side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005183
Title: Clinicoradiological and laboratory evaluation of chronic cough
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, Panimalar Medical College Hospital & Research Institute, Varadharajpuram, Poonamallee, Chennai - 600 123, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Cough is one of the most common complaints, for which patients seek medical attention. Health-care expenditure for managing cough is substantial with which quality of life can be severely affected. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical and radiological characteristics of common causes of chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Medicine in GSL General Hospital during the period of October 1, 2016–June 30, 2018. Socio-demographic variables and clinical and laboratory parameters were collected and analyzed. Results: Among the 241 study participants, 68.9% were males. About 90% belong to low socioeconomic class, 56% were daily labourers, and 76.3% of them used biomass fuel for cooking. Other symptoms such as fever, chest pain, and shortness of breath were found along with cough. About 43.1% had other comorbidities. Normal chest X-ray is seen in 28%, non-cavitating lesions 22%, consolidation in 10%, emphysematous changes in 10%, bronchiectasis changes in 6%, mass lesion in 3%, interstitial pattern in 2%, pleural effusion in 0.6%, and cavity with air-fluid level in 0.4%. Sputum is negative for acid-fast bacilli in 51.5% of the study population. Pulmonary function tests were normal in 32%, which showed mild, moderate, severe obstruction in 24%, 17%, and 11%, respectively, while restriction in only 2% of the cases. Among 241, 49% diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis, 22% as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11% were bronchiectasis, 7% were bronchial asthma, 7% were carcinoma, 3% were interstitial lung diseases, 3% were bronchitis, 1% gastroesophageal reflux disease, and 0.4% lung abscess. Conclusion: The treatment of chronic cough should include a systematic step-wise approach to diagnose the cause of cough. Timely management of the disease should be done effectively to decrease the disease burden.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005176
Title: Bond failure of orthodontic brackets in patients with fixed appliance – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The main components of the fixed orthodontic appliances are brackets that are attached to the teeth with the help of different types of adhesives. The teeth movement depends on the wires and springs attached to these brackets. Therefore, it is of very importance that these brackets remain bonded to the teeth during the course of orthodontic treatment. However, brackets detachment from the teeth remains one of the major concerns during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of bond failure of orthodontic brackets in patients with fixed appliance. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among 100 general dentists to estimate the prevalence of bond failure of brackets in patients with fixed appliance treatment. The questionnaire was circulated among the dentists comprising questions regarding the method of application of bracket, type of adhesive used to bond the brackets, most common arch to have bond failure, reason for bond failure, bonding technique which has least risk of bond failure, age group which is more prone for bond failure was included in the study. Results: Among the 100 general dentists, 53% of the dentists have experienced bond failure of brackets in their practice. Out of the 100 general dentists, the most common reason for bond failure are inappropriate bonding technique (35%) and improper moisture control (38%), followed by occlusal trauma (26%) and improper maintenance by the patient (22%). Conclusion: From our study, we conclude that bond failure was more common among general dentists and the main reason for bond failure is inappropriate bonding technique and improper moisture control. The lower arch was more common for bond failure due to difficulty in keeping the field dry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005175
Title: Awareness of medico-legal issues among compulsory rotatory residential internship students of dental college – A pilot study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Medico-legal issue and cases regarding awareness among the Compulsory Rotatory Residential Internship (CRRI) students who provide health-care services to patients and also by the method of the following certain set of standards help avoiding litigation in the name of malpractice. A medical and dental professional is bound by law and ethics while providing treatment to patients. Dental problems are at most common for which the treatment given to the patients, throughout the world patient has become more aware of their right legal literacy in relation to any dissatisfaction of their treatment as supplemented by modern legislation, so it is a duty on the part of the medical professional to perform such obligation with proper care basically being aware of the medico-legal issues. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of doctors about the various medico-legal issues. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional self-administered structured questionnaire was used to survey the awareness of medico-legal issues among CRRI students in dental college. The awareness of medico-legal issues among the dental professionals is always indispensable so as to be on safer side legally throughout in their practice, and the dental professionals were lacking which was concluded. Results: Two different specialties of a medical health professional who were involved in the study and results were found that on a whole 60% of the participants were aware of the code of medical ethics while treating the patients, but 90% were aware about informed consent, and 80% were aware of the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA). Conclusion: Each and every dentist should obtain the consent form before the treatment. Hence, we must upgrade our knowledge on COPRA at all levels of our profession and change our attitude by inculcating a practice to spread the message of COPRA for delivering quality dental care. Therefore, dental professionals need to update their knowledge and understanding of CPA and its amendments to be on a legally safer side.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005174
Title: A survey on the knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral cancer management among dental and medical practitioners in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study about the knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral cancer management among dental and medical practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted with 100 people who are dental and medical practitioners. Questionnaire was circulated through SurveyPlanet. It contained about 20 questions based on the knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral cancer management. Results were collected and analyzed by statistics. Results: From the results, we get to know that the dental and medical practitioners have enough knowledge about oral cancer but are not very confident on treating them. Conclusion: It is concluded that the participants have enough knowledge about the oral cancer its symptom, etiological factors, etc., but they are not confident and trained on how to treat a patient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00005233
Title: A completely environmentally-friendly methodology for removal of permanent hardness of water using natural materials
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Physical Science, Faculty of Technology and Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India
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Objective: Water hardness is the measure of calcium and magnesium salts dissolved in water. Hard water poses various difficulties when used domestically and industrially. Conventionally, permanent water hardness is removed using lime soda treatment or ion-exchange methods. The precipitates formed during lime soda treatment and the brine collected after backwashing of the ion exchange resins can prove detrimental to the environment if not disposed properly. Materials and Methods: In this work, varieties of eco-friendly natural products were used for removal of permanent water hardness. Results: Comparative analysis of their efficiency revealed that fresh pomegranate peels were the most efficient as a water softening agent. Conclusion: Hereby, an eco-friendly, economic, simple, and efficient method has been developed for removal of permanent water hardness simply by applying various naturally occurring materials without using any chemical reagents or a source of energy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005105
Title: Comparison between the effectiveness of decline squat exercise and forward lunges in athletes with patellar tendinopathy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Cardiorespiratory, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background and Objective: Jumper’s knee or patellar tendinopathy is one of the common overuse or repeated stress injury in sports. It implies functional stress overload while jumping, most commonly affecting the inferior pole of patella. The prevalence of jumper’s knee is about 40–50% among the elite basketball players. In basketball players, the patellar tendon is exposed to landing forces of 8 kN (equaling 6–8 times the body weight), compared with 0.5 kN during walking. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness in patellar tendinopathy athletes who were receiving decline squat and forward lunges in the rehabilitation program. Materials and Methodology: It is a randomized clinical trial consisting of 30 basketball players with clinically diagnosed and imaging confirmed with patellar tendinopathy. They were randomly assigned into two groups consisting of 15 in each group. Group A received single-leg decline squat exercise at a decline board of 25° and progressing with load along with conventional physiotherapy and Group B received forward lunges on the flat floor and progressing with load along with conventional physiotherapy for three sets of 15 repetitions daily for 4 weeks. The outcome measurement tools used in this study is Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA) score and visual analog scale (VAS) for tendon pain with activity. Measures were taken throughout the intervention period of 4 weeks. Results: The result suggests that both the groups had a significant higher score at VISA and reduction in VAS score, but there will be more significant improvement seen in Group A. Conclusion: Both exercise protocols were alleviate pain and sporting functions in basketball players over 4 weeks. This study shows that the decline squat exercise protocol shows higher clinical gains during the rehabilitation of patellar tendinopathy in athletes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005104
Title: 0.5% sodium hydroxide as a bluing agent – A comparative study
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Bluing is the process which changes the initial soluble reddish-purple hematoxylin into an insoluble darker bluish-purple. After differentiation with acid, the tissue sections are subsequently treated with an alkaline solution or vapors to neutralize the acid and restore the blue color to the tissue. Commonly used bluing agents in histopathology are tap water, Scott’s tap water, and ammonium hydroxide water. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of 0.5% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide as an alternative to ammonium hydroxide water as a bluing agent. Materials and Methods: About 0.5% of aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide was freshly prepared by dissolving 0.5g of sodium hydroxide powder in 100 ml of distilled water. Ammonium hydroxide water was prepared by adding 5 ml of ammonium hydroxide solution to 100 ml of distilled water. From each of the ten blocks procured, two sections were cut using soft-tissue microtome. After staining with hematoxylin, the ten test group slides and ten control group slides were dipped once in 0.5% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide water, respectively, for bluing. After counterstaining with eosin and dehydration with graded alcohol, the slides were mounted and rated by two blinded observers. Results: The nuclear intensity and morphology, cytoplasmic staining intensity, bluing, and clarity were better when ammonium hydroxide water was used as a bluing agent. Conclusion: About 0.5% of aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide cannot be used as an alternative to ammonium hydroxide water for bluing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005103
Title: Infection control measures in prosthodontics – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Vinayaka Missions Sankarachariyar Dental College, Vinayaka Missions Research Foundation, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental safety is a key area of concern. The increased awareness of the dangers of cross-contamination with hepatitis B virus and HIV during dental procedures is having a growing impact in attitudes toward infection control in dental clinic and laboratory. Moreover, the principle potential route of transmission from patient to dental personnel is through contaminated impressions and prostheses. It has been demonstrated that microorganism can be recovered from casts recovered from impressions made of dental molds experimentally inoculated with bacteria. The responsibility to have a thorough knowledge of the patient’s history and ensure that the staff member is not at risk of cross-contamination begins with the clinician. Thus, it is important that impressions can be disinfected by the clinician/a suitably protected technician before the initiation of any laboratory procedures. The rationale for infection control is to “control” iatrogenic, nosocomial infections among patients, and potential occupational exposure of care providers to disease-causing microbes during the provision of care. Lack of infection control is life threatening for both the patient and the dental professional.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005102
Title: Lower incidence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Typhi in blood cultures of pediatric patients with typhoid fever in South India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Research Laboratory for Oral and Systemic Health, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Velachery Main Road, Chennai
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Introduction: Typhoid fever is of serious public health concern in the developing countries. Owing to the emergence of MDR strains, empirical treatment regimens had shifted to fluoroquinolones for the treatment of typhoid fever. Nevertheless, mutation in the quinolone resistance determining regions had resulted in the decreased susceptibility to the ciprofloxacin. Thus, therapeutic management of enteric fever remains a challenge. Hence, this study was proposed to detect MDR strains of S. typhi from laboratory confirmed cases of enteric fever. Materials and Methods: S. Typhi (n=39) isolated from the blood culture of paediatric subjects with clinical symptoms of enteric fever were included in the study. Susceptibility to ampicillin (10 µg), chloramphenicol (30 µg), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg) and ciprofloxacin (5 µg) was assessed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin MIC was determined by microbroth dilution method. Results: Of the 39 S. Typhi isolates tested, 46.1% were susceptible to ampicillin, while all (100%) the isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Nevertheless, only 2.6% susceptible to ciprofloxacin. MIC50 and MIC90 of ciprofloxacin were 0.5 to >4 µg/mL respectively. None of the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. Conclusion: Our results show the re-emergence of chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole susceptible S. Typhi. This suggests the possibility of antibiotic recycling for the therapeutic management of typhoid fever.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005101
Title: Analysis of related substances for the developed formulation of dexibuprofen hydroalcoholic and hydrogels – A stability study
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
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Aim: In particular, the objective of this research work is related to treating patients in need of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy. The study was aimed to prepare topical administrations of dexibuprofen in the form of a transdermal gel so that the problems associated with oral administration of dexibuprofen are avoided. This present study is focused to study the stability profile for the prepared hydroalcoholic and hydrogels of dexibuprofen. Materials and Methods: The dexibuprofen hydroalcoholic and hydrogels were prepared by simple dispersion techniques. The prepared hydroalcoholic and hydrogels were subjected to stability under accelerated stability (40°C/75% RH) condition. The stability samples are withdrawn at predetermined time intervals, drug content and related substances were analyzed by the developed high-performance liquid chromatography technique. Results: There are observed highest unknown impurity in hydroalcoholic gel due to drug degradation. Hence, the optimized formulation G9 of hydroalcoholic gel was prepared with free from alcohol (hydrogel) to maintain the stability. The dexibuprofen hydrogel was not observed any significant unknown impurity; it can able to maintain the shelf life. Conclusion: Since an effort was made to formulate a stable transdermal gel, due to the related substances observed on the hydroalcoholic gel, alcohol free dexibuprofen hydrogel shows no change in the drug content and related substances. The results are encouraging the formulations of the hydrogel.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005100
Title: Awareness of orthodontic and their role in growth and development of children by general pediatric practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the understanding regarding orthodontic and their role in growth and development among general pediatric. Objective: The objective of this study to create awareness and determine the understanding of orthodontic and their role in growth and development among general pediatric. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on a questionnaire which consists of 12 questions through a web-linked application called SurveyMonkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive general pediatric practitioners who currently practicing in Chennai participated in the study. Results: As an overall result, most of the participants are aware of orthodontic and their role in growth and development among general pediatric. Conclusions: The awareness of orthodontic and their role in growth and development among general pediatric is adequate, but certain knowledge has to be brushed up among them for a higher level. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them treating their patients with more consent and awareness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00005099
Title: Assessment of clinical and economic outcomes of clinical pharmacist-initiated drug therapy management among general surgery patients
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, Jagadguru Shri Shivarathreeshwara Academy of Higher Education and Research, SS Nagar, Mysuru - 570 015, Karnataka, India.
