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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005241
Title: Clinical survey on pervasiveness and hazard components of sadness among postpartum mothers in Kovai, Tamil Nadu.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
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This description review was derived since 2016–2020 published articles based on anxiety during postpartum period in the PubMed. Nearly two or three articles were concentrated based on the frequency, in additional papers, more or less are same as about risk factors and only a decreased in a number of paper are based on medication and therapy. Postpartum depression (PPD) is caused due to high costs of medical treatment, unsuitable medical care, and child abuse. They were a high incidence depression symptoms, PPD symptoms are connecting with breastfeeding, sleep disturbance, and delivery pain due cesarean, this kind of symptoms can be overcome by family support, partner support, and proper guide or counseling during mothers postpartum. Health-care professionals should regularly screen mothers during postpartum visits using questions such as patient health questionnaire (15 scale), Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, and personality belief questionnaire (scale).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005251
Title: Clinical audit on diabetic mindfulness and information among urban and rustic populace in the Cotton City of South India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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The aim of review literature gives information about observation of disease, attitude, and behavior of diabetes in urban and rural areas. Knowledge helps the patient to understand about frequent urination, weight loss, blood sugar level, cholesterol level, and management of diabetes. Peoples in developing country had less knowledge while compared to well-developed countries. Diabetic knowledge in rural peoples is less while compared to urban peoples. Awareness about complications, risk factors, and preventive measures is low in rural peoples. Urban peoples are highly developed diabetes because of industrialization and fast foods (like canned drinks). Some of items induce high blood sugar level such as fruit flavored yogurt, white bread, pasta, rice, flavored coffee drinks, dried fruits, and honey. Foods reduce the diabetic level such as ragi, maize, vegetables, eggs, turmeric, and nuts. Urban people knew about preventive measures of diabetes. In city, peoples are educated and they know about preventive measures of high blood sugar level and high cholesterol level. Most of peoples acquire knowledge through social media, awareness programs, and health camps which conducted by health care institutions. In most of the study, peoples have high blood sugar which came from early ages. This article helps the people to prevent diabetes by home remedy. It also gives information about comorbidities. Most of peoples developed eye problems, heart diseases, and kidney diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005246
Title: Antiepileptic activity of the bioactive compounds – Diosgenin and silymarin in combination on experimental animal models of epilepsy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction: The present study evaluated the individual and combined effect of diosgenin and silymarin against epilepsy in maximal electroshock (MES)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and strychnine (SRY)-induced seizures models in rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were selected and grouped into five (n = 6). Groups I and II were kept as control and standard. Groups III, IV, and V were treated with diosgenin (100 mg/kg), silymarin (100 mg/kg), and diosgenin (50 mg/kg) + silymarin (50 mg/kg), respectively. Thirty minutes after administration of drugs/vehicle, rats received a shock of 150 mA or intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole (65 mg/kg) or strychnine (2 mg/kg). Results: In MES-induced seizures model, DI (100 mg/kg) and SY (100 mg/kg) shown 83.33% of protection with reduction in duration of hindlimb tonic extension (HLTE), individually. In PTZ- and SRY-induced seizures model, SY (100 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in duration of seizure along with 100% and 83.33% of protection of rats, compared to control. However, the compound DI (100 mg/kg) shown 83.33% of protection in PTZ-induced seizures model and only 66.67% of protection in SRY-induced seizures model. In all three tested models, animals treated with DI and SY (50 mg/kg, each), in combination, shown greater significance in reduction of duration of HLTE and seizures with 100% of protection, similar to standard. Conclusion: The study revealed that diosgenin and silymarin in combination could reinforce their protection against epilepsy in synergistic manner than their individual antiepileptic effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005244
Title: Dental implant impression techniques – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental implants are the most successful option for prosthodontics rehabilitation. It is surgical fixture that is placed into jawbone and is allowed to fuse with the bone over the span of few months. It acts as replacement of root for missing tooth. The main goal of impression in implants is to accurately relate an analog or abutment of implant to other structures in dental arch. The review concentrates on prosthetic components, impression materials such as polyether, polyvinyl siloxane, condensation silicone, and addition silicone and various impression techniques such as open tray versus closed tray used in dental implant. It is done to brief the knowledge regarding the components used during impression, the choice of impression materials, and the selection of suitable impression techniques for preventing biological and mechanical complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005243
Title: Awareness of absorbable sutures among dental students – A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Effective wound closure is important for success of any surgical procedure. An incomplete closure leads to separation of edges, providing a potential pathway for bacterial contamination leading to infection and scarring. Although tissue adhesives and staples are now being used as alternatives, surgical sutures are still the mainstay for a secure wound. Aim: The aim of this survey is to assess the awareness of absorbable sutures among dental students. Methodology: A systematic online survey was conducted among 100 dental students with basic questions on absorbable sutures. Each student was requested to fill the questionnaire consisting of 15 questions. Results: A total of 100 students participated in this survey. After analyzes, it was noted that though 80% of students were aware of absorbable sutures majority of them failed to know on their kinds, applications, and contraindication. Conclusion: In this survey, we concluded that there is lack of knowledge on absorbable sutures among these students and there is a need to create awareness among them.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00005242
Title: Assessment of pain and quality use of analgesics among inpatients of a cancer hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, Jagadguru Shri Shivarathreeshwara Academy of Higher Education and Research, SS Nagar, Mysuru - 570 015, Karnataka, India.