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Background: The explosion of newer drugs made difficult for practitioner to keep abreast and make appropriate decision for the patients unlike in the past. Clinical pharmacist can contribute to patient safety and appropriate medication use bringing about clinical and economic benefits to the patient. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the clinical pharmacist interventions in general surgery and to identify its impact in clinical and economic outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective interventional study was conducted in the general surgery wards of JSS Hospital, Mysore. All admissions were reviewed and enrolling done based on inclusion criteria. The data collected from medical records were reviewed to identify drug-related problems (DRPs) and categorized. An independent panel was convened to assess the clinical outcome of pharmacist-initiated drug therapy management. Economic outcome was assessed taking into account the direct medical cost. Results: Of the 1131 patients reviewed, 471 DRPs were observed from 301 patients while suggestions were provided for 469 DRPs. Drug use without indication and improper drug selection accounted for 16.35% and 12.53%, respectively. The acceptance rate of pharmacist intervention was 100% and the change in drug therapy was in 97.23%. A reduction of 1.33% in probability of readmission, 8.97% in frequency of performing laboratory investigation/medical procedure, 19.6% in length of stay, and a net saving of Rs. 207,134.7 in terms of direct medical cost were identified. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest that clinical pharmacist as an active member of health-care team has an enormous role to play in optimization of drug therapy and outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005098
Title: Awareness of gag reflex in patients among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The overall health, well-being, education, learning abilities, development of children, families, and communities can be affected by oral health. However, in developing nations, the importance of oral health in comparison to general health is minimal. A child’s oral health care should be provided by a dentist who has appropriate training in managing the patient’s specific needs. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge about gag reflex in patients among dental students. Materials and Methods: A web-based study with title predictive of a gagging survey was created, and member of 100 students were asked to evaluate the questionnaire. The questions focused on age group, common procedure associated with gag reflex and the most common technique adopted by dentists in their clinics to prevent gag, reasons for gag reflex such as anxiety or medical conditions, influence of gag reflex on treatment modalities, and preventive methods. The data are entered in excel sheet and statistically analyzed by SPSS software. Moreover, the results were obtained. Results: There was a maximum of 43% of 6–10 years of the age group of patients with gag reflex followed by irrespective of age being 33%. Anxiety and fear were found to be the main reason for gag reflex 63% followed by medical conditions with 17%. About 83% of patients reported a change in heart rate during gag reflex. About 72% of patients had a change in treatment plan due to reflex while others felt it was part of dental care. Radiographic procedures constituted maximum to gagging 49% followed by impression technique with 44% and followed by operative procedure 9%. The awareness level was quite low among dental students. Conclusion: This study will establish the awareness of gag reflex among dental students, and so it is necessary to take preventive measures to make its prevalence less.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005097
Title: Awareness of digital shade matching devices among clinical students in Saveetha Dental College
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: epartment of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
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Introduction: The tooth color determination is a very important point during restorative dentistry procedures. Its clinical relevance needs to be considered before any treatment procedures in esthetic dentistry. An alternative to visual color assessment is using color measuring instruments. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of digital shade matching devices among clinical students at Saveetha Dental College. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to 100 students clinical students of Saveetha Dental College. The questions were related to participants’ awareness toward digital shade matching devices. Results: Among the study population, 78% of the participants think that the traditional shade matching method is less time consuming. Among the study population, 77% (majority) of the participants feel that accessing shade visually has several disadvantages, which includes metamerism, whereas 23% of the population feel that there no disadvantages in accessing shade visually. Conclusion: The study showed there is sufficient amount of awareness among clinical students about digital shade matching devices.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005096
Title: Awareness of diagnosis and management of endodontic perforation among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Success of endodontic treatment depends on different factors, and the probability of failures varies significantly in different cases. Root perforation is an artificial communication between the root canal system to the supporting tissues of teeth or to the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was formulated and distributed among 100 undergraduate dental students in Chennai. A total of 10 multiple choice questions were formulated and distributed. Data were collected from the filled questionnaire and analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: The results showed that the overall awareness level on diagnosis and treatment of endodontic perforation was less about 38% among dental students, but the awareness level on etiological factors which lead to endodontic perforation was high. Conclusion: This study showed that the awareness of endodontic perforation was inadequate among undergraduate dental students. As awareness of endodontic perforation among dental undergraduates has been found to be inadequate, it was concluded that increased importance should be given to education in this aspect of endodontic perforation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005095
Title: Awareness of dental practitioners toward oral biopsy – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The word biopsy originates from the Greek term bios (life) and opsis (vision): Meaning vision of life. In routine practice, the clinical diagnosis of oral lesions frequently must be confirmed by different procedures, among which oral biopsy constitutes an important tool by establishing the histologic characteristics. At times, it could be the only way to diagnose some oral lesions. Inaccurate diagnosis, or failure to diagnose oral disease, may have profound implications for both the patient and the clinician. It must be highlighted that oral biopsy is not only limited to diagnosis, but is also greatly useful to determine the nature of the lesions, i.e., benign/malignant and for designing effective treatment strategies. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of dental practitioners toward oral biopsy. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 dentists excluding the dental surgeons participated in this survey and it was completed successfully. The questionnaire used in this survey has a total of 12 questions which included the questions such as how often they come across an oral lesion requiring biopsy, reasons why they do not perform oral biopsy, knowledge regarding various types of biopsy and type of lesions they have come across in their practice and also whether they need to update their knowledge regarding lesions and biopsy procedures. The responses were collected and analyzed, and the results were presented as tables and pie charts. Results: From this study, it was found that 58% of dental practitioners perform oral biopsy and 34% do not perform oral biopsy. 76% of practitioners prefer to preserve in formalin because if the tissue is not preserved properly, it produces lot of artifacts which prevents the pathologist from giving an appropriate diagnosis, but few practitioners prefer alcohol (14%) and saline (4%) probably because they do not have the formalin in their clinics always since they seldom encounter lesions requiring biopsy. Conclusion: The awareness and practice of biopsy among dental practitioners were moderate. This survey helps to access the knowledge of dental practitioners toward biopsy and to create an awareness among them to avoid misdiagnosis of lesions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005094
Title: Awareness of ceramic implants among dentists in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental ceramics made of silicate glasses, porcelains, glass-ceramics, or extremely crystalline solids. They differ from the materials such as metals, acrylic resins, and resin-based composites by exhibiting different physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Aim: The present study aims at gaining knowledge on the awareness of dentists about ceramic implants. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based survey study was conducted employing a self-administered questionnaire at the Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. A total of about 70 participants who were dentists were included for this survey. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire containing closed-ended and open-ended questions and responses were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Results: In this survey, a total of 70 dental practitioners participated in which 43 were males and 27 were females. Of the total about 52 people were general dental practitioners, 28 people were specialists. From the study, 83% of dentists possess adequate knowledge about ceramic implants. Conclusion: Although the dentists possess basic awareness of ceramic implants, to keep up with the current trends, more knowledge is required on their part.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005093
Title: Awareness and practice in using needle destroyers in dental practice – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The use of needles in dental practice is inevitable. Hence, proper precautions have been taken to dispose and destroy the needles. Needlestick injuries are the most common injuries posed to a dental practitioner due to improper handling of needles. This study was started with an objective to find the awareness level of dental students regarding needle destruction in their daily practice and the role needle destroyers play in such destruction. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness and practice in using needle destroyers in dental practice. Materials and Methods: Sixty undergraduate dental students were asked to fill a structured questionnaire that assessed their awareness, knowledge, and use of needle destruction and destroyers in their daily practice. Results: About 96.7% of the participants felt that needles should be destroyed after use, with 85% of them feeling needle destroyers were the best way to destroy the needles. About 81.7% used needle destroyers to destroy needles in their daily practice. About 48.3% felt that non-dental staffs were the most affected due to improper disposal of needles while 41.7% felt dental practitioners were most affected. Conclusion: From the results, we can conclude that since the dental practitioners are well aware of the consequences of needlestick injuries, they should now take initiative to bring awareness to the general public about the consequences needlestick injuries to avoid transmission of diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005092
Title: Neuroprotective effect of Bacopa monnieri against aluminum chloride-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of Wistar rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalagiri, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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Introduction: Aluminum (Al) is proven to cause pathogenesis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Our study explored the potential effect of Al in apoptosis and neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri (BM) against aluminum chloride (AlCl3) -induced neuronal damage in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were assigned into five groups: Control group was administered orally with distilled water, and 0.5% tween 80, AlCl3 group received aluminum chloride (AlCl3); protective groups (BM100+AlCl3 group and BM200+AlCl3 group) were concurrently administered with AlCl3 and BM at two different doses; BM200 group received only BM. The administration of drug and chemical lasted for 4 weeks. The hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were estimated at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, neuronal quantification was performed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus to identify the viable neurons and dark neurons. Results and Discussion: BM reduced the neuronal deterioration caused by AlCl3 as it is evident from more number of viable neurons and few dark neurons seen in protective groups compared with AlCl3 group. This observation is supported by oxidative stress markers such as GPx and MDA, which are also critical regulators of apoptosis. Conclusion: BM protected the neurons in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus from neuronal insults produced by AlCl 3.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005091
Title: Drug development for pediatric populations: A regulatory perspective
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Regulatory Affairs Group, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysore, Karnataka, India
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Pediatric elements are now soon integrated into the process of developing a new drug. In recent years, stronger enforcement by the regulatory agency to obtain pediatric information has resulted in an increased number of children’s trials. The regulatory structure forms specific rules and specifications, notably from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This review summarizes the regulatory needs, policies, and role of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in pediatric populations. It includes planning and conducting pediatric research, factors for children’s first dose, suitable sampling strategies, and various techniques for generating and analyzing information to create understanding about a drug’s pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) in children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005090
Title: Prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis in hypertensive patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe health complications and increases the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, etc. The other dental-related problems in hypertension are gingivitis and periodontitis. Nowadays, periodontal disease can be also considered as another cardiovascular risk factor. In hypertension, alteration in microcirculation can cause ischemia in periodontium which favors periodontal disease. Experts believe that inflammation from gum disease may trigger or worsen inflammation in other parts of the body, including blood vessels and arteries. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among dental patients with hypertension visiting Saveetha Dental College. Fifty hypertensive patients are chosen based on their medical records. Then, the scorings are given according to the severity of disease using the gingival bleeding index (bleeding on probing) and Russell’s periodontal index. The demographic data were collected. From the hypertensive patients, their medications, dosage, and period of medications data were also collected. Results and Discussion: The study reveals that 66% of hypertensive patients have periodontitis and 34% of them have gingivitis. The molars are the severely affected tooth and the severity of periodontitis is measured by Russell’s periodontal index. Conclusion: Hence, we can conclude that hypertensive patients are more susceptible to periodontitis than gingivitis from this study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005089
Title: Awareness, knowledge, and prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome among dental students in Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to find out the awareness, knowledge, and prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among dental students at Saveetha Dental College. Objective: CTS is one of the most common upper limb entrapment neuropathies, hence, it very important to find the awareness, knowledge, and prevalence of CTS among dental students in Saveetha Dental College. Materials and Methods: An online survey consisting of 17 questions was conducted among 100 Saveetha Dental College students. The students were in internship which further helped us in assessing the CTS since they had few years of work experience and the results were analyzed. Results: The assessment on the severity of the wrist or hand pain showed that 63% of the people had no symptoms, 18% had mild symptoms, 10% severe symptoms, and 5% showed very severe. The functional scale also revealed that 6% of the people had no difficulty in writing, 9% of the people had no difficulty in buttoning of clothes, 12% of the people had no difficulty in holding a book while reading, 3% of the people had little difficulty in grabbing a phone, 22% of the people had little difficulty in opening a jar, 2% of the people had little difficulty in performing household chores, and 23% of the people had little difficulty in carrying a grocery bag. Conclusion: Practice and attitudes toward illnesses in general and CTS, in particular, are fluid, continuously changing, and developing overtime. This study showed us that adequate knowledge of CTS is essential for proper diagnosis and treatment. This occupational hazard can be easily acquired by dentist who works with improper hand and wrist and hand and chair position.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005088
Title: Association of body mass index and glycated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Dr. MGR Educational University and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: According to the World Health Organization, 1.9 billion adults were overweight and of these obese are 650 million and raised body mass index (BMI) is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, and some cancers. Poor glycemic control leads to overweight and obesity. This study was carried to find the association between the categories of BMI and Hba1c in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Materials and Methods: This is a case–control study and it includes 102 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus comprising 42 males and 60 females. Blood sample was collected and it was used to estimate the fasting blood glucose and HbA1c. BMI was calculated using the formula weight (kg)/height (meter 2). It was analyzed using the SPSS version 17 and one-way ANOVA method was applied. Results and Conclusion: Normal BMI and overweight group shows significance with Hba1c, where P < 0.001. It also shows significance in between the normal BMI and obese group where P < 0.03. It was concluded that BMI should be maintained within the normal range so that complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus would be delayed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00005087
Title: Evaluation of Drug utilization and Analysis of Drug related problems of Anti-Epileptic drugs at tertiary care teaching hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, H.S.K College of Pharmacy, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India
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Background: Epilepsy has been considered as a public health problem by the WHO and international league against epilepsy (ILAE). It was felt that there remains significant scope for the improvement of better epilepsy services in an emerging country like India. Hence, we search for to evaluate the drug utilization of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Aim: The study was designed to evaluate the drug utilization of AEDs in in-patient admission of medicine and pediatric departments at tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: The data were obtained prospectively from 80 patients with AED over a period of 6 months. The utilization was assessed based on the age, seizure type, therapy, newer, and conventional AEDs and rationality of prescriptions. Results: AEDs are highly prescribed for an age group of >18 years in the study. AEDs are highly prescribed as dual therapy in 38.75% of the patients. In the study, 63.75% of AED were prescribed alone and 35% of AED with add-on therapy of benzodiazepine (BZD) and found statistically non-significant (P = 0.4726). The assessment of rationality was done as per ILAE and Indian Association of Pediatrics guidelines, of which 81.02% and 58.06% were found to be rational respectively. Conclusion: In the study, AEDs are used as polytherapy was more effective in terms of reduction of seizures, as there were large number of grand mal seizures 73.75% among our study subjects. Most of the patients with grand mal seizures do not achieve seizure control with single AEDs. The study determines the effective use of BZDs along with AED. Due to the lack of specific guidelines for the usage of AED in India, the rationality in the prescription is variable.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005086
Title: Generic drug regulatory approval process in the USA, Europe, and India
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysuru - 570 015, Karnataka, India.
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Regulatory involvement in the generic drug development hastens the drug approval process which directly/indirectly accelerated the launching of drug into the market. The regulatory documents whether in-house of documents to be submitted to regulatory authorities should be carefully reviewed by the skilled personnel to minimize the queries raised by the regulatory agencies and speed up the approval process. These are few differences in the dossier submission requirements among the three regions, i.e., the USA, Europe, and India which has been clearly represented through succinct comparisons third part of this work. Generic manufacturers may file an abbreviated new drug application that incorporates the safety/effectiveness data submitted by original innovator drug manufacturer and adds only bioequivalence studies. Therefore, it is very difficult and challenging task to approve a drug by the manufacturing companies, simultaneously submitted in all the regulatory authorities. The literature work, the comparison parameters, and difference in generic drug approval requirements have been delineated in this work, which gives clear depict where India lies in its generic drug approval process and the challenges that Indian regulatory authority has to overcome in the near future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005085
Title: Detection of the morphological and genetic effect of chloroformic flax seed extract on the Leishmania tropica.
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Tikrit University, Saladin, Iraq
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Objective: The present study was designed to test the efficacy of the chloroform extract of flax seed in the treatment of Leishmania tropica by the toxic inhibitory effect on the promastigote stage in vitro by inhibiting the growth and number of the parasite as well as detecting the genetic effects of the parasite genome using random amplified polymorphic DNA- polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) technique. Materials and Methods: The original cultures for the isolated parasites were obtained from two patients and transplanted to the liquid culture medium Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 by five samples, four of which were treated with different concentrations of the chloroform extract of flax seeds and one sample that was not treated with the extract control sample and three replicates for each sample and the parasite was counted for all samples and was conducted for them statistical analysis. DNA was extracted from all samples and RAPD-PCR Markers were performed using six primers. The results were carried over the agarose gel, the results were photographed, and the statistical analysis was performed. Results: The number of parasites decreased in an inverse relationship with the concentrations. The higher the concentration, the lower the parasite rate and the largest rate of inhibition at the concentration was 100 µg/ ml. The parasite rates were 3820, 6580, 10,560, and 14,840 organisms/ml, respectively, and compared to the control group that recorded an increase in the number of parasites. In a direct relationship with time, where parasite rates reached 11,600, 19,800, 31,200, and 47,800 being/ml. Concentration showed 50 µg/ml inhibition of 50% of promastigote after 96 h of growth with comparison with the control group and that concentration of 100 µg/ml resulted in 70% inhibition (LC70 ) during the same period. The RAPD-PCR markers, it was found that all treatments have an effect on the DNA genetic material of the parasite. The first treatment, T1, which is the highest concentration of the extract, showed the highest number of mutant bands (24) distinct bands, divided into (14) unique bands and (10) absent bands. Followed by the T4, which is the lowest concentration of the extract that had (20) distinct bands, which were divided into (9) absent bands and (11) unique bands. Followed by the T3, with a number of mutant bands of (19) bands, divided between (10) absent bands and (9) unique bands. Followed by the T2, which obtained a number of distinct flying bands that reached (18) distinct bands, which were divided into (9) absent bands and (9) unique bands. Conclusion: It is concluded from the current study that the increased concentration has led to an increase in the generation time in a direct relationship with the concentrations. The chloroform extract has a high effect on the parasite’s genome during the reproductive process, specifically when DNA is duplicated, which leads to mutations that lead to high damage to the parasite’s genetics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005084
Title: Occurrence, morphological, and molecular characteristics of Trichophyton erinacei in Iraq
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathological Analysis Techniques, AL-Mustaqbal University College, Hilla, Iraq.
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Background: Dermatophyte infections are caused by Trichophyton erinacei, which has been isolated from hedgehogs on numerous occasions. Although a variety of animal infections of this fungus have been observed in different countries, the pathogen has rarely been isolated from humans. Aim: This research was conducted to characterize the zoonotic isolate of T. erinacei through culture and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: An experiment was carried out on the different types of tinea identified on patients attending the Dermatology Unit at Al-Hussein Hospital in the holy city of Kerbala during the period from February to November 2018. Results: Based on clinical diagnoses and culture characteristics, the pathogen observed in tinea manuum, tinea faciei, and tinea corporis was identified as tinea erinaceid. The culture characteristics revealed white/cottony irregular colonies with septated elongated macroconidia and numerous pear-shaped microconidia attached along the side of the hyphae. This discovery was verified by sequencing the inner translated fungal nuclear ribosomal DNA spacers utilizing the inner translated spacer (ITS) 1-ITS4 universal primers. The fungus was recorded in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Center under entry number MK167440. The genetic tree of the fungus T. erinacei was shown to be related to the following global strains: The Netherlands (MH865913.1) and 96%, German (NKU257463.1) 88%, French (DQ786689.1) 88%, Iranian (1) KP789451, and Estonian (KC833522.1) 82%. Conclusions: This is the first report on T. erinacei tinea manuum infection in the Kerbala Province and, as far as is known, in the country of Iraq.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005083
Title: Molecular characterization and gene expression profiling of Trichophyton rubrum treated with a Marasmius palmivorus filtrate
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathological Analysis Techniques, AL-Mustaqbal University College, Hilla, Iraq.
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Background: Trichophyton rubrum is a common anthropophilic fungal species. It is the primary causative dermatophytosis agent in the world, infecting the skin, feet, and the area between the fingernails. Aim: The present study examines the molecular characteristics of T. rubrum isolates and the bioactivity of Marasmius palmivorus filtrate against this fungus. Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates were collected from patients with different varieties of tinea who attended the Al-Hussein Hospital (Dermatology and Venereal Disease Unit) in Kerbala Province from February to November 2018. Results: Four T. rubrum isolates were identified based on their morphological and molecular features and were registered in the International GenBank with the accession numbers: MK167434, MK167437, MK167442, and MK167443, revealing close relationship with National Center for Biotechnology Information-Blast T. rubrum (MH865940.1). The phylogenetic tree of internal transcribed spacer rRNA sequences showed that the T. rubrum isolates (numbers 1, 2, 5, and 6) were closely related to global isolates of the same fungus. The results showed that this fungus could produce protease enzymes. M. palmivorus filtrate (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) showed an inhibitory influence on T. rubrum growth through the distortion of fungal structures (presence of abnormal mycelium and cell lysis). Gene expression was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the specific primer β-tubulin (housekeeping gene), a serine protease, citrate synthase, and MEP4. The amplification accuracy of the gene product was observed. The data revealed high gene copy amplification in serine protease, citrate synthase, appeared the accumulation of product through the duration of the qPCR experiment, but on the contrary, it happened with MEP4, which indicates protein lysis. Conclusion: The results of this study will aid in the development of innovative and novel effective drug targets and antifungal agents using M. palmivorus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005082
Title: Comparative study of the molecular, biochemical, and other parameters in Iraqi hepatitis B patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Anbar, Iraq
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Background/Purpose: It well recognizes that hepatitis B infections are one of the most medically important problematic infections in the world. We compared the molecular, biochemical, and other parameters of two study groups of hepatitis B patients depending on the result of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Methodology: The serological indicators of 80 study patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) were investigated. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels were quantified, and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) viral quantity was determined using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The biochemical and hematological essays of the patients, in addition to 40 healthy individuals, were also detected. Results: HBsAg was revealed positive in all study patients. They were quantitatively and statistically more significant in those patients positive for HBsAg than negative ones with a mean of 7779.9 ± 3898 IU/mL and 3233.8 ± 2474 IU/mL, respectively. The HBV-DNA viral quantity was also much higher in HBeAg-positive patients (35,328,825 ± 23,101,537 IU/mL) than in HBeAg-negative patients (3115.1 ± 1916.8 IU/mL). Glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase values were elevated in patients carrying HBeAg in comparison with other ones in contrast with gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), who decreased markedly. The level of prothrombin times for HBeAg-positive (15.24 ± 2.0 s) and HBeAg-negative (15.73 ± 2.4 s) patients was higher than that for the healthy individuals (13.65 ± 0.5 s). Conclusion: The interesting finding that emerged from this study is the reasonably substantial significant difference between both study groups of HBeAg in terms of HBsAg level and HBV-DNA load creating an impression that a high level of attention must be brought on the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of HBeAg positive patients. Furthermore, several biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) were markedly increased in patients who have HBeAg in comparison with those negative for the presence and controls. In both groups of patients with CHB infections, the GGT levels were observable, increasing than those in the healthy subjects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005081
Title: Effect of pyocyanin as secondary metabolite on pseudomonal biofilm and in increasing the resistance degree to antipseudomonal agents
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq.
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Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced the maximum amount of pyocyanin pigment as a secondary metabolite as a virulence factor that responsible for increase pathogenesis. The study aims to improve our understanding of the emergence of pseudomonal biofilm formation by pyocyanin production. The correlation between minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) values of ceftazidime, piperacillin, and ciprofloxacin with pyocyanin production is also targeting in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 isolates from patients with catheter-associated urinary tract and wound infections were included in this study. Pyocyanin production was determined. The antimicrobial susceptibility tests including, Kirby– Bauer and E-test, were estimated. Finally, the detection of biofilm production, which includes microtiter plate assay and biofilm formation on FBCL, was done. Results: One hundred thirty-eight isolates of P. aeruginosa, isolates that produced biofilm were 96 (69.5%). There is a progressive relationship between pyocyanin production level and biofilm production. Furthermore, there is a relationship between MICs values of ceftazidime and pyocyanin production level. Conclusion: Our suggestion showed that pyocyanin could be one of the factors that help to induce biofilm formation. Wherefore, sessile cells were showed an increase in isolates that have higher pyocyanin levels more than others. Furthermore, pyocyanin increases the resistance against ceftazidime, which could be of clinical significance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005182
Title: All ceramic systems in dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The range of application of ceramics has been expanding in the past four decades. They have optimal esthetic properties, biocompatibility, color, stability, high wear resistance, and low thermal conductivity. High strength ceramics such as alumina, zirconia, and lithium disilicate meet the requirements of strength and toughness, hence suitable for extensive loads. However, they also present with inconveniences. A comparative insight to the properties, advantages, disadvantages, and indications of the three ceramic materials would help the clinician choose the ideal material for clinical use.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005181
Title: A study to assess the orthostatic hypotension among Type II diabetes mellitus patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Orthostatic hypotension (OH), also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person’s blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position. OH is a major clinical sign of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in diabetic patients. Aims: The study aim is to assess the OH among Type II diabetes mellitus patients. Materials and Methods: A descriptive research design was conducted among 60 Type II diabetic mellitus patients. Judgmental sampling technique was used. A structured questionnaire method was used to collect the demographical data and a sphygmomanometer was used to measure the blood pressure. The data were summarized, processed with descriptive and non-parametric statistics. Results: Among 60 samples, seven samples (11.6%) have OH during supine, 42 samples have OH during standing position, and 11 samples (18.3%) have a neutral state of OH. In the present study, there was a statistically significant association with all the demographic variables. Conclusion: This reveals that most of the diabetes mellitus had a standing OH; therefore, it is important to create awareness, prevention, and managing techniques regarding the OH to all the elderly and vulnerable groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005180
Title: Awareness of dental pain and sensitivity among elderly women – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental pain is caused normally due to dental caries, periodontitis, pulpits, or traumatic conditions. This is generally caused by bacteria from decayed teeth or defective dental fillings. Moreover, sensitivity of the tooth is due to displacement of fluid present in the dentinal tubules. Mostly, sensitivity occurs due to recession of gums and nerve exposure. Materials and Methods: This is a survey carried out among elderly women about dental pain and sensitivity. A questionnaire consisting of 11 questions regarding dental pain and sensitivity was framed and shared using a link created by SurveyPlanet and circulated among elderly women. Moreover, the final result was statistically analyzed and interpreted. Results and Discussion: The results were analyzed using pie chart. It is clear that 50% of them are aware that dental pain is due to decay, cracked, or infectious tooth and only 45% of them are aware that fluids present in the dentinal tubules are responsible for sensitivity of the tooth. The study shows that 44% of them are suffering from pricking type of pain for this 33% of them are taking medication, whereas 56% of them are having sensitivity in their tooth for this 50% of the population are using sensitivity toothpaste. Conclusion: Dental pain and sensitivity are the most important problems with the patients who are facing in their day-to-day life. As a dentist, patient education programs and screening programs can be conducted to create awareness among elderly women about dental pain and sensitivity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005179
Title: In vitro antioxidant activities of ethanolic stem bark extract of Terminalia brownii
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, University College of Science and Technology, Adikavi Nannaya University, Rajamahendravaram - 533 296, Andhra Pradesh, India
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Introduction: Terminalia brownii is one of the important ethnomedicinal plants belonging to the family Combretaceae and it has been used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases such as jaundice, intestinal, liver problems, yellow fever, and HIV infection. Objectives: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the total antioxidant activity, 1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and reducing power of ethanolic stem bark extract of T. brownii using various in vitro antioxidant assays. Materials and Methods: The stem bark ethanolic extract of T. brownii was obtained using the Soxhlet apparatus in 1:5 ratios (plant material and ethanol) and further subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis, and evaluates the total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and reducing power using standard methods. Results: The quantitative phytochemical analysis of stem bark ethanolic extract T. brownii revealed that the presence of the substantial amount of flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, and alkaloids and further, the total antioxidant activity of stem bark ethanolic extract of T. brownii was determined as 78.01 µg/ 250 µg, showed significant DPPH scavenging activity at 250 µg/ml was 60.86% with the IC50 value of 132.6 µg/ml, and exhibited maximum reducing power was found at 250 µg/ml was 0.137 O.D at 700 nm. Conclusion: The current study showed that stem bark ethanolic extract of T. brownii showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power due to the presence of plant-derived antioxidant compounds and these compounds might serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants, for treatment of various oxidative stress-related diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005178
Title: In vitro evaluation of sun protection factor of Ixora coccinea flower extract
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Royal College of Medicine Perak, University Kuala Lumpur, No 3 Jalan Green Town, Ipoh 30450, Perak, Malaysia.