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Background: Pain is a ubiquitous part of the cancer experience. Suboptimally managing individual patients with acute pain as well as the inappropriate use of narcotics both can lead to a number of adverse sequelae. Aim: The aim of the study was to find out the utilization pattern and to evaluate the appropriateness of analgesics in inpatients of a cancer hospital in Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out over a period of 9 months in the inpatients of an oncology care Centre in South India. Standard guidelines given by the European Society of Medical Oncology and National Comprehensive Cancer Network were used to compare the quality use of analgesics. Prescribed analgesics were classified based on the WHO analgesic ladder. Defined daily dose per patient was calculated for individual analgesics. The acceptability of analgesic use was assessed using a pain management index (PMI). Results: Among the 253 patients, 145 (57.31%) were males. The mean age of the study population was 54.72 ± 13.18 years. The analgesic use was more observed in stage 4 (34.79%) and stage 3 (30.03%). Among the study population, 114 (45.06%) were prescribed with one analgesic and oral NSAIDs for 164 (41.5%) patients. The use of analgesics in 68.38% patients conforms to standard guidelines. About 73% of analgesic prescriptions were acceptable, as indicated by the PMI. Conclusion: Appropriate prescribing and use of analgesics can be helpful in optimal pain management and thereby providing quality of life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005240
Title: Comparison study of factors associated with smartphone addiction among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The growing advancement in technology has given birth to many gadgets, smartphones as one of them. Whenever a habit is converted into an obligation, it becomes an addiction. The overusage of the gadgets (smartphones) has prone to be a hazardous effect on them in changing the mental and physical state. This smartphone phone addiction is most commonly seen among youngsters like college-going students. This study was done to analyze the factors associated with the smartphone addiction among the college students. Materials and Methods: A set of questionnaire were developed in relation with the association of smartphone addiction, mental changes, behavioral changes, and psychological changes. A total sample of 100 were taken and the data were collected and analyzed. This study was purely conducted only within the college students. The results were compiled for statistical analyses. Results: The obtained result shows that 44% of college students are more prone to smartphone addiction. This overusage of smartphones affects them behaviorally and even psychologically. The result shows that overusage of smartphone is associated with the headache, disturbed sleep, and inadequate sleep, and this extensive use of smartphones has been associated with physical health-related problems. Conclusion: This study gives establishes that college students are more addicted to smartphones which, in turn, leads to physical and psychological changes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005239
Title: Effects of premenstrual syndrome in day-to-day life of women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a condition that affects woman’s emotions, physical health, and behavior few weeks or days before the menstruation. It affects almost 90% of the women. It causes a lot of symptoms by affecting the normal day-to-day life of various age groups of women. PMS is due to the change in the level of hormones that cause neurological disturbances which affect our moods, thoughts, and emotions. Aim: The aim of this study to assess the prevalence of PMS among working women, housewife, and students and its impact in their routine life. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 100 is taken for the study. The questions were uploaded in the SurveyPlanet which contained around 20 questions. They were framed with the demographic data, the symptoms they experience during PMS, and the remedies to overcome the symptoms. The data obtained were collected and compiled for statistical analysis. Results: The results show that college-going students are affected the most. Mean average of 67% of respondents have experienced mood swings and depression during PMS. About 58% of respondents take good diet to overcome the symptoms. Conclusion: Therefore, it could be concluded that students are affected to a larger extent when compared to the working women and housewife. Second, affected group would be the working women and then comes the housewife.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005238
Title: Role of fucosylation in cancer – A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Dentistry, Bharath Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A universal hallmark of cancer cells is the change in their glycosylation phenotype of which fucosylation is the more important oligosaccharide modification. Fucosylation is the attachment of fucose by fucosyltransferase enzyme to a biomolecule. Extravasation of tumor cells is a pivotal step in metastasis formation and cancer cells that are shed or released into circulation from the primary tumor often overexpress fucosylated glycans on their surface. Evidence suggests that the critical components for extravasation of circulating cancer cells are interactions between selectins and their fucosylated ligands. Understanding the biological significance of variations of fucosylation levels in cancer validates their potential as novel prognostic indicators. Review: The objective of this systematic review is to critically analyze the various studies in literature that have reported the role of fucosylation in cancer. Articles were searched in PUBMED and MEDLINE, and a thorough Google search was done. Manual search of Journals was also performed. Twenty three relevant articles were reviewed and analyzed. Of 31 potentially relevant articles, ten were excluded on the grounds of exclusion criteria, two articles were included by internet search and manual search. Results: Of the total 23 relevant articles reviewed, the resulting data were collected and tabulated. From the systematic review, we can infer that there is an increase in fucosylation in carcinomas which correlates with advanced stage of disease, distant metastasis, recurrence, and poor overall survival validating its potential as a prognostic indicator.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005237
Title: Expression of serum fucosyltransferase 8 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorder – A case–control study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Dentistry, Bharath Medical College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common human malignancy that is highly lethal due to its recurrenceand metastasis. When fucose is attached by a fucosyltransferase enzyme through a glycosidic bond to a biomolecule, it becomes a fucosylated molecule. A universal hallmark of tumor cells is the change in their glycosylation phenotype, of which fucosylation is the more important oligosaccharide modification. Case Study: The study evaluates the levels of serum fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT 8) in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, patients with potentially malignant disorders, namely, leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and healthy controls. Results: The progressive increase in serum FUT 8 between healthy controls, patients with potentially malignant disorders, namely, leukoplakia and OSMF and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, substantiates the crucial role of FUT 8 in malignant transformation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and poor overall survival.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005245
Title: Awareness of teratogenicity of drugs among dental students of Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The term teratogenicity is defined as any morphological, behavioral, or biochemical effect induced during embryonic life or fetal life detected at birth or later. The factors that lead to teratogenicity include both non-genetic and genetic factors. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of undergraduate dental students toward teratogenicity. Materials and Methods: The present study was a questionnaire-based comparative observational study carried out at Saveetha Dental College, Tamil Nadu. The questionnaire comprised two main parts. The first part comprised questions pertaining to the demographic profile of the students and the second part consisted of questions assessing the students’ knowledge and awareness toward teratogenicity. Appropriate statistical analysis was done and results were obtained. Results: A total of 100 dental students participated in the study. The mean age of students was between 19 and 27. In the present study, it was found that about 95% of the students were aware of the term teratogenicity. About 75% of students knew about all the causes that lead to teratogenicity. Furthermore, the percentage of students who knew about the name of two teratogenic drugs and two teratogenic defects associated with drugs was only 24% and 36%, respectively. Conclusions: In the present study, it was found that after the educational intervention, there was a significant improvement in the knowledge of the students. This reflects the need of early exposure of students to this important issue of teratogenicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005261
Title: Morphometric analysis of mandible using craniometric points related to mandible in South Indian dry skulls
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the present is to measure the various craniometric points in the mandible of the South Indian dry skulls. Introduction: Mandible is the strongest bone in the face and the only movable bone in the skull which starts developing during the 10th week of the intrauterine life from the second pharyngeal arch. The base or the lower border of the body and rami of the mandible is horseshoe shaped. The mandible contains body and ramus with coronoid and condylar processes, in which the condylar process articulates with the cranium thus forming temporomandibular joint. The important bony features of the mandible are symphysis menti, menton, mental foramen, mylohyoid line, mylohyoid groove, mandibular foramen, etc. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 dry human skulls from the Department of Anatomy in Saveetha Dental College were used to carry out this study. For measurement, digital Vernier caliper was used. Results: According to the present study, the average distance between the condylion-gonion on the right and left sides is 62.6 ± 15.79 mm and 62.86 ± 15.38 mm, condylion-symphysis menti is 112.6 ± 21.7 mm and 118.01 ± 11.9 mm, condylion-menton is 108.5 ± 11.06 mm and 107.03 ± 11.01 mm, gonion-symphysis menti is 85.16 ± 8.53 mm and 85.21 ± 8.73 mm, gonion-menton is 78.29 ± 7.35 mm and 80.75 ± 6.71 mm, coronoid process-symphysis menti is 93.75 ± 11.3 mm and 95.02 ± 11.8 mm, coronoid process-menton is 89.29 ± 8.48 mm and 89.13 ± 8.34 mm, and coronoid process-gonion is 62.09 ± 15.4 mm and 63.39 ± 17.7 mm. Conclusion: Mandibular fracture is a common fracture in the craniofacial region. The correction of such fractured is achieved through surgical procedures. Hence, the morphometric knowledge of the different craniometric points is of utmost importance for approaching those regions. Apart from that, these morphometric knowledges would help in the field of anthropometric, evolutionary studies, etc.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005260
Title: Morphometric analysis of suprameatal triangle and its clinical significance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study aimed to analysis the boundaries of suprameatal triangle by morphometrically. Introduction: The temporal bone consists of squamous, mastoid, tympanic, petrous, and styloid parts. Among that, the petrous is highly complexed part which consists of middle and inner ear and related anatomical structures. In case of mastoiditis, otitis, and other neurovascular conditions related to the auricular region, it is important to approach through surgically. The infectious condition of mastoid antrum, i.e., mastoiditis, is highly a risk clinical condition which may spread into the cranial cavity and/or head-and- neck regions. The reasons for this mastoiditis condition are chronic suppurative condition of otitis media. Hence, the drainage of infected mastoid is very important. The drainage is achieved through suprameatal triangle. Materials and Methods: The present study collected 50 South Indian dry human skulls from the Department of Anatomy in Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. The digital Vernier caliper has used to measure the triangle which was used to understand the morphometric analysis of suprameatal triangle using Vernier caliper. The study adopted t-test for two independent means (online) for statistical analysis with P < 0.05 (95%) with the current observations. Results: The present study observed that the length of the upper border of suprameatal triangle is 13.71 ± 1.86 mm and 13.76 ± 1.74 mm on the right and left sides, respectively (P = 0.437358) [Figure 1 and Graph 1]. The length of the anteroinferior border of suprameatal triangle was measured to be 14.46 ± 1.63 mm and 14.30 ± 1.46 mm on the right and left sides, respectively (P = 0.310597) [Figure 2 and Graph 2], and also the length of the posterior border of the suprameatal triangle was measured to be 14.12 ± 2.02 mm and 17.73 ± 1.74 mm on the right and left sides, respectively (P = 0.85613) [Figure 3 and Graph 3]. There were no significant differences between the right and left sides which were observed in all the parameters. Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that the morphometrical knowledge of suprameatal triangle is most important for neurological and otological emergencies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005259
Title: Anticaries inhibition test of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) and apple (Pyrus malus L.) fruit juices on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia.