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Background: Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation is considered as one of the major causes of skin damage which results in photo aging, sunburn, hyperplasia, edema, etc. The production of free radicals in our body due to ultraviolet radiation increases the chances of photocarcinogenesis. Even though, there are many number of sunscreen formulations available in the market to counter react the damage caused by ultraviolet radiation, still there are few problems addressed on its safety, side effects, and allergic reactions among certain populations. This has indeed made the researchers to find an alternative to overcome the issues by formulating natural ingredient based sun screen products. Materials and Methods: Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) from the flower extracts of Ixora coccinea. The extract was studied for its qualitative phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity using DDPH assay, and UV-visible spectrophotometric evaluation of SPF value. Results: The test results were found compromising on the extract, the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of major phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenols, IC50 of the extract was found to be 47 µg/ml and its SPF value was found to be near to moderate reference value. Conclusion: Furthermore, findings of this study will be a useful tool for the future researchers interested in this plant source for its photoprotective activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005177
Title: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the flower extract of Ixora coccinea and its antimicrobial activity
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Royal College of Medicine Perak, University Kuala Lumpur, No 3 Jalan Green Town, Ipoh 30450, Perak, Malaysia.
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Background: The development of nanoscience has been widely accepted in the field of medicine and pharmaceuticals due to its tremendous applications. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles are gaining high attention among the researchers due to various reasons one among those is the microbial resistance. Materials and Methods: Thus, the present study was aimed to produce green synthesized silver nanoparticles from the flower extract of Ixora coccinea and to test its antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms. The synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles were confirmed through UV-spectral analysis, differential light scattering, and zeta potential analysis and agar disk diffusion method was carried out to confirm the antimicrobial activity of the silver nanoparticles. Results: UV-visible absorption spectra for the mixture were found to be 460 nm, particle size was found to 125 nm, and its zeta potential was ‒17.4. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity was found to be good with selected Gram-negative bacteria compared to other selected groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005432
Title: Identification of theanine, theobromine, and caffeine from the native Assam variety of Camellia sinensis (green tea)
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Central Research Laboratory, Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore - 524 003, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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Camellia sinensis (green tea) is commonly consumed as beverage, which has several health benefits. It is widely grown in various climatic regions and its chemical composition is quite complex, but varies based on its geographical conditions seasonal variations and other environmental factors. It consists of numerous bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, amino acids, and methylxanthines. Still, many more has to be explored. Moreover, none of the studies from India reported the presence of theanine, theobromine, and caffeine in native (Assam) variety of green tea which has clinical importance. Thus, the present study is conducted to assess the above-mentioned molecules in native (Assam) green tea. Green tea leaves from Assam were used to prepare aqueous and ethanolic extracts by Soxhlet apparatus. Later, we compared and analyzed the chemical composition of these extracts by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry spectral analysis. We assessed the chemical composition between the leaf extracts and identified an important amino acid theanine (C7 H14 N2 O3, mass 174.2 m/z), and methylxanthines like theobromine (C7 H8 N4 O2, mass 180.16 m/z), and caffeine (C8 H10 N4 O2 , mass 194.19 m/z) in both the extracts. Thus, we conclude the presence of theobromine, theanine, and caffeine in both the leaf extracts. Moreover, the present study also suggests that minimal intake of green tea has beneficial effects, whereas maximum intake has side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005405
Title: Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Rumex nervosus
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Aksum University, Axum, Tigray, Ethiopia.
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Introduction: Abnormal levels of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species lead to cellular toxicity affecting cellular functions, cell survival and alters the cellular components and responsible for oxidative stress-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Objectives: The objective of the present study has been undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Rumex nervosus. Materials and Methods: The reducing power and standard OH, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), NO, and H2O2 radical scavenging assays were conducting for evaluating the antioxidant and free radical scavenging of activities of ethyl acetate leaf extract of R. nervosus. Results: Ethyl acetate leaf extract of R. nervosus showed 61.4 %, 55.38 % of Hydrogen peroxide, (H2O2) and ABTS free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 43.64 µg/ml and 43.30 µg/ml respectively. Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethyl acetate leaves extracts of R. nervosus showed promising reducing and free radical scavenging activity due to the presence of antioxidant compounds and these compounds might serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants, for treatment of various oxidative stress-related diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004882
Title: A review of chemical tools for induction of cardiotoxicity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
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Congestive heart failure involves considerable damage to the heart tissue caused by severe chlorosis and oxygen deprivation. This arises most frequently during the degradation of the atherosclerotic plaque and leads to the development of pulmonary embolism in the coronary artery. Structural changes include the development of anastomotic channels, dilation of artery, formation of atherosclerotic plague, and insufficient blood circulation to the cardiac tissue through coronary blockade. There are several models of the induction of myocardial infarction (MI) such as coronary artery ligation, closed-chest form, coronary artery embolization, ameroid constrictor, and cryoinjury. As these procedures have many drawbacks such as complex treatment, anesthetic risks, lengthy recovery periods, poor success rate, high death rates, systemic, and local immunological and inflammatory reactions and require advanced technical expertise, hence induction by chemicals can be used as alternative method against the surgical procedures due to their high success rate, simple technique, fast and less complicated non- invasive method, and no technical skills required. This latest review aims to explore the chemicals used for the induction of MI such as isoproterenol, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cisplatin, in which their detailed mechanisms, dose of inductions, and their supported literature such approaches may be of interest to scholars and investigators interested MI with therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004883
Title: Community Pharmacist and General Practitioner Collaborated Health Care Services - A Review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric, JSS Medical College and Hospital (Affiliated to JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research), Mysore, Karnataka, India
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Home medicines review (HMR) services were specifically created to assist elderly patients residing in their homes to have more benefits of medication regimen that can help them in understanding the importance of medications through medication review by community pharmacist and HMR services were rendered with the intention of minimizing medication-related problems. The successful operation of HMR depends on good coordination between patients, general practitioner (GP), and accredited pharmacist. In some circumstances, other health-care team members such as nurses in community practice can also play an important role in ensuring whether patient is following correct administration guidelines of medicine or not. The common screening of medications carried out by community pharmacist was reflected with checking rationality of drug, over the counter medicinal products, patient medication adherence, drug therapy monitoring whether signs and symptoms are minimized or subsided. If drug-related problems were identified they were communicated to concerned patient consultant through HMR report and requested to make certain changes in drug therapy management in according to severity of drug- related problem.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004884
Title: Methods of induction of Alzheimer’s disease in rat and mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute, Velappanchavadi, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Alzheimer’s disease is known to be progressive dysfunction of neurons, which could be categorized under hereditary and sporadic conditions. The common cause of 70% of dementia, progression initiates slowly and thus worsens over a gradual increase of time. Noticed at an older age, especially geriatric level, which is difficult to attain relevant results in treatment. The cause of AD is undisclosed. The trademark of Alzheimer’s disease is found to be deposition of peptides of β-amyloid, resembling a plague appearance in the central nervous system. The plague formed is expected to increase in size at the later stage. Initially, the disease is encountered with loss of memory, inability to recollect the recent issues practiced by the patient, especially of episodic memory. Different methods had been carried for induction of AD in mice through animal modeling technique, subsequent treatment to solubilize the plague is attained. The underlying mechanism of the disease progression could be explained through genetically modified animals which would support to attain therapeutic interventions and preclinical drug development. Combined deposition of Cu and Zn in Aβ is enriched and thus solubilized by Cu/Zn chelators in vitro, which would serve as a novel therapy for the prevention and treatment of AD. A comprehensive literature search has been carried out in PubMed and Google Scholar, and articles pertaining to complications of intravenous drug use were selected for review.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004885
Title: An updated review on various pharmacological activities of Phaseolus vulgaris Linn.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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Phaseolus vulgaris that belongs to the Leguminosae family is one of the most commonly used as a food source, with a wide range of medicinal properties. In this paper, we review the latest research works which describe the origin, taxonomical classification, and pharmacological activities to help researchers to carry out further research to find out novel phytochemicals. Articles have been obtained from databases such as PubMed and Google search engines by entering some related terms such as P. vulgaris, traditional use, and pharmacological properties. The literature survey yielded 12 articles and among them, 2 articles were excluded as they are irrelevant to the subject. From the articles we reviewed, it is found that P. vulgaris possessed various pharmacological activities (e.g., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor property, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, etc.). This review paper provides worthy scientific data for further research on P. vulgaris plants that might be utilized for the isolation of powerful active molecules in future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004886
Title: Evaluation of antifungal potential of fruiting body extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus in vitro and in vivo study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Basic Science, College of Dentistry, Wasit University, Kut, Iraq.
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Background: The recent development of fungal resistant strains has raised worry in health care settings in Iraq. This has led to increased research interest in mushrooms. The current research explores the medical possibility of the cultivated mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus as a hopeful antifungal agent against divers’ clinical fungal pathogens that are resistance to present generation antifungals. Materials and Methods: Samples are going to be registered during this study is mushroom belong the genus P. ostreatus was obtained from Unit of Fungal Production/Unit of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants/College of Agriculture/University of Baghdad Code No. MF0657151 that is recorded in the National Center for Biotechnology Information/Part of (US National Institute of Health). Candida albicans was already isolated and diagnosed from the previous study and preserved in the lab. The general technique of extraction from the powder of P. ostreatus fruiting bodies was done by three solvents consecutive (chloroform, methanol, and aqueous) solutions. The antifungal activity was assessed using agar well diffusion procedure; 200 mg/ml from every crude extract are used. The antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were assessed for methanol crude extract for (the potent solution among the others) within the starting from 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/ml. Murine model was wont to assess the antifungal activity of methanol crude extract after cutaneous induced infection of a clinical infection agent, C. albicans. Results: It was seen that the most effective extract was this belongs methanol. The foremost potent antifungal activity of methanol crude extract was seen within the range of 100 mg/ml–12.5 mg/ml concentrations. Methanol crude extract exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect against C. albicans growth with MIC 25 mg/ml. In the case of in vivo study and concerning C. albicans, it was absolutely found a significant difference (P < 0.05) using methanol crude extract. Conclusions: Methanol crude extract of P. ostreatus was the powerful one as antifungal agent against the tested C. albicans in vitro and in vivo study than the others.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004887
Title: Comparative study of intravitreal ranibizumab injection and intravitreal triamcinolone injection in diabetic macular edema
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Pallavaram, Chennai - 600 117, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Purpose: Diabetes is a leading cause of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic macular edema (DME) or retinal thickening is an important manifestation of diabetic retinopathy. There is a necessity of treatment so as to reduce the risk of irreversible damage of macula and thereby permanent vision loss. In this study, reliable treatment for macular edema with maximum effectiveness and minimal side effects was assessed. This study compared the effectiveness of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVRB) injection and intravitreal triamcinolone (IVTA) injection in reducing the central foveal thickness (CFT) and in improving the visual acuity. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted among 60 patients who were diagnosed with DME and randomly divided into two groups. The first group of 30 patients received IVRB at a dose of 0.5 mg/0.05 ml, whereas the second group, comprising 30 patients, received IVTA at a dose of 4 mg/0.1 ml. Visual acuity and CFT measures were assessed from logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution chart and optical coherence tomography, respectively. These parameters noted at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months interval. The safety and efficacy of IVRB were compared with IVTA and analyzed statistically by statistical software SPSS with 95% confidence interval. The safety of the drug was assessed by side effects measurement. Results: After 6 months, the statistical comparison was done for ranibizumab and triamcinolone administered groups. Ranibizumab was found to be significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than triamcinolone in case of improving visual acuity as there was an improvement in visual acuity from 0.77 ± 0.15 to 0.36 ± 0.19, whereas in triamcinolone group, the visual acuity does not show much improvement as the resulted values were 0.76 ± 0.15–0.60 ± 0.15, after 6-month follow-up. In case of reduction in CFT, ranibizumab was 371.6 ± 42.8 and triamcinolone was 369.2 ± 42.8 at baseline and significantly reduced to 250 ± 41.2 and 247.8 ± 43.3 at the end of 6-month follow-up, respectively, which showed less significant difference between IVRB and IVTA but significantly effective when compared to uninjected eye. Side effects such as increased intraocular pressure and eye infection were noted. Conclusion: In contrast to intravitreal triamcinolone, IVRB resulted in statistically significant improvement and reduced side effects. Hence, IVRB injection was found to be safe and effective treatment for DME.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004888
Title: Adaptations of Pharma 4.0 from Industry 4.0
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics (Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance), JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Pharma 4.0 conceptualizes extremely systematic automated processes, which could be batch, continuous, or a hybrid of these, operated by an integrated manufacturing control strategy. Quality by design and process analytical technology principles are used to strengthen the hypothesis of Pharma 4.0. These provide the potential for robust, efficient, and quickproduction. Industry 4.0 is employed in medical technology, health-care facilities, and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Digital transformation plays a major role. Pharma 4.0 provides better instruments to enforce product safety and supply chain security. This review explains the impact of data analytics technology, digitization, industry 4.0, artificial intelligence, digital twins, and continuous manufacturing and their impact on Pharma 4.0.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004893
Title: Prevalence and awareness on computer vision syndrome among individuals in information technology
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Computer vision syndrome (CVS)/digital eye strain is a condition in which a person experiences one or more of eye symptoms as a result of prolonged working on a computer. Although the world’s advanced technology is causing new syndromes and diseases, CVS has been affecting individuals for quite some time. Materials and Methods: CVS affects people of all age groups. It leads to a various bunch of problems. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 people. People were asked if they were aware or unaware of the CVS and its symptoms also choices were asked for the preferred eye protectives used. Results and Discussion: The results proved that the awareness of the symptoms of CVS among the study population, which shows about 70% of the population is unaware of it. About 42% of the study population views the display at about 4–5 inches below the eye level. The majority of the population were aware of preventive measures. Conclusion: The current study evidently proved that there are a lot of people in the present population who are unaware of the symptoms of CVS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004894
Title: Isolation, identification, and genetic study for bacterial infection from non-lactating women with acute mastitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Wasit, Iraq.