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Objective: The aim of this study was to highlight the anticaries potential of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) and apple (Pyrus malus L.) fruit juices on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: The fruits were locally cultivated fruits from Indonesia. All fruits were prepared to be processed as fruit juices using a mechanical juicer and followed by juice pasteurization. The fresh juices were then analyzed to screen the phytochemical compounds using the standard methods. Each of the fruit juices was tested to S. mutans and S. aureus clinical isolates at eight different concentrations with a two-fold serial dilution ranging from 50 to 0.78125% v/v using a microdilution method. Results: There were alkaloids and quinones in apple juices, in addition to other bioactive compounds which also present in strawberries juices, such as flavonoids, polyphenol, and tannins. The lowest concentration values to inhibit both S. aureus and S. mutans clinical isolates were exhibited by strawberries juice, ranging at 31.25–62.5 μg/mL to S. aureus and 62.5–125 μg/mL to S. mutans. The data showed that the S. aureus clinical isolates were more sensitive to be inhibited by strawberry juices than S. mutans clinical isolates. Meanwhile, the susceptibility of those bacteria against apple juices revealed the same minimal concentration value, ranging at 250–500 μg/mL. Conclusion: Thus, the strawberry juices can be recommended as a daily healthy beverage to promote human health, especially to avoid dental caries infected by S. aureus and S. mutans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005258
Title: Evaluation of submaximal exercise tolerance test in pre- and middle adolescent overweight children: A single-blind observational analytical study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: SRM College of Physiotherapy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chengalpattu - 603 203, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Background: The overweight plays a major role in children because of lack of physical activity. The physical activity such as walking, running and heavy energy consuming activities has to be encouraged in children to avoid obesity. Most of the daily activities are performed at submaximal levels of exertion, and it has been proposed that submaximal functional tests are a better reflection of physical capability. The 6 min walk test is a submaximal exercise tolerance test, which results the distance walked over a period of 6 min. Methodology: The study design was non-experimental, observational study. A total of 130 overweight children were selected out of 1300 students from two schools. The inclusion criteria were BMI of 85–95 percentile of their age and sex, 11–15 years of age. The 6MWT test was conducted according to a standardized protocol (ATS guidelines) using corridor with the 100-foot distance marked by colored tape on the floor. The distance in meters covered over the 6 min was recorded (6MWD). Pulse, blood pressure, dyspnea (modified Borg scale), and oxygen saturation were recorded immediately at the end of the test and during the recovery period of 3 and 5 min. Results: The mean distance walked by children with age group 11–14 years ranges between 210 ± 420 m. According to two-way ANOVA, there is non-significant difference between age groups and distance walked test (P > 0.05) with Kruskal–Wallis test and gender-wise difference and distance walked test (P > 0.05) using Mann–Whitney U-test. The distance walked has non-significant correlation with age (P > 0.569), height (P > 0.081), and weight (P > 0.895) using Pearson’s correlation analysis. Using Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the significant difference between pre- and post-test value of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, and SpO2 was calculated at P < 0.05. Conclusion: The study concluded that 6MWT has to be done in overweight children to find out the submaximal functional ability. Furthermore, the distance walked by overweight children in 6MWT was less compared to normal weight children. The heart rate, SBP, and DBP also have variation than normal children

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00005257
Title: Biofilm inhibitory activity of plant-derived antioxidant compounds among Staphylococcus epidermidis obtained from clinical samples
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Chennai - 600 119, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Introduction and Aim: Bacteria synthesize their hydrated polymeric matrix that attaches to various surfaces, which allows them to aggregate and form sessile communities. Many active compounds derived from various natural sources are found to be effective against biofilms, because of their anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-biofilm properties. Materials and Methods: A total of 35 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis which showed biofilm formation were obtained from various sites such as skin, mucosal membrane, invasive devices, and from the blood. Among these 35 isolates, eight strains were strong biofilm producers by tissue culture plate method, which were considered for this study. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) assay was carried out on the seven S. epidermidis isolates, with four different active compounds using various concentrations. Results: Analysis was performed with the MBIC values of quercetin, boswellic acid (BA), thymoquinone, and lycopodium. Out of these four compounds, BA showed the MBIC values with 7 × 10-5 mM, 1.75 × 10-5 mM, 1.7 × 105 mM, and 0.0001401 mM, respectively. Conclusion: The biofilm susceptibility assay results showed a high rate of biofilm inhibition by BA, followed by thymoquinone, lycopodium, and quercetin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005256
Title: Knowledge and awareness of natural anticarcinogenic herbs among the general population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the “botanical garden of the world.” The medicinal plants, besides having natural therapeutic values against various diseases, also provide a high quality of food and raw materials for livelihood. The medicinal plants are easily available and cheaper and possess no toxicity as compared to modern (allopathic) drugs. Scientists all over the world are concentrating on herbal medicines to boost immune cells of the body against cancer. By understanding the complex synergistic interaction of various constituents of anticancer herbs, the herbal formulations can be designed to attack the cancerous cells without harming normal cells of the body. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study assessing the knowledge and awareness of anticarcinogenic herbs was conducted among 100 general public. A questionnaire has been prepared and distributed through social networking sites to 100 general public. Results and Discussion: About 79% of people think that the cause of cancer can be through inheritance, lifestyle, and radiation. About 69% of people think that cancer can be controlled by naturally available herbs. About 93% of people are aware of the side effects of cancer treatment. About 89% of people are aware that turmeric possesses the anticancer property. Through this survey, many other anticancer herbs were made aware to the general public. Cancer is a dreadful and commonly prone disease among the general public. It is important to create awareness of anticarcinogenic herbs that are commonly available. Conclusion: Based on the study results, we can conclude that most of the general public have moderate knowledge and awareness of natural anticarcinogenic herbs and their uses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005255
Title: Effectiveness of crushed bay leaves in removing dental plaque among tobacco chewer’s
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Child Health Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Chewing tobacco and use of smokeless tobacco products cause discolouration of the teeth is a common complication of tobacco chewing. The stains bind and penetrate the enamel, dentin, root surfaces, causing a brown to black discolouration. Dental plaque is an oral biofilm that adheres to teeth, comprising of more than 700 species of bacteria and fungi. It is one of the etiological factor leading to oral related diseases namely gingivitis, periodontitis and dental caries.Plant essential oils and powders in the treatment of dental plaque can be beneficial due to the antimicrobial and non-toxic properties making them ideal for their use in oral care products. Aims: The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of crushed bay leaves powder in removing dental plaque. Materials and Methods: A quantitative Pre experimental one group pre-test post- test design. Was conducted among 60 tobacco chewer’s with dental plaque. Purposive sampling technique was used to select sample. Semi structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, clinical Proforma. Plaque score was assessed by using Silness and Loe plaque index. The samples were advised to brush twice a day using the crushed bay leaves powder for one week. After one week, the plaque score was re-assessed. Results: The study result shows significant reduction in the dental plaque after the intervention at the level of p<0.001. This indicates that the crushed bay leaves powder is the effective and easy methods to remove dental plaque among tobacco chewer’s and maintain good oral hygiene. Conclusions: The results of the study is it was concluded that crushed bay leaves as no side-effects and it is the effective and easy methods to remove dental plaque among tobacco chewer’s and maintain good oral hygiene.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005254