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Background: Mastitis is an inflammation of the breast, which may or may not relate with bacterial infection. The aim of this study isolates the most prevalent causative of bacteria in acute mastitis in non-lactating women and molecular study for more predominant bacterial isolate from nipple discharge using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methodology: Then we used both aerobic and an aerobic environmental condition for growth of bacterial culture (blood agar, macConkey agar, chocolate agar and mannitol salt agar), biochemical test, sensitivity test, API, Vitek, additionally using 16SrRNA gene for more accurate identified isolates, also using PCR for detection of some virulence gene and phylogenic analysis to confirms diagnostic of bacteria. We were collect 56 swab nipple discharge samples from breast of non-lactating women that suffer from acute mastitis and studied in laboratory for diagnosis. Results: The results revealed that the highest bacteria that cause acute mastitis in non-lactating women were Staphylococcus epidermidis and the results are as follows: S. epidermidis (78.43%), Pseudomonas stutzeri (5.88%), Pseudomonas oryzihabitans (5.88%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.96%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.96%), Streptococcus viridans (3.92%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (1.96%). The results of antibiotic sensitivity for S. epidermidis were sensitive to imipenem, gentamycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, azithromycin, and clindamycin, respectively. P. aeruginosa showed sensitivity to imipenem, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone, respectively.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00004896
Title: Comparison of effects of interpretation of lab reports among the undergraduate dental students
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The enthusiasm in clinical pathology is piqued, as we recognize the captivating power of laboratory data to expose and make clear the concealed disease. Diagnosis of the various hematological disorders is made possible by interpreting a lab report with the aid of comparing the known standard normal values with the obtained lab report value. This study was done to analyze whether the students have intact knowledge on interpretation of the lab reports even after passing out of their 2nd year. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised a total of 50 members. Data-1 were collected from the marks of model practical exam obtained by the study population in their 2nd year of college of dentistry. Data-2 were collected from the marks obtained by the study population in the exam which was conducted without any prior knowledge or revision. The data 1 and data 2 were compared and statistically analyzed using paired t-test. Results: There is a gradual decrease in average value among the study population after passing out of 2nd year, which indicates that there is a slight deterioration in the knowledge of interpreting a lab report. Conclusion: There is a significant difference between the knowledge of interpreting a lab report in the student population after passing out of 2nd year.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004897
Title: Antihyperlipidemic effect of Kaempferia galanga in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Dr.N.G.P. Arts and Science College, Coimbatore - 641 014, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the worldwide increasing problems characterized by metabolic deregulation. One of the major factors contributing to cardiovascular risk in patients with Type 2 diabetes is abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism. Due to various side effects caused by available drugs, the search for new antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic drugs from herbal plants has become essential. Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic potential of hydroethanolic extract of Kaempferia galanga rhizome in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Male albino Wistar rats (6 weeks old), weighing 170–200 g, were used for the present study. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight (bw). Oral administration of hydroethanolic extract of K. galanga rhizome at 250 mg/kg bw and 500 mg/kg bw was carried out for 28 days. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture and the serum was separated and analyzed for biochemical parameters. Results: The reports showed a significant reduction in the levels of protein, total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglyceride, very low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and LDL compared to the diabetic group which was reverted to near-normal levels in treated groups. The level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly increased in treated groups with the improvement of diabetic dyslipidemia. Conclusion: The present findings infer that the rhizome extract is capable of controlling hyperlipidemia. Further studies can be carried out to isolate the active compound for the management of diabetes-induced complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00004898
Title: A perspective view on nanosponge drug delivery system
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute (Deemed to be University), Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 600 076, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Targeting drug delivery has long been a problem for medical researchers to get them to their right place in the body and how to control the release of the drug to prevent overdose. The development of new and complex molecules called nanosponges has the potential to solve these problems. Nanosponge is a novel and emerging technology which play a key role in targeting drug delivery in a controlled manner. It is a new class of materials and made of microscopic particles with few nanometers wide cavities in which a large variety of substances can be encapsulated. To overcome the problems of bioavailability, of which nanosponge is an advanced drug delivery system which offers diverse advantages than the other available systems. Nanosponge is based on nano, polymer-based spheres that can suspend or entrap a wide variety of substances and then be incorporated into a formulated product such as a gel, lotions, cream, ointments, liquid, or powder. This technology offers entrapment of ingredients and thus reduced side effects, improved stability, increases elegance, and enhanced formulation flexibility. This review article deals with the general introduction of nanosponges, characteristic features of nanosponges, their advantages, disadvantages, preparation methodologies, factors affecting on their preparation, and with some referential examples of nanosponge drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004899
Title: Awareness of the side effects of vaccination among general public
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate and create awareness of the general public on the side effects of vaccination. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the awareness levels of general public on importance and side effects of vaccination to improve the standard of health care. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in Chennai among randomly selected people using a questionnaire. The question was related to knowledge and awareness of vaccination and its side effects. A total of 20 close-ended questions were included in the study. The results were being analyzed using statistical software. Results: The obtained results shows that 55% are aware of the benefits of vacciation and 85% of respondants have experienced the side effects like pain, fever, swelling, redness and headaches. Conclusion: On analyzing the results obtained from the present study, it is clear that people are fairly aware and has a knowledge about vaccination and about its benefits as well as side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004900
Title: Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for topical fluoride application
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Heath Dentistry, Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, Pondicherry, India
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Introduction: Dental caries is a global oral health problem which has a distinctive variation. Prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents is generally regarded as a priority for dental services and considered more cost-effective than its treatment. Fluoride is the primary agent available for caries prevention. It can be taken both systemically and topically. The aim of this report is to update the evidence at the 5-year interval according to American Dental Association (ADA) policy and address additional questions related to the use of prescription-strength, home-use topical fluorides. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was conducted in databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar. A group of six examiners was involved in the process identifying the clinical problems which were then converted to research questions for which the committee aimed at providing evidence-based recommendations. The same set of examiners was involved in the selection of articles and all the examiners graded each article based on the evidence. Results: The systematic search revealed a total of 27 publications from PubMed and Google Scholar which were scrutinized based on pre-set inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fluoride induced faster remineralization than other remineralizing agents. Appropriate use of fluorides may help in the prevention of dental caries. Conclusion: With the evidence available, it can be concluded that all age and risk groups must use an appropriate amount of fluoride toothpaste when brushing twice a day. Fluorides irrespective of forms and methods of application are effective in preventing dental caries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004901
Title: A comparative study of prostaglandin analogs and ocular beta-blockers on intraocular pressure reduction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Pallavaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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A comparative study on effectiveness of topical ocular medications, latanoprost and timolol, in intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction was done. IOP was obtained from primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and also from ocular hypertensive patients before commencement of therapy and after commencement of therapy on 2nd and 4th months. Other than IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT) parameter was also used. CCT is a predictive parameter in the development of glaucoma from ocular hypertension. There is a greater risk of developing POAG if CCT is 555 µm or less compared corneal thickness of more than 588 µm. The mean IOP before commencement of treatment was above 22 mm Hg in both the groups. By 2nd and 4th months after the commencement of therapy, mean IOP showed a significant improvement in both the groups especially in latanoprost administered compared to the timolol administered group. Increase in CCT by the 4th was also observed which is normal when IOP range becomes normalized. The study concluded that topical latanoprost 0.005% was more effective in reducing IOP than timolol maleate 0.5% twice daily.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004902
Title: Awareness and risk factors of atherosclerosis among working professionals – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Coronary heart disease is a disorder of the heart usually caused by a condition called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is one of the major and most frequent causes of heart arrest. Atherosclerosis is a group of disorders of heart and blood vessels in which the development of plaque occurs inside these arteries. Plaque is made of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin. Atherosclerotic plaque within the coronary arteries is responsible for coronary artery disease, myocardial infraction, and acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including heart attack, stroke, or even death. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire-based survey which consists of 20 questions. A study was conducted among working professionals to assess the awareness and risk factors of atherosclerosis. The questionnaire was distributed through online survey planet link and it was circulated among 102 working professionals and the result was calculated statistically. Results: Hence, it is evident from the survey that the majority of the population are unaware of the risk factor such as cholesterol, obesity, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) leads to atherosclerosis. Conclusion: From this survey, we can tell that 45% of the working professionals are only aware of the major risk factor LDL

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004903
Title: Preference of dental practitioners toward the use of polyalkenoate or resin cement for bonding all ceramic crowns
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental crowns known as the tooth shaped restorations which can be positioned over tooth to cover it. It is used to restore the size, shape, strength, and improve its appearance. Ceramic crowns are helpful in restoring broken teeth, covering the a tooth with large filling when there is not a lot of tooth left, detaining a dental bridge, covering a dental implant, making cosmetic modification, and protecting a weak tooth from breaking or to hold together parts of a cracked tooth. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the dental faculty from which the preference level of polyalkenoate usage is estimated. The results are analyzed using statistical analysis. Results: According to the analysis taken among the current dental practitioner, it is clear they provide bonding of ceramic crown with the inorganic material such as polyalkenoate or resin. The awareness levels of dental practitioners are high and the standard of care provided for patients were monitored. Conclusion: Thus, from the above study, it is concluded that the preference toward the polyalkenoate or resin is high among current dental practitioners.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004904
Title: Awareness of root canal sealers among undergraduate dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, No. 162 Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 600 077, Tam
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Introduction: Long-term success of a root canal treatment is based on the nature of the material used as a root canal sealer. The main components of a root canal filling are as follows: A solid core material and a sealer. The core material most commonly used is gutta-percha, which occupies the bulk of canal space, while the root canal sealer fills the space between the core material and the dentin wall, the voids inside the core material and the accessory canals and also serves as a lubricant, thus helping to obtain a fluid tight seal. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of dental students about the various root canal sealants available for use in dentistry. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was distributed among 100 dental students to elicit the knowledge and awareness of root canal sealers. Data were gathered and analyzed using statistics and conclusions were drawn. Results: About 86% of the participants reported that they were actually aware of the various properties of root canal sealers. Considering calcium hydroxide-based sealers, 78% were aware, while 54% and 42% were aware of the various MTA-based sealers and bio-dentine, respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, students had a higher level of knowledge about treatment and prognosis of procedural accidents than about the causes and prevention. This can be acquired due to clinical experience. The present study, considering the level of knowledge of dental students of Saveetha Dental College, can serve as a preliminary stage for future studies focusing on students’ performance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004905
Title: Safety of female dentists working in private dental clinic, Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Incidents of workplace violence are increasing worldwide. In general, the prevalence of violence on female is more compared to males. However, no studies have investigated this phenomenon from the perspective of female dentists working in private dental clinics. Aim: This study aims to assess the prevalence of violence and safety of female dentists working in private dental clinic, Chennai. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire-based study was conducted among 96 female dentists working in private dental clinics in Chennai. A total of 10 questions consisting of both open-ended and closed-ended questions related to violence faced and safety measures incorporated were included in the questionnaire. Data were collected from the filled questionnaire and analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: Ninety-six female dentists participated in this study. It was reported that 78% have experienced workplace violence, of which 42% have faced violence at least once in their practice. About 87% felt that need of awareness programs on how to handle the situation and on the precautions to be taken for their safety in workplace environment is necessary. Conclusion: The prevalence of violence among female dentists working in private dental clinic is significantly high. They were given awareness and precautions on safety measures to be taken.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004906
Title: Sialography – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Sialography is the radiographic examination of salivary gland. Sialography involves injection of small amount of contrast medium into the ducted the salivary gland followed by routine X-ray projection. The first account of a sialogram carried out as a diagnostic measure appeared in 1925 when Barsony described a method of outlining the parotid duct, using 20% potassium iodide. This medium, however, proved to be so irritant that he abandoned the technique. A year later, the introduction of lipoid provided a further stimulus to this form of investigation, but, in spite of its widespread adoption, it was not until 1931 that R. T. Payne published the first of his classical series of papers on the subject. This review is done to analyze the role of sialography as a diagnostic aid.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004907