Title: Panoramic radiograph and its importance in pediatric dentistry – A retrospective study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the importance of panoramic radiographs in diagnosis and treatment planning for pediatric patients. The objective of this study is to examine and determine the rate of incidentally observed oral pathologies, associated lesions, dental anomalies, and dentition status in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 panoramic radiographs obtained from the Department of Oral Medicine, Saveetha Dental College. These radiographs were randomly selected from pediatric patients with mixed dentition who came for their regular dental check-up. Panoramic radiographs were examined to detect the presence of any lesions, pathologies, anomalies, and also their dentition status. The results obtained were tabulated and analyzed. Results: Among the 102 radiographs, the most commonly observed finding was decayed primary tooth (76.5%) with the second most common finding being eruption delay due to setback in exfoliation of the primary tooth or retained deciduous tooth (20.4%). Hypodontia accounted for about 15 in 102 radiographs (15.3%). The impacted tooth was found in about 6.12% of the Orthopantomographs. Pulp therapy was done in 5.1% cases and crown placement was done without pulp therapy in 8.16% cases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005253
Title: Biosimilars: An overview on global scenario and challenges
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
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In Global pharmaceutical market, biosimilars have occupied a major driven part. Only after patent expiration of innovator biopharmaceuticals, biosimilars as biological products are developed. In different countries, biosimilars are recognized differently such as biocomparables, follow-on biologics, follow-on proteins, similar biologics, subsequent biologics, and secondary or off-patent biotechnological products. As biosimilars show the same clinical effect as generics but not copies of synthetic drugs, special approvals are required for their marketing. These slightly new entity molecules consisting of hetero groups are compared to those with innovator products. Similar biologics require complete quality, safety, and efficacy profile documentations. A number of challenges that result in hindrance in the growth of biocomparables are structural variability, regulatory aspects, etc., that affect structural complexity and patient safety, respectively. This article mainly emphasizes on biosimilars scenario based on global impacts and focused on different countries’ regulatory guidelines, including challenges involved within.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005252
Title: A study on the effectiveness of Peyton’s four-step approach in teaching procedural skill for MBBS students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai - 602 105, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Skills laboratory training for procedural skills has gained a lot of significance in recent years. An instructional approach that is becoming increasingly prevalent in medical education is Peyton’s four-step approach, which is a 1:1 teacher:student teaching tool. The aim was to study the effectiveness of Peyton’s four-step approach as a teaching tool to teach the procedural skill to MBBS students. Specific learning objectives were to teach procedural skills such as Ryle’s tube insertion and venepuncture using Peyton’s four-step approach and to assess the learning outcome in MBBS students, using Peyton’s four-step approach as a teaching tool and to compare it with that of conventional teaching methods. Fifty students from MBBS Phase II were divided into two groups. Group A (25 students) and Group B (25 students) were taught procedural skill 1 using Peyton’s method and conventional method, respectively. Pre-test, post-test questionnaires, and OSCE were conducted. The two study groups will be interchanged and taught procedural skill 2 using the other method (Group A – Conventional and Group B – Peyton’s method). Pre-test, post-test questionnaire, and OSCE were conducted. A feedback was obtained from all students and faculty involved in this study, which was analyzed statistically and interpreted. Statistical analysis showed the following results: For skill 1 – The mean score of pre-test was 20.12, and post-test was 23.18 (out of a total of 30). For skill 2 – The mean score of pre-test was 19.28 and post-test was 25.68. All the students performed better in OSCE mean value 8 when they were trained using Peyton’s method. Mann–Whitney’s U-test analysis showed that the results were significant. Demonstration, deconstruction, comprehension, and performance of the skills taught showed a remarkable improvement using Peyton’s method as a teaching tool.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005250
Title: Knowledge of dental practitioners toward the treatment protocol given by the Dental Council of India during COVID-19 pandemic in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospitals, Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute, Golden George Nagar, Mugappair, Chennai - 600 107,
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Background: COVID-19 pandemic has already set its firm grip over India with Chennai being one of the most affected cities. The dental personnel have a higher risk of infection due to close contact with the patient and a risk to inhale aerosolized particles. Aim: This study aims to gauge the knowledge among the dental practitioners on the protocols described by the Dental Council of India (DCI) to be followed in their clinics amidst COVID-19. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 dental practitioners participated in the cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. The twenty questions were based on the knowledge regarding the protocol laid down by the DCI. Data obtained were analyzed using SPPS IBM software version 19.0, Chicago. Results: About 61.1% of dentists were unaware of how to tackle a COVID-19 suspected patient. About 90.7% of them did not know to differentiate emergency from urgent dental care procedures. About 84% did not know the most effective pre-procedural mouth rinse. About 76% were unaware of the right concentration of preparing the fumigation chemical. About 56.7% were unsure about the correct method of disinfection of the clinic and dental chair. Nearly 78.7% of the dentists did not know right mask for treating a COVID-19 positive patient and also 61.3% prescribed ibuprofen as a drug, neglecting its effects toward COVID-19. Conclusion: Despite the availability of guidelines and protocols to be followed by the dental practitioners, many lack knowledge regarding the same. Continuing dental education programs and webinars are a pre-requisite to update the dental professionals during COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005249
Title: Comparative evaluation of antimycotic activity of Cucurbita maxima seed oil and orange peel oil in reducing Candida albicans count
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The essential oils usage for antimicrobial agents has become more popular over the years in an attempt to find alternative ways of dealing with strains of bacteria and fungi that have become resistant to conventional antibiotics. Candida albicans is a fungus present on human mucosal surfaces including the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and skin that become an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised or immunodeficient individuals. Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin) belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae and commonly used as a traditional medicine and C. maxima seed oils are rich in bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, sterols, β-carotene, and lutein that have, along with some fatty acids, high nutritional value factors. In addition, it has been proven that these compounds have a positive effect on human health. Orange peel oil is an essential oil produced by cells within the rind of an orange fruit (Citrus sinensis fruit). In contrast to most essential oils, it is extracted as a by-product of orange juice production by centrifugation, producing a cold-pressed oil. Materials and Methods: C. albicans was isolated from clinical sample and maintained in microbiology department in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Agar plate dilution technique was followed to screen the antimycotic activity in reducing C. albicans count. SDA was prepared with different concentrations of the both the essential oil 50 μl, 100 μl, and 200 μl and the plates are allowed to set. Results: The plate with extract at concentration 100 μl and 200 μl did not show any bacterial growth. Discussion: Antimycotic activity of two essential oil has no growth in 200 μl concentration. There is a confluent growth in negative control of SDA plate with no extract in orange peel oil and C. maxima seed oil. No growth in positive control of SDA plate with fluconazole antibiotic in orange peel oil and C. maxima seed oil essential oil. Conclusion: Orange peel oil and C. maxima seed oil are an important source of compounds having antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, and antiviral properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005248
Title: Comparative analysis of oral microbial flora of smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the changes caused by smoking on the microbial profile of patients with periodontitis. Background: A shift in the oral microflora contributes majorly to the etiology of periodontitis. Literature also shows that smoking alters the commensal microflora profile significantly. A clear idea on the microbial shift would help formulate specific antibiotic therapy to prevent recurrences of the disease. This study, therefore, aims to comparatively analyze the microbial shift in smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples of 20 periodontitis patients (10 smokers and 10 non-smokers) were collected and incubated in BHI agar at 37°C for 24 h. The CFU was counted and Gram staining of the colonies was done. Results: The microbial profile of smoking-associated periodontitis is distinct from that of non-smokers. Periodontitis patients who are non-smokers had more Streptococcus and Enterococcus colonies and periodontitis patients who are smokers had more Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, and Candida albicans colonies. Conclusion: Antimicrobial therapy can, therefore, be modified for smokers and non-smokers, respectively, and employed along with scaling and root planing while treating periodontitis to prevent recurrence of the disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005247
Title: Role of tacrolimus in alcohol-induced cognitive impairment in Wistar albino rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, K S Hegde Medical Academy, Mangaluru - 575 018, Karnataka, India.
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Introduction: Considering the fact that there is a role of inflammatory and immune system in alcohol-induced CNS disorders, this study screened the role of memory-enhancing action of tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant alone and with donepezil in alcohol-induced cognitive impairment in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Four-month-old healthy albino male rats, average weight of 250 g, were used. Animals were divided into seven groups where n = 6. Group I – Normal control received distilled water for 14 days, Group II – alcohol 20%, Group III – tacrolimus 5 mg/kg, Group IV – donepezil 2.5 mg/kg, Group V – alcohol 20% + tacrolimus 5 mg/kg, Group IV – alcohol 20% + donepezil 2.5 mg/kg, and Group VII – alcohol 20% + tacrolimus 5 mg/kg + donepezil 2.5 mg/kg days. On 15th day onward, cognitive performance was assessed by Hebb William Maze and Elevated Plus. Results and Discussion: Pharmacological experiments revealed a significant (P < 0.001) cognitive impairment was noticed in animals that received only alcohol on comparing with normal control. On the other hand, alcohol-treated animals that received tacrolimus and donepezil showed a significant improvement in cognition on comparing (P < 0.001) with alcohol alone treated animals. These findings clearly depict alcohol-induced cognitive defects are immune-mediated, which can be reversed by immunosuppressants. Conclusion: Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant drug, has memory enhancing action in alcohol-induced cognitive impairment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00005069
Title: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with Mentha spicata against Aspergillus niger
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Babylon, Babil, Iraq.
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Background: Mentha spicata not modern uses aqueous leaf extract of medicinal plant. Silver nanoparticles(AgNPs) synthesized by leaves of Mentha spicata were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and found highly toxic and hazardous to microorganisms. It is found out that the silver nanoparticles have many inhibitory and fungicidal effects and so its application is extended as an antibacterial agent. The antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles is estimated by the zone of inhibition. Aspergillus sp. are indoor and outdoor saprophytic fungi that play a significant role in global carbon and nitrogen recycling while negatively in human and animal. Materials and Methods: After the addition of AgNO3 within 20 min, the suspension showed change in color and turned dark brown, formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In this study, 70 samples were collected from sputum, 44 males and 26 females. Samples were positive 32 males and 18 females (50 infection) for the presence of fungal element. Results: Structure of synthesized AgNPs were confirmed by FTIR, UV visible, XRD and FESEM studies. Fungal species were isolated from sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Many species were recovered and the effect nanoparticles on Aspergillus niger growth were tested. The result showed the effectivity of nanoparticles against fungus with zone of inhibition with 8 mm at concentration of 20 mg. Conclusions: The possibility of preparing nanoparticles of M. spicata plant using silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) result revealed that AgNPs have a good activity against aspergillosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005070
Title: Isolation and identification Candida species among renal failure Iraqi patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Iraq
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Background: Candida species is a member of an individual’s normal gastrointestinal flora, vagina, oral cavity, human skin, and mucosal surfaces. Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis are the most common cause of fungal infections in humans. Recently, it has been seen ongoing medical importance, possibly causing life to threaten systemic infections and chronic mucocutaneous infection in patients with immune disabilities. The aim of this study is to find that Candida has role in causing renal failure and isolate and identify Candida (C.) sp. from renal failure patient urine sample and investigate the sensitivity of these strains to some antifungal drugs. Methodology: A total of 121 urine samples of renal failure patient were obtained from both Marjan and Al-Imam Al-Sadiq Hospital in Hila city, belonging to both sexes at various age groups ranging from 15 to 85 years of age, using sterile urine cap, all specimens were immediately transported to laboratory and cultivation within 2 h. Results: The present study showed that 14.8% of urine sample are positive for Candida spp. involved C. albicans (16.6%), C. glabrata (16.6%), and males Candida krusei (22.2%) and Candida parapsilosis (11.11% and 33.33%) mix while the susceptibility testing profile revealed that most Candida spp. are sensitive to sulfamethoxazole and resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and itraconazole. Conclusion: The current study concludes that the most common pathogenic fungi in urinary tract system was C. glabrata as Candida spp. is the most common species in the tested renal failure patients. The most effective antifungal on Candida spp. was sulfamethoxazole. The study revealed the number of infection-free females more than male.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005071
Title: Biochemical studies of Ginkgo biloba extract on oxidative stress-induced myocardial injuries
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