Title: Smoking habits among high school students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the reasons why children smoke. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of students aged between 11 and 17 years in two high schools in Chennai, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally, they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Results: Of the 524 students who answered the questionnaire, 23% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The most common reasons for starting to smoke were “to try something new” (55%), peer pressure 38%, and stress 13%. Conclusion: Smoking is moderately prevalent among schoolchildren in Chennai. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12 years indicates that smoking prevention programs need to be started at an earlier age.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004908
Title: Standards of teeth preparation for anterior all-ceramic crowns in private dental practice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Tooth preparation is one of the important aspects of restorative dentistry because it establishes the foundation for whatever restoration is being placed. Understanding of tooth morphology is essential for developing preparations that will permit the restorations placed on them to be functionally durable, provide optimal esthetics, and be biologically compatible with the periodontal tissues. The most important aspect of tooth preparation is retention of the crown and esthetics, these two are governed by finish line. Hence, a proper, specific finish line has to be chosen for different types of crowns. Aim: This study aims to analyze the standards of teeth preparations for anterior all-ceramic crowns in private dental practice in India. Methodology: Hundred laboratory casts with tooth preparations for all-ceramic crowns for anterior teeth obtained from different general dental practitioners in Chennai were analyzed with inclusion criteria of fixed partial denture casts for anteriors for all-ceramic crowns and exclusion criteria of complete and removable partial denture dental casts. Result: The study revealed that 70% of the dentists preferred a supragingival margin for the tooth preparation. Almost 76% of the dentists made a reduction of 1–2 mm in the buccolingual and mesiodistal planes, whereas in terms of incisal reduction, 60% of the dentists reduced1–2 mm. Majority preferred radial shoulder finish line over other types, but a handful of them had no clear type of finish line being prepared with a depth in the range of 0.5 mm–1.5 mm and uniformity was being observed in 84% of the cases. An axial convergence of 6–10° was prepared by 56% of the dentists. Conclusion: This study showed that preparations for all-ceramic crowns of the Indian clinicians’ work investigated varied widely. Most of the clinicians follow proper tooth preparation principles while a handful of clinicians followed no specific principles. Hence, proper tooth preparation principles must be followed to ensure effective treatment in terms of esthetics and retention.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004909
Title: Student perception on the use of conceptual mapping as a learning method
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The term concept mapping is typically associated with techniques used to identify relationships between ideas and the concepts. Students are encouraged to adopt this technique as a useful way to learn heavy course content. Concept mapping advocates the use of specialized analysis to investigate patterns in qualitative data. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of the student on conceptual mapping for learning. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was be prepared and distributed to dental students in Saveetha Dental College. The questionnaire contains data about the convenience of using mind maps and software used for making mind maps. This survey was conducted among the students of Saveetha Dental College and about 100 participants were included in the study. The resulting data are analyzed using statistical software. The questionnaire includes the data of the participants such as their course of study, understanding and retention of their dental subjects, and awareness of the software used in making concept maps. Results: The data collected found that among 100 participants, 49 were 1st year students, 17 were 2nd years, 25 were 3rd years, and 9 were 4th years. Among these participants, they feel that dental subjects are slightly easy and difficult for more of them and they think that alternative methods are helping them out to study easily, wherein which 85% of the participants feel that conceptual mapping learning method helps them to understand their subject. Conclusion: Concept maps are very much helpful for dental students to learn and analyze their dental subjects and to improve their creativity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004910
Title: Students perception on the use of video tutorials for learning preclinical prosthodontics
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the student perception on the use of video tutorials for learning preclinical prosthodontics. Methods: A questionnaire will be prepared and distributed to the dental students of the Saveetha Dental College. The resulting data will be analyzed using statistical software. The presence of our researchers in this present study, with different teaching experience and type of expertise, helped in better understanding of the research related issues from varying perspectives, thus helping in increasing the validity of the study. The study subjects knew the main investigator. Informed consent was taken from the participants. Results: In the survey conducted among 100 individuals of Saveetha Dental College, it is conducted among the individuals of the age range of 17–30 years. It had been observed that 85% of people feel comfortable to learn through video tutorials or preclinical experiences. About 84% of students are able to answer the question after watching the preclinical videos. About 75% of students feel that it is useful to learn through video tutorials for preclinical prosthodontics. Conclusion: The research had proved that difficulties going through by the professor and the pupil in teaching and learning of preclinical prosthodontics and it also includes their necessities for their improvement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004911
Title: Study of digital denture systems among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Digital denture is the word used to describe the entire workflow involved in the fabrication of a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CADCAM) full denture. It is a new system for the manufacture of removable dentures. Digital denture systems are exclusively designed software and ideally coordinated materials, combined with well- defined manufacturing strategies, and provide results of a consistently high quality. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of digital denture systems among dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared and circulated for a sample size of 100 students to analyze awareness of digital dentures systems among dental students. The questionnaire consisted of ten standardized questions. This was a survey-based research which had questionnaire prepared and was circulated among the dental college students through SurveyPlanet in social media. The results were obtained and were statistically analyzed. Results: The results were statistically analyzed and interpreted that 56.7% said all restorations, implants, and orthodontic appliances which can be done by CADCAM. About 70% said that they are aware of treatment using digital denture system. About 66.7% were aware of CADCAM crowns. About 43.3% were aware of digital processing of metal prostheses. Conclusion: From the survey, we conclude that students are aware of digital denture systems as CADCAM dentures are the reduced clinical chair time and the number of visits. Digital dentures are significantly high retention and more favorable clinical outcomes. CAD is widely used technology in the field of prosthodontics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004912
Title: The effect of severe caries on the quality of life in young children: A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a relatively new term that encompasses all dental caries occurring in the primary dentition of young children from birth to 71 months of age. Over the past 40 years, this pattern of disease has been referred to as labial caries, caries of incisors, rampant caries, nursing bottle caries, and baby bottle tooth decay. ECC is defined as the presence of 1 or more decayed (noncavitated or cavitated lesions), missing (due to caries), or filled surfaces in any primary tooth. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the possible effects of extensive dental caries on the quality of life (QOL) among young children. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among the parents to assess the possible changes in the living quality of their children with extensive caries. The study consisted of 100 children-parent pairs. The inclusion criteria consisted of parents with 1–10 years-old children from both sexes, with severe caries in the primary dentition. The exclusion criteria consisted of children with any debilitating systemic diseases or congenital syndromes. Results: The results indicated that of 100 children were participating in the study in which a majority of 74% of children experienced dental pain and 26% of children does not experience any dental pain. When asked about the consumption of food 70% of children have difficulty in eating whereas 30% of children did not have any problem while eating. About 54% of children have difficulty in drinking, whereas 46% of children did not have any problem while drinking. About 52% of children felt difficult in pronouncing words and 48% said that they did not experience any difficulty while speaking. Conclusion: From our study, we conclude that extensive caries among young children has a great impact on their QOL. The majority of parents feels that the major parameters which get affected due to extensive caries are trouble in sleeping, irritability and frustrated feeling, and difficultly in eating. Hence, it is very important that extensive caries in younger age should be considered as a serious factor and proper treatment should be initiated at the earliest.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004913
Title: A retrospective study of the radiographic bone formation in patients after indirect sinus lift using transcrestal osteotomy with simultaneous implant placement in tenting fashion
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nad
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Background: The placement of dental implants has revolutionized the restoration and management of the edentulous posterior maxilla with a fixed prosthesis. Augmentation of the bone volume by the elevation of the sinus membrane allows the placement of dental implants in atrophic maxillary ridges. Aim: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the amount of bone height gained using the transcrestal approach for sinus lift using osteotomes along with simultaneous placement of implants in our institution. Materials and Methods: Records of the past 2-year period (2014–2016) of partially edentulous patients reviewed in Saveetha Dental College were scanned to obtain records of patients who underwent implant placement to replace missing teeth in posterior edentulous maxillary region with deficient vertical bone height. The inclusion criteria being the sinus lift procedure had been carried out without the use of any graft material. The average follow-up time was 6–12 months. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) evaluation pre-operative records were procured and the post-operative CBCT was taken. Bone height from the sinus floor to the bone crest was measured at the same site. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test. Results: A total of 42 patients were shortlisted. Of these patients, 35 patients were identified as cases indicated for indirect sinus lift and they received 45 implants. All the implants used were 3.5 or 4.5 mm in diameter and 10.5, 11, or 13 mm in length. The cumulative survival rate of the implants was 97.78%. The average bone height, considered from the alveolar crest to the bottom of the implant, at the time of implant positioning was 6.79 mm ± 1.35 mm. The measured average bone height at the 6-month follow-up appointment was 11.4 mm ± 0.88 mm, which was highly significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Transcrestal osteotomy with implants used to tent the sinus membrane without additional graft material can show a significant mean bone height gain of 4.6 mm.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004914
Title: Awareness of metal toxicity caused by dental restorative materials among dental students – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The metal toxicity caused by mercury amalgams from the dental restorative materials not only caused problems in pulp and oral cavity but also problems such as mood disorders such as anxiety, depression, and insomnia, autoimmune diseases such as Alzheimer’s and diabetes, and reproductive disorders such as low sperm count, infertility, premenstrual syndrome, genital tract problems, spontaneous abortions, birth defects, and learning disabilities in children. Aim: The aim of this survey is to check the awareness of metal toxicity caused by dental restorative materials. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire to test the awareness of the metal toxicity caused by dental restorative materials among dental students was prepared and given to dental students by an online survey through SurveyPlanet. The further results obtained were statistically analyzed. Results: About 68% of the participants are aware of mercury toxicity, 74% of the participants were aware of the side effects of amalgam vapors, and 39% are aware of preventive measures to reduce mercury toxicity. Conclusion: Although the dentists possess basic awareness about mercury toxicity, to keep up with the current trends, more knowledge is required on their part.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004915
Title: Awareness about orthodontic aligners among general population in Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Orthodontic treatment plays an important role in improving the quality of life and also to bring physical, psychological, and social changes. The major advantages of orthodontic treatment are to improve the physical function, prevention of tissue damage, and correction of esthetic component. Clear orthodontic aligners are used to straighten a patient’s teeth without the use of wires and brackets of traditional braces. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the awareness of orthodontic aligners among general population of age group 18–30 in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 individuals of age group 18–30 years. An online questionnaire was prepared using the Google Forms with 11 questions. The responses were collected and analyzed, the results were presented in the descriptive charts. Results: From our study, 67% of the total population were aware of the orthodontic aligners and 45% think that spacing can be corrected by orthodontic aligners. About 43% thinks that orthodontic aligners are not painful than conventional braces, followed by 27% of the population thinks that orthodontic aligners may be more painful than conventional braces, 21% thinks that orthodontic aligners are more painful than conventional braces, and 9% have no idea. Conclusion: From our study, we conclude that though the population were moderately aware of the clear aligners, they lack knowledge regarding when to choose clear aligners for their orthodontic treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004916
Title: Awareness of polycystic ovarian syndrome in the female dental students among Chennai population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOD) is one of the most common reproductive and metabolic disorders seen among women of reproducible age. It occurs when there is an imbalance in the levels of female hormones and accumulation of multiple cysts in the ovaries. PCOD causes disruption in the menstrual cycle that typically begins during the onset of puberty. This is accompanied by lack of ovulation, leading to infertility, complications in getting pregnant, and reduces in insulin resistance level. Aim: This study aims to assess the level of the awareness of PCOD among the female dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was distributed among 100 female dentists between 18 and 25 years of age from various government and private dental colleges in Chennai through the Google Forms app. The questionnaire consisted of 13 closed-ended questions which were formulated for checking whether the students are well aware of PCOD. Results: It was observed that majority of the female students have a vague idea about PCOD as only 29.29% of the students were aware of how PCOD develops. Conclusion: There is a high need for awareness of the PCOD among the female dentists. Early diagnosis and its treatment will help to improve the quality of their lives and thereby preventing various future health hazards.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004918
Title: Awareness on various periapical surgical methods among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 6