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Background: Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage is associated to several clinical disorders, which remains a significant issue. Oxygen-free radicals are produced on reperfusion and are known to have a central role in myocardial I/R injury. A number of studies have described various therapeutic benefits of Ginkgo biloba. As, it has been suggested that G. biloba exhibits protective effect against I/R-induced myocardial injuries for various organs due to its antioxidant properties. It is, therefore, important to investigate the efficiency of these herbal products in protecting myocardial tissue against the I/R injury, which may be opening the door to develop new therapies for myocardial I/R injury. Materials and Methods: To assess whether and how G. biloba products can reduce the I/R-induced myocardial injuries, 36 male rats were subjected to ischemia for 45 min and then they were exposed to reperfusion for 60 min. All rats were classified into three groups: Group 1 (control), Group 2 (I/R), and Group 3 (G. biloba treatment group). Rats in Group 2 were infused internally with only 0.9% saline solution while in Group 3, rats were given G. biloba (400 mg/kg) for 15 days with the same diet intraperitoneally, before I and before R. Once the blood samples were collected from the rats, the biochemical parameters were estimated. Serum lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and oxidative stress levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide were measured. Results: The results presented in this study show that the cardiac enzymes levels and oxidative stress within group treatment were substantially lower than those in the group I/R and control group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that G. biloba could protect myocardial tissues against I/R-induced myocardial injuries in rat’s model.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00005072
Title: Study of extracellular DNA in blood of patients with pancreonecrosis
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “N.P. Ogarev Mordovia State University”, Bolshevistskaya Str. 68, Saransk, 430005 Russia
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Aim: The progressive dynamics of extracellular DNA (exDNA) accumulation in the blood plasma of patients with acute pancreatitis of varying severity and degree of pancreatic necrosis was revealed. Materials and Methods: The maximum increase in the content of exDNA was observed in patients with pancreatic necrosis. Patients with acute pancreatitis of varying severity have the intensified processes of degradation of lipid and protein molecules in their blood accompanied by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, circulating immune complexes, and medium-weight molecules. Results and Discussion: In this case, there is a steady increase in the blood of patients with the number of cells dying by apoptosis. Mononuclear blood cells of patients, depending on the severity of acute pancreatitis, show an increase in their caspase activity 3/7. The dynamics of exDNA accumulation in the blood of patients with acute pancreatitis reflects the depth of development of the pathophysiological process as a whole and characterizes the severity of endotoxemia. Conclusion: Thus, the qualitative and quantitative composition of blood plasma exDNA is a systemic indicator that can characterize the course of the pathological process.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005073
Title: Stability-indicating reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of emtricitabine, tenofovir, cobicistat, and elvitegravir
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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Objective: A stability-indicating reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method development for the simultaneous determination of emtricitabine (EMT), tenofovir (TNF), cobicistat (COB), and elvitegravir (ELV) in solid dosage forms. Materials and Methods: The Waters Acquity Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatographic system with column HSS C18, 100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 m is used for the method development. The detector used is PDA detector at 280 nm. Mobile phase used in this method is pH – 3.5 phosphate buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 70:30%V/V. Flow rate used for this proposed method is 0.3 ml/min. Results: The retention times observed are 1.403 min, 1.680 min, 1.921 min, and 2.615 min for EMT, TNF, COB, and ELV, respectively. The linearity calculated was found to be within the range. The % recoveries for EMT, TNF, COB, and ELV were within the acceptance criteria. These drugs were found to be stable at forced degradation studies and results are within the limits. Conclusion: The proposed UPLC method is found to be producing the faster retention times with good resolution than that achieved with the conventional HPLC. The decreased flow rate to 0.3 ml/min in the proposed method indicates more economical with high sensitivity. The stress testing procedure is followed as per ICH guidelines and reveals that the method is specific and stability indicating. The proposed method can be used for the quality control of the combination in the pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005074
Title: Awareness on dental anxiety among dental patients in South Indian population – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Dental anxiety is a term used to describe fear, anxiety, or stress in a dental setting and patient specific response toward dental situation-associated stress. It can be associated with certain triggers such as needles, drills, or the dental setting in general and is a recognized problem for both the patients and dental health providers. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to investigate the subjective ratings of dental anxiety levels in dental patients among South Indian population. Results: The present study aimed to explore the sources of dental anxiety in dental patients among South Indian population. Conclusion: From the study it is evident that the development of dental anxiety could be prevented with pain control, behavior management, and consideration of patient as a whole.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005076
Title: In vitro antidiabetic activity of crude acetone leaf extract of Annona muricata
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a global health crisis which has been affecting humanity over more than a decade. Annona muricata is a plant belonging to the family Annonaceae and is known for its traditional medical uses. At present, herbal medicines are used to cure many diseases. This study aims to prove the hypoglycemic activity of A. muricata. Materials and Methods: The plant A. muricata was purchased in a nursery in Chennai. The plant was allowed to grow for a few days and the leaves were collected for study. The leaves were washed and crushed with acetone. The extract was tested for its antidiabetic activity. Results: The aqueous extract of A. muricata showed positive results for α-amylase inhibitory activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Conclusion: This study has analyzed the hypoglycemic potential of A. muricata. A. muricata, therefore, represents a possible dietary adjunct for the treatment of diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005077
Title: Oral health habits among elderly South Indian population – A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The proportion of older people continues to increase throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Maintaining oral health is definitely difficult in old age. Most oral diseases and non-communicable diseases share common risk factors. Globally, poor oral health among older people is evident in dental caries experience, increased levels of tooth loss, xerostomia, and the prevalence rates of periodontal disease, oral pre-malignancy/malignancy. The negative impact of poor oral conditions on the quality of life of older individuals is an important public health issue. Materials and Methods: This study is a questionnaire-based survey. The survey comprises questions pertaining to oral health habits among elders. This survey was administered to 100 participants. The results obtained were statistically analyzed. Results: The oral health status of elderly population is deficient, with an increased rate of tooth loss and periodontal diseases which are responsible for mastication difficulties, impairment of oral quality of life, and chronic disease destabilization, with direct effects on the individual’s general quality of life and well-being. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates poor oral health habits among elderly population. Improvement of the oral health of the elderly should be a key objective of geriatricians, dentists, dental hygienists, and caregivers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005078
Title: In vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract of Ambon banana (Musa paradisiaca) peel powder against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM 21 Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia.