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Background: Apical surgery is considered a standard oral surgical procedure. It is often a last resort to surgically maintain a tooth with a periapical lesion that cannot be managed with conventional endodontic (re-)treatment. The main goal of apical surgery is to prevent bacterial leakage from the root-canal system into the periradicular tissues by placing a tight root-end filling following root-end resection. Hence, this study is done to assess the knowledge of dental students on various periapical surgical methods. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge on various periapical surgical procedures among dental students. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was self-formulated and was delivered by hand and collected on completion. The medium for answering the questionnaire was English. All the responses were kept anonymous. The questionnaire contained 15 questions which were framed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice on denture magnets among dental practitioners. The questions were related to types of periapical surgical procedures, indications, contraindications, etc. One hundred students were randomly selected to complete the questionnaire. The responses to each of the questions were entered into Microsoft Excel sheet and summarized through the pie chart. Results: Majority of the students, i.e., 56% of them were aware of periradicular surgery, but very few 21% and 23% of them were aware of corrective and fistulative surgery, respectively. About 7% of them were aware of cortical trephination under fistulative surgery. Under premedications administered during periapical surgery, 68% were aware of amoxicillin and many of them were unaware of valium and clindamycin. The majority of them were aware of the indications and contraindications of periapical surgery. Conclusion: This survey shows that the dental students have a fairly rough knowledge about various periapical surgical procedures. Yet some of them were unaware of cortical trephination and decompression procedures. Most of them had good knowledge regarding the flap designs used, but they did not have enough knowledge about various premedications used other than amoxicillin. Hence, it is important to educate them regarding all the indications, contraindications, types of procedures, thereby creating awareness among dental students, which will be useful for the students in their clinical practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00004919
Title: Perception of their own smile among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 6
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Introduction: A smile is a voluntary facial expression indicating happiness, pleasure, and greeting. It is rightly quoted that a smile is the prettiest thing that can be worn. A person that is smiling always seems more welcoming than a person that is not smiling. A smile also reflects on what the opposite person perceives about yourself. Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based study. The questionnaire was distributed among 100 dental students. It consisted of 11 questions. These questions were framed to understand if the students were conscious about their smile, how people perceived their own smile and if they desired a better smile or were satisfied. The results obtained from this questionnaire-based study were studied and analyzed and a conclusion was drawn. Results: The results of the study revealed 11% of the people hide their smiles. About 51% of the people were not satisfied with the color of their teeth. It was observed that 51% of the population desired a better smile. Conclusion: This study concluded to dental students had concerns with their smiles, and they were willing to undergo treatments to correct their own smiles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005401
Title: In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Eugenia Jambolana extract using membrane stabilization assay
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: Syzygium cumini, commonly called Malabar plum, Java plum, or black plum, is an evergreen tropical tree and is under the flowering plant family Myrtaceae. The plant has antidiabetic, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antiviral, neuropsychological, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal activity, hepatoprotective, antiallergic activity, and gastroprotective activity. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare and analyze the anti-inflammatory of Eugenia jambolana. Materials and Methods: 1 ml of plant extract was added to equal volume of 10% R.B.C suspension. The reaction mixture was incubated in a water bath at 56 c for 30 min. The tubes containing reaction mixture were centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 5 min. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard. Results: At 50 ul there is 85% of inhibition, whereas in 10 ul 50% of inhibition is present; therefore, as the concentration increases, inhibition power increases. Conclusion: The study shows that Eugenia jambolana has great potential as an anti-inflammatory source.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005402
Title: Anxiety among dental students during their dental treatment plan among South India population – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the level of dental anxiety in BDS studying students. Introduction: Despite advancements used in dental treatment, dental anxiety is still considered one of the most common fears. An understanding of the level of dental anxiety will provide an impact on the abilities of dental professionals to effectively manage their patients. Hence, the aim of this study is to investigate the level of dental anxiety in BDS studying students. Materials and Methods: In this survey, there were 100 participants, in which all of them were BDS students irrespective of their year of study. It is a questionnaire-based online survey. Twelve questions were asked related to dental anxiety using SurveyPlanet. Results: In this survey, 88.1% of the students were nervous during the first treatment on the patient which clearly depicts the level of anxiety among undergraduate dental students. All the students treated their first patient at 3rd year of study and 69% of the students did oral prophylaxis as the first treatment followed by 14.3% who did restorations. Around 50% of them took 1 h to complete their first treatment. This shows the anxiety of the students which prolong the treating time than usual. According to this survey, 85.7% follow proper protocols during their treatment which is very important to provide good quality dental care from the initial stage. Conclusion: Dental students will be familiar with anxiety during their initial stages, but they must be aware of the barriers it poses to treatment outcomes. Dental health-care providers should receive training in the management of dental anxiety. About 44% of them said that they were not happy with their first treatment on the patient. Hence, the interception of anxiety at the early stages will reduce the chance of persistence for a longer time which is difficult to deal with in the dental clinic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005404
Title: Awareness on management of mesially tilted abutments
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Replacement of missing teeth by a fixed dental prosthesis involves careful consideration of the biomechanical principles in designing the prosthesis. Treatment planning consists of determining a sequence of treatment logically designed to restore the patients’ dentition to good health, with optimal function and esthetics. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of management of mesially tilted abutments. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 100 dental students in Tamil Nadu during the month of January 2019. A web-based questionnaire comprising 10 questions relating to awareness of management for mesially tilted abutments was formulated and circulated. The responses were then subjected to statistical analysis. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. Results and Conclusion: The study assessed that there is adequate knowledge on management of mesially tilted abutments among the students. The management of mesially tilted abutments can be further more better if we know the proper abutment selection methods. Thus, gaining an adequate knowledge would help us in the betterment of the outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005406
Title: An update on bioceramic sealers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Bioceramics are widely used for repair and replacement in humans and claim to have an immense bioconductive and bioinductive properties. These materials were developed to have biocompatibility with human tissue and be widely used in repair and replacement. Various bioceramic-based materials have been widely used for various purposes in endodontics. Bioactivate materials, in contrast, have osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. They are porous and develop an interfacial bond with the hard tissues. Hydroxyapatites, bioactive glasses, and glass ceramics are examples of this class of bioceramics. Bioresorbable ceramics enhance the replacement resorption of the material by host tissues when the rate of resorption correlates with the rate of regeneration. Especially in concern with root canal sealers, bioceramics are used in a wider role of bioactivity. The present review was mainly concentrated in updating the data on bioceramic sealers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005407
Title: Prevalence of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Technical and Medical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to study the prevalence of white spot lesions (WSLs) during orthodontic treatment. Background: Among enamel lesions, WSLs are the main iatrogenic effect of orthodontic therapy with fixed appliances. The first clinical evidence of demineralization of the surface enamel can be seen as a WSL, which represents the first stage of caries formation. Hence, it is necessary to maintain an optimal oral hygiene. Materials and Methods: The study is carried out in 100 patients who are undergoing orthodontic treatment in Saveetha Dental College. The study is done by visually evaluating the presence of WSLs on the teeth surface. The site is isolated and air-dried before the visual examination. Reason: Reason is to study the presence of WSLs in patients who are into orthodontic treatment and thus to enhance the importance of maintaining good oral hygiene. Results: About 25%, 15%, and 18% of the patients who were into orthodontic treatment for <1 year, 1 year, and more than 1 year of time, respectively, had the presence of WSLs. About 4%, 8%, and 30% of the patients who were into orthodontic treatment for <1 year, 1 year, and more than 1 year of time, respectively, had no presence of WSLs. Conclusion: Hence, the dentist should notice inadequate oral hygiene early so that the WSLs can be prevented. Patients into orthodontic treatment should be prescribed fluoridated tooth pastes and mouthwashes to maintain adequate oral health. They should also be instructed to brush twice daily with orthodontic toothbrush. These steps will prevent the accumulation of plaque and resultant formation of WSLs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005408
Title: Formalin detection test in pathology
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Fixation of the tissues is a very important step in histopathological processing. Normally 10% neutral buffered formalin is used as fixative. Improper fixation can cause fixation artifacts. It is important to evaluate if the specimen sent for histopathological examination is in appropriate fixative. Aim: The aim of this research project was to detect formalin in a given solution using leach test. Materials and Methods: Three milk samples were procured from local markets in Chennai, India. Different test samples were prepared : Control-milk, Milk + 2% formalin, Milk + 5% formalin, Milk + 10% formalin, Milk + 30% formalin, Milk + 50% formalin, Milk + 100% formalin, Milk+ Local anesthetic, Milk + Saline and Milk + Distilled water. Three different mixtures of test sample and milk were prepared. Leach test was performed and the color change was noted. Results: Control (milk), Milk + distilled water, Milk + saline, Milk + local anesthetic (except Group I) gave purple- violet color on leach test. Local anesthetic solution in Group I gave light pinkish violet. Milk + 2% formalin (except Group II), milk + 5% formalin, milk + 10% formalin, milk + 30% formalin, Milk + 50% formalin and milk + 100% formalin gave light brown/purplish brown/brown color. In Group II, milk+ 2% formalin gave purple color. Conclusion: The nature of fixative, concentration of formalin, and type of fixative agent used is important to prevent fixation artifact. This simple test can determine the presence of formalin in a given solution and can be used in the pathology lab.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005409
Title: Effects of different concentrations of formalin on immunohistochemistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 6
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Background: Immunohistochemistry is the most useful and important technique in diagnostic histopathology. Choice of suitable fixation, concentration, and duration is very important factors in immunohistochemistry. Formalin is one of the most commonly used fixatives in immunohistochemistry. Cytokeratin is used as a marker for epithelial tumors and any epithelial cell lineages. Aim of this research was to assess the effect of different concentrations of formalin on immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods: Five tissue samples were divided and fixed in different concentrations of formalin, that is, 5%, 10%, 30%, and 50%, respectively. The fixation time for all the tissues was 24 h. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 20 slides (5 for each concentration of formalin) with the primary antibody cytokeratin. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. To find the inter rater reliability, Cohan’s kappa was used. Results: The results obtained by 5% formalin were comparable to the widely used 10% formalin. Immunoreactivity of 30% and 50% concentrations is decreased when compared to 10% formalin. Conclusion: Lower concentrations of formalin show better immunoreactivity when compared to higher concentrations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005410
Title: Effectiveness of structured teaching program on knowledge regarding hypertension among adolescent school children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health problem due to its high prevalence all around the globe. Around 7.5 million deaths or 12.8% of the total of all annual deaths worldwide occur due to high blood pressure. It is predicted to be increased to 1.56 billion adults with HTN in 2025. HTN is fast emerging as a major health problem among all school adolescents, particularly in urban areas. Regular screening of the students for this is required for the preventing the emergence of complications later in life. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find the effectiveness of structured teaching program on knowledge regarding HTN among adolescent school children. Materials and Methods: A experimental design with pre-test and post-test was conducted to study the effectiveness of structured teaching programs on HTN among adolescent school children. The investigator selected 60 samples using systemic random sampling technique. Demographic details about the samples were collected from the adolescents, pre-test was done on HTN. Structured teaching was conducted on HTN. After 2 h post-test knowledge was assessed using the structured questionnaire. Results: The study results show that the pre-test mean score of knowledge among adolescent school children was 8.23 with standard deviation 2.37, and the post-test mean score of knowledge was 20.68 with standard deviation 2.65. The calculated paired “t-test” value of t = 29.170 was found to be statistically highly significant at P < 0.001 level. This clearly infers there is a significant improvement in the post-test level of knowledge regarding HTN among adolescent school children. Conclusion: This indicates that structured teaching program helps to improve the practice of healthy lifestyle among adolescent school children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005425
Title: Antibacterial activity of novel selenium and zinc nanoparticles toward oral Candida albicans: An In vitro study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: For ages, man has tried to find a cure all panaceas for oral maladies caused by microorganisms. Toward this endeavor, many chemicals have been tried and tested, some were successful, but they all have certain side effects on long-term use. Phytotherapy is an emerging field to treat infectious diseases using plant-mediated products which is safe and has very limited side effects. Aim: Hence, we wanted to assess the antimicrobial potential of silver and zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) synthesized using Triphala against oral candidal organisms. Materials and Methods: Selenium and ZnNPs synthesized using green synthesis from Triphala were evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans isolated from oral cavity of individuals suffering from dental caries. Various concentrations of the NPs (25, 50, and 100 µl) were used to check the zone of inhibition. The efficacy was tested among 25 samples and data were analyzed using SPSS, V23. Results: The mean zone of inhibition for selenium NPs was 10 ± 1.8 mm, 15 ± 2.1 mm, and 31 ± 3.3 mm for 25, 50, and 100 µl concentrations. Similarly, ZnNPs had zone of inhibition of 9.7 ± 1.9 mm, 14 ± 2.8 mm, and 29.9 ± 2.7 mm for 25, 50, and 100 µl concentrations. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups and both exhibited excellent antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans. Conclusion: Selenium and ZnNPs synthesized from Triphala proved to be an excellent antimicrobial agent against oral C. albicans. This provides future scope to develop oral antimicrobials using these agents to prevent candidal infections of the oral cavity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005426
Title: A comparative preclinical appraisal of the anxiolytic activity of cilostazol
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India.