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Objective: The objective of this present study was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract of Ambon banana (Musa paradisiaca) peel powder against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Materials and Methods: The Ambon banana powder was macerated using 96% ethanol as the solvent and the phytochemical contents were analyzed using the standard method. The antibacterial effect of the extract was investigated using the agar diffusion method against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, with the clindamycin as the standard antibiotic. The effect of bacterial species types and extract concentration on inhibition diameter was statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results: The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the Ambon banana peel powder extract exhibited the presence of alkaloids, total flavonoids, and saponins. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the extract clearly demonstrated that the peel parts of Ambon banana have prominent antibacterial properties against P. acnes and S. epidermidis. Based on the results of statistical analysis, it was clarified that there was a significant effect of the bacterial species types and extract concentration on the inhibitory diameter values. In line with the analysis, the results of diameter values reflected that P. acnes was more sensitive to the extract than S. epidermidis and the diameter inhibition was increasing as the increasing of extract concentration. Conclusion: This study recommended for the 1st time that the ethanolic extract of Ambon banana (M. paradisiaca) peel powder could be developed as a natural anti-acne agent against P. acnes and S. epidermidis as the main causative agent for acne.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'ceu-00005079
Title: Design, formulation, and evaluation of reservoir-type transdermal delivery of an antihypertensive drug
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, KLE College of Pharmacy, (Affiliated to KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research), Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
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Aim: The purpose of this study was to develop a reservoir-type transdermal delivery system for losartan potassium. The developed patch consisted of four layers from bottom to top, namely, a fabric with adhesive layer, a rate-controlling membrane, a reservoir, and a backing. Materials and Methods: In the present study, reservoir device was prepared using rate-controlling membrane ethylene vinyl acetate, two-layer backing membrane of 4% w/w polyvinyl acetate and 12% w/w ethylene vinyl acetate and gel system of Carbopol 934P. Reservoir-type transdermal delivery system was further analyzed for their appearance, pH, viscosity, and drug content of gel, in vitro diffusion studies. Optimized formulation was further subjected to stability studies. Results and Conclusion: In vitro drug diffusion studies exhibited concentration-dependent controlled release of losartan potassium for 8 h. Optimized formulation (X1) was subjected to accelerated stability studies which revealed the stability of the formulation. Thus, it was concluded that transdermal patches of losartan potassium can be developed for treating hypertension.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 14, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00005080
Title: Evaluation of antibacterial potential of fruiting body extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus in vitro and in vivo study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Basic Science, College of Dentistry, Wasit University, Kut, Iraq.
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Background: The recent development of bacterium resistant strains has raised worry in health care settings in public of Iraq. This has led to raised research interest in mushrooms. The present research explores the medical chance of the cultivated mushroom oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) as a hopeful antibacterial agent against divers’ clinical pathogens that are multidrug resistance (MDR) agents and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to present-generation antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Samples enrolled in this study is mushroom belongs to the genus P. ostreatus, obtained from Unit of fungal production/Unit of medicinal and Aromatic plants, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Iraq with sample Code no MF0657151, recorded in NCBI (National center for Biotechnology Information/Part of (US National Institute of Health). S. aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii were already isolated and diagnosed from previous study and preserved in the lab. General method of extraction from the powder of P. ostreatus fruiting bodies was done by three solvents sequentially (chloroform, methanol, and aqueous) solutions. The antibacterial activity was assessed using agar well diffusion procedure; 200 mg/ml from each crude extract have been used. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were assessed for the methanol crude extract for the potent solution among the others in the ranging from 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/ml. Murine model was used to assess the antibacterial activity of methanol crude extract after cutaneous induced infection of each of clinical pathogen, A. baumannii (MDR), and MRSA. Results: It was seen that the best extract was this belongs methanol. The most potent antibacterial activity of the methanol crude extract was seen within the range of 100 mg/ml–12.5 mg/ml concentrations. Methanol crude extract exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect against S. aureus and A. baumannii growth with MIC 25 mg/ml. In the case of, in vivo study and regarding S. aureus, it was found a significant difference (P < 0.05) using methanol crude extract but in other words, there is no effect of this extract on A. baumannii. Conclusion: Methanol crude extract of P. ostreatus was the powerful one as an antibacterial agent against the tested S. aureus and A. baumannii than the other extracts which are chloroform and aqueous in vitro and in vivo models except the later design was not useful in A. baumannii.