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Background: The existing pharmacological approaches for anxiety exhibited a slothful and a scanty reduction in anxiety may be due to its uncertain essential pathophysiology. Disturbances in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and its signaling pathways are attributed to anxiety. An alteration in the levels of cAMP levels would be a great approach for anxiety at the molecular level rather than affecting neurotransmitters directly. Increased expression of phosphorylated CREB (cyclic AMP response element-binding protein) may also be associated with anxiolytic activity. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors can elevate the cAMP levels by inhibiting its hydrolysis. Aim: The experiment is aimed to analyze the anxiolytic activity of cilostazol in two different doses alone and along with diazepam. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats and mice were used and randomly grouped into six groups with six animals in each group. They were treated with normal saline, diazepam 2 mg/kg, cilostazol 10 mg/kg, cilostazol 20 mg/kg, cilostazol 10 mg/kg + diazepam 2 mg/kg, and cilostazol 20 mg/kg + diazepam 2 mg/kg, respectively. Well-established and validated elevated plus maze and open-field models for anxiety were employed. Results: Cilostazol 20 mg/kg was exhibited significant difference over control and cilostazol 10 mg/kg in both anxiety models but not over standard drug diazepam 2 mg/kg. Among all groups, cilostazol 20 mg/kg + diazepam 2 mg/kg was exhibited grater statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The present preclinical experiment was established the anxiolytic and potentiating effect of cilostazol.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005427
Title: Knowledge of current trends in dental caries excavation among dental students in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the understanding regarding current methods in dental caries excavation among dental students. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding of current methods in dental caries excavation among dental students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called SurveyPlanet. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students who currently pursuing in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, participated in the study. Results: As an overall result, most of the participants are not aware of current methods in dental caries excavation in dentistry. Participants had lack of knowledge about current methods of caries excavation. Conclusion: As a conclusion, the awareness and knowledge of the usage of current methods in dental caries excavation among dental students have to be improved. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them treating their patients with current methods of dental caries excavation to consume time and better prognosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005428
Title: Awareness of serological markers among dental surgeons
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Serological tests can be used for screening and confirmation of disease, exclusion of disease, and evaluation of prognosis. Knowledge of serological markers and their interpretation is important among dental surgeons to come to a more conclusive diagnosis. This survey was carried out to evaluate the awareness of various serological tests and its importance among dental surgeons. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the 110 dental surgeons from October 2019 to January 2020. A self-administered questionnaire containing 12 questions was made and circulated. Frequency analysis and percentage analysis were done with the obtained results. Results: About 83.7% of dentists were aware of the various types of serological markers available for diagnosis. About 47.7% have prescribed serological markers for various diseases. Only 37.2% of the dental surgeons were aware that alkaline phosphatase is used for analyzing both hepatobiliary and bone diseases. Awareness about gamma-glutamyl transferase as a hepatobiliary function test was present only among 48.8% of the participants. Conclusion: Knowledge and awareness of various serological markers is important among the dental professionals. This helps the dentists to diagnose patients with systemic illness and to take necessary precautionary steps during dental treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005429
Title: Extraction and estimation of protease from pineapple and assessment of its efficacy in reducing the cooking time of lamb steak
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Sales of proteolytic enzymes account for over 60% of total sales of these types of biochemical products, indicating the great importance of proteases as a group of industrial enzymes. Pineapple is a widely grown fruit in tropical and subtropical regions around the globe and is a rich source of stem and fruit proteolytic bromelains. Hence, it is important to find an economical and efficient way of using protease present in pineapple for industrial or household purposes. Materials and Methods: Assessment of collagen degradation activity of protease on lamb steak: 400 g of lamb steak were separated into four groups of 100 g each and were soaked in the prepared pineapple extract for different time intervals to assess the collagen degradation activity of bromelain in relation to time. Results: The protease activity of bromelain present in pineapple was found to be around 0.165 micromoles per ml. Bromelain extracted from pineapple was proved for its ability to break collagen bonds efficiently and acts in reducing the cooking time of lamb steak. Conclusion: This study focuses on one of the efficient applications of protease to reduce the consumption of fuel by reducing the cooking time of lamb steak.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005430
Title: Benign migratory glossitis associated with fissured tongue
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology, D. Y. Patil University School of Dentistry, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
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This case report presents a case of benign migratory glossitis. It is a lesion characterized by multifocal, circinate, or irregular erythematous patches which represent loss of filiform papillae. A 38-year-old male patient reported with painless and reddish- white lesion on the tongue. Medical history was negative and there was no known history of any allergies. On intraoral examination, it was observed that there were multiple erythematous patches with well-defined white borders. A diagnosis of geographic tongue was made.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005431
Title: Study on anti-inflammatory potential of crude aqueous leaf extract of Pterocarpus marsupium
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 160, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: This study aims to analyze the anti-inflammatory property of crude aqueous leaf extract of Pterocarpus marsupium (PM). Introduction: PM belong to the Fabaceae family. The useful parts of this plant are leaves, heartwood, flowers, and gum. It is odorless, astringent in taste, and sticks in the teeth coloring saliva red in color. PM is widely used in Ayurveda and Rasayana for the management of various metabolic disorders. All active principles of PM are thermostable. Materials and Methods: The collected leaves of PM are well dried, powdered to prepare the crude aqueous leaf extract, and then subjected to albumin denaturation assay and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method to analyze the anti-inflammatory activity of PM. Results: By doing albumin denaturation assay, maximum inhibition of 78% was observed at 0.4 mg/ml. Diclofenac, a standard anti-inflammation drug, showed the maximum inhibition of 80% at the concentration of 0.4 mg/ml. Followed by HRBC membrane stabilization method, PM exhibited effective anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting hemolysis to a greater extent. Maximum inhibition of 82% was noted at 0.5 mg/ml while diclofenac showed maximum inhibition of 87% at 0.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: Inflammation is the body’s natural defense mechanism. At times, it becomes negative as it prolongs the treatment time. From this study, it is evident that PM possess anti-inflammatory properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005433
Title: Awareness of health benefits on consumption of fruits among Saveetha Dental College students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Food provides not only essential nutrients needed for life but also other bioactive compounds for health promotion and disease prevention (1). Fruits play a major role in human diet. Diet rich in fruits is commonly recommended for their health-promoting properties. Fruits have anciently a place in dietary guidance because of their concentrations of vitamins, especially Vitamins C and A; minerals, especially electrolytes; and more recently phytochemicals, specifically antioxidants. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among dental students in Saveetha Dental College. A total of 150 dental students were assessed using a standard questionnaire comprising 15 questions regarding the health benefits of consumption of fruits. It was distributed among 1 year to postgraduate dental students. Conclusion: From the study conducted, we can conclude that there is awareness of health benefits on the consumption of fruits. Increasing the consumption of fruit optimizes their health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases, approx. 27% of strokes and 15% heart diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005434
Title: Study on the effect of piperine on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes on experimental diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: Type II diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent disorder worldwide. India is reported to be the diabetic capital of the world. The contemporary treatment for type II diabetes involves insulin and drug therapies. The conventional drugs used are not able to cope to the multifactorial exhibit of type II diabetes. The administration of medicinal plants either alone or in addition to conventional drugs has been shown to address the causes of type II diabetes at various levels and improve the quality of diabetic patients. Aim: The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of piperine on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in experimental diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain 150– 180 days old with 180–120 g of body weight were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each: Group 1: Normal rats, Group 2: Type 2 diabetic rats, Group 3: Type 2 diabetic rats treated with piperine (40 mg/kg for orally for 30 days), and Group 4: Type 2 diabetic rats treated with metformin 50 mg/kg orally for 30 days. Results: The activity of glucokinase and glycogen synthase was reduced conversely the activity of glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen-6-phosphatase which were increased significantly (P < 0.05). Oral administration of piperine significantly normalized (P < 0.05) altered levels of these enzymes to that of control and standard drug metformin level. Conclusion: Our present findings conclude that piperine possesses hypoglycemic activity through the regulation of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes. Further studies on the possible role of piperine on insulin signaling molecules are warranted.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005435
Title: Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity among general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: This study aims to assess the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity among general population. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity among general population. Background: Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain which results due to exposed dentin in response to stimuli. It often arises due to cold drinks, toothbrushing and sweet foods. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity is uncertain. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dentin hypersensitivity require accurate knowledge regarding its prevalence. Reason: Most of the patients do not seek any dental treatment for their dentin hypersensitivity as they do not perceive them to be a serious dental problem. The common path for dentin hypersensitivity is the activation of pulpal nerves. In dentistry, the major reasons for emergency dental visits are pain and discomfort. Thus, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence, common causative factors, aggravating factors of dentin hypersensitivity. Conclusion: The study was very successful in assessing the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in the chosen demographic area and also clearly discussed the possible etiological factors which shows the prevalence of hypersensitivity in various parts of India.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005436
Title: Awareness of health problem among male drivers in South Indian population – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to create awareness of health problem among male drivers in the South Indian population. Introduction: Male drivers are at high risk of occupational morbidities and mortalities such as cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal disease, and musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain and high stress. Drivers are in a profession that exposes them to physical illness, mental illness, and addictions of habit-forming substances, specially tobacco. They suffer a lot from mental illness due to lack of proper sleep cycle and lack of proper meals at regular intervals. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was prepared and survey was conducted among male drivers about health problems and data were collected. The survey was prepared on SurveyPlanet and was circulated among drivers. The survey was conducted among 100 male drivers. Results: As summarized, 55% of the population is not aware of gastric trouble. Yet, 81% of the population have faced gastric problems. About 72% of the population have chest burns regularly. About 51% of the population get sick often, most of the drivers eat out often at least 2 days once which is about 38%. Conclusion: Driving is a potential risk factor for a cluster if health behaviors abs outcomes among drivers. Continues driving affects a person both mentally and physically, there are many risk factors that may occur if an ill person is driving.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005437
Title: Children’s preference toward dentist attire in Chennai city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: This study aims to determine the understanding regarding the preference of dentist attire in children. Objective: The objective of the study was to create awareness and determine the understanding preference of dentist attire in children. Materials and Methods: A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive pediatric patients (9–12 years old) who came to Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, for treatment participated in the study. The data have been collected through questionnaire consisted of 10 questions mainly assessing the types of attire preference of the dentist. The participants were asked to choose the preferred attire of the dentist. Proper instructions were given to the participants to complete the questionnaire before going through dental treatment. Results: As an overall result, the children preferred to see their dentist with a white coat and white scarf with a hand watch. Conclusion: As a conclusion, the present study showed that the dentists’ attire has a significant impact on the children’s acceptance of dental treatment. However, the children favored the dentist to be presented in a traditional outfit with a white lab coat. The study results would help the dentist to change their style of dressing on the basis of the patients’ preferences.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005438
Title: Economic tissue microarray using stamp and punch biopsy needle
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Conventionally, paraffin blocks were utilized to diagnose the histological samples. Tissue microarrays make the analysis of these histological samples easy by compiling all the information on a single slide. A paraffin block with an array is prepared, and a needle transfers samples from the histological sample blocks into it. Different tissue samples from various tissue blocks are punched and re-embedded on a new paraffin block. Aim: The aim of this study is to fabricate an economic tissue microarray using stamp and punch biopsy needle. Materials and Methods: The stamp was fabricated with 2 mm cylindrical template arranged in three rows and three columns. The molten paraffin wax was poured into the leukardt mold. The stamp with the cylindrical template was placed over it when the wax was in the molten state itself after which the wax was allowed to set. After that, the stamp with a cylindrical template was retrieved. This creates numerous holes in the wax block. Punch biopsy needle 2 mm diameter with the plunger was used to punch the tissue from the previous paraffin- embedded tissues. The punched tissue from various paraffin blocks was transferred into the holes created by a stamp in the paraffin block. A hot plate is used to stabilize it after placing all the punches of tissue. The paraffin block with arrayed tissues was sliced using microtomy and transferred to the slide and viewed under microscope or can be used for molecular and immunohistochemistry procedures. Results: In this study, tissue microarray procedure was done using a stamp and punch biopsy needle which is economical and accurate. Nine tissues were transferred to slides, and both epithelium and connective tissue were seen clearly without any fold and tear.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005439
Title: Clinician awareness on the etiology of the temporomandibular joint disorder – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics and Implant Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of the dentists on the etiology of the temporomandibular disorders with an online questionnaire survey. Materials and Methods: The study was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. A total of 120 dentists participated in the study. The target population entailed was general dentists practicing in Chennai. A pre-tested questionnaire was mailed to the respondents following informed consent. The data were extracted from the responses and analyzed. Results: The total response rate recovered was 84%, and the respondents consisted of 19 males and 81 females. Around 83% of the dentists considered stress a perpetuating factor for temporomandibular joint disorders. Conclusion: The results showed that the knowledge and awareness of the general dentists regarding temporomandibular joint disorders in Chennai were satisfactory. However, the practice regarding the diagnosis of the etiology and treatment was inadequate. To ensure the proper diagnosis and treatment of these temporomandibular joint disorders, proper diagnostic protocols must be followed, and the dentists must be trained to diagnose the condition appropriately for referral of the patient to an expert.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005440
Title: Regulatory requirements for registration of modified release dosage forms in European Union
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs Group, Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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Background: Every country has its basic legislation concerning to protect public health and ensure the availability of high quality, safe, and effective medicinal products. Pharmaceutical products in Europe are tightly regulated to protect public safety and promote European Union (EU) patients access to novel pharmaceutical goods. [1] The European Medicines Agency (EMA) integrates the Member States current research tools for the evaluation, monitoring, and pharmacovigilance of pharmaceutical products for medical and veterinary usage in the EU. Objectives: The objective of this study is to depict the initial registration requirements for modified release dosage forms in the Europe and to minimize the error in compiling the dossier by understanding the critical aspects involved in the marketing application for modified release dosage forms. Discussion: The EMA uses different marketing authorization paths for authorizing a drug to be marketed in different countries in Europe, and all the procedures require different types of registration process. Pharmaceutical dosage forms can be produced in which the pace and/or position of release of the active substance(s) in contrast with traditional release formulations has been changed in any way. These modifications can have a variety of purposes, such as sustaining long-term medicinal efficacy, minimizing adverse consequences, shielding the active substance from low pH degradation, directing the active substance to a predefined gastrointestinal tract section for local care, or directing the release of active substances at established time points.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005441
Title: Antimicrobial effect of garlic on oral microbes – An in vitro study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: There are many different treatment modalities for treating the microorganisms present in the oral cavity. Due to the frequent use and misuse of the therapeutic agents has led to the occurrence of adverse effects and development of resistant strains. Hence, the need for natural medications is in higher demand. Garlic and ginger are the medicinal plants which are known for their antimicrobial effects against the various pathogens. Garlic and ginger have a wide variety of properties such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. This article is mainly focused to determine the antibacterial effect of ginger and garlic on subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted with the ethanolic extract of garlic. The extract is used undiluted. Sterile antibiotic disks were impregnated with 15 µL of the extract. Standard strain of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Lactobacillus was grown on surface agar culture. They were suspended separately in normal saline with turbidity matching 0.5 McFarland Standard. These standard strains were coated on nutrient agar on Petri dish. Then, the disk containing the garlic extract was placed on it. Then, the plates were incubated at 37°C overnight. After incubation, the plates were examined for zone of inhibition. Results: After 24 h, on examination there was no zone of inhibition on the agar plates for both the organisms-lactobacillus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Conclusion: All the isolates used, in our study, were not susceptible to the garlic extracts.